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Sample records for constrained shape optimization

  1. Constrained Aeroacoustic Shape Optimization Using the Surrogate Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Alison L.; Wang, Meng; Dennis, John E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of noise generated by turbulent flow past the trailing-edge of a lifting surface is a challenge in many aeronautical and naval applications. Numerical predictions of trailing-edge noise necessitate the use of advanced simulation techniques such as large-eddy simulation (LES) in order to capture a wide range of turbulence scales which are the source of broadband noise. Aeroacoustic calculations of the flow over a model airfoil trailing edge using LES and aeroacoustic theory have been presented in Wang and Moin and were shown to agree favorably with experiments. The goal of the present work is to apply shape optimization to the trailing edge flow previously studied, in order to control aerodynamic noise.

  2. Constrained Multipoint Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using an Adjoint Formulation and Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Saunders, David

    1997-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that treats the design of complex aircraft configurations subject to high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD), geometric constraints and multiple design points is described. The design process will be greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and distributed memory computer architectures. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on a higher order CFD method. In order to facilitate the integration of these high fidelity CFD approaches into future multi-disciplinary optimization (NW) applications, new methods must be developed which are capable of simultaneously addressing complex geometries, multiple objective functions, and geometric design constraints. In our earlier studies, we coupled the adjoint based design formulations with unconstrained optimization algorithms and showed that the approach was effective for the aerodynamic design of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations. In many of the results presented in these earlier works, geometric constraints were satisfied either by a projection into feasible space or by posing the design space parameterization such that it automatically satisfied constraints. Furthermore, with the exception of reference 9 where the second author initially explored the use of multipoint design in conjunction with adjoint formulations, our earlier works have focused on single point design efforts. Here we demonstrate that the same methodology may be extended to treat

  3. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  4. Constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  5. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that promise to solve certain combinatorial optimization problems of practical relevance faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and real-world optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which, in turn, requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here, we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby reduces the number of required couplers and removes the need for minor embedding, greatly reducing the number of required physical qubits. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to appreciably reduce the resource requirements for implementing optimization problems on quantum annealers and its significance in the field of quantum computing.

  6. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that could potentially solve certain quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and practical optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which in turn requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby removes many of the obstacles associated with the implementation of these. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We then conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to boost the encodability of other optimization problems.

  7. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  8. Shape optimization for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaknin, Gaddiel; Laachi, Nabil; Delaney, Kris; Fredrickson, Glenn; Gibou, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly using block copolymers for positioning vertical interconnect access in integrated circuits relies on the proper shape of a confined domain in which polymers will self-assemble into the targeted design. Finding that shape, i.e., solving the inverse problem, is currently mainly based on trial and error approaches. We introduce a level-set based algorithm that makes use of a shape optimization strategy coupled with self-consistent field theory to solve the inverse problem in an automated way. It is shown that optimal shapes are found for different targeted topologies with accurate placement and distances between the different components.

  9. Shape optimization and CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, John

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization has attracted the attention since the days of Galileo. Olhoff and Taylor have produced an excellent overview of the classical research within this field. However, the interest in structural optimization has increased greatly during the last decade due to the advent of reliable general numerical analysis methods and the computer power necessary to use them efficiently. This has created the possibility of developing general numerical systems for shape optimization. Several authors, eg., Esping; Braibant & Fleury; Bennet & Botkin; Botkin, Yang, and Bennet; and Stanton have published practical and successful applications of general optimization systems. Ding and Homlein have produced extensive overviews of available systems. Furthermore, a number of commercial optimization systems based on well-established finite element codes have been introduced. Systems like ANSYS, IDEAS, OASIS, and NISAOPT are widely known examples. In parallel to this development, the technology of computer aided design (CAD) has gained a large influence on the design process of mechanical engineering. The CAD technology has already lived through a rapid development driven by the drastically growing capabilities of digital computers. However, the systems of today are still considered as being only the first generation of a long row of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems. These systems to come will offer an integrated environment for design, analysis, and fabrication of products of almost any character. Thus, the CAD system could be regarded as simply a database for geometrical information equipped with a number of tools with the purpose of helping the user in the design process. Among these tools are facilities for structural analysis and optimization as well as present standard CAD features like drawing, modeling, and visualization tools. The state of the art of structural optimization is that a large amount of mathematical and mechanical techniques are

  10. Constrained optimization via artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yen, Gary G; He, Zhongshi

    2014-02-01

    An artificial immune system inspired by the fundamental principle of the vertebrate immune system, for solving constrained optimization problems, is proposed. The analogy between the mechanism of biological immune response and constrained optimization formulation is drawn. Individuals in population are classified into feasible and infeasible groups according to their constraint violations that closely match with the two states, inactivated and activated, of B-cells in the immune response. Feasible group focuses on exploitation in the feasible areas through clonal selection, recombination, and hypermutation, while infeasible group facilitates exploration along the feasibility boundary via location update. Direction information is extracted to promote the interactions between these two groups. This approach is validated by the benchmark functions proposed most recently and compared with those of the state of the art from various branches of evolutionary computation paradigms. The performance achieved is considered fairly competitive and promising. PMID:23757542

  11. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  12. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  13. Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

    Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

  14. Distributed Constrained Optimization with Semicoordinate Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown how information theory extends conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated mathematical framework can be used to solve constrained optimization problems. This is done by translating the problem into an iterated game, where each agent controls a different variable of the problem, so that the joint probability distribution across the agents moves gives an expected value of the objective function. The dynamics of the agents is designed to minimize a Lagrangian function of that joint distribution. Here we illustrate how the updating of the Lagrange parameters in the Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, which focuses the joint distribution more and more tightly about the joint moves that optimize the objective function. We then investigate the use of "semicoordinate" variable transformations. These separate the joint state of the agents from the variables of the optimization problem, with the two connected by an onto mapping. We present experiments illustrating the ability of such transformations to facilitate optimization. We focus on the special kind of transformation in which the statistically independent states of the agents induces a mixture distribution over the optimization variables. Computer experiment illustrate this for &sat constraint satisfaction problems and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  15. Robust, Optimal Subsonic Airfoil Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2014-01-01

    A method has been developed to create an airfoil robust enough to operate satisfactorily in different environments. This method determines a robust, optimal, subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape, and imposes the necessary constraints on the design. Also, this method is flexible and extendible to a larger class of requirements and changes in constraints imposed.

  16. Optimization of constrained density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, David D.; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Constrained density functional theory (cDFT) is a versatile electronic structure method that enables ground-state calculations to be performed subject to physical constraints. It thereby broadens their applicability and utility. Automated Lagrange multiplier optimization is necessary for multiple constraints to be applied efficiently in cDFT, for it to be used in tandem with geometry optimization, or with molecular dynamics. In order to facilitate this, we comprehensively develop the connection between cDFT energy derivatives and response functions, providing a rigorous assessment of the uniqueness and character of cDFT stationary points while accounting for electronic interactions and screening. In particular, we provide a nonperturbative proof that stable stationary points of linear density constraints occur only at energy maxima with respect to their Lagrange multipliers. We show that multiple solutions, hysteresis, and energy discontinuities may occur in cDFT. Expressions are derived, in terms of convenient by-products of cDFT optimization, for quantities such as the dielectric function and a condition number quantifying ill definition in multiple constraint cDFT.

  17. Constrained filter optimization for subsurface landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie; Clodfelter, Fred; Lulich, Dan; Patrikar, Ajay; Howard, Peter; Weaver, Richard; Rosen, Erik

    2006-05-01

    Previous large-scale blind tests of anti-tank landmine detection utilizing the NIITEK ground penetrating radar indicated the potential for very high anti-tank landmine detection probabilities at very low false alarm rates for algorithms based on adaptive background cancellation schemes. Recent data collections under more heterogeneous multi-layered road-scenarios seem to indicate that although adaptive solutions to background cancellation are effective, the adaptive solutions to background cancellation under different road conditions can differ significantly, and misapplication of these adaptive solutions can reduce landmine detection performance in terms of PD/FAR. In this work we present a framework for the constrained optimization of background-estimation filters that specifically seeks to optimize PD/FAR performance as measured by the area under the ROC curve between two FARs. We also consider the application of genetic algorithms to the problem of filter optimization for landmine detection. Results indicate robust results for both static and adaptive background cancellation schemes, and possible real-world advantages and disadvantages of static and adaptive approaches are discussed.

  18. Traveltime tomography and nonlinear constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    Fermat's principle of least traveltime states that the first arrivals follow ray paths with the smallest overall traveltime from the point of transmission to the point of reception. This principle determines a definite convex set of feasible slowness models - depending only on the traveltime data - for the fully nonlinear traveltime inversion problem. The existence of such a convex set allows us to transform the inversion problem into a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. Fermat's principle also shows that the standard undamped least-squares solution to the inversion problem always produces a slowness model with many ray paths having traveltime shorter than the measured traveltime (an impossibility even if the trial ray paths are not the true ray paths). In a damped least-squares inversion, the damping parameter may be varied to allow efficient location of a slowness model on the feasibility boundary. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Multiplier-continuation algorthms for constrained optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Bruce N.; Poore, Aubrey B.; Bing, Yang

    1989-01-01

    Several path following algorithms based on the combination of three smooth penalty functions, the quadratic penalty for equality constraints and the quadratic loss and log barrier for inequality constraints, their modern counterparts, augmented Lagrangian or multiplier methods, sequential quadratic programming, and predictor-corrector continuation are described. In the first phase of this methodology, one minimizes the unconstrained or linearly constrained penalty function or augmented Lagrangian. A homotopy path generated from the functions is then followed to optimality using efficient predictor-corrector continuation methods. The continuation steps are asymptotic to those taken by sequential quadratic programming which can be used in the final steps. Numerical test results show the method to be efficient, robust, and a competitive alternative to sequential quadratic programming.

  20. Solving constrained optimization problems with hybrid particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahara, Erwie; Hu, Chia-Hsin

    2008-11-01

    Constrained optimization problems (COPs) are very important in that they frequently appear in the real world. A COP, in which both the function and constraints may be nonlinear, consists of the optimization of a function subject to constraints. Constraint handling is one of the major concerns when solving COPs with particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with the Nelder-Mead simplex search method (NM-PSO). This article proposes embedded constraint handling methods, which include the gradient repair method and constraint fitness priority-based ranking method, as a special operator in NM-PSO for dealing with constraints. Experiments using 13 benchmark problems are explained and the NM-PSO results are compared with the best known solutions reported in the literature. Comparison with three different meta-heuristics demonstrates that NM-PSO with the embedded constraint operator is extremely effective and efficient at locating optimal solutions.

  1. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Murphy, James Richard

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 microns [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, lambdaF lambda vs. lambda) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline

  2. Using Simple Shapes to Constrain Asteroid Thermal Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-11-01

    With the use of remote thermal infrared observations and a thermophysical model (TPM), the thermal inertia of an asteroid surface can be determined. The thermal inertia, in turn, can be used to infer physical properties of the surface, specifically to estimate the average regolith grain size. Since asteroids are often non-spherical techniques for incorporating modeled (non-spherical) shapes into calculating thermal inertia have been established. However, using a sphere as input for TPM is beneficial in reducing running time and shape models are not generally available for all (or most) objects that are observed in the thermal-IR. This is particularly true, as the pace of infrared observations has recently dramatically increased, notably due to the WISE mission, while the time to acquire sufficient light curves for accurate shape inversion remains relatively long. Here, we investigate the accuracy of using both a spherical and ellipsoidal TPM, with infrared observations obtained at pre- and post-opposition (hereafter multi-epoch) geometries to constrain the thermal inertias of a large number of asteroids.We test whether using multi-epoch observations combined with a spherical and ellipsoidal shape TPM can constrain the thermal inertia of an object without a priori knowledge of its shape or spin state. The effectiveness of this technique is tested for 16 objects with shape models from DAMIT and WISE multi-epoch observations. For each object, the shape model is used as input for the TPM to generate synthetic fluxes for different values of thermal inertia. The input spherical and ellipsoidal shapes are then stepped through different spin vectors as the TPM is used to generate best-fit thermal inertia and diameter to the synthetically generated fluxes, allowing for a direct test of the approach’s effectiveness. We will discuss whether the precision of the thermal inertia constraints from the spherical TPM analysis of multi- epoch observations is comparable to works

  3. Shape optimization of corrugated airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sambhav; Bhatt, Varun Dhananjay; Mittal, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    The effect of corrugations on the aerodynamic performance of a Mueller C4 airfoil, placed at a 5° angle of attack and Re=10{,}000, is investigated. A stabilized finite element method is employed to solve the incompressible flow equations in two dimensions. A novel parameterization scheme is proposed that enables representation of corrugations on the surface of the airfoil, and their spontaneous appearance in the shape optimization loop, if indeed they improve aerodynamic performance. Computations are carried out for different location and number of corrugations, while holding their height fixed. The first corrugation causes an increase in lift and drag. Each of the later corrugations leads to a reduction in drag. Shape optimization of the Mueller C4 airfoil is carried out using various objective functions and optimization strategies, based on controlling airfoil thickness and camber. One of the optimal shapes leads to 50 % increase in lift coefficient and 23 % increase in aerodynamic efficiency compared to the Mueller C4 airfoil.

  4. Optimal shapes for self-propelled swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; van Rees, Wim; Gazzola, Mattia

    2011-11-01

    We optimize swimming shapes of three-dimensional self-propelled swimmers by combining the CMA- Evolution Strategy with a remeshed vortex method. We analyze the robustness of optimal shapes and discuss the near wake vortex dynamics for optimal speed and efficiency at Re=550. We also report preliminary results of optimal shapes and arrangements for multiple coordinated swimmers.

  5. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Murphy, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 μm [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, λFλ vs. λ) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline forsterite formed. The

  6. Asynchronous parallel generating set search for linearly-constrained optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-08-01

    Generating set search (GSS) is a family of direct search methods that encompasses generalized pattern search and related methods. We describe an algorithm for asynchronous linearly-constrained GSS, which has some complexities that make it different from both the asynchronous bound-constrained case as well as the synchronous linearly-constrained case. The algorithm has been implemented in the APPSPACK software framework and we present results from an extensive numerical study using CUTEr test problems. We discuss the results, both positive and negative, and conclude that GSS is a reliable method for solving small-to-medium sized linearly-constrained optimization problems without derivatives.

  7. A spatial shape constrained clustering method for mammographic mass segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jian-Yong; Yang, Xu-Lei; Cao, Ai-Ze

    2015-01-01

    A novel clustering method is proposed for mammographic mass segmentation on extracted regions of interest (ROIs) by using deterministic annealing incorporating circular shape function (DACF). The objective function reported in this study uses both intensity and spatial shape information, and the dominant dissimilarity measure is controlled by two weighting parameters. As a result, pixels having similar intensity information but located in different regions can be differentiated. Experimental results shows that, by using DACF, the mass segmentation results in digitized mammograms are improved with optimal mass boundaries, less number of noisy patches, and computational efficiency. An average probability of segmentation error of 7.18% for well-defined masses (or 8.06% for ill-defined masses) was obtained by using DACF on MiniMIAS database, with 5.86% (or 5.55%) and 6.14% (or 5.27%) improvements as compared to the standard DA and fuzzy c-means methods. PMID:25737739

  8. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  9. Robust, optimal subsonic airfoil shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Method system, and product from application of the method, for design of a subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape and incorporating one or more constraints on the airfoil geometric parameters and flow characteristics. The resulting design is robust against variations in airfoil dimensions and local airfoil shape introduced in the airfoil manufacturing process. A perturbation procedure provides a class of airfoil shapes, beginning with an initial airfoil shape.

  10. Constrained ripple optimization of Tokamak bundle divertors

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Rome, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Dory, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    Magnetic field ripple from a tokamak bundle divertor is localized to a small toroidal sector and must be treated differently from the usual (distributed) toroidal field (TF) coil ripple. Generally, in a tokamak with an unoptimized divertor design, all of the banana-trapped fast ions are quickly lost due to banana drift diffusion or to trapping between the 1/R variation in absolute value vector B ..xi.. B and local field maxima due to the divertor. A computer code has been written to optimize automatically on-axis ripple subject to these constraints, while varying up to nine design parameters. Optimum configurations have low on-axis ripple (<0.2%) so that, now, most banana-trapped fast ions are confined. Only those ions with banana tips near the outside region (absolute value theta < or equal to 45/sup 0/) are lost. However, because finite-sized TF coils have not been used in this study, the flux bundle is not expanded.

  11. Torque-Matched Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of HAWT Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abadi, Ali; Ertunç, Özgür; Beyer, Florian; Delgado, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Schmitz and Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theories are integrated to a gradient based optimization algorithm to optimize the blade shape of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Schmitz theory is used to generate an initial blade design. BEM theory is used to calculate the forces, torque and power extracted by the turbine. The airfoil shape (NREL S809) is kept the same, so that the shape optimization comprises only the chord and the pitch angle distribution. The gradient based optimization of the blade shape is constrained to the torque-rotational speed characteristic of the generator, which is going to be a part of the experimental set-up used to validate the results of the optimization study. Hence, the objective of the optimization is the maximization of the turbines power coefficient Cp while keeping the torque matched to that of the generator. The wind velocities and the rotational speeds are limited to those achievable in the wind tunnel and by the generator, respectively. After finding the optimum blade shape with the maximum Cp within the given range of parameters, the Cp of the turbine is evaluated at wind-speeds deviating from the optimum operating condition. For this purpose, a second optimization algorithm is used to find out the correct rotational speed for a given wind-speed, which is again constrained to the generator's torque rotational speed characteristic. The design and optimization procedures are later validated by high-fidelity numerical simulations. The agreement between the design and the numerical simulations is very satisfactory.

  12. Spectral finite-element methods for parametric constrained optimization problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to approximate the solution mapping of parametric constrained optimization problems. The approximation, which is of the spectral finite element type, is represented as a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. Its coefficients are determined by solving an appropriate finite-dimensional constrained optimization problem. We show that, under certain conditions, the latter problem is solvable because it is feasible for a sufficiently large degree of the polynomial approximation and has an objective function with bounded level sets. In addition, the solutions of the finite-dimensional problems converge for an increasing degree of the polynomials considered, provided that the solutions exhibit a sufficiently large and uniform degree of smoothness. Our approach solves, in the case of optimization problems with uncertain parameters, the most computationally intensive part of stochastic finite-element approaches. We demonstrate that our framework is applicable to parametric eigenvalue problems.

  13. A heuristic for constrained T-shape cutting patterns of circular items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yaodong; Huang, Baixiong

    2011-08-01

    The cutting and stamping process is often used to divide metal plate into circular items. It contains the cutting and stamping stages. A guillotine machine divides the plate into strips at the cutting stage. Each strip contains items of the same type. A press stamps out the items from the strips at the stamping stage. T-shape patterns are often used at the cutting stage. A cut divides a T-shape pattern into an X-segment of horizontal strips and a Y-segment of vertical strips. The position of the dividing cut should be determined such that the pattern value is maximized. A heuristic for constrained T-shape patterns is presented. For each position of the dividing cut, it generates an optimal strip layout on the Y-segment using all items, and generates another optimal strip layout on the X-segment using the remaining items. Computational results indicate that the algorithm is efficient in improving material utilization.

  14. Regularized Primal-Dual Subgradient Method for Distributed Constrained Optimization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Deming; Ho, Daniel W C; Xu, Shengyuan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed constrained optimization problem where the objective function is the sum of local convex cost functions of distributed nodes in a network, subject to a global inequality constraint. To solve this problem, we propose a consensus-based distributed regularized primal-dual subgradient method. In contrast to the existing methods, most of which require projecting the estimates onto the constraint set at every iteration, only one projection at the last iteration is needed for our proposed method. We establish the convergence of the method by showing that it achieves an O ( K (-1/4) ) convergence rate for general distributed constrained optimization, where K is the iteration counter. Finally, a numerical example is provided to validate the convergence of the propose method. PMID:26285232

  15. Metal artifact reduction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) by constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaomeng; Wang Jing; Xing Lei

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The streak artifacts caused by metal implants have long been recognized as a problem that limits various applications of CT imaging. In this work, the authors propose an iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm based on constrained optimization. Methods: After the shape and location of metal objects in the image domain is determined automatically by the binary metal identification algorithm and the segmentation of ''metal shadows'' in projection domain is done, constrained optimization is used for image reconstruction. It minimizes a predefined function that reflects a priori knowledge of the image, subject to the constraint that the estimated projection data are within a specified tolerance of the available metal-shadow-excluded projection data, with image non-negativity enforced. The minimization problem is solved through the alternation of projection-onto-convex-sets and the steepest gradient descent of the objective function. The constrained optimization algorithm is evaluated with a penalized smoothness objective. Results: The study shows that the proposed method is capable of significantly reducing metal artifacts, suppressing noise, and improving soft-tissue visibility. It outperforms the FBP-type methods and ART and EM methods and yields artifacts-free images. Conclusions: Constrained optimization is an effective way to deal with CT reconstruction with embedded metal objects. Although the method is presented in the context of metal artifacts, it is applicable to general ''missing data'' image reconstruction problems.

  16. Optimization of multi-constrained structures based on optimality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, P.

    1976-01-01

    A weight-reduction algorithm is developed for the optimal design of structures subject to several multibehavioral inequality constraints. The structural weight is considered to depend linearly on the design variables. The algorithm incorporates a simple recursion formula derived from the Kuhn-Tucker necessary conditions for optimality, associated with a procedure to delete nonactive constraints based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative method for linear systems. A number of example problems is studied, including typical truss structures and simplified wings subject to static loads and with constraints imposed on stresses and displacements. For one of the latter structures, constraints on the fundamental natural frequency and flutter speed are also imposed. The results obtained show that the method is fast, efficient, and general when compared to other competing techniques. Extensions to the generality of the method to include equality constraints and nonlinear merit functions is discussed.

  17. Thermally-Constrained Fuel-Optimal ISS Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Svecz, Andrew; Alaniz, Abran; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Nguyen, Louis; Spanos, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Propellant Maneuvers (OPMs) are now being used to rotate the International Space Station (ISS) and have saved hundreds of kilograms of propellant over the last two years. The savings are achieved by commanding the ISS to follow a pre-planned attitude trajectory optimized to take advantage of environmental torques. The trajectory is obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Prior to use on orbit, OPM trajectories are screened to ensure a static sun vector (SSV) does not occur during the maneuver. The SSV is an indicator that the ISS hardware temperatures may exceed thermal limits, causing damage to the components. In this paper, thermally-constrained fuel-optimal trajectories are presented that avoid an SSV and can be used throughout the year while still reducing propellant consumption significantly.

  18. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  19. Structural shape optimization in multidisciplinary system synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Structural shape optimization couples with other discipline optimization in the design of complex engineering systems. For instance, the wing structural weight and elastic deformations couple to aerodynamic loads and aircraft performance through drag. This coupling makes structural shape optimization a subtask in the overall vehicle synthesis. Decomposition methods for optimization and sensitivity analysis allow the specialized disciplinary methods to be used while the disciplines are temporarily decoupled, after which the interdisciplinary couplings are restored at the system level. Application of decomposition methods to structures-aerodynamics coupling in aircraft is outlined and illustrated with a numerical example of a transport aircraft. It is concluded that these methods may integrate structural and aerodynamic shape optimizations with the unified objective of the maximum aircraft performance.

  20. Shape optimization including finite element grid adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikuchi, N.; Taylor, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The prediction of optimal shape design for structures depends on having a sufficient level of precision in the computation of structural response. These requirements become critical in situations where the region to be designed includes stress concentrations or unilateral contact surfaces, for example. In the approach to shape optimization discussed here, a means to obtain grid adaptation is incorporated into the finite element procedures. This facility makes it possible to maintain a level of quality in the computational estimate of response that is surely adequate for the shape design problem.

  1. Evolutionary pattern search algorithms for unconstrained and linearly constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-01

    The authors describe a convergence theory for evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) on a broad class of unconstrained and linearly constrained problems. EPSAs adaptively modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The design of EPSAs is inspired by recent analyses of pattern search methods. The analysis significantly extends the previous convergence theory for EPSAs. The analysis applies to a broader class of EPSAs,and it applies to problems that are nonsmooth, have unbounded objective functions, and which are linearly constrained. Further, they describe a modest change to the algorithmic framework of EPSAs for which a non-probabilistic convergence theory applies. These analyses are also noteworthy because they are considerably simpler than previous analyses of EPSAs.

  2. Spectrum reconstruction based on the constrained optimal linear inverse methods.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenyi; Zhang, Chunmin; Mu, Tingkui; Dai, Haishan

    2012-07-01

    The dispersion effect of birefringent material results in spectrally varying Nyquist frequency for the Fourier transform spectrometer based on birefringent prism. Correct spectral information cannot be retrieved from the observed interferogram if the dispersion effect is not appropriately compensated. Some methods, such as nonuniform fast Fourier transforms and compensation method, were proposed to reconstruct the spectrum. In this Letter, an alternative constrained spectrum reconstruction method is suggested for the stationary polarization interference imaging spectrometer (SPIIS) based on the Savart polariscope. In the theoretical model of the interferogram, the noise and the total measurement error are included, and the spectrum reconstruction is performed by using the constrained optimal linear inverse methods. From numerical simulation, it is found that the proposed method is much more effective and robust than the nonconstrained spectrum reconstruction method proposed by Jian, and provides a useful spectrum reconstruction approach for the SPIIS. PMID:22743461

  3. What Constrains Children's Learning of Novel Shape Terms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Catherine G.; Roberson, Debi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 3-year-olds matched on vocabulary score were taught three new shape terms by one of three types of linguistic contrast: corrective, semantic, or referential. A 5-week training paradigm implemented four training sessions and four assessment sessions. Corrective contrast ("This is concave, it is not square," where "square" is the…

  4. Adaptive Multi-Agent Systems for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Bieniawski, Stefan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Here we demonstrate its use for distributed stochastic optimization. First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint state of the agents. When the game in question is a team game with constraints, that equilibrium optimizes the expected value of the team game utility, subject to those constraints. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in the Lagrangian can be viewed as a form of automated annealing, that focuses the MAS more and more on the optimal pure strategy. This provides a simple way to map the solution of any constrained optimization problem onto the equilibrium of a Multi-Agent System (MAS). We present computer experiments involving both the Queen s problem and K-SAT validating the predictions of PD theory and its use for off-the-shelf distributed adaptive optimization.

  5. Domain decomposition in time for PDE-constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T.; Stoll, Martin

    2015-08-28

    Here, PDE-constrained optimization problems have a wide range of applications, but they lead to very large and ill-conditioned linear systems, especially if the problems are time dependent. In this paper we outline an approach for dealing with such problems by decomposing them in time and applying an additive Schwarz preconditioner in time, so that we can take advantage of parallel computers to deal with the very large linear systems. We then illustrate the performance of our method on a variety of problems.

  6. Reduced order constrained optimization (ROCO): Clinical application to lung IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Stabenau, Hans; Rivera, Linda; Yorke, Ellen; Yang, Jie; Lu, Renzhi; Radke, Richard J.; Jackson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors use reduced-order constrained optimization (ROCO) to create clinically acceptable IMRT plans quickly and automatically for advanced lung cancer patients. Their new ROCO implementation works with the treatment planning system and full dose calculation used at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The authors have implemented mean dose hard constraints, along with the point-dose and dose-volume constraints that the authors used for our previous work on the prostate.Methods: ROCO consists of three major steps. First, the space of treatment plans is sampled by solving a series of optimization problems using penalty-based quadratic objective functions. Next, an efficient basis for this space is found via principal component analysis (PCA); this reduces the dimensionality of the problem. Finally, a constrained optimization problem is solved over this basis to find a clinically acceptable IMRT plan. Dimensionality reduction makes constrained optimization computationally efficient.Results: The authors apply ROCO to 12 stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, generating IMRT plans that meet all clinical constraints and are clinically acceptable, and demonstrate that they are competitive with the clinical treatment plans. The authors also test how many samples and PCA modes are necessary to achieve an adequate lung plan, demonstrate the importance of long-range dose calculation for ROCO, and evaluate the performance of nonspecific normal tissue (“rind”) constraints in ROCO treatment planning for the lung. Finally, authors show that ROCO can save time for planners, and they estimate that in the clinic, planning using their approach would save a median of 105 min for the patients in the study.Conclusions: New challenges arise when applying ROCO to the lung site, which include the lack of a class solution, a larger treatment site, an increased number of parameters and beamlets, a variable number of beams and beam arrangement, and

  7. Teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for unconstrained and constrained real-parameter optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. V.; Savsani, V. J.; Balic, J.

    2012-12-01

    An efficient optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) is proposed in this article to solve continuous unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. The proposed method is based on the effect of the influence of a teacher on the output of learners in a class. The basic philosophy of the method is explained in detail. The algorithm is tested on 25 different unconstrained benchmark functions and 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics. For the constrained benchmark functions, TLBO is tested with different constraint handling techniques such as superiority of feasible solutions, self-adaptive penalty, ɛ-constraint, stochastic ranking and ensemble of constraints. The performance of the TLBO algorithm is compared with that of other optimization algorithms and the results show the better performance of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Constrained genetic algorithms for optimizing multi-use reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Shin-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To derive an optimal strategy for reservoir operations to assist the decision-making process, we propose a methodology that incorporates the constrained genetic algorithm (CGA) where the ecological base flow requirements are considered as constraints to water release of reservoir operation when optimizing the 10-day reservoir storage. Furthermore, a number of penalty functions designed for different types of constraints are integrated into reservoir operational objectives to form the fitness function. To validate the applicability of this proposed methodology for reservoir operations, the Shih-Men Reservoir and its downstream water demands are used as a case study. By implementing the proposed CGA in optimizing the operational performance of the Shih-Men Reservoir for the last 20 years, we find this method provides much better performance in terms of a small generalized shortage index (GSI) for human water demands and greater ecological base flows for most of the years than historical operations do. We demonstrate the CGA approach can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water supply capability to both human and ecological base flow requirements and thus optimize reservoir operations for multiple water users. The CGA can be a powerful tool in searching for the optimal strategy for multi-use reservoir operations in water resources management.

  9. Constrained optimization of gradient waveforms for generalized diffusion encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjölund, Jens; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Nilsson, Markus; Topgaard, Daniel; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Knutsson, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion MRI is a useful probe of tissue microstructure. The conventional diffusion encoding sequence, the single pulsed field gradient, has recently been challenged as more general gradient waveforms have been introduced. Out of these, we focus on q-space trajectory imaging, which generalizes the scalar b-value to a tensor valued entity. To take full advantage of its capabilities, it is imperative to respect the constraints imposed by the hardware, while at the same time maximizing the diffusion encoding strength. We provide a tool that achieves this by solving a constrained optimization problem that accommodates constraints on maximum gradient amplitude, slew rate, coil heating and positioning of radio frequency pulses. The method's efficacy and flexibility is demonstrated both experimentally and by comparison with previous work on optimization of isotropic diffusion sequences.

  10. Constrained optimization of gradient waveforms for generalized diffusion encoding.

    PubMed

    Sjölund, Jens; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Nilsson, Markus; Topgaard, Daniel; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Knutsson, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion MRI is a useful probe of tissue microstructure. The conventional diffusion encoding sequence, the single pulsed field gradient, has recently been challenged as more general gradient waveforms have been introduced. Out of these, we focus on q-space trajectory imaging, which generalizes the scalar b-value to a tensor valued entity. To take full advantage of its capabilities, it is imperative to respect the constraints imposed by the hardware, while at the same time maximizing the diffusion encoding strength. We provide a tool that achieves this by solving a constrained optimization problem that accommodates constraints on maximum gradient amplitude, slew rate, coil heating and positioning of radio frequency pulses. The method's efficacy and flexibility is demonstrated both experimentally and by comparison with previous work on optimization of isotropic diffusion sequences. PMID:26583528

  11. Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  12. Nonlinearly-constrained optimization using asynchronous parallel generating set search.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    Many optimization problems in computational science and engineering (CS&E) are characterized by expensive objective and/or constraint function evaluations paired with a lack of derivative information. Direct search methods such as generating set search (GSS) are well understood and efficient for derivative-free optimization of unconstrained and linearly-constrained problems. This paper addresses the more difficult problem of general nonlinear programming where derivatives for objective or constraint functions are unavailable, which is the case for many CS&E applications. We focus on penalty methods that use GSS to solve the linearly-constrained problems, comparing different penalty functions. A classical choice for penalizing constraint violations is {ell}{sub 2}{sup 2}, the squared {ell}{sub 2} norm, which has advantages for derivative-based optimization methods. In our numerical tests, however, we show that exact penalty functions based on the {ell}{sub 1}, {ell}{sub 2}, and {ell}{sub {infinity}} norms converge to good approximate solutions more quickly and thus are attractive alternatives. Unfortunately, exact penalty functions are discontinuous and consequently introduce theoretical problems that degrade the final solution accuracy, so we also consider smoothed variants. Smoothed-exact penalty functions are theoretically attractive because they retain the differentiability of the original problem. Numerically, they are a compromise between exact and {ell}{sub 2}{sup 2}, i.e., they converge to a good solution somewhat quickly without sacrificing much solution accuracy. Moreover, the smoothing is parameterized and can potentially be adjusted to balance the two considerations. Since many CS&E optimization problems are characterized by expensive function evaluations, reducing the number of function evaluations is paramount, and the results of this paper show that exact and smoothed-exact penalty functions are well-suited to this task.

  13. Constrained Multi-Level Algorithm for Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthy, V.; Tandon, S. R.; Jessy, Antony; Kumar, C. Ravi

    The emphasis on low cost access to space inspired many recent developments in the methodology of trajectory optimization. Ref.1 uses a spectral patching method for optimization, where global orthogonal polynomials are used to describe the dynamical constraints. A two-tier approach of optimization is used in Ref.2 for a missile mid-course trajectory optimization. A hybrid analytical/numerical approach is described in Ref.3, where an initial analytical vacuum solution is taken and gradually atmospheric effects are introduced. Ref.4 emphasizes the fact that the nonlinear constraints which occur in the initial and middle portions of the trajectory behave very nonlinearly with respect the variables making the optimization very difficult to solve in the direct and indirect shooting methods. The problem is further made complex when different phases of the trajectory have different objectives of optimization and also have different path constraints. Such problems can be effectively addressed by multi-level optimization. In the multi-level methods reported so far, optimization is first done in identified sub-level problems, where some coordination variables are kept fixed for global iteration. After all the sub optimizations are completed, higher-level optimization iteration with all the coordination and main variables is done. This is followed by further sub system optimizations with new coordination variables. This process is continued until convergence. In this paper we use a multi-level constrained optimization algorithm which avoids the repeated local sub system optimizations and which also removes the problem of non-linear sensitivity inherent in the single step approaches. Fall-zone constraints, structural load constraints and thermal constraints are considered. In this algorithm, there is only a single multi-level sequence of state and multiplier updates in a framework of an augmented Lagrangian. Han Tapia multiplier updates are used in view of their special role in

  14. Optimized shaped pupil masks for pupil with obscuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Delorme, Jacques-Robert

    2012-09-01

    The main components of the SPICA coronagraphic instrument have initially been bar-code apodizing masks, i.e. shaped pupils optimized in one dimension. Their free-standing designs make them manufacturable without a glass substrate, which implies an absolute achromaticity and no additional wavefront errors. However, shaped pupils can now be optimized in two dimensions and can thus take full advantage of the geometry of any arbitrary aperture, in particular obstructed apertures such as SPICA's. Hence, 2D shaped pupils often have higher throughputs while offering the same angular resolutions and contrast. Alternatively, better resolutions or contrast can be obtained for the same throughput. Although some of these new masks are free-standing, this property cannot be constrained if the optimization problem has to remain convex linear. We propose to address this issue in different ways, and we present here examples of freestanding masks for a variety of contrasts, and inner working angles. Moreover, in all other coronagraphic instruments, contrast smaller than 10-5 can only be obtained if a dedicated adaptive optics system uses one or several deformable mirrors to compensate for wavefront aberrations. The finite number of actuators sets the size of the angular area in which quasi-static speckles can be corrected. This puts a natural limit on the outer working angle for which the shaped pupils are designed. The limited number of actuators is also responsible for an additional diffracted energy, or quilting orders, that can prevent faint companions to be detected. This effect can and must be taken into account in the optimization process. Finally, shaped pupils can be computed for a given nominal phase aberration pattern in the pupil plane, although the solutions depend in this case on the observation wavelength. We illustrate this possibility by optimizing an apodizer for the James Webb space telescope, and by testing its chromaticity and its robustness to phase changes.

  15. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  16. Constrained Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm Based on Immune System Model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shuqu; Ye, Yongqiang; Jiang, Bin; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    An immune optimization algorithm, based on the model of biological immune system, is proposed to solve multiobjective optimization problems with multimodal nonlinear constraints. First, the initial population is divided into feasible nondominated population and infeasible/dominated population. The feasible nondominated individuals focus on exploring the nondominated front through clone and hypermutation based on a proposed affinity design approach, while the infeasible/dominated individuals are exploited and improved via the simulated binary crossover and polynomial mutation operations. And then, to accelerate the convergence of the proposed algorithm, a transformation technique is applied to the combined population of the above two offspring populations. Finally, a crowded-comparison strategy is used to create the next generation population. In numerical experiments, a series of benchmark constrained multiobjective optimization problems are considered to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and it is also compared to several state-of-art algorithms in terms of the inverted generational distance and hypervolume indicators. The results indicate that the new method achieves competitive performance and even statistically significant better results than previous algorithms do on most of the benchmark suite. PMID:26285230

  17. Solving nonlinear equality constrained multiobjective optimization problems using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mestari, Mohammed; Benzirar, Mohammed; Saber, Nadia; Khouil, Meryem

    2015-10-01

    This paper develops a neural network architecture and a new processing method for solving in real time, the nonlinear equality constrained multiobjective optimization problem (NECMOP), where several nonlinear objective functions must be optimized in a conflicting situation. In this processing method, the NECMOP is converted to an equivalent scalar optimization problem (SOP). The SOP is then decomposed into several-separable subproblems processable in parallel and in a reasonable time by multiplexing switched capacitor circuits. The approach which we propose makes use of a decomposition-coordination principle that allows nonlinearity to be treated at a local level and where coordination is achieved through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The modularity and the regularity of the neural networks architecture herein proposed make it suitable for very large scale integration implementation. An application to the resolution of a physical problem is given to show that the approach used here possesses some advantages of the point of algorithmic view, and provides processes of resolution often simpler than the usual techniques. PMID:25647664

  18. Constrained optimization for green engineering decision-making.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Deborah L; Srinivasan, Suresh

    2003-12-01

    Green engineering requires the designer to consider a very extensive set of environmental impacts. To minimize these impacts, the designer must significantly expand his or her "toolset" of product design concepts, alternative materials, manufacturing systems, and analytic methods for addressing life cycle impacts. This can overwhelm a designer, who then resorts to overly simplistic rules or checklists out of necessity. The central issue is how to identify all "pollution prevention pays" opportunities and then how to deal with the unavoidable tradeoffs that arise after all these opportunities have been exhausted. This paper presents a framework for employing mathematical decision modeling toward this end. A domain-independent constrained optimization formulation is presented. A multiattribute utility function reflects the willingness to pay for environmental improvement and is the basis of the objective function. The feasibility constraints reflect the unavoidable tradeoffs. Several case studies are presented, including power systems, floor tile manufacturing, and computer systems. PMID:14700324

  19. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  20. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  1. An approximation function for frequency constrained structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to examine a function for approximating natural frequency constraints during structural optimization. The nonlinearity of frequencies has posed a barrier to constructing approximations for frequency constraints of high enough quality to facilitate efficient solutions. A new function to represent frequency constraints, called the Rayleigh Quotient Approximation (RQA), is presented. Its ability to represent the actual frequency constraint results in stable convergence with effectively no move limits. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize structural weight subject to some minimum (or maximum) allowable frequency and perhaps subject to other constraints such as stress, displacement, and gage size, as well. A reason for constraining natural frequencies during design might be to avoid potential resonant frequencies due to machinery or actuators on the structure. Another reason might be to satisy requirements of an aircraft or spacecraft's control law. Whatever the structure supports may be sensitive to a frequency band that must be avoided. Any of these situations or others may require the designer to insure the satisfaction of frequency constraints. A further motivation for considering accurate approximations of natural frequencies is that they are fundamental to dynamic response constraints.

  2. Application of constrained optimization to active control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Mukhopadhyay, V.

    1981-01-01

    Active control of aeroelastic response is a complex in which the designer usually tries to satisfy many criteria which are often conflicting. To further complicate the design problem, the state space equations describing this type of control problem are usually of high order, involving a large number of states to represent the flexible structure and unsteady aerodynamics. Control laws based on the standard Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) method are of the same high order as the aeroelastic plant. To overcome this disadvantage of the LQG mode, an approach developed for designing low order optimal control laws which uses a nonlinear programming algorithm to search for the values of the control law variables that minimize a composite performance index, was extended to the constrained optimization problem. The method involves searching for the values of the control law variables that minimize a basic performance index while satisfying several inequality constraints that describe the design criteria. The method is applied to gust load alleviation of a drone aircraft.

  3. Robust integrated autopilot/autothrottle design using constrained parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher; Sanjay, Swamy

    1990-01-01

    A multivariable control design method based on constrained parameter optimization was applied to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the following: (1) direct synthesis of a multivariable 'inner-loop' feedback control system based on total energy control principles; (2) synthesis of speed/altitude-hold designs as 'outer-loop' feedback/feedforward control systems around the above inner loop; and (3) direct synthesis of a combined 'inner-loop' and 'outer-loop' multivariable control system. The design procedure offers a direct and structured approach for the determination of a set of controller gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The presented approach may be applied to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by this method following careful problem formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Performance characteristics of the optimization design were improved over the current autopilot design on the B737-100 Transport Research Vehicle (TSRV) at the landing approach and cruise flight conditions; particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping, command responses, and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  4. Implant shape optimization using reverse FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladilin, Evgeny; Ivanov, A.; Roginsky, V.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents a novel approach for the physically-based optimization of individual implants in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. The proposed method is based on solving an inverse boundary value problem of the cranio-maxillofacial surgery planning, i.e. finding an optimal implant shape for a desired correction of soft tissues. The paper describes the methodology for the generation of individual geometrical models of human head, the reverse finite element approach for solving biomechanical boundary value problems and two clinical studies dealing with the computer aided design of individual craniofacial implants.

  5. Constrained simultaneous multi-state reconfigurable wing structure configuration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Matthew

    A reconfigurable aircraft is capable of in-flight shape change to increase mission performance or provide multi-mission capability. Reconfigurability has always been a consideration in aircraft design, from the Wright Flyer, to the F-14, and most recently the Lockheed-Martin folding wing concept. The Wright Flyer used wing-warping for roll control, the F-14 had a variable-sweep wing to improve supersonic flight capabilities, and the Lockheed-Martin folding wing demonstrated radical in-flight shape change. This dissertation will examine two questions that aircraft reconfigurability raises, especially as reconfiguration increases in complexity. First, is there an efficient method to develop a light weight structure which supports all the loads generated by each configuration? Second, can this method include the capability to propose a sub-structure topology that weighs less than other considered designs? The first question requires a method that will design and optimize multiple configurations of a reconfigurable aerostructure. Three options exist, this dissertation will show one is better than the others. Simultaneous optimization considers all configurations and their respective load cases and constraints at the same time. Another method is sequential optimization which considers each configuration of the vehicle one after the other - with the optimum design variable values from the first configuration becoming the lower bounds for subsequent configurations. This process repeats for each considered configuration and the lower bounds update as necessary. The third approach is aggregate combination — this method keeps the thickness or area of each member for the most critical configuration, the configuration that requires the largest cross-section. This research will show that simultaneous optimization produces a lower weight and different topology for the considered structures when compared to the sequential and aggregate techniques. To answer the second question

  6. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  7. A collective neurodynamic optimization approach to bound-constrained nonconvex optimization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Guocheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel collective neurodynamic optimization method for solving nonconvex optimization problems with bound constraints. First, it is proved that a one-layer projection neural network has a property that its equilibria are in one-to-one correspondence with the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker points of the constrained optimization problem. Next, a collective neurodynamic optimization approach is developed by utilizing a group of recurrent neural networks in framework of particle swarm optimization by emulating the paradigm of brainstorming. Each recurrent neural network carries out precise constrained local search according to its own neurodynamic equations. By iteratively improving the solution quality of each recurrent neural network using the information of locally best known solution and globally best known solution, the group can obtain the global optimal solution to a nonconvex optimization problem. The advantages of the proposed collective neurodynamic optimization approach over evolutionary approaches lie in its constraint handling ability and real-time computational efficiency. The effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach are illustrated by using many multimodal benchmark functions. PMID:24705545

  8. Shape Optimization for Trailing Edge Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moin, Parviz

    2001-11-01

    Noise generated by turbulent boundary layers near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces continues to pose a challenge for many applications. In this study, we explore noise reduction strategies through shape optimization. A gradient based shape design method is formulated and implemented for use with large eddy simulation of the flow over an airfoil. The cost function gradient is calculated using the method of incomplete sensitivities (Mohammadi and Pironneau 2001 ph Applied shape Optimization for Fluids, Oxford Univ. Press). This method has the advantage that effects of geometry changes on the flow field can be neglected when computing the gradient of the cost function, making it far more cost effective than solving the full adjoint problem. Validation studies are presented for a model problem of the unsteady laminar flow over an acoustically compact airfoil. A section of the surface is allowed to deform and the cost function is derived based on aeroacoustic theroy. Rapid convergence of the trailing-edge shape and significant reduction of the noise due to vortex shedding and wake instability have been achieved. The addition of constraints and issues of extension to fully turbulent flows past an acoustically noncompact airfoil are also discussed.

  9. Optimal Performance of Buildings Isolated By Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) Under Random Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumanta; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2014-05-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based bearing has been proposed recently for improved base isolation by optimal choice of its transformation strength. Presently, superior performances of the Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) over the elastomeric bearing are established in mitigating seismic vibration under constraint on maximum isolator displacement. The optimal transformation strengths are proposed through constrained optimization based on stochastic responses. Numerical simulation reveals that Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) either fails to provide feasible parameters or leads to large floor acceleration, compromising the isolation efficiency. Contrarily, optimal SMARB can efficiently enforce such constraint without greatly affecting the isolation efficiency. Evidence of robustness of SMARB over LRB is also established.

  10. An optimal constrained linear inverse method for magnetic source imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hughett, P.

    1993-09-01

    Magnetic source imaging is the reconstruction of the current distribution inside an inaccessible volume from magnetic field measurements made outside the volume. If the unknown current distribution is expressed as a linear combination of elementary current distributions in fixed positions, then the magnetic field measurements are linear in the unknown source amplitudes and both the least square and minimum mean square reconstructions are linear problems. This offers several advantages: The problem is well understood theoretically and there is only a single, global minimum. Efficient and reliable software for numerical linear algebra is readily available. If the sources are localized and statistically uncorrelated, then a map of expected power dissipation is equivalent to the source covariance matrix. Prior geological or physiological knowledge can be used to determine such an expected power map and thus the source covariance matrix. The optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) derived in this paper uses this prior knowledge to obtain a minimum mean square error estimate of the current distribution. OCLIM can be efficiently computed using the Cholesky decomposition, taking about a second on a workstation-class computer for a problem with 64 sources and 144 detectors. Any source and detector configuration is allowed as long as their positions are fixed a priori. Correlations among source and noise amplitudes are permitted. OCLIM reduces to the optimally weighted pseudoinverse method of Shim and Cho if the source amplitudes are independent and identically distributed and to the minimum-norm least squares estimate in the limit of no measurement noise or no prior knowledge of the source amplitudes. In the general case, OCLIM has better mean square error than either previous method. OCLIM appears well suited to magnetic imaging, since it exploits prior information, provides the minimum reconstruction error, and is inexpensive to compute.

  11. On Optimizing Joint Inversion of Constrained Geophysical Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa Aguirre, U. A.; Velazquez, L.; Argaez, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Romero, R.

    2010-12-01

    We implemented a joint inversion least-squares (LSQ) algorithm to characterize 1-D crustal velocity Earth structure using geophysical data sets with two different optimization methods: truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), and primal-dual interior-point (PDIP). We used receiver function and surface wave dispersion velocity observations, and created a framework to incorporate other data sets. An improvement in the final outcome (model) is expected by providing better physical constraints than using just one single data set. The TSVD and PDIP methods solve a regularized unconstrained and an inherent regularized constrained minimization problems, respectively. Both techniques implement the inclusion of bounds into the layered shear velocities in a different fashion. We conduct a numerical experimentation with synthetic data, and find that the PDID method’s solution was more robust in terms of satisfying geophysical constraints, accuracy, and efficiency than the TSVD approach. Finally, we apply the PDIP method for characterizing material properties of the Rio Grande Rift region using real recorded seismic data with promising numerical results.

  12. A Parametrically Constrained Optimization Method for Fitting Sedimentation Velocity Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gorbet, Gary; Devlin, Taylor; Hernandez Uribe, Blanca I.; Demeler, Aysha K.; Lindsey, Zachary L.; Ganji, Suma; Breton, Sabrah; Weise-Cross, Laura; Lafer, Eileen M.; Brookes, Emre H.; Demeler, Borries

    2014-01-01

    A method for fitting sedimentation velocity experiments using whole boundary Lamm equation solutions is presented. The method, termed parametrically constrained spectrum analysis (PCSA), provides an optimized approach for simultaneously modeling heterogeneity in size and anisotropy of macromolecular mixtures. The solutions produced by PCSA are particularly useful for modeling polymerizing systems, where a single-valued relationship exists between the molar mass of the growing polymer chain and its corresponding anisotropy. The PCSA uses functional constraints to identify this relationship, and unlike other multidimensional grid methods, assures that only a single molar mass can be associated with a given anisotropy measurement. A description of the PCSA algorithm is presented, as well as several experimental and simulated examples that illustrate its utility and capabilities. The performance advantages of the PCSA method in comparison to other methods are documented. The method has been added to the UltraScan-III software suite, which is available for free download from http://www.ultrascan.uthscsa.edu. PMID:24739173

  13. Newton's method for large bound-constrained optimization problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-J.; More, J. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    1999-01-01

    We analyze a trust region version of Newton's method for bound-constrained problems. Our approach relies on the geometry of the feasible set, not on the particular representation in terms of constraints. The convergence theory holds for linearly constrained problems and yields global and superlinear convergence without assuming either strict complementarity or linear independence of the active constraints. We also show that the convergence theory leads to an efficient implementation for large bound-constrained problems.

  14. Momentum Diffusivity Estimation via PDE-Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ou, Y.; Schuster, E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Walker, M. L.; Casper, T. A.; Meyer, W. H.

    2008-11-01

    Several experiments around the world have demonstrated that plasma rotation can improve plasma stability and enhance confinement. It has been shown [1] that the critical rotation speed for stabilization is a function of the rotation profile shape, implying a radially distributed stabilizing mechanism. Modeling of the rotational profile dynamics is limited by poor knowledge of the momentum diffusivity coefficient. In this work we use toroidal angular velocity data from experiments where the torque is modulated using neutral beams, and we employ optimization techniques to estimate the momentum diffusivity coefficient for the angular momentum partial differential equation (PDE) that best fits the experimental data. To further investigate the nonlinear dependence of the momentum diffusivity on other physical variables such as temperatures and densities, we introduce techniques from nonlinear regression and machine learning. 6pt [1] A.C. Sontag, et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1005 (2007).

  15. Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology. PMID:27100464

  16. Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology. PMID:27100464

  17. Shape optimization of pressure gradient microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, T. D.; Seiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Recently developed finite element computer programs were utilized to investigate the influence of the shape of a body on its scattering field with the aim of determining the optimal shape for a Pressure Gradient Microphone (PGM). Circular cylinders of various aspect ratios were evaluated to choose the length to diameter ratio best suited for a dual element PGM application. Alterations of the basic cylindrical shape by rounding the edges and recessing at the centerline were also studied. It was found that for a + or - 1 db deviation from a linear pressure gradient response, a circular cylinder of aspect ratio near 0.5 was most suitable, yielding a useful upper frequency corresponding to ka = 1.8. The maximum increase in this upper frequency limit obtained through a number of shape alterations was only about 20 percent. An initial experimental evaluation of a single element cylindrical PGM of aspect ratio 0.18 utilizing a piezoresistive type sensor was also performed and is compared to the analytical results.

  18. Aperture shape optimization for IMRT treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassioli, A.; Unkelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for aperture shape optimization (ASO) for step and shoot delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The method is an approach to direct aperture optimization (DAO) that exploits gradient information to locally optimize the positions of the leafs of a multileaf collimator. Based on the dose-influence matrix, the dose distribution is locally approximated as a linear function of the leaf positions. Since this approximation is valid only in a small interval around the current leaf positions, we use a trust-region-like method to optimize the leaf positions: in one iteration, the leaf motion is confined to the beamlets where the leaf edges are currently positioned. This yields a well-behaved optimization problem for the leaf positions and the aperture weights, which can be solved efficiently. If, in one iteration, a leaf is moved to the edge of a beamlet, the leaf motion can be confined to the neighboring beamlet in the next iteration. This allows for large leaf position changes over the course of the algorithm. In this paper, the ASO algorithm is embedded into a column-generation approach to DAO. After a new aperture is added to the treatment plan, we use the ASO algorithm to simultaneously optimize aperture weights and leaf positions for the new set of apertures. We present results for a paraspinal tumor case, a prostate case and a head and neck case. The computational results indicate that, using this approach, treatment plans close to the ideal fluence map optimization solution can be obtained.

  19. Multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories—nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES’s) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES’s with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by {β }λ μ with even μ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES’s and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole Y 32 correlations in N = 150 isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  20. Shape-constrained multi-atlas segmentation of spleen in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Panda, Swetasudha; Asman, Andrew J.; Merkle, Kristen L.; Shanahan, Peter L.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    Spleen segmentation on clinically acquired CT data is a challenging problem given the complicity and variability of abdominal anatomy. Multi-atlas segmentation is a potential method for robust estimation of spleen segmentations, but can be negatively impacted by registration errors. Although labeled atlases explicitly capture information related to feasible organ shapes, multi-atlas methods have largely used this information implicitly through registration. We propose to integrate a level set shape model into the traditional label fusion framework to create a shape-constrained multi-atlas segmentation framework. Briefly, we (1) adapt two alternative atlas-to-target registrations to obtain the loose bounds on the inner and outer boundaries of the spleen shape, (2) project the fusion estimate to registered shape models, and (3) convert the projected shape into shape priors. With the constraint of the shape prior, our proposed method offers a statistically significant improvement in spleen labeling accuracy with an increase in DSC by 0.06, a decrease in symmetric mean surface distance by 4.01 mm, and a decrease in symmetric Hausdorff surface distance by 23.21 mm when compared to a locally weighted vote (LWV) method.

  1. Security-constrained optimization. Added dimension in utility systems optimal power flow

    SciTech Connect

    Degeneff, R.C.; Neugebauer, W. ); Saylor, C.H.; Corey, S.L.

    1988-10-01

    Compared to the tempered environment of the late 1960s and early 1970s, the 1980s have been, and will continue to be, a time of challenge for utilities. Today's utility executive most confront a spectrum of technical issues, ranging from wheeling and transmission line access to loop flow. There are other challenges to face. The traditional utility corporate structure is being reorganized, with utility staffs shrinking in size. And public scrutiny has become more intense as public bodies question the technical and environmental impact, as well as the financial and legal prudence of a utility's activities. Utilities are successfully meeting these challenges and becoming more productive, due, in part to their use of innovative computer programs and tools. One of these tools is an optimal power flow (OPF). The following describes a new dimension in the optimal power flow technology known as the security-constrained optimization (SCO) program.

  2. An effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm for constrained engineering design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Jawahar, N.; Mukund Nilakantan, J.

    2014-10-01

    This article presents an effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm (HCSGA) for solving engineering design optimization problems involving problem-specific constraints and mixed variables such as integer, discrete and continuous variables. The proposed algorithm, HCSGA, is first applied to 13 standard benchmark constrained optimization functions and subsequently used to solve three well-known design problems reported in the literature. The numerical results obtained by HCSGA show competitive performance with respect to recent algorithms for constrained design optimization problems.

  3. Shape Optimization for Aerodynamic Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moin, Parviz

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop optimal shape design methods for reducing airfoil trailing-edge noise. Accurate evaluation of the cost function gradient via classical methods is expensive in unsteady turbulent flow simulations. We have evaluated the method of incomplete sensitivities (Mohammadi and Pironneau), which is inexpensive, and has been successful in previous applications. Gradients are approximated by neglecting changes in the flow field relative to geometrical contributions at each time step. Initial tests applied to a model problem seemed promising, however, in some cases the method was found to break down. A systematic evaluation of the incomplete sensitivities method as applied to the present problem has been carried out by comparison with the full gradient. The contribution to the gradient from changes in the flow field were found to be important. The underlying physical reasoning will be discussed and alternative methods including adjoint approaches and evolutionary algorithms will be explored.

  4. Modeling the transformation stress of constrained shape memory alloy single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, R.J. Jr.; Buchheit, T.E.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a unique class of engineering materials that can be further exploited with accurate polycrystal constitutive models. Previous investigators have modeled stress-induced martensite formation in unconstrained single crystals. Understanding stress-induced martensite formation in constrained single crystals is the next step towards the development of a constitutive model for textured polycrystalline SMA. Such models have been previously developed for imposition of axisymmetric strain on a polycrystal with random crystal orientation; the present paper expands the constrained single crystal SMA model to encompass arbitrary imposed strains. To evaluate the model, axisymmetric tension and compression strains and pure shear strain are imposed on three SMA: NiTi, Cu-Al-Ni ({beta}{sub 1}{yields}{gamma}{prime}{sub 1}) and Ni-Al. Model results are then used to understand the anisotropy and asymmetry of transformation stress in the three SMA considered. Finally, the impact of the present results on polycrystal behavior is addressed.

  5. Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Rubén D.; Arango, Carlos A.; Reyes, Andrés

    2015-09-01

    We propose a methodology to design optimal pulses for achieving quantum optimal control on molecular systems. Our approach constrains pulse shapes to linear combinations of a fixed number of experimentally relevant pulse functions. Quantum optimal control is obtained by maximizing a multi-target fitness function using genetic algorithms. As a first application of the methodology, we generated an optimal pulse that successfully maximized the yield on a selected dissociation channel of a diatomic molecule. Our pulse is obtained as a linear combination of linearly chirped pulse functions. Data recorded along the evolution of the genetic algorithm contained important information regarding the interplay between radiative and diabatic processes. We performed a principal component analysis on these data to retrieve the most relevant processes along the optimal path. Our proposed methodology could be useful for performing quantum optimal control on more complex systems by employing a wider variety of pulse shape functions.

  6. Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Rubén D.; Arango, Carlos A.; Reyes, Andrés

    2015-09-28

    We propose a methodology to design optimal pulses for achieving quantum optimal control on molecular systems. Our approach constrains pulse shapes to linear combinations of a fixed number of experimentally relevant pulse functions. Quantum optimal control is obtained by maximizing a multi-target fitness function using genetic algorithms. As a first application of the methodology, we generated an optimal pulse that successfully maximized the yield on a selected dissociation channel of a diatomic molecule. Our pulse is obtained as a linear combination of linearly chirped pulse functions. Data recorded along the evolution of the genetic algorithm contained important information regarding the interplay between radiative and diabatic processes. We performed a principal component analysis on these data to retrieve the most relevant processes along the optimal path. Our proposed methodology could be useful for performing quantum optimal control on more complex systems by employing a wider variety of pulse shape functions.

  7. Shape transition of endotaxial islands growth from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Tok, Engsoon; Foo, Yonglim

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} islands will grow into Ge(0 0 1) substrate at temperatures from 350 to 675 °C. • Shape transition occurred from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regime. • All endotaxial islands can be clarified into two types. • The mechanisms of endotaxial growth and shape transition have been rationalized. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of Fe grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrates has been conducted at elevated temperatures, ranging from 350 to 675 °C. All iron germinide islands, with the same Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} phase, grow into the Ge substrate with the same epitaxial relationship. Shape transition occurs from small square islands (low temperatures), to elongated orthogonal islands or orthogonal nanowires (intermediate temperatures), and then finally to large square orthogonal islands (high temperatures). According to both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations, all islands can be defined as either type-I or type-II. Type-I islands usually form at kinetically constrained growth regimes, like truncated pyramids. Type-II islands usually appear at equilibrium growth regimes forming a dome-like shape. Based on a simple semi-quantitative model, type-II islands have a lower total energy per volume than type-I, which is considered as the dominant mechanism for this type of shape transition. Moreover, this study not only elucidates details of endotaxial growth in the Fe–Ge system, but also suggests the possibility of controlled fabrication of temperature-dependent nanostructures, especially in materials with dissimilar crystal structures.

  8. Numerical study of a matrix-free trust-region SQP method for equality constrained optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Ridzal, Denis; Aguilo, Miguel Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This is a companion publication to the paper 'A Matrix-Free Trust-Region SQP Algorithm for Equality Constrained Optimization' [11]. In [11], we develop and analyze a trust-region sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method that supports the matrix-free (iterative, in-exact) solution of linear systems. In this report, we document the numerical behavior of the algorithm applied to a variety of equality constrained optimization problems, with constraints given by partial differential equations (PDEs).

  9. Artificial bee colony algorithm for constrained possibilistic portfolio optimization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the portfolio optimization problem with real-world constraints under the assumption that the returns of risky assets are fuzzy numbers. A new possibilistic mean-semiabsolute deviation model is proposed, in which transaction costs, cardinality and quantity constraints are considered. Due to such constraints the proposed model becomes a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem and traditional optimization methods fail to find the optimal solution efficiently. Thus, a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm is developed to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the corresponding algorithm.

  10. Characterizing and modeling the free recovery and constrained recovery behavior of a polyurethane shape memory polymer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Maitland, Duncan J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, tensile tests and one-dimensional constitutive modeling are performed on a high recovery force polyurethane shape memory polymer that is being considered for biomedical applications. The tensile tests investigate the free recovery (zero load) response as well as the constrained displacement recovery (stress recovery) response at extension values up to 25%, and two consecutive cycles are performed during each test. The material is observed to recover 100% of the applied deformation when heated at zero load in the second thermomechanical cycle, and a stress recovery of 1.5 MPa to 4.2 MPa is observed for the constrained displacement recovery experiments. After performing the experiments, the Chen and Lagoudas model is used to simulate and predict the experimental results. The material properties used in the constitutive model – namely the coefficients of thermal expansion, shear moduli, and frozen volume fraction – are calibrated from a single 10% extension free recovery experiment. The model is then used to predict the material response for the remaining free recovery and constrained displacement recovery experiments. The model predictions match well with the experimental data. PMID:22003272

  11. The expanded LaGrangian system for constrained optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poore, A. B.

    1986-01-01

    Smooth penalty functions can be combined with numerical continuation/bifurcation techniques to produce a class of robust and fast algorithms for constrainted optimization problems. The key to the development of these algorithms is the Expanded Lagrangian System which is derived and analyzed in this work. This parameterized system of nonlinear equations contains the penalty path as a solution, provides a smooth homotopy into the first-order necessary conditions, and yields a global optimization technique. Furthermore, the inevitable ill-conditioning present in a sequential optimization algorithm is removed for three penalty methods: the quadratic penalty function for equality constraints, and the logarithmic barrier function (an interior method) and the quadratic loss function (an interior method) for inequality constraints. Although these techniques apply to optimization in general and to linear and nonlinear programming, calculus of variations, optimal control and parameter identification in particular, the development is primarily within the context of nonlinear programming.

  12. Constraining neutron guide optimizations with phase-space considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, Mads; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a method named the Minimalist Principle that serves to reduce the parameter space for neutron guide optimization when the required beam divergence is limited. The reduced parameter space will restrict the optimization to guides with a minimal neutron intake that are still theoretically able to deliver the maximal possible performance. The geometrical constraints are derived using phase-space propagation from moderator to guide and from guide to sample, while assuming that the optimized guides will achieve perfect transport of the limited neutron intake. Guide systems optimized using these constraints are shown to provide performance close to guides optimized without any constraints, however the divergence received at the sample is limited to the desired interval, even when the neutron transport is not limited by the supermirrors used in the guide. As the constraints strongly limit the parameter space for the optimizer, two control parameters are introduced that can be used to adjust the selected subspace, effectively balancing between maximizing neutron transport and avoiding background from unnecessary neutrons. One parameter is needed to describe the expected focusing abilities of the guide to be optimized, going from perfectly focusing to no correlation between position and velocity. The second parameter controls neutron intake into the guide, so that one can select exactly how aggressively the background should be limited. We show examples of guides optimized using these constraints which demonstrates the higher signal to noise than conventional optimizations. Furthermore the parameter controlling neutron intake is explored which shows that the simulated optimal neutron intake is close to the analytically predicted, when assuming that the guide is dominated by multiple scattering events.

  13. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  14. Dose-shaping using targeted sparse optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, George A.; Ruan, Dan

    2013-07-15

    distribution than conventional objective functions. In particular, E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans for the pancreas case and head-and-neck case exhibited substantially improved sparing of the spinal cord and parotid glands, respectively, while maintaining or improving sparing for other OARs and markedly improving PTV homogeneity. Plan deliverability for E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans was shown to be better than their associated clinical plans, according to the two-dimensional modulation index.Conclusions: These results suggest that our formulation may be used to improve dose-shaping and OAR-sparing for complicated disease sites, such as the pancreas or head and neck. Furthermore, our objective function and constraints are linear and constitute a linear program, which converges to the global minimum quickly, and can be easily implemented in treatment planning software. Thus, the authors expect fast translation of our method to the clinic where it may have a positive impact on plan quality for challenging disease sites.

  15. Energy-Constrained Optimal Quantization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiliang; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2007-12-01

    As low power, low cost, and longevity of transceivers are major requirements in wireless sensor networks, optimizing their design under energy constraints is of paramount importance. To this end, we develop quantizers under strict energy constraints to effect optimal reconstruction at the fusion center. Propagation, modulation, as well as transmitter and receiver structures are jointly accounted for using a binary symmetric channel model. We first optimize quantization for reconstructing a single sensor's measurement, and deriving the optimal number of quantization levels as well as the optimal energy allocation across bits. The constraints take into account not only the transmission energy but also the energy consumed by the transceiver's circuitry. Furthermore, we consider multiple sensors collaborating to estimate a deterministic parameter in noise. Similarly, optimum energy allocation and optimum number of quantization bits are derived and tested with simulated examples. Finally, we study the effect of channel coding on the reconstruction performance under strict energy constraints and jointly optimize the number of quantization levels as well as the number of channel uses.

  16. Topics in constrained optimal control: Spacecraft formation flying, constrained attitude control, and rank minimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    This dissertation focuses on cooperative control between multiple agents (e.g., spacecraft, UAVs). In particular, motivated by future NASA's multiple spacecraft missions, we have been guided to consider fundamental aspects of spacecraft formation flying, including collision avoidance issues; constraints on the relative position and attitude. In this venue, we have realized that one of the main challenges is dealing with nonconvex state constraints. In this dissertation, we will address such complications using classical control theory, heuristic techniques, and more recent semidefinite programming-based approaches. We then proceed to consider communication and interspacecraft sensing issues in multiple agent dynamic system setting. In this direction, we will study (1) how conventional control techniques should be augmented to meet our design objectives when the information flow between multiple agents is taken into account; (2) which information structures (e.g., information graphs) yield best performance guarantees in terms of stability, robustness, or fast agreement. In this work, we provide theoretical answers to these problems. Moreover, as many design problems involving information networks and graphs lead to combinatorial problems, which can be formulated as rank optimization problems over matrices, we consider these class of problems in this dissertation. Rank optimization problems also arise in system theory and are considered to be of paramount importance in modern control synthesis problems.

  17. Order-Constrained Solutions in K-Means Clustering: Even Better than Being Globally Optimal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinley, Douglas; Hubert, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an order-constrained K-means cluster analysis strategy, and implements that strategy through an auxiliary quadratic assignment optimization heuristic that identifies an initial object order. A subsequent dynamic programming recursion is applied to optimally subdivide the object set subject to the order constraint. We show that…

  18. A Constrained Optimization Algorithm for Total Energy Minimizationin Electronic Structure Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2005-07-26

    A new direct constrained optimization algorithm forminimizing the Kohn-Sham (KS) total energy functional is presented inthis paper. The key ingredients of this algorithm involve projecting thetotal energy functional into a sequences of subspaces of small dimensionsand seeking the minimizer of total energy functional within eachsubspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy functional not only providesa search direction along which the KS total energy functional decreasesbut also gives an optimal "step-length" to move along this searchdirection. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate that this newdirect constrained optimization algorithm can be more efficient than theself-consistent field (SCF) iteration.

  19. State-Constrained Optimal Control Problems of Impulsive Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Forcadel, Nicolas; Rao Zhiping Zidani, Hasnaa

    2013-08-01

    The present paper studies an optimal control problem governed by measure driven differential systems and in presence of state constraints. The first result shows that using the graph completion of the measure, the optimal solutions can be obtained by solving a reparametrized control problem of absolutely continuous trajectories but with time-dependent state-constraints. The second result shows that it is possible to characterize the epigraph of the reparametrized value function by a Hamilton-Jacobi equation without assuming any controllability assumption.

  20. On optimal strategies in event-constrained differential games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.; Ardema, M.

    1985-01-01

    Combat games are formulated as zero-sum differential games with unilateral event constraints. An interior penalty function approach is employed to approximate optimal strategies for the players. The method is very attractive computationally and possesses suitable approximation and convergence properties.

  1. Two Error Bounds for Constrained Optimization Problems and Their Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changyu Zhang Jianzhong; Zhao Wenling

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a global error bound for the projected gradient and a local error bound for the distance from a feasible solution to the optimal solution set of a nonlinear programming problem by using some characteristic quantities such as value function, trust region radius etc., which are appeared in the trust region method. As applications of these error bounds, we obtain sufficient conditions under which a sequence of feasible solutions converges to a stationary point or to an optimal solution, respectively, and a necessary and sufficient condition under which a sequence of feasible solutions converges to a Kuhn-Tucker point. Other applications involve finite termination of a sequence of feasible solutions. For general optimization problems, when the optimal solution set is generalized non-degenerate or gives generalized weak sharp minima, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a sequence of feasible solutions to terminate finitely at a Kuhn-Tucker point, and a sufficient condition which guarantees that a sequence of feasible solutions terminates finitely at a stationary point.

  2. Dome Shape Optimization of Composite Pressure Vessels Based on Rational B-Spline Curve and Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeesefat, Abbas

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for shape optimization of composite pressure vessels head. The shape factor which is defined as the ratio of internal volume to weight of the vessel is used as an objective function. Design constrains consist of the geometrical limitations, winding conditions, and Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The geometry of dome shape is defined by a B-spline rational curve. By altering the weights of control points, depth of dome, and winding angle, the dome shape is changed. The proposed algorithm uses genetic algorithm and finite element analysis to optimize the design parameters. The algorithm is applied on a CNG pressure vessel and the results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently define the optimal dome shape. This algorithm is general and can be used for general shape optimization.

  3. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-04-15

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  4. A limited-memory algorithm for bound-constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, R.H.; Peihuang, L.; Nocedal, J. |

    1996-03-01

    An algorithm for solving large nonlinear optimization problems with simple bounds is described. It is based on the gradient projection method and uses a limited-memory BFGS matrix to approximate the Hessian of the objective function. We show how to take advantage of the form of the limited-memory approximation to implement the algorithm efficiently. The results of numerical tests on a set of large problems are reported.

  5. Shape-Constrained Segmentation Approach for Arctic Multiyear Sea Ice Floe Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Brucker, Ludovic; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Tilton, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The melting of sea ice is correlated to increases in sea surface temperature and associated climatic changes. Therefore, it is important to investigate how rapidly sea ice floes melt. For this purpose, a new Tempo Seg method for multi temporal segmentation of multi year ice floes is proposed. The microwave radiometer is used to track the position of an ice floe. Then,a time series of MODIS images are created with the ice floe in the image center. A Tempo Seg method is performed to segment these images into two regions: Floe and Background.First, morphological feature extraction is applied. Then, the central image pixel is marked as Floe, and shape-constrained best merge region growing is performed. The resulting tworegionmap is post-filtered by applying morphological operators.We have successfully tested our method on a set of MODIS images and estimated the area of a sea ice floe as afunction of time.

  6. Directional control of lamellipodia extension by constraining cell shape and orienting cell tractional forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Kevin Kit; Brock, Amy Lepre; Brangwynne, Cliff; Mannix, Robert J.; Wang, Ning; Ostuni, Emanuele; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Adams, Josephine C.; Whitesides, George M.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for tissue morphogenesis and wound healing, but the mechanism of directional control is poorly understood. Here we show that the direction in which cells extend their leading edge can be controlled by constraining cell shape using micrometer-sized extracellular matrix (ECM) islands. When cultured on square ECM islands in the presence of motility factors, cells preferentially extended lamellipodia, filopodia, and microspikes from their corners. Square cells reoriented their stress fibers and focal adhesions so that tractional forces were concentrated in these corner regions. When cell tension was dissipated, lamellipodia extension ceased. Mechanical interactions between cells and ECM that modulate cytoskeletal tension may therefore play a key role in the control of directional cell motility.

  7. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory. PMID:25435779

  8. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven M.; McGinnis, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key Points The hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer. It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer. It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories. Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact. The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory. PMID:25435779

  9. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes

  10. A constrained optimization algorithm based on the simplex search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vivek Kumar; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a robust method is presented for handling constraints with the Nelder and Mead simplex search method, which is a direct search algorithm for multidimensional unconstrained optimization. The proposed method is free from the limitations of previous attempts that demand the initial simplex to be feasible or a projection of infeasible points to the nonlinear constraint boundaries. The method is tested on several benchmark problems and the results are compared with various evolutionary algorithms available in the literature. The proposed method is found to be competitive with respect to the existing algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

  11. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on Free-form Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a free-form deformation technique suitable for aerodynamic shape optimization. Because the proposed technique is independent of grid topology, we can treat structured and unstructured computational fluid dynamics grids in the same manner. The proposed technique is an alternative shape parameterization technique to a trivariate volume technique. It retains the flexibility and freedom of trivariate volumes for CFD shape optimization, but it uses a bivariate surface representation. This reduces the number of design variables by an order of magnitude, and it provides much better control for surface shape changes. The proposed technique is simple, compact, and efficient. The analytical sensitivity derivatives are independent of the design variables and are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. The paper includes the complete formulation and aerodynamics shape optimization results.

  12. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour. PMID:12936049

  13. The International Solar Polar Mission - A problem in constrained optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, T. H., III; Parmenter, M. E.; Pojman, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The International Solar Polar Mission is sponsored jointly by NASA and the European Space Agency to study the sun and the solar environment from a new vantage point. Trajectories far out of the ecliptic plane are achieved by a gravity assist from Jupiter which sends the spacecraft back over the poles of the sun. The process for optimizing these trajectories is described. From the point of view of trajectory design, performance is measured by the time spent at high heliographic latitudes, but many trajectory constraints must be met to ensure spacecraft integrity and good scientific return. The design problem is tractable by closely approximating integrated trajectories with specially calibrated conics. Then the optimum trajectory is found primarily by graphical methods, which were easy to develop and use and are highly adaptable to changes in the plan of the mission.

  14. Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doria, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  15. Partial differential equations constrained combinatorial optimization on an adiabatic quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Rishabh

    Partial differential equation-constrained combinatorial optimization (PDECCO) problems are a mixture of continuous and discrete optimization problems. PDECCO problems have discrete controls, but since the partial differential equations (PDE) are continuous, the optimization space is continuous as well. Such problems have several applications, such as gas/water network optimization, traffic optimization, micro-chip cooling optimization, etc. Currently, no efficient classical algorithm which guarantees a global minimum for PDECCO problems exists. A new mapping has been developed that transforms PDECCO problem, which only have linear PDEs as constraints, into quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems that can be solved using an adiabatic quantum optimizer (AQO). The mapping is efficient, it scales polynomially with the size of the PDECCO problem, requires only one PDE solve to form the QUBO problem, and if the QUBO problem is solved correctly and efficiently on an AQO, guarantees a global optimal solution for the original PDECCO problem.

  16. Shape-Constrained Sparse and Low-Rank Decomposition for Auroral Substorm Detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Han, Bing; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An auroral substorm is an important geophysical phenomenon that reflects the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Detecting substorms is of practical significance in order to prevent disruption to communication and global positioning systems. However, existing detection methods can be inaccurate or require time-consuming manual analysis and are therefore impractical for large-scale data sets. In this paper, we propose an automatic auroral substorm detection method based on a shape-constrained sparse and low-rank decomposition (SCSLD) framework. Our method automatically detects real substorm onsets in large-scale aurora sequences, which overcomes the limitations of manual detection. To reduce noise interference inherent in current SLD methods, we introduce a shape constraint to force the noise to be assigned to the low-rank part (stationary background), thus ensuring the accuracy of the sparse part (moving object) and improving the performance. Experiments conducted on aurora sequences in solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) show that the proposed SCSLD method achieves good performance for motion analysis of aurora sequences. Moreover, the obtained results are highly consistent with manual analysis, suggesting that the proposed automatic method is useful and effective in practice. PMID:25826810

  17. Driver Hamiltonians for constrained optimization in quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the current major challenges surrounding the use of quantum annealers for solving practical optimization problems is their inability to encode even moderately sized problems, the main reason for this being the rigid layout of their quantum bits as well as their sparse connectivity. In particular, the implementation of constraints has become a major bottleneck in the embedding of practical problems, because the latter is typically achieved by adding harmful penalty terms to the problem Hamiltonian, a technique that often requires an all-to-all connectivity between the qubits. Recently, a novel technique designed to obviate the need for penalty terms was suggested; it is based on the construction of driver Hamiltonians that commute with the constraints of the problem, rendering the latter constants of motion. In this work we propose general guidelines for the construction of such driver Hamiltonians given an arbitrary set of constraints. We illustrate the broad applicability of our method by analyzing several diverse examples, namely, graph isomorphism, not-all-equal three-satisfiability, and the so-called Lechner-Hauke-Zoller constraints. We also discuss the significance of our approach in the context of current and future experimental quantum annealers.

  18. Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico

    1990-01-01

    The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.

  19. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    growth mechanisms. It is observed that materials whose grains deviate further away from the spherical ones have more enhanced properties, while materials with spherical grains have lesser properties. It is observed that there exist critical states beyond which Hall-Petch Relationship changes to Reversed Hall-Petch Relationship. It can be concluded that if grain shapes in nanomaterials are constrained in the way they evolve, then nanomaterials with desired properties can be designed. PMID:22067060

  20. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes.

    PubMed

    Tengen, Thomas Bobga

    2011-01-01

    growth mechanisms. It is observed that materials whose grains deviate further away from the spherical ones have more enhanced properties, while materials with spherical grains have lesser properties. It is observed that there exist critical states beyond which Hall-Petch Relationship changes to Reversed Hall-Petch Relationship. It can be concluded that if grain shapes in nanomaterials are constrained in the way they evolve, then nanomaterials with desired properties can be designed. PMID:22067060

  1. Integrated topology and shape optimization in structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremicker, M.; Chirehdast, M.; Kikuchi, N.; Papalambros, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization procedures usually start from a given design topology and vary its proportions or boundary shapes to achieve optimality under various constraints. Two different categories of structural optimization are distinguished in the literature, namely sizing and shape optimization. A major restriction in both cases is that the design topology is considered fixed and given. Questions concerning the general layout of a design (such as whether a truss or a solid structure should be used) as well as more detailed topology features (e.g., the number and connectivities of bars in a truss or the number of holes in a solid) have to be resolved by design experience before formulating the structural optimization model. Design quality of an optimized structure still depends strongly on engineering intuition. This article presents a novel approach for initiating formal structural optimization at an earlier stage, where the design topology is rigorously generated in addition to selecting shape and size dimensions. A three-phase design process is discussed: an optimal initial topology is created by a homogenization method as a gray level image, which is then transformed to a realizable design using computer vision techniques; this design is then parameterized and treated in detail by sizing and shape optimization. A fully automated process is described for trusses. Optimization of two dimensional solid structures is also discussed. Several application-oriented examples illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology.

  2. Domestic cat walking parallels human constrained optimization: optimization strategies and the comparison of normal and sensory deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John E A; Gutmann, Anne; Randev, Jabina; Hulliger, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate how fundamental gait parameters used in walking (stride length, frequency, speed) are selected by cats we compared stride characteristics selected when walking on a solid surface to those selected when they were constrained to specific stride lengths using a pedestal walkway. Humans spontaneously select substantially different stride length-stride frequency-speed relationships in walking when each of these parameters is constrained, as in walking to a metronome beat (frequency constrained), evenly spaced floor markers (stride length constrained) or on a treadmill (speed constrained). In humans such adjustments largely provide energetic economy under the prescribed walking conditions. Cats show a similar shift in gait parameter selection between conditions as observed in humans. This suggests that cats (and by extension, quadrupedal mammals) also select gait parameters to optimize walking cost-effectiveness. Cats with a profound peripheral sensory deficit (from pyridoxine overdose) appeared to parallel the optimization seen in healthy cats, but without the same level of precision. Recent studies in humans suggest that gait optimization may proceed in two stages - a fast perception-based stage that provides the initial gait selection strategy which is then fine-tuned by feedback. The sensory deficit cats appeared unable to accomplish the feedback-dependent aspect of this process. PMID:24974156

  3. Constrained growth flips the direction of optimal phenological responses among annual plants.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Magnus; Johansson, Jacob; Bolmgren, Kjell; Lundström, Niklas L P; Brännström, Åke; Jonzén, Niclas

    2016-03-01

    Phenological changes among plants due to climate change are well documented, but often hard to interpret. In order to assess the adaptive value of observed changes, we study how annual plants with and without growth constraints should optimize their flowering time when productivity and season length changes. We consider growth constraints that depend on the plant's vegetative mass: self-shading, costs for nonphotosynthetic structural tissue and sibling competition. We derive the optimal flowering time from a dynamic energy allocation model using optimal control theory. We prove that an immediate switch (bang-bang control) from vegetative to reproductive growth is optimal with constrained growth and constant mortality. Increasing mean productivity, while keeping season length constant and growth unconstrained, delayed the optimal flowering time. When growth was constrained and productivity was relatively high, the optimal flowering time advanced instead. When the growth season was extended equally at both ends, the optimal flowering time was advanced under constrained growth and delayed under unconstrained growth. Our results suggests that growth constraints are key factors to consider when interpreting phenological flowering responses. It can help to explain phenological patterns along productivity gradients, and links empirical observations made on calendar scales with life-history theory. PMID:26548947

  4. Use of constrained optimization in the conceptual design of a medium-range subsonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Constrained parameter optimization was used to perform the optimal conceptual design of a medium range transport configuration. The impact of choosing a given performance index was studied, and the required income for a 15 percent return on investment was proposed as a figure of merit. A number of design constants and constraint functions were systematically varied to document the sensitivities of the optimal design to a variety of economic and technological assumptions. A comparison was made for each of the parameter variations between the baseline configuration and the optimally redesigned configuration.

  5. Some shape optimization problems for eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasimov, Yusif S.

    2008-02-01

    In this work we consider some inverse problems with respect to domain for the Laplace operator. The considered problems are reduced to the variational formulation. The equivalency of these problems is obtained under some conditions. The formula is obtained for the eigenvalue in the optimal domain.

  6. Optimal Shape Design of a Plane Diffuser in Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seokhyun; Choi, Haecheon

    2000-11-01

    Stratford (1959) experimentally designed an optimal shape of plane diffuser for maximum pressure recovery by having zero skin friction throughout the region of pressure rise. In the present study, we apply an algorithm of optimal shape design developed by Pironneau (1973, 1974) and Cabuk & Modi (1992) to a diffuser in turbulent flow, and show that maintaining zero skin friction in the pressure-rise region is an optimal condition for maximum pressure recovery at the diffuser exit. For turbulence model, we use the k-ɛ-v^2-f model by Durbin (1995) which is known to accurately predict flow with separation. Our results with this model agree well with the previous experimental and LES results for a diffuser shape tested by Obi et al. (1993). From this initial shape, an optimal diffuser shape for maximum pressure recovery is obtained through an iterative procedure. The optimal diffuser has indeed zero skin friction throughout the pressure-rise region, and thus there is no separation in the flow. For the optimal diffuser shape obtained, an LES is being conducted to investigate the turbulence characteristics near the zero-skin-friction wall. A preliminary result of LES will also be presented.

  7. Constraining the shape distribution and binary fractions of asteroids observed by NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnett, Sarah M.; Mainzer, Amy; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Bauer, James; Vernazza, Pierre; Ries, Judit Gyorgyey; Kramer, Emily

    2015-11-01

    Knowing the shape distribution of an asteroid population gives clues to its collisional and dynamical history. Constraining light curve amplitudes (brightness variations) offers a first-order approximation to the shape distribution, provided all asteroids in the distribution were subject to the same observing biases. Asteroids observed by the NEOWISE space mission at roughly the same heliocentric distances have essentially the same observing biases and can therefore be inter-compared. We used the archival NEOWISE photometry of a statistically significant sample of Jovian Trojans, Hildas, and Main belt asteroids to compare the amplitude (and by proxy, shape) distributions of L4 vs. L5 Trojans, Trojans vs. Hildas of the same size range, and several subpopulations of Main belt asteroids.For asteroids with near-fluid rubble pile structures, very large light curve amplitudes can only be explained by close or contact binary systems, offering the potential to catalog and characterize binaries within a population and gleaning more information on its dynamical evolution. Because the structure of most asteroids is not known to a high confidence level, objects with very high light curve amplitudes can only be considered candidate binaries. In Sonnett et al. (2015), we identified several binary candidates in the Jovian Trojan and Hilda populations. We have since been conducting a follow-up campaign to obtain densely sampled light curves of the binary candidates to allow detailed shape and binary modeling, helping identify true binaries. Here, we present preliminary results from the follow-up campaign, including rotation properties.This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (CalTech) under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL. We make use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project

  8. Aerothermodynamic shape optimization of hypersonic blunt bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyi, Sinan; Yumuşak, Mine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and efficient design tool that can be used in hypersonic flows. The flow analysis is based on the axisymmetric Euler/Navier-Stokes and finite-rate chemical reaction equations. The equations are coupled simultaneously and solved implicitly using Newton's method. The Jacobian matrix is evaluated analytically. A gradient-based numerical optimization is used. The adjoint method is utilized for sensitivity calculations. The objective of the design is to generate a hypersonic blunt geometry that produces the minimum drag with low aerodynamic heating. Bezier curves are used for geometry parameterization. The performances of the design optimization method are demonstrated for different hypersonic flow conditions.

  9. Mixed finite element formulation applied to shape optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Helder; Taylor, John E.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1988-01-01

    The development presented introduces a general form of mixed formulation for the optimal shape design problem. The associated optimality conditions are easily obtained without resorting to highly elaborate mathematical developments. Also, the physical significance of the adjoint problem is clearly defined with this formulation.

  10. Buckling, driven by constrained phase separation, of toroid-shaped hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriyev, Michael S.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Souslov, Anton; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Goldbart, Paul M.

    We investigate the buckling process observed in connection with the temperature-induced shrinking of an elastic toroid composed of hydrogel. Hydrogels are polymeric network media that become swollen when mixed with water, provided the temperature is low enough. As the temperature is increased beyond a certain point, such gels undergo a first-order de-swelling transition to a de-mixed state, in which the network segregates from the water, resulting in a shrunken phase. It is known that the rapid heating of swollen hydrogels beyond the de-swelling transition results in the formation of a shrunken-phase boundary region, or shell. This shell hinders the expulsion of fluid associated with the equilibration of the sample interior, and gives rise to a prolonged period of coexistence between shrunken and swollen domains in the interior of the sample. In contrast with the spherical case, toroidal samples have been observed to undergo a constrained phase separation that is accompanied by a global buckling (or ``Pringling'') deformation of the sample shape. We present a model of hydrogel toroid Pringling in which such deformations are driven by this phase separation process.

  11. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  12. Shape optimization of high-speed penetrators: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, Gabi; Dubinsky, Anatoly; Elperin, Tov

    2012-12-01

    In spite of a large number of publications on shape optimization of penetrating projectiles there are no dedicated surveys of these studies. The goal of the present review is to close this gap. The review includes more than 50 studies published since 1980 and devoted to solving particular problems of shape optimization of high-speed penetrators. We analyze publications which employed analytical and numerical method for shape optimization of high-speed penetrators against concrete, metal, fiber-reinforced plastic laminate and soil shields. We present classification of the mathematical models used for describing interaction between a penetrator and a shield. The reviewed studies are summarized in the table where we display the following information: the model; indicate whether the model accounts for or neglects friction at the surface of penetrator; criterion for optimization (depth of penetration into a semi-infinite shield, ballistic limit velocity for a shield having a finite thickness, several criteria); class of considered shapes of penetrators (bodies of revolution, different classes of 3-D bodies, etc.); method of solution (analytical or numerical); in comments we present additional information on formulation of the optimization problem. The survey also includes discussion on certain methodological facets in formulating shape optimization problems for high-speed penetrators.

  13. Optimal mass transport for shape matching and comparison.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhengyu; Wang, Yalin; Shi, Rui; Zeng, Wei; Sun, Jian; Luo, Feng; Gu, Xianfeng

    2015-11-01

    Surface based 3D shape analysis plays a fundamental role in computer vision and medical imaging. This work proposes to use optimal mass transport map for shape matching and comparison, focusing on two important applications including surface registration and shape space. The computation of the optimal mass transport map is based on Monge-Brenier theory, in comparison to the conventional method based on Monge-Kantorovich theory, this method significantly improves the efficiency by reducing computational complexity from O(n(2)) to O(n) . For surface registration problem, one commonly used approach is to use conformal map to convert the shapes into some canonical space. Although conformal mappings have small angle distortions, they may introduce large area distortions which are likely to cause numerical instability thus resulting failures of shape analysis. This work proposes to compose the conformal map with the optimal mass transport map to get the unique area-preserving map, which is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric, unique, and diffeomorphic. For shape space study, this work introduces a novel Riemannian framework, Conformal Wasserstein Shape Space, by combing conformal geometry and optimal mass transport theory. In our work, all metric surfaces with the disk topology are mapped to the unit planar disk by a conformal mapping, which pushes the area element on the surface to a probability measure on the disk. The optimal mass transport provides a map from the shape space of all topological disks with metrics to the Wasserstein space of the disk and the pullback Wasserstein metric equips the shape space with a Riemannian metric. We validate our work by numerous experiments and comparisons with prior approaches and the experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of our proposed approach. PMID:26440265

  14. Three-dimensional shape optimization using boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1993-04-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then, the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity shape in a cube and a connecting rod.

  15. An Intelligence Model with Max-Min Strategy for Constrained Evolutionary Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueqiang; Hao, Zhifeng; Huang, Han

    An intelligence model (IM) is proposed for constrained optimization in this paper. In this model, two main issues are considered: first, handling feasible and infeasible individuals in population, and second, recognizing the piecewise continuous Pareto front to avoid unnecessary search, it could reduce the amount of calculation and improve the efficiency of search. In addition, max-min strategy is used in selecting optimization. By integrating IM with evolutionary algorithm (EA), a generic constrained optimization evolutionary (IMEA) is derived. The new algorithm is applied to tackle 7 test instances on the CEC2009 MOEA competition, and the performance is assessed by IGD metric, the results suggest that it outperforms or performs similarly to other algorithms in CEC2009 competition.

  16. A tractable approximation of non-convex chance constrained optimization with non-Gaussian uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geletu, Abebe; Klöppel, Michael; Hoffmann, Armin; Li, Pu

    2015-04-01

    Chance constrained optimization problems in engineering applications possess highly nonlinear process models and non-convex structures. As a result, solving a nonlinear non-convex chance constrained optimization (CCOPT) problem remains as a challenging task. The major difficulty lies in the evaluation of probability values and gradients of inequality constraints which are nonlinear functions of stochastic variables. This article proposes a novel analytic approximation to improve the tractability of smooth non-convex chance constraints. The approximation uses a smooth parametric function to define a sequence of smooth nonlinear programs (NLPs). The sequence of optimal solutions of these NLPs remains always feasible and converges to the solution set of the CCOPT problem. Furthermore, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) points of the approximating problems converge to a subset of KKT points of the CCOPT problem. Another feature of this approach is that it can handle uncertainties with both Gaussian and/or non-Gaussian distributions.

  17. Shape optimization of a sodium cooled fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Damien; Allaire, Grégoire; Pantz, Olivier; Pozin, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Traditional designs of sodium cooled fast reactors have a positive sodium expansion feedback. During a loss of flow transient without scram, sodium heating and boiling thus insert a positive reactivity and prevents the power from decreasing. Recent studies led at CEA, AREVA and EDF show that cores with complex geometries can feature a very low or even a negative sodium void worth.(1, 2) Usual optimization methods for core conception are based on a parametric description of a given core design(3).(4) New core concepts and shapes can then only be found by hand. Shape optimization methods have proven very efficient in the conception of optimal structures under thermal or mechanical constraints.(5, 6) First studies show that these methods could be applied to sodium cooled core conception.(7) In this paper, a shape optimization method is applied to the conception of a sodium cooled fast reactor core with low sodium void worth. An objective function to be minimized is defined. It includes the reactivity change induced by a 1% sodium density decrease. The optimization variable is a displacement field changing the core geometry from one shape to another. Additionally, a parametric optimization of the plutonium content distribution of the core is made, so as to ensure that the core is kept critical, and that the power shape is flat enough. The final shape obtained must then be adjusted to a get realistic core layout. Its caracteristics can be checked with reference neutronic codes such as ERANOS. Thanks to this method, new shapes of reactor cores could be inferred, and lead to new design ideas.

  18. On Shape Optimization for an Evolution Coupled System

    SciTech Connect

    Leugering, G.; Novotny, A. A. Perla Menzala, G.

    2011-12-15

    A shape optimization problem in three spatial dimensions for an elasto-dynamic piezoelectric body coupled to an acoustic chamber is introduced. Well-posedness of the problem is established and first order necessary optimality conditions are derived in the framework of the boundary variation technique. In particular, the existence of the shape gradient for an integral shape functional is obtained, as well as its regularity, sufficient for applications e.g. in modern loudspeaker technologies. The shape gradients are given by functions supported on the moving boundaries. The paper extends results obtained by the authors in (Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 33(17):2118-2131, 2010) where a similar problem was treated without acoustic coupling.

  19. Improving the Hydrodynamic Performance of Diffuser Vanes via Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Tushar; Dorney, Daniel J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Shyy, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a diffuser in a pump stage depends on its configuration and placement within the stage. The influence of vane shape on the hydrodynamic performance of a diffuser has been studied. The goal of this effort has been to improve the performance of a pump stage by optimizing the shape of the diffuser vanes. The shape of the vanes was defined using Bezier curves and circular arcs. Surrogate model based tools were used to identify regions of the vane that have a strong influence on its performance. Optimization of the vane shape, in the absence of manufacturing, and stress constraints, led to a nearly nine percent reduction in the total pressure losses compared to the baseline design by reducing the extent of the base separation.

  20. Optimizing Data Locality for Fork/Join Programs Using Constrained Work Stealing

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-11-16

    We present an approach to improving data locality across different phases of fork/join programs scheduled using work stealing. The approach consists of: (1) user-specified and automated approaches to constructing a steal tree, the schedule of steal operations and (2) constrained work stealing algorithms that constrain the actions of the scheduler to mirror a given steal tree. These are combined to construct work stealing schedules that maximize data locality across computation phases while ensuring load balance within each phase. These algorithms are also used to demonstrate dynamic coarsening, an optimization to improve spatial locality and sequential overheads by combining many finer-grained tasks into coarser tasks while ensuring sufficient concurrency for locality-optimized load balance. Implementation and evaluation in Cilk demonstrate performance improvements of up to 2.5x on 80 cores. We also demonstrate that dynamic coarsening can combine the performance benefits of coarse task specification with the adaptability of finer tasks.

  1. On meeting capital requirements with a chance-constrained optimization model.

    PubMed

    Atta Mills, Ebenezer Fiifi Emire; Yu, Bo; Gu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a capital to risk asset ratio chance-constrained optimization model in the presence of loans, treasury bill, fixed assets and non-interest earning assets. To model the dynamics of loans, we introduce a modified CreditMetrics approach. This leads to development of a deterministic convex counterpart of capital to risk asset ratio chance constraint. We pursue the scope of analyzing our model under the worst-case scenario i.e. loan default. The theoretical model is analyzed by applying numerical procedures, in order to administer valuable insights from a financial outlook. Our results suggest that, our capital to risk asset ratio chance-constrained optimization model guarantees banks of meeting capital requirements of Basel III with a likelihood of 95 % irrespective of changes in future market value of assets. PMID:27186464

  2. Design of SLM-constrained MACE filters using simulated annealing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ajmal; Rajan, P. Karivaratha

    1993-10-01

    Among the available filters for pattern recognition, the MACE filter produces the sharpest peak with very small sidelobes. However, when these filters are implemented using practical spatial light modulators (SLMs), because of the constrained nature of the amplitude and phase modulation characteristics of the SLM, the implementation is no longer optimal. The resulting filter response does not produce high accuracy in the recognition of the test images. In this paper, this deterioration in response is overcome by designing constrained MACE filters such that the filter is allowed to have only those values of phase-amplitude combination that can be implemented on a specified SLM. The design is carried out using simulated annealing optimization technique. The algorithm developed and the results obtained on computer simulations of the designed filters are presented.

  3. Optimization of entry-vehicle shapes during conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the conceptual design of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape and geometry can be varied and its impact on performance can be evaluated. In this study, the shape optimization of two classes of vehicles has been studied: a capsule and a winged vehicle. Their aerodynamic characteristics were analyzed using local-inclination methods, automatically selected per vehicle segment. Entry trajectories down to Mach 3 were calculated assuming trimmed conditions. For the winged vehicle, which has both a body flap and elevons, a guidance algorithm to track a reference heat-rate was used. Multi-objective particle swarm optimization was used to optimize the shape using objectives related to mass, volume and range. The optimizations show a large variation in vehicle performance over the explored parameter space. Areas of very strong non-linearity are observed in the direct neighborhood of the two-dimensional Pareto fronts. This indicates the need for robust exploration of the influence of vehicle shapes on system performance during engineering trade-offs, which are performed during conceptual design. A number of important aspects of the influence of vehicle behavior on the Pareto fronts are observed and discussed. There is a nearly complete convergence to narrow-wing solutions for the winged vehicle. Also, it is found that imposing pitch-stability for the winged vehicle at all angles of attack results in vehicle shapes which require upward control surface deflections during the majority of the entry.

  4. Shape optimization of rigid inclusions for elastic plates with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we consider an optimal control problem of finding the most safe rigid inclusion shapes in elastic plates with cracks from the viewpoint of the Griffith rupture criterion. We make use of a general Kirchhoff-Love plate model with both vertical and horizontal displacements, and nonpenetration conditions are fulfilled on the crack faces. The dependence of the first derivative of the energy functional with respect to the crack length on regular shape perturbations of the rigid inclusion is analyzed. It is shown that there exists a solution of the optimal control problem.

  5. Shape Optimization of Rubber Bushing Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design rubber bushing at desired level of stiffness characteristics in order to achieve the ride quality of the vehicle. A differential evolution algorithm based approach is developed to optimize the rubber bushing through integrating a finite element code running in batch mode to compute the objective function values for each generation. Two case studies were given to illustrate the application of proposed approach. Optimum shape parameters of 2D bushing model were determined by shape optimization using differential evolution algorithm. PMID:25276848

  6. A geometric representation scheme suitable for shape optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorelli, Daniel A.

    1990-01-01

    A geometric representation scheme is outlined which utilizes the natural design variable concept. A base configuration with distinct topological features is created. This configuration is then deformed to define components with similar topology but different geometry. The values of the deforming loads are the geometric entities used in the shape representation. The representation can be used for all geometric design studies; it is demonstrated here for structural optimization. This technique can be used in parametric design studies, where the system response is defined as functions of geometric entities. It can also be used in shape optimization, where the geometric entities of an original design are modified to maximize performance and satisfy constraints. Two example problems are provided. A cantilever beam is elongated to meet new design specifications and then optimized to reduce volume and satisfy stress constraints. A similar optimization problem is presented for an automobile crankshaft section. The finite element method is used to perform the analyses.

  7. Three-dimensional shape optimization using the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1994-06-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity in a cube and a connecting rod.

  8. Profile Optimization Method for Robust Airfoil Shape Optimization in Viscous Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2003-01-01

    Simulation results obtained by using FUN2D for robust airfoil shape optimization in transonic viscous flow are included to show the potential of the profile optimization method for generating fairly smooth optimal airfoils with no off-design performance degradation.

  9. Adjoint-based airfoil shape optimization in transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramanzini, Joe-Ray

    The primary focus of this work is efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in transonic flow. Adjoint-based optimization techniques are employed on airfoil sections and evaluated in terms of computational accuracy as well as efficiency. This study examines two test cases proposed by the AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group. The first is a two-dimensional, transonic, inviscid, non-lifting optimization of a Modified-NACA 0012 airfoil. The second is a two-dimensional, transonic, viscous optimization problem using a RAE 2822 airfoil. The FUN3D CFD code of NASA Langley Research Center is used as the ow solver for the gradient-based optimization cases. Two shape parameterization techniques are employed to study their effect and the number of design variables on the final optimized shape: Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD) and the BandAids free-form deformation technique. For the two airfoil cases, angle of attack is treated as a global design variable. The thickness and camber distributions are the local design variables for MASSOUD, and selected airfoil surface grid points are the local design variables for BandAids. Using the MASSOUD technique, a drag reduction of 72.14% is achieved for the NACA 0012 case, reducing the total number of drag counts from 473.91 to 130.59. Employing the BandAids technique yields a 78.67% drag reduction, from 473.91 to 99.98. The RAE 2822 case exhibited a drag reduction from 217.79 to 132.79 counts, a 39.05% decrease using BandAids.

  10. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  11. Transonic Wing Shape Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on a genetic algorithm approach is demonstrated. The algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the flow about transonic wings including multi-objective solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  12. Configuration-shape-size optimization of space structures by material redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbelt, D. N.; Crivelli, L. A.; Felippa, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    This project investigates the configuration-shape-size optimization (CSSO) of orbiting and planetary space structures. The project embodies three phases. In the first one the material-removal CSSO method introduced by Kikuchi and Bendsoe (KB) is further developed to gain understanding of finite element homogenization techniques as well as associated constrained optimization algorithms that must carry along a very large number (thousands) of design variables. In the CSSO-KB method an optimal structure is 'carved out' of a design domain initially filled with finite elements, by allowing perforations (microholes) to develop, grow and merge. The second phase involves 'materialization' of space structures from the void, thus reversing the carving process. The third phase involves analysis of these structures for construction and operational constraints, with emphasis in packaging and deployment. The present paper describes progress in selected areas of the first project phase and the start of the second one.

  13. Optimal shape and motion of undulatory swimming organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tokić, Grgur; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2012-01-01

    Undulatory swimming animals exhibit diverse ranges of body shapes and motion patterns and are often considered as having superior locomotory performance. The extent to which morphological traits of swimming animals have evolved owing to primarily locomotion considerations is, however, not clear. To shed some light on that question, we present here the optimal shape and motion of undulatory swimming organisms obtained by optimizing locomotive performance measures within the framework of a combined hydrodynamical, structural and novel muscular model. We develop a muscular model for periodic muscle contraction which provides relevant kinematic and energetic quantities required to describe swimming. Using an evolutionary algorithm, we performed a multi-objective optimization for achieving maximum sustained swimming speed U and minimum cost of transport (COT)—two conflicting locomotive performance measures that have been conjectured as likely to increase fitness for survival. Starting from an initial population of random characteristics, our results show that, for a range of size scales, fish-like body shapes and motion indeed emerge when U and COT are optimized. Inherent boundary-layer-dependent allometric scaling between body mass and kinematic and energetic quantities of the optimal populations is observed. The trade-off between U and COT affects the geometry, kinematics and energetics of swimming organisms. Our results are corroborated by empirical data from swimming animals over nine orders of magnitude in size, supporting the notion that optimizing U and COT could be the driving force of evolution in many species. PMID:22456876

  14. Procedures for shape optimization of gas turbine disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheu, Tsu-Chien

    1989-01-01

    Two procedures, the feasible direction method and sequential linear programming, for shape optimization of gas turbine disks are presented. The objective of these procedures is to obtain optimal designs of turbine disks with geometric and stress constraints. The coordinates of the selected points on the disk contours are used as the design variables. Structural weight, stress and their derivatives with respect to the design variables are calculated by an efficient finite element method for design senitivity analysis. Numerical examples of the optimal designs of a disk subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings are presented to illustrate and compare the effectiveness of these two procedures.

  15. Elliptical Cavity Shape Optimization for Acceleration and HOM Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Genfa Wu

    2005-05-01

    We report a survey of center cell shapes developed for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) multi-cell cavities for different projects. Using a set of normalized parameters, we compare the designs for different frequencies and particle velocities for the fundamental mode. Using dispersion curves of High Order Modes (HOM) (frequency verse phase advance) calculated by MAFIA for a single cell, we further optimize the cavity shape to avoid a light cone line crossing at the dangerous resonance frequencies determined by the beam bunch structure and eliminate the trapped (or high R/Q) modes with a low group velocity. We developed this formulation to optimize a 5-cell, 750MHz cavity shape, with good real-estate accelerating gradient and a strong HOM damping waveguide structure for the JLab 1MW ERL-FEL project.

  16. Optimal Shapes of Surface Slip Driven Self-Propelled Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilfan, Andrej

    2012-09-01

    We study the efficiency of self-propelled swimmers at low Reynolds numbers, assuming that the local energetic cost of maintaining a propulsive surface slip velocity is proportional to the square of that velocity. We determine numerically the optimal shape of a swimmer such that the total power is minimal while maintaining the volume and the swimming speed. The resulting shape depends strongly on the allowed maximum curvature. When sufficient curvature is allowed the optimal swimmer exhibits two protrusions along the symmetry axis. The results show that prolate swimmers such as Paramecium have an efficiency that is ˜20% higher than that of a spherical body, whereas some microorganisms have shapes that allow even higher efficiency.

  17. A free boundary approach to shape optimization problems

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, D.; Velichkov, B.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of shape optimization problems involving the spectrum of the Laplace operator, such as isoperimetric inequalities, has known in recent years a series of interesting developments essentially as a consequence of the infusion of free boundary techniques. The main focus of this paper is to show how the analysis of a general shape optimization problem of spectral type can be reduced to the analysis of particular free boundary problems. In this survey article, we give an overview of some very recent technical tools, the so-called shape sub- and supersolutions, and show how to use them for the minimization of spectral functionals involving the eigenvalues of the Dirichlet Laplacian, under a volume constraint. PMID:26261362

  18. Automatic 3D kidney segmentation based on shape constrained GC-OAAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjian; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    The kidney can be classified into three main tissue types: renal cortex, renal medulla and renal pelvis (or collecting system). Dysfunction of different renal tissue types may cause different kidney diseases. Therefore, accurate and efficient segmentation of kidney into different tissue types plays a very important role in clinical research. In this paper, we propose an automatic 3D kidney segmentation method which segments the kidney into the three different tissue types: renal cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method synergistically combines active appearance model (AAM), live wire (LW) and graph cut (GC) methods, GC-OAAM for short. Our method consists of two main steps. First, a pseudo 3D segmentation method is employed for kidney initialization in which the segmentation is performed slice-by-slice via a multi-object oriented active appearance model (OAAM) method. An improved iterative model refinement algorithm is proposed for the AAM optimization, which synergistically combines the AAM and LW method. Multi-object strategy is applied to help the object initialization. The 3D model constraints are applied to the initialization result. Second, the object shape information generated from the initialization step is integrated into the GC cost computation. A multi-label GC method is used to segment the kidney into cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method was tested on 19 clinical arterial phase CT data sets. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Determination of poroelastic properties of cartilage using constrained optimization coupled with finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Mansour, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of determining biphasic material properties using a finite element model of stress relaxation coupled with two types of constrained optimization to match measured data was investigated. Comparison of these two approaches, a zero-order method and a gradient-based algorithm, validated the predicted material properties. Optimizations were started from multiple different initial guesses of material properties (design variables) to establish the robustness of the optimization. Overall, the optimal values are close to those found by Cohen et al., (1998), but these small differences produced a marked improvement in the fit to the measured stress relaxation. Despite the greater deviation in the optimized values obtained from the zero-order method, both optimization procedures produced material properties that gave equally good overall fits to the measured data. Furthermore, optimized values were all within the expected range of material properties. Modeling stress relaxation using the optimized material properties showed an excellent fit to the entire time history of the measured data. PMID:25460921

  20. Determination of poroelastic properties of cartilage using constrained optimization coupled with finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Mansour, Joseph M

    2015-02-01

    The feasibility of determining biphasic material properties using a finite element model of stress relaxation coupled with two types of constrained optimization to match measured data was investigated. Comparison of these two approaches, a zero-order method and a gradient-based algorithm, validated the predicted material properties. Optimizations were started from multiple different initial guesses of material properties (design variables) to establish the robustness of the optimization. Overall, the optimal values are close to those found by Cohen et al. (1998) but these small differences produced a marked improvement in the fit to the measured stress relaxation. Despite the greater deviation in the optimized values obtained from the zero-order method, both optimization procedures produced material properties that gave equally good overall fits to the measured data. Furthermore, optimized values were all within the expected range of material properties. Modeling stress relaxation using the optimized material properties showed an excellent fit to the entire time history of the measured data. PMID:25460921

  1. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  2. A class of collinear scaling algorithms for bound-constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, K. A.; Tabor, Wayne L.

    2007-10-01

    A family of algorithms for approximate solution of the bound-constrained minimization problem was introduced in [K.A. Ariyawansa, W.L. Tabor, A class of collinear scaling algorithms for bound-constrained optimization: Derivation and computational results, Technical Report 2003-1, Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 2003, submitted for publication. Available at http://www.math.wsu.edu/math/TRS/2003-1.pdf]. These algorithms employ the standard barrier method, with the inner iteration based on trust region methods. Local models are conic functions rather than the usual quadratic functions, and are required to match first and second derivatives of the barrier function at the current iterate. The various members of the family are distinguished by the choice of a vector-valued parameter, which is the zero vector in the degenerate case that quadratic local models are used. This paper presents a convergence analysis of the family of algorithms presented in [K.A. Ariyawansa, W.L. Tabor, A class of collinear scaling algorithms for bound-constrained optimization: Derivation and computational results, Technical Report 2003-1, Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 2003, submitted for publication. Available at http://www.math.wsu.edu/math/TRS/2003-1.pdf]. Specifically, convergence properties similar to those of barrier methods using quadratic local models are established.

  3. A Near-Optimal Distributed QoS Constrained Routing Algorithm for Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank Yeong-Sung; Hsiao, Chiu-Han; Yen, Hong-Hsu; Hsieh, Yu-Jen

    2013-01-01

    One of the important applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is video surveillance that includes the tasks of video data processing and transmission. Processing and transmission of image and video data in WSNs has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This is known as Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). WVSNs are distributed intelligent systems for collecting image or video data with unique performance, complexity, and quality of service challenges. WVSNs consist of a large number of battery-powered and resource constrained camera nodes. End-to-end delay is a very important Quality of Service (QoS) metric for video surveillance application in WVSNs. How to meet the stringent delay QoS in resource constrained WVSNs is a challenging issue that requires novel distributed and collaborative routing strategies. This paper proposes a Near-Optimal Distributed QoS Constrained (NODQC) routing algorithm to achieve an end-to-end route with lower delay and higher throughput. A Lagrangian Relaxation (LR)-based routing metric that considers the “system perspective” and “user perspective” is proposed to determine the near-optimal routing paths that satisfy end-to-end delay constraints with high system throughput. The empirical results show that the NODQC routing algorithm outperforms others in terms of higher system throughput with lower average end-to-end delay and delay jitter. In this paper, for the first time, the algorithm shows how to meet the delay QoS and at the same time how to achieve higher system throughput in stringently resource constrained WVSNs.

  4. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  5. Shape Optimization and Supremal Minimization Approaches in Landslides Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, Riad Ionescu, Ioan R. Lachand-Robert, Thomas

    2005-10-15

    The steady-state unidirectional (anti-plane) flow for a Bingham fluid is considered. We take into account the inhomogeneous yield limit of the fluid, which is well adjusted to the description of landslides. The blocking property is analyzed and we introduce the safety factor which is connected to two optimization problems in terms of velocities and stresses. Concerning the velocity analysis the minimum problem in Bv({omega}) is equivalent to a shape-optimization problem. The optimal set is the part of the land which slides whenever the loading parameter becomes greater than the safety factor. This is proved in the one-dimensional case and conjectured for the two-dimensional flow. For the stress-optimization problem we give a stream function formulation in order to deduce a minimum problem in W{sup 1,{infinity}}({omega}) and we prove the existence of a minimizer. The L{sup p}({omega}) approximation technique is used to get a sequence of minimum problems for smooth functionals. We propose two numerical approaches following the two analysis presented before.First, we describe a numerical method to compute the safety factor through equivalence with the shape-optimization problem.Then the finite-element approach and a Newton method is used to obtain a numerical scheme for the stress formulation. Some numerical results are given in order to compare the two methods. The shape-optimization method is sharp in detecting the sliding zones but the convergence is very sensitive to the choice of the parameters. The stress-optimization method is more robust, gives precise safety factors but the results cannot be easily compiled to obtain the sliding zone.

  6. A New Continuous-Time Equality-Constrained Optimization to Avoid Singularity.

    PubMed

    Quan, Quan; Cai, Kai-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    In equality-constrained optimization, a standard regularity assumption is often associated with feasible point methods, namely, that the gradients of constraints are linearly independent. In practice, the regularity assumption may be violated. In order to avoid such a singularity, a new projection matrix is proposed based on which a feasible point method to continuous-time, equality-constrained optimization is developed. First, the equality constraint is transformed into a continuous-time dynamical system with solutions that always satisfy the equality constraint. Second, a new projection matrix without singularity is proposed to realize the transformation. An update (or say a controller) is subsequently designed to decrease the objective function along the solutions of the transformed continuous-time dynamical system. The invariance principle is then applied to analyze the behavior of the solution. Furthermore, the proposed method is modified to address cases in which solutions do not satisfy the equality constraint. Finally, the proposed optimization approach is applied to three examples to demonstrate its effectiveness. PMID:26415188

  7. Firefly Algorithm for Cardinality Constrained Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization Problem with Entropy Diversity Constraint

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio optimization (selection) problem is an important and hard optimization problem that, with the addition of necessary realistic constraints, becomes computationally intractable. Nature-inspired metaheuristics are appropriate for solving such problems; however, literature review shows that there are very few applications of nature-inspired metaheuristics to portfolio optimization problem. This is especially true for swarm intelligence algorithms which represent the newer branch of nature-inspired algorithms. No application of any swarm intelligence metaheuristics to cardinality constrained mean-variance (CCMV) portfolio problem with entropy constraint was found in the literature. This paper introduces modified firefly algorithm (FA) for the CCMV portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results. PMID:24991645

  8. A Resource Constrained Distributed Constraint Optimization Method using Resource Constraint Free Pseudo-tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Silaghi, Marius C.; Hirayama, Katsutoshi; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    Cooperative problem solving with shared resources is important in practical multi-agent systems. Resource constraints are necessary to handle practical problems such as distributed task scheduling with limited resource availability. As a fundamental formalism for multi-agent cooperation, the Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP) has been investigated. With DCOPs, the agent states and the relationships between agents are formalized into a constraint optimization problem. However, in the original DCOP framework, constraints for resources that are consumed by teams of agents are not well supported. A framework called Resource Constrained Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (RCDCOP) has recently been proposed. In RCDCOPs, a limit on resource usage is represented as an n-ary constraint. Previous research addressing RCDCOPs employ a pseudo-tree based solver. The pseudo-tree is an important graph structure for constraint networks. A pseudo-tree implies a partial ordering of variables. However, n-ary constrained variables, which are placed on a single path of the pseudo-tree, decrease efficiency of the solver. We propose another method using (i) a pseudo-tree that is generated ignoring resource constraints and (ii) virtual variables representing the usage of resources. However the virtual variables increase search space. To improve pruning efficiency of search, (iii) we apply a set of upper/lower bounds that are inferred from resource constraints. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated by experiment.

  9. PAPR-Constrained Pareto-Optimal Waveform Design for OFDM-STAP Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2014-01-01

    We propose a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) constrained Pareto-optimal waveform design approach for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar signal to detect a target using the space-time adaptive processing (STAP) technique. The use of an OFDM signal does not only increase the frequency diversity of our system, but also enables us to adaptively design the OFDM coefficients in order to further improve the system performance. First, we develop a parametric OFDM-STAP measurement model by considering the effects of signaldependent clutter and colored noise. Then, we observe that the resulting STAP-performance can be improved by maximizing the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) with respect to the signal parameters. However, in practical scenarios, the computation of output SINR depends on the estimated values of the spatial and temporal frequencies and target scattering responses. Therefore, we formulate a PAPR-constrained multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem to design the OFDM spectral parameters by simultaneously optimizing four objective functions: maximizing the output SINR, minimizing two separate Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) on the normalized spatial and temporal frequencies, and minimizing the trace of CRB matrix on the target scattering coefficients estimations. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the achieved performance improvement due to the adaptive waveform design.

  10. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2005-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  11. Optimal Multiple Surface Segmentation With Shape and Context Priors

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junjie; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John M.; Wu, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of multiple surfaces in medical images is a challenging problem, further complicated by the frequent presence of weak boundary evidence, large object deformations, and mutual influence between adjacent objects. This paper reports a novel approach to multi-object segmentation that incorporates both shape and context prior knowledge in a 3-D graph-theoretic framework to help overcome the stated challenges. We employ an arc-based graph representation to incorporate a wide spectrum of prior information through pair-wise energy terms. In particular, a shape-prior term is used to penalize local shape changes and a context-prior term is used to penalize local surface-distance changes from a model of the expected shape and surface distances, respectively. The globally optimal solution for multiple surfaces is obtained by computing a maximum flow in a low-order polynomial time. The proposed method was validated on intraretinal layer segmentation of optical coherence tomography images and demonstrated statistically significant improvement of segmentation accuracy compared to our earlier graph-search method that was not utilizing shape and context priors. The mean unsigned surface positioning errors obtained by the conventional graph-search approach (6.30 ± 1.58 μm) was improved to 5.14 ± 0.99 μm when employing our new method with shape and context priors. PMID:23193309

  12. Estimating contrast transfer function and associated parameters by constrained non-linear optimization

    PubMed Central

    YANG, C.; JIANG, W.; CHEN, D. -H.; ADIGA, U.; NG, E. G.; CHIU, W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The three-dimensional reconstruction of macromolecules from two-dimensional single-particle electron images requires determination and correction of the contrast transfer function (CTF) and envelope function. A computational algorithm based on constrained non-linear optimization is developed to estimate the essential parameters in the CTF and envelope function model simultaneously and automatically. The application of this estimation method is demonstrated with focal series images of amorphous carbon film as well as images of ice-embedded icosahedral virus particles suspended across holes. PMID:19250460

  13. Estimating Contrast Transfer Function and Associated Parameters by Constrained Nonlinear Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Dong-Hua; Adiga, Umesh; Ng, Esmond G.; Chiu, Wah

    2008-07-28

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of macromolecules from two-dimensional single-particle electron images requires determination and correction of the contrast transfer function (CTF) and envelope function. A computational algorithm based on constrained non-linear optimization is developed to estimate the essential parameters in the CTF and envelope function model simultaneously and automatically. The application of this estimation method is demonstrated with focal series images of amorphous carbon film as well as images of ice-embedded icosahedral virus particles suspended across holes.

  14. Application of genetic algorithm on optimization of laser beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Lin, Chia-Te

    2015-06-15

    This study proposes a newly developed optimization method for an aspherical lens system employed in a refractive laser beam shaping system, which performs transformations on laser spots such that they are transformed into flat-tops of any size. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) with multipoint search is proposed as the optimization method, together with macro language in optical simulation software, in order to search for ideal and optimized parameters. In comparison to a traditional two-dimensional (2D) computational method, using the one-dimensional (1D) computation for laser beam shaping can search for the optimal solution approximately twice as fast (after experiments). The optimal results show that when the laser spot shrinks from 3 mm to 1.07 mm, 88% uniformity is achieved, and when the laser spot increases from 3 mm to 5.273 mm, 90% uniformity is achieved. The distances between the lenses for both systems described above are even smaller than the thickness for the first lens, enabling us to conclude that our design objectives of extra light and slimness in the system are achieved. PMID:26193566

  15. Optimization strategy to find shapes of soliton molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, S.; Rohrmann, Ph.; Hause, A.; Mitschke, F.

    2014-07-01

    Frequently, a certain solution of a nonlinear wave equation is of interest, but no analytic form is known, and one must work with approximations. We introduce a search strategy to find solutions of the propagation of soliton molecules in a dispersion-managed optical fiber and to determine their shape with some precision. The strategy compares shapes before and after propagation and invokes an optimization routine to minimize the difference. The scheme is designed to be implemented in an experiment so that all fiber parameters are taken into account. Here, we present a full numerical study and a verification of convergence; we validate the method with cases of known solutions. We also compare the performance of two optimization procedures, the Nelder-Mead simplex method and a genetic algorithm.

  16. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.

  17. Focusing time harmonic scalar fields in non-homogenous lossy media: Inverse filter vs. constrained power focusing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iero, D. A. M.; Isernia, T.; Crocco, L.

    2013-08-01

    Two strategies to focus time harmonic scalar fields in known inhomogeneous lossy media are compared. The first one is the Inverse Filter (IF) method, which faces the focusing task as the synthesis of a nominal field. The second one is the Constrained Power Focusing Optimization (CPFO) method, which tackles the problem in terms of constrained mask constrained power optimization. Numerical examples representative of focusing in noninvasive microwave hyperthermia are provided to show that CPFO is able to outperform IF, thanks to the additional degrees of freedom arising from the adopted power synthesis formulation.

  18. BEM4I applied to shape optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapletal, Jan; Merta, Michal; Čermák, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Shape optimization problems are one of the areas where the boundary element method can be applied efficiently. We present the application of the BEM4I library developed at IT4Innovations to a class of free surface Bernoulli problems in 3D. Apart from the boundary integral formulation of the related state and adjoint boundary value problems we present an implementation of a general scheme for the treatment of similar problems.

  19. Optimization of negative central shear discharges in shaped cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D., Chu, M.S., Taylor, T.S., Casper, T.A., Rice, B.W.; Greene, J.M., Greenfield, C.M., La Haye, R.J., Lao, L.L., Lee, B.J.; Miller, R.L., Ren, C., Strait, E.J., Tritz, K.; Rettig, C.L., Rhodes, T.L.; Sauter, O.

    1996-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analyses of Negative Central Shear (NCS) equilibria have revealed a new understanding of the limiting MHD instabilities in NCS experiments. Ideal stability calculations show a synergistic effect between cross section shape and pressure profile optimization; strong shaping and broader pressure independently lead to moderately higher {Beta} limits, but broadening of the pressure profile in a strongly dee-shaped cross- section leads to a dramatic increase in the ideal {Beta} limit. Localized resistive interchange (RI) modes can be unstable in the negative shear region and are most restrictive for peaked pressure profiles. Resistive global modes can also be destabilized significantly below the ideal P limit. Experiments largely confirm the general trends, and diagnostic measurements and numerical stability calculations are found to be in good qualitative agreement. Observed disruptions in NCS discharges with L-mode edge and strongly peaked pressure, appear to be initiated by interactions between the RI, and the global ideal and resistive modes.

  20. Optimized pulse shapes for a resonator-induced phase gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew W.; Gambetta, Jay M.

    2015-03-01

    The resonator-induced phase gate is a multiqubit controlled-phase gate for fixed-frequency superconducting qubits. Through off-resonant driving of a bus resonator, statically coupled qubits acquire a state-dependent phase. However, photon loss leads to dephasing during the gate, and any residual entanglement between the resonator and qubits after the gate leads to decoherence. Here we consider how to shape the drive pulse to minimize these unwanted effects. First, we review how the gate's entangling and dephasing rates depend on the system parameters and validate closed-form solutions against direct numerical solution of a master equation. Next, we propose spline pulse shapes that reduce residual qubit-bus entanglement, are robust to imprecise knowledge of the resonator shift, and can be shortened by using higher-degree polynomials. Finally, we present a procedure that optimizes over the subspace of pulses that leave the resonator unpopulated. This finds shaped drive pulses that further reduce the gate duration. Assuming realistic parameters, we exhibit shaped pulses that have the potential to realize ˜212 ns spline pulse gates and ˜120 ns optimized gates with ˜6 ×10-4 average gate infidelity. These examples do not represent fundamental limits of the gate and, in principle, even shorter gates may be achievable.

  1. Interpretable exemplar-based shape classification using constrained sparse linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, Gunnar A.; Yang, Zhen; Tran, Trac D.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-03-01

    Many types of diseases manifest themselves as observable changes in the shape of the affected organs. Using shape classification, we can look for signs of disease and discover relationships between diseases. We formulate the problem of shape classification in a holistic framework that utilizes a lossless scalar field representation and a non-parametric classification based on sparse recovery. This framework generalizes over certain classes of unseen shapes while using the full information of the shape, bypassing feature extraction. The output of the method is the class whose combination of exemplars most closely approximates the shape, and furthermore, the algorithm returns the most similar exemplars along with their similarity to the shape, which makes the result simple to interpret. Our results show that the method offers accurate classification between three cerebellar diseases and controls in a database of cerebellar ataxia patients. For reproducible comparison, promising results are presented on publicly available 2D datasets, including the ETH-80 dataset where the method achieves 88.4% classification accuracy.

  2. Experiments on power optimization for displacement-constrained operation of a vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Binh Duc; Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents experiments on how to approach the physical limits on power from vibration energy harvesting under displacement-constrained operation. A MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester with voltage-control of the system stiffness is used for this purpose. The power saturation problem, when the proof mass displacement reaches maximum amplitude for sufficient acceleration amplitude, is shifted to higher accelerations by use of load optimization and tunable electromechanical coupling k2. Measurement results show that harvested power can be made to follow the optimal velocity-damped generator also for a range of accelerations that implies displacement constraints. Comparing to the saturated power, the power increases 1.5 times with the optimal load and an electromechanical coupling k2=8.7%. This value is 2.3 times for a higher coupling k2=17.9%. The obtained system effectiveness is beyond 60% under the optimization. This work also shows a first demonstration of reaching optimal power in the intermediate acceleration-range between the two extremes of maximum efficiency and maximum power transfer.

  3. Risk-Constrained Dynamic Programming for Optimal Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    A chance-constrained dynamic programming algorithm was developed that is capable of making optimal sequential decisions within a user-specified risk bound. This work handles stochastic uncertainties over multiple stages in the CEMAT (Combined EDL-Mobility Analyses Tool) framework. It was demonstrated by a simulation of Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) using real landscape data obtained from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Although standard dynamic programming (DP) provides a general framework for optimal sequential decisionmaking under uncertainty, it typically achieves risk aversion by imposing an arbitrary penalty on failure states. Such a penalty-based approach cannot explicitly bound the probability of mission failure. A key idea behind the new approach is called risk allocation, which decomposes a joint chance constraint into a set of individual chance constraints and distributes risk over them. The joint chance constraint was reformulated into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of an indicator function, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the chance-constraint optimization problem can be turned into an unconstrained optimization over a Lagrangian, which can be solved efficiently using a standard DP approach.

  4. A simple two stage optimization algorithm for constrained power economic dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, G.; Song, K. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    A simple two stage optimization algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast computation of constrained power economic dispatch control problems. The method is a simple demonstration of the hierarchical aggregation-disaggregation (HAD) concept. The algorithm first solves an aggregated problem to obtain an initial solution. This aggregated problem turns out to be classical economic dispatch formulation, and it can be solved in 1% of overall computation time. In the second stage, linear programming method finds optimal solution which satisfies power balance constraints, generation and transmission inequality constraints and security constraints. Implementation of the algorithm for IEEE systems and EPRI Scenario systems shows that the two stage method obtains average speedup ratio 10.64 as compared to classical LP-based method.

  5. Reinforcement learning solution for HJB equation arising in constrained optimal control problem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen; Liu, Derong

    2015-11-01

    The constrained optimal control problem depends on the solution of the complicated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJBE). In this paper, a data-based off-policy reinforcement learning (RL) method is proposed, which learns the solution of the HJBE and the optimal control policy from real system data. One important feature of the off-policy RL is that its policy evaluation can be realized with data generated by other behavior policies, not necessarily the target policy, which solves the insufficient exploration problem. The convergence of the off-policy RL is proved by demonstrating its equivalence to the successive approximation approach. Its implementation procedure is based on the actor-critic neural networks structure, where the function approximation is conducted with linearly independent basis functions. Subsequently, the convergence of the implementation procedure with function approximation is also proved. Finally, its effectiveness is verified through computer simulations. PMID:26356598

  6. Shape Memory as a Process: Optimizing Polymer Design for Shape Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard; Koerner, Hilmar; Lee, Kyungmin; Strong, Robert; Smith, Mattew; Wang, Huabin; White, Tim; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2012-02-01

    Shape memory is a process that enables the reversible storage and recovery of mechanical energy through a change in shape. Polymers provide a unique alternative to kinematic designs and other materials (e.g. metallic alloys) for applications requiring large deformation and novel control options. The effect control of storage and relaxation of strain energy associated with chain deformation depends on the nonlinear visco-elasitc behavior and glassy dynamics of the polymer network. Considering the molecular understanding of rubbery elasticity, chain entanglements in concentrated polymer liquids, affine deformation of networks, and glass fragility, heuristic guidelines can be formulated to optimize the molecular design of a polymer for shape memory. These are applied to the development of a polymer system for shape memory processes at high-temperature (200^oC). The low-crosslink density polyimide exhibits very rapid shape recovery, excellent fixity, high creep resistance, and good cyclability. Furthermore, the molecular design affords a very narrow temperature range for programming and triggering shape change that can also be accessed by photo-isomerization of the cross-link nodes.

  7. Simultaneous beam sampling and aperture shape optimization for SPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Ye, Yinyu

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital linear accelerators, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle, can be optimized simultaneously. SPORT promises to deliver remarkable radiation dose distributions in an efficient manner, yet there exists no optimization algorithm for its implementation. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: The authors build a mathematical model with the fundamental station point parameters as the decision variables. To solve the resulting large-scale optimization problem, the authors devise an effective algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques: column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search. Column generation adds the most beneficial stations sequentially until the plan quality improvement saturates and provides a good starting point for the subsequent optimization. It also adds the new stations during the algorithm if beneficial. For each update resulted from column generation, the subgradient method improves the selected stations locally by reshaping the apertures and updating the beam angles toward a descent subgradient direction. The algorithm continues to improve the selected stations locally and globally by a pattern search algorithm to explore the part of search space not reachable by the subgradient method. By combining these three techniques together, all plausible combinations of station parameters are searched efficiently to yield the optimal solution. Results: A SPORT optimization framework with seamlessly integration of three complementary algorithms, column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search, was established. The proposed technique was applied to two previously treated clinical cases: a head and

  8. In-Space Radiator Shape Optimization using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Kittredge, Ken; Tinker, Michael; SanSoucie, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require the development of more advanced in-space radiators. These radiators should be highly efficient and lightweight, deployable heat rejection systems. Typical radiators for in-space heat mitigation commonly comprise a substantial portion of the total vehicle mass. A small mass savings of even 5-10% can greatly improve vehicle performance. The objective of this paper is to present the development of detailed tools for the analysis and design of in-space radiators using evolutionary computation techniques. The optimality criterion is defined as a two-dimensional radiator with a shape demonstrating the smallest mass for the greatest overall heat transfer, thus the end result is a set of highly functional radiator designs. This cross-disciplinary work combines topology optimization and thermal analysis design by means of a genetic algorithm The proposed design tool consists of the following steps; design parameterization based on the exterior boundary of the radiator, objective function definition (mass minimization and heat loss maximization), objective function evaluation via finite element analysis (thermal radiation analysis) and optimization based on evolutionary algorithms. The radiator design problem is defined as follows: the input force is a driving temperature and the output reaction is heat loss. Appropriate modeling of the space environment is added to capture its effect on the radiator. The design parameters chosen for this radiator shape optimization problem fall into two classes, variable height along the width of the radiator and a spline curve defining the -material boundary of the radiator. The implementation of multiple design parameter schemes allows the user to have more confidence in the radiator optimization tool upon demonstration of convergence between the two design parameter schemes. This tool easily allows the user to manipulate the driving temperature regions thus permitting detailed design of in

  9. Finite-horizon control-constrained nonlinear optimal control using single network adaptive critics.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Ali; Balakrishnan, Sivasubramanya N

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize fixed-final-time control-constrained optimal controllers for discrete-time nonlinear control-affine systems, a single neural network (NN)-based controller called the Finite-horizon Single Network Adaptive Critic is developed in this paper. Inputs to the NN are the current system states and the time-to-go, and the network outputs are the costates that are used to compute optimal feedback control. Control constraints are handled through a nonquadratic cost function. Convergence proofs of: 1) the reinforcement learning-based training method to the optimal solution; 2) the training error; and 3) the network weights are provided. The resulting controller is shown to solve the associated time-varying Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and provide the fixed-final-time optimal solution. Performance of the new synthesis technique is demonstrated through different examples including an attitude control problem wherein a rigid spacecraft performs a finite-time attitude maneuver subject to control bounds. The new formulation has great potential for implementation since it consists of only one NN with single set of weights and it provides comprehensive feedback solutions online, though it is trained offline. PMID:24808214

  10. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  11. Optimization of an idealized Y-Shaped Extracardiac Fontan Baffle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiguang; Feinstein, Jeffrey; Mohan Reddy, V.; Marsden, Alison

    2008-11-01

    Research has showed that vascular geometries can significantly impact hemodynamic performance, particularly in pediatric cardiology, where anatomy varies from one patient to another. In this study we optimize a newly proposed design for the Fontan procedure, a surgery used to treat single ventricle heart patients. The current Fontan procedure connects the inferior vena cava (IVC) to the pulmonary arteries (PA's) via a straight Gore-Tex tube, forming a T-shaped junction. In the Y-graft design, the IVC is connected to the left and right PAs by two branches. Initial studies on the Y-graft design showed an increase in efficiency and improvement in flow distribution compared to traditional designs in a single patient-specific model. We now optimize an idealized Y-graft model to refine the design prior to patient testing. A derivate-free optimization algorithm using Kriging surrogate functions and mesh adaptive direct search is coupled to a 3-D finite element Navier-Stokes solver. We will present optimization results for rest and exercise conditions and examine the influence of energy efficiency, wall shear stress, pulsatile flow, and flow distribution on the optimal design.

  12. Optimal aeroacoustic shape design using the surrogate management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Dennis, John E., Jr.; Moin, Parviz

    2003-11-01

    Shape optimization is applied in conjunction with time-dependent Navier-Stokes simulations to minimize airfoil trailing-edge noise. Optimization is performed using the surrogate management framework (SMF) (Booker phet al., J. Struct. Opt. 1999), a non-gradient based pattern search method chosen for its efficiency and rigorous convergence properties. Using SMF, optimization is performed not on the expensive actual function but on an inexpensive surrogate function. The use of a polling step in the SMF guarantees convergence to a local minimum of the cost function on a mesh. Results are presented for cases with several shape parameters, using a model problem with unsteady laminar flow past an acoustically compact airfoil. Constraints on lift and drag are applied using a penalty function within the framework of the filtering method of Audet and Dennis (Rice Univ. TR 00-09), an extension of the SMF method. Significant reduction (as much as much as 80%) in acoustic power has been demonstrated in all cases with reasonable computational cost.

  13. Optimizing water permeability through the hourglass shape of aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous aquaporin channels are able to conduct water across cell membranes, combining the seemingly antagonist functions of a very high selectivity with a remarkable permeability. Whereas molecular details are obvious keys to perform these tasks, the overall efficiency of transport in such nanopores is also strongly limited by viscous dissipation arising at the connection between the nanoconstriction and the nearby bulk reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on these so-called entrance effects and specifically examine whether the characteristic hourglass shape of aquaporins may arise from a geometrical optimum for such hydrodynamic dissipation. Using a combination of finite-element calculations and analytical modeling, we show that conical entrances with suitable opening angle can indeed provide a large increase of the overall channel permeability. Moreover, the optimal opening angles that maximize the permeability are found to compare well with the angles measured in a large variety of aquaporins. This suggests that the hourglass shape of aquaporins could be the result of a natural selection process toward optimal hydrodynamic transport. Finally, in a biomimetic perspective, these results provide guidelines to design artificial nanopores with optimal performances. PMID:24067650

  14. Optimizing water permeability through the hourglass shape of aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2013-10-01

    The ubiquitous aquaporin channels are able to conduct water across cell membranes, combining the seemingly antagonist functions of a very high selectivity with a remarkable permeability. Whereas molecular details are obvious keys to perform these tasks, the overall efficiency of transport in such nanopores is also strongly limited by viscous dissipation arising at the connection between the nanoconstriction and the nearby bulk reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on these so-called entrance effects and specifically examine whether the characteristic hourglass shape of aquaporins may arise from a geometrical optimum for such hydrodynamic dissipation. Using a combination of finite-element calculations and analytical modeling, we show that conical entrances with suitable opening angle can indeed provide a large increase of the overall channel permeability. Moreover, the optimal opening angles that maximize the permeability are found to compare well with the angles measured in a large variety of aquaporins. This suggests that the hourglass shape of aquaporins could be the result of a natural selection process toward optimal hydrodynamic transport. Finally, in a biomimetic perspective, these results provide guidelines to design artificial nanopores with optimal performances. PMID:24067650

  15. Optimization of Pulse Shape Discrimination of PROSPECT Liquid Scintillator Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ke; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    PROSPECT, A Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, will use a segmented Li-6 doped liquid scintillator detector for precision measurement of the reactor anti-neutrino spectrum at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT also searches for very short baseline neutrino oscillation, an indication of the existence of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. Pulse shape analysis of the prompt anti-neutino signal and delayed neutron capture on Li-6 signal will greatly suppress background sources such as fast neutrons and accidental coincidence of gammas. In this talk, I will discuss different pulse shape parameters used in PROSPECT prototype detectors and multivariate optimization of event selection cuts based on those parameters.

  16. On orthogonality constrained multiple core-hole states and optimized effective potential method.

    PubMed

    Glushkov, V N; Assfeld, X

    2012-10-01

    An attempt to construct a multiple core-hole state within the optimized effective potential (OEP) methodology is presented. In contrast to the conventional Δ-self-consistent field method for hole states, the effects of removing an electron is achieved using some orthogonality constraints imposed on the orbitals so that a Slater determinant describing a hole state is constrained to be orthogonal to that of a neutral system. It is shown that single, double, and multiple core-hole states can be treated within a unified framework and can be easily implemented for atoms and molecules. For this purpose, a constrained OEP method proposed earlier for excited states (Glushkov and Levy, J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 174106) is further developed to calculate single and double core ionization energies using a local effective potential expressed as a direct mapping of the external potential. The corresponding equations, determining core-hole orbitals from a one-particle Schrödinger equation with a local potential as well as correlation corrections derived from the second-order many-body perturbation theory are given. One of the advantages of the present direct mapping formulation is that the effective potential, which plays the role of the Kohn-Sham potential, has the symmetry of the external potential. Single and double core ionization potentials computed with the presented scheme were found to be in agreement with data available from experiment and other calculations. We also discuss core-hole state local potentials for the systems studied. PMID:22696265

  17. Optimal Forebody Shape for Minimum Drag in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, G.; Sahoo, N.; Kulkarni, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient numerical approach to determine the shape of the minimum-drag axisymmetric forebody in inviscid supersonic flow with an attached shock constraint has been described. Taylor-Maccoll equation in conjunction with the tangent cone method is employed to estimate the pressure drag coefficient which is also chosen as the cost function. The forebody geometry is parameterized using a Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) curve whose control points are the design variables for optimisation using the steepest descent algorithm. Numerical studies demonstrate that the optimal forebody geometry for a given length and base radius has as much as 15 % lesser drag, depending on the Mach number than a cone of the same fineness ratio and that the convergence to the optimal solution exhibits a relatively weak Mach-number dependence.

  18. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example. PMID:24808590

  19. Optimization and static output-feedback control for half-car active suspensions with constrained information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the static output-feedback control problem of active suspension systems with information structure constraints is investigated. In order to simultaneously improve the ride comfort and stability, a half car model is used. Other constraints such as suspension deflection, actuator saturation, and controller constrained information are also considered. A novel static output-feedback design method based on the variable substitution is employed in the controller design. A single-step linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem is solved to derive the initial feasible solution with a sparsity constraint. The initial infeasibility issue of the static output-feedback is resolved by using state-feedback information. Specifically, an optimization algorithm is proposed to search for less conservative results based on the feasible controller gain matrix. Finally, the validity of the designed controller for different road profiles is illustrated through numerical examples. The simulation results indicate that the optimized static output-feedback controller can achieve better suspension performances when compared with the feasible static output-feedback controller.

  20. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability.

    PubMed

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  1. Pseudo-time methods for constrained optimization problems governed by PDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taasan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for solving optimization problems governed by partial differential equations. Existing methods are gradient information in marching toward the minimum, where the constrained PDE is solved once (sometimes only approximately) per each optimization step. Such methods can be viewed as a marching techniques on the intersection of the state and costate hypersurfaces while improving the residuals of the design equations per each iteration. In contrast, the method presented here march on the design hypersurface and at each iteration improve the residuals of the state and costate equations. The new method is usually much less expensive per iteration step since, in most problems of practical interest, the design equation involves much less unknowns that that of either the state or costate equations. Convergence is shown using energy estimates for the evolution equations governing the iterative process. Numerical tests show that the new method allows the solution of the optimization problem in a cost of solving the analysis problems just a few times, independent of the number of design parameters. The method can be applied using single grid iterations as well as with multigrid solvers.

  2. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  3. Thermodynamic optimization of mixed refrigerant Joule- Thomson systems constrained by heat transfer considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, J. F.; Klein, S. A.; Nellis, G. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mixed refrigerant (MR) working fluids can significantly increase the cooling capacity of a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle. The optimization of MRJT systems has been the subject of substantial research. However, most optimization techniques do not model the recuperator in sufficient detail. For example, the recuperator is usually assumed to have a heat transfer coefficient that does not vary with the mixture. Ongoing work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown that the heat transfer coefficients for two-phase flow are approximately three times greater than for a single phase mixture when the mixture quality is between 15% and 85%. As a result, a system that optimizes a MR without also requiring that the flow be in this quality range may require an extremely large recuperator or not achieve the performance predicted by the model. To ensure optimal performance of the JT cycle, the MR should be selected such that it is entirely two-phase within the recuperator. To determine the optimal MR composition, a parametric study was conducted assuming a thermodynamically ideal cycle. The results of the parametric study are graphically presented on a contour plot in the parameter space consisting of the extremes of the qualities that exist within the recuperator. The contours show constant values of the normalized refrigeration power. This ‘map’ shows the effect of MR composition on the cycle performance and it can be used to select the MR that provides a high cooling load while also constraining the recuperator to be two phase. The predicted best MR composition can be used as a starting point for experimentally determining the best MR.

  4. Enceladus's internal ocean and ice shell constrained from Cassini gravity, shape, and libration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadek, Ondřej; Tobie, Gabriel; Van Hoolst, Tim; Massé, Marion; Choblet, Gaël.; Lefèvre, Axel; Mitri, Giuseppe; Baland, Rose-Marie; Běhounková, Marie; Bourgeois, Olivier; Trinh, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The intense plume activity at the South Pole of Enceladus together with the recent detection of libration hints at an internal water ocean underneath the outer ice shell. However, the interpretation of gravity, shape, and libration data leads to contradicting results regarding the depth of ocean/ice interface and the total volume of the ocean. Here we develop an interior structure model consisting of a rocky core, an internal ocean, and an ice shell, which satisfies simultaneously the gravity, shape, and libration data. We show that the data can be reconciled by considering isostatic compensation including the effect of a few hundred meter thick elastic lithosphere. Our model predicts that the core radius is 180-185 km, the ocean density is at least 1030 kg/m3, and the ice shell is 18-22 km thick on average. The ice thicknesses are reduced at poles decreasing to less than 5 km in the south polar region.

  5. Analysis of Constrained Optimization Variants of the Map-Seeking Circuit Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Harker; C.R. Vogel; T. Gedeon

    2005-09-05

    The map-seeking circuit algorithm (MSC) was developed by Arathorn to efficiently solve the combinatorial problem of correspondence maximization, which arises in applications like computer vision, motion estimation, image matching, and automatic speech recognition [D. W. Arathorn, Map-Seeking Circuits in Visual Cognition: A Computational Mechanism for Biological and Machine Vision, Stanford University Press, 2002]. Given an input image, a template image, and a discrete set of transformations, the goal is to find a composition of transformations which gives the best fit between the transformed input and the template. We imbed the associated combinatorial search problem within a continuous framework by using superposition, and we analyze a resulting constrained optimization problem. We present several numerical schemes to compute local solutions, and we compare their performance on a pair of test problems: an image matching problem and the challenging problem of automatically solving a Rubik's cube.

  6. Seamless tube shape is constrained by endocytosis-dependent regulation of active Moesin.

    PubMed

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Rosa, Jeffrey B; Ghabrial, Amin S

    2014-08-01

    Most tubes have seams (intercellular or autocellular junctions that seal membranes together into a tube), but "seamless" tubes also exist. In Drosophila, stellate-shaped tracheal terminal cells make seamless tubes, with single branches running through each of dozens of cellular extensions. We find that mutations in braided impair terminal cell branching and cause formation of seamless tube cysts. We show that braided encodes Syntaxin7 and that cysts also form in cells deficient for other genes required either for membrane scission (shibire) or for early endosome formation (Rab5, Vps45, and Rabenosyn-5). These data define a requirement for early endocytosis in shaping seamless tube lumens. Importantly, apical proteins Crumbs and phospho-Moesin accumulate to aberrantly high levels in braided terminal cells. Overexpression of either Crumbs or phosphomimetic Moesin induced lumenal cysts and decreased terminal branching. Conversely, the braided seamless tube cyst phenotype was suppressed by mutations in crumbs or Moesin. Indeed, mutations in Moesin dominantly suppressed seamless tube cyst formation and restored terminal branching. We propose that early endocytosis maintains normal steady-state levels of Crumbs, which recruits apical phosphorylated (active) Moe, which in turn regulates seamless tube shape through modulation of cortical actin filaments. PMID:25065756

  7. Finite element shape optimization for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Petrini, L; Gastaldi, D; Villa, T; Vedani, M; Lesma, E; Previtali, B; Migliavacca, F

    2010-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) are a promising solution for long-term adverse events caused by interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms of drug eluting stents. However, the existing MAS showed severe lumen loss after a few months: too short degradation time may be the main reason for this drawback. In this study, a new design concept of MAS was proposed and a shape optimization method with finite element analysis was applied on two-dimensional (2D) stent models considering four different magnesium alloys: AZ80, AZ31, ZM21, and WE43. A morphing procedure was utilized to facilitate the optimization. Two experiments were carried out for a preliminary validation of the 2D models with good results. The optimized designs were compared to an existing MAS by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis. The results showed that the final optimized design with alloy WE43, compared to the existing MAS, has an increased strut width by approximately 48%, improved safety properties (decreased the maximum principal stress after recoil with tissue by 29%, and decreased the maximum principal strain during expansion by 14%) and improved scaffolding ability (increased by 24%). Accordingly, the degradation time can be expected to extend. The used methodology provides a convenient and practical way to develop novel MAS designs. PMID:20446037

  8. SU-F-BRF-02: Automated Lung Segmentation Method Using Atlas-Based Sparse Shape Composition with a Shape Constrained Deformable Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J; Yan, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, B; Lasio, G; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated lung segmentation method, which combines the atlas-based sparse shape composition with a shape constrained deformable model in thoracic CT for patients with compromised lung volumes. Methods: Ten thoracic computed tomography scans for patients with large lung tumors were collected and reference lung ROIs in each scan was manually segmented to assess the performance of the method. We propose an automated and robust framework for lung tissue segmentation by using single statistical atlas registration to initialize a robust deformable model in order to perform fine segmentation that includes compromised lung tissue. First, a statistical image atlas with sparse shape composition is constructed and employed to obtain an approximate estimation of lung volume. Next, a robust deformable model with shape prior is initialized from this estimation. Energy terms from ROI edge potential and interior ROI region based potential as well as the initial ROI are combined in this model for accurate and robust segmentation. Results: The proposed segmentation method is applied to segment right lung on three CT scans. The quantitative results of our segmentation method achieved mean dice score of (0.92–0.95), mean accuracy of (0.97,0.98), and mean relative error of (0.10,0.16) with 95% CI. The quantitative results of previously published RASM segmentation method achieved mean dice score of (0.74,0.96), mean accuracy of (0.66,0.98), and mean relative error of (0.04, 0.38) with 95% CI. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons show that our proposed method can achieve better segmentation accuracy with less variance compared with a robust active shape model method. Conclusion: The atlas-based segmentation approach achieved relatively high accuracy with less variance compared to RASM in the sample dataset and the proposed method will be useful in image analysis applications for lung nodule or lung cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy assessment in thoracic

  9. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    PubMed

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  10. Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary shape parameterization approach. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft object animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in the same manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminate plate structures) and high-fidelity (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling) analysis tools. This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, camber, and free-form surface. Results are presented for a multidisciplinary application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, and a simple performance module.

  11. On choosing ?optimal? shape parameters for RBF approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshauer, Gregory; Zhang, Jack

    2007-08-01

    Many radial basis function (RBF) methods contain a free shape parameter that plays an important role for the accuracy of the method. In most papers the authors end up choosing this shape parameter by trial and error or some other ad hoc means. The method of cross validation has long been used in the statistics literature, and the special case of leave-one-out cross validation forms the basis of the algorithm for choosing an optimal value of the shape parameter proposed by Rippa in the setting of scattered data interpolation with RBFs. We discuss extensions of this approach that can be applied in the setting of iterated approximate moving least squares approximation of function value data and for RBF pseudo-spectral methods for the solution of partial differential equations. The former method can be viewed as an efficient alternative to ridge regression or smoothing spline approximation, while the latter forms an extension of the classical polynomial pseudo-spectral approach. Numerical experiments illustrating the use of our algorithms are included.

  12. A GENERALIZED STOCHASTIC COLLOCATION APPROACH TO CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION FOR RANDOM DATA IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Clayton G; Gunzburger, Max D

    2013-01-01

    We present a scalable, parallel mechanism for stochastic identification/control for problems constrained by partial differential equations with random input data. Several identification objectives will be discussed that either minimize the expectation of a tracking cost functional or minimize the difference of desired statistical quantities in the appropriate $L^p$ norm, and the distributed parameters/control can both deterministic or stochastic. Given an objective we prove the existence of an optimal solution, establish the validity of the Lagrange multiplier rule and obtain a stochastic optimality system of equations. The modeling process may describe the solution in terms of high dimensional spaces, particularly in the case when the input data (coefficients, forcing terms, boundary conditions, geometry, etc) are affected by a large amount of uncertainty. For higher accuracy, the computer simulation must increase the number of random variables (dimensions), and expend more effort approximating the quantity of interest in each individual dimension. Hence, we introduce a novel stochastic parameter identification algorithm that integrates an adjoint-based deterministic algorithm with the sparse grid stochastic collocation FEM approach. This allows for decoupled, moderately high dimensional, parameterized computations of the stochastic optimality system, where at each collocation point, deterministic analysis and techniques can be utilized. The advantage of our approach is that it allows for the optimal identification of statistical moments (mean value, variance, covariance, etc.) or even the whole probability distribution of the input random fields, given the probability distribution of some responses of the system (quantities of physical interest). Our rigorously derived error estimates, for the fully discrete problems, will be described and used to compare the efficiency of the method with several other techniques. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical

  13. Computer aided segmentation of kidneys using locally shape constrained deformable models on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdt, Marius; Sakas, Georgios

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a novel approach for model based segmentation of the kidney in images acquired by Computed Tomography (CT). The developed computer aided segmentation system is expected to support computer aided diagnosis and operation planning. We have developed a deformable model based approach based on local shape constraints that prevents the model from deforming into neighboring structures while allowing the global shape to adapt freely to the data. Those local constraints are derived from the anatomical structure of the kidney and the presence and appearance of neighboring organs. The adaptation process is guided by a rule-based deformation logic in order to improve the robustness of the segmentation in areas of diffuse organ boundaries. Our work flow consists of two steps: 1.) a user guided positioning and 2.) an automatic model adaptation using affine and free form deformation in order to robustly extract the kidney. In cases which show pronounced pathologies, the system also offers real time mesh editing tools for a quick refinement of the segmentation result. Evaluation results based on 30 clinical cases using CT data sets show an average dice correlation coefficient of 93% compared to the ground truth. The results are therefore in most cases comparable to manual delineation. Computation times of the automatic adaptation step are lower than 6 seconds which makes the proposed system suitable for an application in clinical practice.

  14. Design of a gradient-index beam shaping system via a genetic algorithm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal C.; Shealy, David L.

    2000-10-01

    Geometrical optics - the laws of reflection and refraction, ray tracing, conservation of energy within a bundle of rays, and the condition of constant optical path length - provides a foundation for design of laser beam shaping systems. This paper explores the use of machine learning techniques, concentrating on genetic algorithms, to design laser beam shaping systems using geometrical optics. Specifically, a three-element GRIN laser beam shaping system has been designed to expand and transform a Gaussian input beam profile into one with a uniform irradiance profile. Solution to this problem involves the constrained optimization of a merit function involving a mix of discrete and continuous parameters. The merit function involves terms that measure the deviation of the output beam diameter, divergence, and irradiance from target values. The continuous parameters include the distances between the lens elements, the thickness, and radii of the lens elements. The discrete parameters include the GRIN glass types from a manufacturer's database, the gradient direction of the GRIN elements (positive or negative), and the actual number of lens elements in the system (one to four).

  15. Blunt-body drag reduction through base cavity shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite-Díez, Manuel; Jiménez-González, José Ignacio; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Martínez-Bazán, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    We present a numerical study on the drag reduction of a turbulent incompressible flow around two different blunt bodies, of height H and length L, at a Reynolds number Re = ρU∞ H / μ = 2000 , where U∞ is the turbulent incompressible free-stream velocity, ρ is their density and μ their viscosity. The study is based on the optimization of the geometry of a cavity placed at the rear part of the body with the aim of increasing the base pressure. Thus, we have used an optimization algorithm, which implements the adjoint method, to compute the two-dimensional incompressible turbulent steady flow sensitivity field of axial forces on both bodies, and consequently modify the shape of the cavity to reduce the induced drag force. In addition, we have performed three dimensional numerical simulations using an IDDES model in order to analyze the drag reduction effect of the optimized cavities at higher Reynolds numbers.The results show average drag reductions of 17 and 25 % for Re=2000, as well as more regularized and less chaotic wake flows in both bodies. Supported by the Spanish MINECO, Junta de Andalucía and EU Funds under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-3-P and P11-TEP7495.

  16. High resolution quantitative phase imaging of live cells with constrained optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Khare, Kedar; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) aims at studying weakly scattering and absorbing biological specimens with subwavelength accuracy without any external staining mechanisms. Use of a reference beam at an angle is one of the necessary criteria for recording of high resolution holograms in most of the interferometric methods used for quantitative phase imaging. The spatial separation of the dc and twin images is decided by the reference beam angle and Fourier-filtered reconstructed image will have a very poor resolution if hologram is recorded below a minimum reference angle condition. However, it is always inconvenient to have a large reference beam angle while performing high resolution microscopy of live cells and biological specimens with nanometric features. In this paper, we treat reconstruction of digital holographic microscopy images as a constrained optimization problem with smoothness constraint in order to recover only complex object field in hologram plane even with overlapping dc and twin image terms. We solve this optimization problem by gradient descent approach iteratively and the smoothness constraint is implemented by spatial averaging with appropriate size. This approach will give excellent high resolution image recovery compared to Fourier filtering while keeping a very small reference angle. We demonstrate this approach on digital holographic microscopy of live cells by recovering the quantitative phase of live cells from a hologram recorded with nearly zero reference angle.

  17. Adaptive Evolutionary Programming Incorporating Neural Network for Transient Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangpatiphan, Kritsana; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    This paper presents an adaptive evolutionary programming incorporating neural network for solving transient stability constrained optimal power flow (TSCOPF). The proposed AEP method is an evolutionary programming (EP)-based algorithm, which adjusts its population size automatically during an optimization process. The artificial neural network, which classifies the AEP individual based on its stability degrees, is embedded into the search template to reduce the computational load caused by transient stability constraints. The fuel cost minimization is selected as the objective function of TSCOPF. The proposed method is tested on the IEEE 30-bus system with two types of the fuel cost functions, i.e. the conventional quadratic function and the quadratic function superimposed by sine component to model the cost curves without and with valve-point loading effect respectively. The numerical examples show that AEP is more effective than conventional EP in terms of computational speed, and when the neural network is incorporated into AEP, it can significantly reduce the computational time of TSCOPF. A study of the architecture of the neural network is also conducted and discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving TSCOPF with the consideration of multiple contingencies is manifested.

  18. Improved helicopter aeromechanical stability analysis using segmented constrained layer damping and hybrid optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2000-06-01

    Aeromechanical stability plays a critical role in helicopter design and lead-lag damping is crucial to this design. In this paper, the use of segmented constrained damping layer (SCL) treatment and composite tailoring is investigated for improved rotor aeromechanical stability using formal optimization technique. The principal load-carrying member in the rotor blade is represented by a composite box beam, of arbitrary thickness, with surface bonded SCLs. A comprehensive theory is used to model the smart box beam. A ground resonance analysis model and an air resonance analysis model are implemented in the rotor blade built around the composite box beam with SCLs. The Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model is used in air resonance analysis under hover condition. A hybrid optimization technique is used to investigate the optimum design of the composite box beam with surface bonded SCLs for improved damping characteristics. Parameters such as stacking sequence of the composite laminates and placement of SCLs are used as design variables. Detailed numerical studies are presented for aeromechanical stability analysis. It is shown that optimum blade design yields significant increase in rotor lead-lag regressive modal damping compared to the initial system.

  19. Optimized conical shaped charge design using the SCAP (Shaped Charge Analysis Program) code

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-09-01

    The Shaped Charge Analysis Program (SCAP) is used to analytically model and optimize the design of Conical Shaped Charges (CSC). A variety of existing CSCs are initially modeled with the SCAP code and the predicted jet tip velocities, jet penetrations, and optimum standoffs are compared to previously published experimental results. The CSCs vary in size from 0.69 inch (1.75 cm) to 9.125 inch (23.18 cm) conical liner inside diameter. Two liner materials (copper and steel) and several explosives (Octol, Comp B, PBX-9501) are included in the CSCs modeled. The target material was mild steel. A parametric study was conducted using the SCAP code to obtain the optimum design for a 3.86 inch (9.8 cm) CSC. The variables optimized in this study included the CSC apex angle, conical liner thickness, explosive height, optimum standoff, tamper/confinement thickness, and explosive width. The non-dimensionalized jet penetration to diameter ratio versus the above parameters are graphically presented. 12 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  1. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  2. Constraining GRACE-derived cryosphere-attributed signal to irregularly shaped ice-covered areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, W.; Luthcke, S.; Abdalati, W.; Citterio, M.

    2013-12-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to invert a spherical harmonic representation of cryosphere-attributed mass change in order to infer the most likely underlying mass changes within irregularly shaped ice-covered areas at nominal 26 km resolution. By inverting a spherical harmonic representation through the incorporation of additional fractional ice coverage information, this approach seeks to eliminate signal leakage between non-ice-covered and ice-covered areas. The spherical harmonic representation suggests a Greenland mass loss of 251 ± 25 Gt a-1 over the December 2003 to December 2010 period. The inversion suggests 218 ± 20 Gt a-1 was due to the ice sheet proper, and 34 ± 5 Gt a-1 (or ~14%) was due to Greenland peripheral glaciers and ice caps (GrPGICs). This mass loss from GrPGICs exceeds that inferred from all ice masses on both Ellesmere and Devon islands combined. This partition therefore highlights that GRACE-derived "Greenland" mass loss cannot be taken as synonymous with "Greenland ice sheet" mass loss when making comparisons with estimates of ice sheet mass balance derived from techniques that sample only the ice sheet proper.

  3. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  4. Shape optimized headers and methods of manufacture thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Ian James

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed herein is a shape optimized header comprising a shell that is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and tubes; wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell. Disclosed herein is a method comprising fixedly attaching tubes to a shell; wherein the shell is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell.

  5. Incorporating a Constrained Optimization Algorithm into Remote- Sensing/Precision Agriculture Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    with information to improve their crop's vigor has been a major topic of interest. With world population growing exponentially, arable land being consumed by urbanization, and an unfavorable farm economy, the efficiency of farming must increase to meet future food requirements and to make farming a sustainable occupation for the farmer. "Precision Agriculture" refers to a farming methodology that applies nutrients and moisture only where and when they are needed in the field. The goal is to increase farm revenue by increasing crop yield and decreasing applications of costly chemical and water treatments. In addition, this methodology will decrease the environmental costs of farming, i.e., reduce air, soil, and water pollution. Sensing/Precision Agriculture has not grown as rapidly as early advocates envisioned. Technology for a successful Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture system is now available. Commercial satellite systems can image (multi-spectral) the Earth with a resolution of approximately 2.5 m. Variable precision dispensing systems using GPS are available and affordable. Crop models that predict yield as a function of soil, chemical, and irrigation parameter levels have been formulated. Personal computers and internet access are in place in most farm homes and can provide a mechanism to periodically disseminate, e.g. bi-weekly, advice on what quantities of water and chemicals are needed in individual regions of the field. What is missing is a model that fuses the disparate sources of information on the current states of the crop and soil, and the remaining resource levels available with the decisions farmers are required to make. This must be a product that is easy for the farmer to understand and to implement. A "Constrained Optimization Feed-back Control Model" to fill this void will be presented. The objective function of the model will be used to maximize the farmer's profit by increasing yields while decreasing environmental costs and decreasing

  6. Incorporating a constrained optimization algorithm into remote sensing/precision agriculture methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    2003-08-01

    For two decades now, the use of Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture to improve farm yields while reducing the use of polluting chemicals and the limited water supply has been a major goal. With world population growing exponentially, arable land being consumed by urbanization, and an unfavorable farm economy, farm efficiency must increase to meet future food requirements and to make farming a sustainable, profitable occupation. "Precision Agriculture" refers to a farming methodology that applies nutrients and moisture only where and when they are needed in the field. The real goal is to increase farm profitability by identifying the additional treatments of chemicals and water that increase revenues more than they increase costs and do no exceed pollution standards (constrained optimization). Even though the economic and environmental benefits appear to be great, Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture has not grown as rapidly as early advocates envisioned. Technology for a successful Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture system is now in place, but other needed factors have been missing. Commercial satellite systems can now image the Earth (multi-spectrally) with a resolution as fine as 2.5 m. Precision variable dispensing systems using GPS are now available and affordable. Crop models that predict yield as a function of soil, chemical, and irrigation parameter levels have been developed. Personal computers and internet access are now in place in most farm homes and can provide a mechanism for periodically disseminating advice on what quantities of water and chemicals are needed in specific regions of each field. Several processes have been selected that fuse the disparate sources of information on the current and historic states of the crop and soil, and the remaining resource levels available, with the critical decisions that farmers are required to make. These are done in a way that is easy for the farmer to understand and profitable to implement. A "Constrained

  7. Shape-constrained multi-atlas based segmentation with multichannel registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yongfu; Jiang, Tianzi; Fan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    Multi-atlas based segmentation methods have recently attracted much attention in medical image segmentation. The multi-atlas based segmentation methods typically consist of three steps, including image registration, label propagation, and label fusion. Most of the recent studies devote to improving the label fusion step and adopt a typical image registration method for registering atlases to the target image. However, the existing registration methods may become unstable when poor image quality or high anatomical variance between registered image pairs involved. In this paper, we propose an iterative image segmentation and registration procedure to simultaneously improve the registration and segmentation performance in the multi-atlas based segmentation framework. Particularly, a two-channel registration method is adopted with one channel driven by appearance similarity between the atlas image and the target image and the other channel optimized by similarity between atlas label and the segmentation of the target image. The image segmentation is performed by fusing labels of multiple atlases. The validation of our method on hippocampus segmentation of 30 subjects containing MR images with both 1.5T and 3.0T field strength has demonstrated that our method can significantly improve the segmentation performance with different fusion strategies and obtain segmentation results with Dice overlap of 0.892+/-0.024 for 1.5T images and 0.902+/-0.022 for 3.0T images to manual segmentations.

  8. Shaping Diffraction-Grating Grooves to Optimize Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backlund, John; Wilson, Daniel; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Maker, Paul; Muller, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A method of shaping diffraction-grating grooves to optimize the spectral efficiency, spectral range, and image quality of a spectral imaging instrument is under development. The method is based on the use of an advanced design algorithm to determine the possibly complex shape of grooves needed to obtain a desired efficiency-versus-wavelength response (see figure). Then electron- beam fabrication techniques are used to realize the required groove shape. The method could be used, for example, to make the spectral efficiency of the grating in a given wavelength range proportional to the inverse of the spectral efficiency of a photodetector array so that the overall spectral efficiency of the combination of the grating and the photodetector array would be flat. The method has thus far been applied to one-dimensional gratings only, but in principle, it is also applicable to two-dimensional gratings. The algorithm involves calculations in the spatial-frequency domain. The spatial-frequency spectrum of a grating is represented as a diffraction-order spectral-peak-width function multiplied by an efficiency function for a single grating groove. This representation affords computational efficiency and accuracy by making it possible to consider only the response from one grating groove (one period of the grating), instead of from the whole grating area, in determining the response from the entire grating. This combination of efficiency and accuracy is crucial for future extensions of the algorithm to two-dimensional designs and to designs in which polarization must also be taken into account. The algorithm begins with the definition of target values of relative efficiency that represent the desired spectral response of the grating in certain spectral frequencies calculated from the diffraction order and wavelength. The grating period is divided into a number of cells - typically, 100. The phase contribution from each cell is determined from the phase of the incident

  9. Multidimensionally-constrained relativistic mean-field study of spontaneous fission: Coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Lu, Bing-Nan; Nikšić, Tamara; Vretenar, Dario; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-04-01

    Background: Studies of fission dynamics, based on nuclear energy density functionals, have shown that the coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom has a pronounced effect on the nonperturbative collective inertia and, therefore, on dynamic (least-action) spontaneous fission paths and half-lives. Purpose: The aim is to analyze the effects of particle-number fluctuation degrees of freedom on symmetric and asymmetric spontaneous fission (SF) dynamics, and to compare the findings with the results of recent studies based on the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. Methods: Collective potentials and nonperturbative cranking collective inertia tensors are calculated using the multidimensionally-constrained relativistic-mean-field (MDC-RMF) model. Pairing correlations are treated in the BCS approximation using a separable pairing force of finite range. Pairing fluctuations are included as a collective variable using a constraint on particle-number dispersion. Fission paths are determined with the dynamic programming method by minimizing the action in multidimensional collective spaces. Results: The dynamics of spontaneous fission of 264Fm and 250Fm are explored. Fission paths, action integrals, and corresponding half-lives computed in the three-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates, using the relativistic functional DD-PC1 and a separable pairing force of finite range, are compared with results obtained without pairing fluctuations. Results for 264Fm are also discussed in relation with those recently obtained using the HFB model. Conclusions: The inclusion of pairing correlations in the space of collective coordinates favors axially symmetric shapes along the dynamic path of the fissioning system, amplifies pairing as the path traverses the fission barriers, significantly reduces the action integral, and shortens the

  10. CONSTANd : A Normalization Method for Isobaric Labeled Spectra by Constrained Optimization.

    PubMed

    Maes, Evelyne; Hadiwikarta, Wahyu Wijaya; Mertens, Inge; Baggerman, Geert; Hooyberghs, Jef; Valkenborg, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    In quantitative proteomics applications, the use of isobaric labels is a very popular concept as they allow for multiplexing, such that peptides from multiple biological samples are quantified simultaneously in one mass spectrometry experiment. Although this multiplexing allows that peptide intensities are affected by the same amount of instrument variability, systematic effects during sample preparation can also introduce a bias in the quantitation measurements. Therefore, normalization methods are required to remove this systematic error. At present, a few dedicated normalization methods for isobaric labeled data are at hand. Most of these normalization methods include a framework for statistical data analysis and rely on ANOVA or linear mixed models. However, for swift quality control of the samples or data visualization a simple normalization technique is sufficient. To this aim, we present a new and easy-to-use data-driven normalization method, named CONSTANd. The CONSTANd method employs constrained optimization and prior information about the labeling strategy to normalize the peptide intensities. Further, it allows maintaining the connection to any biological effect while reducing the systematic and technical errors. As a result, peptides can not only be compared directly within a multiplexed experiment, but are also comparable between other isobaric labeled datasets from multiple experimental designs that are normalized by the CONSTANd method, without the need to include a reference sample in every experimental setup. The latter property is especially useful when more than six, eight or ten (TMT/iTRAQ) biological samples are required to detect differential peptides with sufficient statistical power and to optimally make use of the multiplexing capacity of isobaric labels. PMID:27302888

  11. On the Optimal Identification of Tag Sets in Time-Constrained RFID Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; Bueno-Delgado, María Victoria; Egea-López, Esteban; Alcaraz, Juan José; Pérez-Mañogil, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In Radio Frequency Identification facilities the identification delay of a set of tags is mainly caused by the random access nature of the reading protocol, yielding a random identification time of the set of tags. In this paper, the cumulative distribution function of the identification time is evaluated using a discrete time Markov chain for single-set time-constrained passive RFID systems, namely those ones where a single group of tags is assumed to be in the reading area and only for a bounded time (sojourn time) before leaving. In these scenarios some tags in a set may leave the reader coverage area unidentified. The probability of this event is obtained from the cumulative distribution function of the identification time as a function of the sojourn time. This result provides a suitable criterion to minimize the probability of losing tags. Besides, an identification strategy based on splitting the set of tags in smaller subsets is also considered. Results demonstrate that there are optimal splitting configurations that reduce the overall identification time while keeping the same probability of losing tags. PMID:22163777

  12. Optimal Index Policies for Anomaly Localization in Resource-Constrained Cyber Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Kobi; Zhao, Qing; Swami, Ananthram

    2014-08-01

    The problem of anomaly localization in a resource-constrained cyber system is considered. Each anomalous component of the system incurs a cost per unit time until its anomaly is identified and fixed. Different anomalous components may incur different costs depending on their criticality to the system. Due to resource constraints, only one component can be probed at each given time. The observations from a probed component are realizations drawn from two different distributions depending on whether the component is normal or anomalous. The objective is a probing strategy that minimizes the total expected cost, incurred by all the components during the detection process, under reliability constraints. We consider both independent and exclusive models. In the former, each component can be abnormal with a certain probability independent of other components. In the latter, one and only one component is abnormal. We develop optimal simple index policies under both models. The proposed index policies apply to a more general case where a subset (more than one) of the components can be probed simultaneously and have strong performance as demonstrated by simulation examples. The problem under study also finds applications in spectrum scanning in cognitive radio networks and event detection in sensor networks.

  13. Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS) for Pixel-Level dem Generation from Monocular Images Constrained by Low-Resolution dem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chung Liu, Wai; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Lunar topographic information, e.g., lunar DEM (Digital Elevation Model), is very important for lunar exploration missions and scientific research. Lunar DEMs are typically generated from photogrammetric image processing or laser altimetry, of which photogrammetric methods require multiple stereo images of an area. DEMs generated from these methods are usually achieved by various interpolation techniques, leading to interpolation artifacts in the resulting DEM. On the other hand, photometric shape reconstruction, e.g., SfS (Shape from Shading), extensively studied in the field of Computer Vision has been introduced to pixel-level resolution DEM refinement. SfS methods have the ability to reconstruct pixel-wise terrain details that explain a given image of the terrain. If the terrain and its corresponding pixel-wise albedo were to be estimated simultaneously, this is a SAfS (Shape and Albedo from Shading) problem and it will be under-determined without additional information. Previous works show strong statistical regularities in albedo of natural objects, and this is even more logically valid in the case of lunar surface due to its lower surface albedo complexity than the Earth. In this paper we suggest a method that refines a lower-resolution DEM to pixel-level resolution given a monocular image of the coverage with known light source, at the same time we also estimate the corresponding pixel-wise albedo map. We regulate the behaviour of albedo and shape such that the optimized terrain and albedo are the likely solutions that explain the corresponding image. The parameters in the approach are optimized through a kernel-based relaxation framework to gain computational advantages. In this research we experimentally employ the Lunar-Lambertian model for reflectance modelling; the framework of the algorithm is expected to be independent of a specific reflectance model. Experiments are carried out using the monocular images from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO

  14. Optimal quantum control via numerical pulse shape optimization for two exciton qubits confined to semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Reuble; Shi Yang, Hong Yi; Hall, Kimberley

    2015-03-01

    Optimal quantum control (OQC), which iteratively optimizes the control Hamiltonian to achieve a target quantum state, is a versatile approach for manipulating quantum systems. For optically-active transitions, OQC can be implemented using femtosecond pulse shaping which provides control over the amplitude and/or phase of the electric field. Optical pulse shaping has been employed to optimize physical processes such as nonlinear optical signals, photosynthesis, and has recently been applied to optimizing single-qubit gates in multiple semiconductor quantum dots. In this work, we examine the use of numerical pulse shape optimization for optimal quantum control of multiple qubits confined to quantum dots as a function of their electronic structure parameters. The numerically optimized pulse shapes were found to produce high fidelity quantum gates for a range of transition frequencies, dipole moments, and arbitrary initial and final states. This work enhances the potential for scalability by reducing the laser resources required to control multiple qubits.

  15. Shape Optimization by Bayesian-Validated Computer-Simulation Surrogates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, Anthony T.

    1997-01-01

    A nonparametric-validated, surrogate approach to optimization has been applied to the computational optimization of eddy-promoter heat exchangers and to the experimental optimization of a multielement airfoil. In addition to the baseline surrogate framework, a surrogate-Pareto framework has been applied to the two-criteria, eddy-promoter design problem. The Pareto analysis improves the predictability of the surrogate results, preserves generality, and provides a means to rapidly determine design trade-offs. Significant contributions have been made in the geometric description used for the eddy-promoter inclusions as well as to the surrogate framework itself. A level-set based, geometric description has been developed to define the shape of the eddy-promoter inclusions. The level-set technique allows for topology changes (from single-body,eddy-promoter configurations to two-body configurations) without requiring any additional logic. The continuity of the output responses for input variations that cross the boundary between topologies has been demonstrated. Input-output continuity is required for the straightforward application of surrogate techniques in which simplified, interpolative models are fitted through a construction set of data. The surrogate framework developed previously has been extended in a number of ways. First, the formulation for a general, two-output, two-performance metric problem is presented. Surrogates are constructed and validated for the outputs. The performance metrics can be functions of both outputs, as well as explicitly of the inputs, and serve to characterize the design preferences. By segregating the outputs and the performance metrics, an additional level of flexibility is provided to the designer. The validated outputs can be used in future design studies and the error estimates provided by the output validation step still apply, and require no additional appeals to the expensive analysis. Second, a candidate-based a posteriori

  16. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar

    2013-11-01

    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  17. Elastic Model Transitions: a Hybrid Approach Utilizing Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurenko, Robert J.; Bush, T. Jason; Ottander, John A.

    2014-01-01

    A method for transitioning linear time invariant (LTI) models in time varying simulation is proposed that utilizes both quadratically constrained least squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM) algorithms to determine physical displacements. This approach is applicable to the simulation of the elastic behavior of launch vehicles and other structures that utilize multiple LTI finite element model (FEM) derived mode sets that are propagated throughout time. The time invariant nature of the elastic data for discrete segments of the launch vehicle trajectory presents a problem of how to properly transition between models while preserving motion across the transition. In addition, energy may vary between flex models when using a truncated mode set. The LSQI-DSM algorithm can accommodate significant changes in energy between FEM models and carries elastic motion across FEM model transitions. Compared with previous approaches, the LSQI-DSM algorithm shows improvements ranging from a significant reduction to a complete removal of transients across FEM model transitions as well as maintaining elastic motion from the prior state.

  18. Optimal control of a universal rotating magnetic vector for petal-shaped capsule robot in curve environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongshun; Bai, Jianwei; Chi, Minglu; Cheng, Cunxin; Wang, Dianlong

    2014-09-01

    Steering control of a capsule robot in curve environment by magnetic navigation is not yet solved completely. A petal-shaped capsule robot with less steering resistance based on multiple wedge effects is presented, and an optimization method with two processes for determining the orientation of a pre-applied universal magnetic spin vector is proposed. To realize quick and non-contact steering swimming, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method for optimizing the steering driving angle is presented based on two evaluation indexes including the average steering speed and the average steering trajectory deviation, achieving the initial optimal orientation of a universal magnetic spin vector. To further reduce robotic magnetic vibration, a main target method for optimizing its final orientation, which is used for fine adjustment, is employed under the constrains of the magnetic moments. Swimming experimental results in curve pipe verified the effectiveness of the optimization method, which can be effectively used to realize non-contact steering swimming of the petal-shaped robot and reduce its vibration.

  19. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postma, Barry Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses application of a robust constrained optimization approach to control design to develop an Auto Balancing Controller (ABC) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants. The Performance objective is to minimize the translational response of the centrifuge rotor due to a fixed worst-case rotor imbalance. The robustness constraints are posed with respect to parametric uncertainty in the plant. The proposed approach to control design allows for both of these objectives to be handled within the framework of constrained optimization. The resulting controller achieves acceptable performance and robustness characteristics.

  20. Shape optimization of road tunnel cross-section by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobótka, Maciej; Pachnicz, Michał

    2016-06-01

    The paper concerns shape optimization of a tunnel excavation cross-section. The study incorporates optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA). The form of a cost function derives from the energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors' previous papers. The utilized algorithm takes advantage of the optimization procedure already published by the authors. Unlike other approaches presented in literature, the one introduced in this paper takes into consideration a practical requirement of preserving fixed clearance gauge. Itasca Flac software is utilized in numerical examples. The optimal excavation shapes are determined for five different in situ stress ratios. This factor significantly affects the optimal topology of excavation. The resulting shapes are elongated in the direction of a principal stress greater value. Moreover, the obtained optimal shapes have smooth contours circumscribing the gauge.

  1. Stable least-squares matching for oblique images using bound constrained optimization and a robust loss function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Han; Ding, Yulin; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Chen, Min

    2016-08-01

    Least-squares matching is a standard procedure in photogrammetric applications for obtaining sub-pixel accuracies of image correspondences. However, least-squares matching has also been criticized for its instability, which is primarily reflected by the requests for the initial correspondence and favorable image quality. In image matching between oblique images, due to the blur, illumination differences and other effects, the image attributes of different views are notably different, which results in a more severe convergence problem. Aiming at improving the convergence rate and robustness of least-squares matching of oblique images, we incorporated prior geometric knowledge in the optimization process, which is reflected as the bounded constraints on the optimizing parameters that constrain the search for a solution to a reasonable region. Furthermore, to be resilient to outliers, we substituted the square loss with a robust loss function. To solve the composite problem, we reformulated the least-squares matching problem as a bound constrained optimization problem, which can be solved with bounds constrained Levenberg-Marquardt solver. Experimental results consisting of images from two different penta-view oblique camera systems confirmed that the proposed method shows guaranteed final convergences in various scenarios compared to the approximately 20-50% convergence rate of classical least-squares matching.

  2. Elastic Model Transitions: A Hybrid Approach Utilizing Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Mike R.; Jurenko, Robert J.; Bush, Jason; Ottander, John

    2014-01-01

    A method for transitioning linear time invariant (LTI) models in time varying simulation is proposed that utilizes a hybrid approach for determining physical displacements by augmenting the original quadratically constrained least squares (LSQI) algorithm with Direct Shape Mapping (DSM) and modifying the energy constraints. The approach presented is applicable to simulation of the elastic behavior of launch vehicles and other structures that utilize discrete LTI finite element model (FEM) derived mode sets (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) that are propagated throughout time. The time invariant nature of the elastic data presents a problem of how to properly transition elastic states from the prior to the new model while preserving motion across the transition and ensuring there is no truncation or excitation of the system. A previous approach utilizes a LSQI algorithm with an energy constraint to effect smooth transitions between eigenvector sets with no requirement that the models be of similar dimension or have any correlation. This approach assumes energy is conserved across the transition, which results in significant non-physical transients due to changing quasi-steady state energy between mode sets, a phenomenon seen when utilizing a truncated mode set. The computational burden of simulating a full mode set is significant so a subset of modes is often selected to reduce run time. As a result of this truncation, energy between mode sets may not be constant and solutions across transitions could produce non-physical transients. In an effort to abate these transients an improved methodology was developed based on the aforementioned approach, but this new approach can handle significant changes in energy across mode set transitions. It is proposed that physical velocities due to elastic behavior be solved for using the LSQI algorithm, but solve for displacements using a two-step process that independently addresses the quasi-steady-state and non

  3. Optimization of Lens Adjustment in Semiconductor Lithography Equipment Using Quadratically Constrained and Second-Order Cone Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinano, Yuji; Yoshihara, Toshiyuki; Miyashiro, Ryuhei; Fukagawa, Youzou

    The present paper considers optimization of lens adjustment in semiconductor lithography equipment. For improving productivity, the laser irradiation power of recent semiconductor lithography equipment has been boosted, which causes significant aberration due to heating during exposure. The aberration of the equipment must be measured or estimated in order to adjust the positions and orientations of the lenses. Since this adjustment is performed sequentially during exposure, the optimization problem to obtain optimal lens adjustment should be solved within a time as short as 100 ms. Although the problem of calculating the optimal lens adjustment can be naturally formulated as a convex minimization problem, in such a formulation the objective function is convex but includes several nondifferentiable points. Hence, optimization methods based on derivatives cannot be applied. Other approaches using derivative-free optimization or meta-heuristic methods cannot guarantee that the obtained solutions are truly optimal. Therefore, we formulate the optimization problem as quadratically constrained and second-order cone programming problems, which can be handled by solvers using an interior point method. Using the proposed formulations, computational experiments demonstrate that the optimal lens adjustment is obtained in a practical computational time, which is much less than 100 ms.

  4. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, R. D.; Arango, C. A.; Reyes, A.

    2016-07-01

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies.

  5. Optimizing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by genetic algorithm controlled pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenlong; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-10-01

    The hybrid coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has been successful applied to fast chemical sensitive detections. As the development of femto-second pulse shaping techniques, it is of great interest to find the optimum pulse shapes for CARS. The optimum pulse shapes should minimize the non-resonant four wave mixing (NRFWM) background and maximize the CARS signal. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to make a heuristic searching for optimized pulse shapes, which give the best signal the background ratio. The GA is shown to be able to rediscover the hybrid CARS scheme and find optimized pulse shapes for customized applications by itself.

  6. Memory and Energy Optimization Strategies for Multithreaded Operating System on the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Node

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Kun Mean; de Vaulx, Christophe; Xu, Jun; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Haiying; Shi, Hongling; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Memory and energy optimization strategies are essential for the resource-constrained wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. In this article, a new memory-optimized and energy-optimized multithreaded WSN operating system (OS) LiveOS is designed and implemented. Memory cost of LiveOS is optimized by using the stack-shifting hybrid scheduling approach. Different from the traditional multithreaded OS in which thread stacks are allocated statically by the pre-reservation, thread stacks in LiveOS are allocated dynamically by using the stack-shifting technique. As a result, memory waste problems caused by the static pre-reservation can be avoided. In addition to the stack-shifting dynamic allocation approach, the hybrid scheduling mechanism which can decrease both the thread scheduling overhead and the thread stack number is also implemented in LiveOS. With these mechanisms, the stack memory cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 50% if compared to that of a traditional multithreaded OS. Not is memory cost optimized, but also the energy cost is optimized in LiveOS, and this is achieved by using the multi-core “context aware” and multi-core “power-off/wakeup” energy conservation approaches. By using these approaches, energy cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 30% when compared to the single-core WSN system. Memory and energy optimization strategies in LiveOS not only prolong the lifetime of WSN nodes, but also make the multithreaded OS feasible to run on the memory-constrained WSN nodes. PMID:25545264

  7. Shape optimization for maximum stability and dynamic stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szyszkowski, W.

    1990-01-01

    Any optimization of structures for maximum stability or for maximum dynamic stiffness deals with an eigenvalue problem. The goal of this optimization is to raise the lowest eigenvalue (or eigenvalues) of the problem to its highest (optimal) level at a constant volume of the structure. Likely the lowest eigenvalue may be either inherently multi-modal or it can become multi-modal as a result of the optimization process. The multimodeness introduces some ambiguity to the eigenvalue problem and make the optimization difficult to handle. Thus far, only the simplest cases of multi-modal structures have been effectively optimized using rather elaborate analytical methods. Numerous publications report design of a minimum volume structure with different eigenvalues constraints, in which, however, the modality of the problem is assumed a priori. The method presented here utilizes a multi-modal optimality criteria and allows for inclusion of an arbitrary number of buckling or vibrations modes which might influence the optimization process. The real multi-modality of the problem, that is the number of modes participating in the final optimal design is determined iteratively. Because of a natural use of the FEM technique the method is easy to program and might be helpful in design of large flexible space structures.

  8. An adaptive multiquadric radial basis function method for expensive black-box mixed-integer nonlinear constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; Ambani, Saumil; Cetinkaya, Eren

    2013-02-01

    Many real-world optimization problems comprise objective functions that are based on the output of one or more simulation models. As these underlying processes can be time and computation intensive, the objective function is deemed expensive to evaluate. While methods to alleviate this cost in the optimization procedure have been explored previously, less attention has been given to the treatment of expensive constraints. This article presents a methodology for treating expensive simulation-based nonlinear constraints alongside an expensive simulation-based objective function using adaptive radial basis function techniques. Specifically, a multiquadric radial basis function approximation scheme is developed, together with a robust training method, to model not only the costly objective function, but also each expensive simulation-based constraint defined in the problem. The article presents the methodology developed for expensive nonlinear constrained optimization problems comprising both continuous and integer variables. Results from various test cases, both analytical and simulation-based, are presented.

  9. Optimization of Stability Constrained Geometrically Nonlinear Shallow Trusses Using an Arc Length Sparse Method with a Strain Energy Density Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2008-01-01

    A technique for the optimization of stability constrained geometrically nonlinear shallow trusses with snap through behavior is demonstrated using the arc length method and a strain energy density approach within a discrete finite element formulation. The optimization method uses an iterative scheme that evaluates the design variables' performance and then updates them according to a recursive formula controlled by the arc length method. A minimum weight design is achieved when a uniform nonlinear strain energy density is found in all members. This minimal condition places the design load just below the critical limit load causing snap through of the structure. The optimization scheme is programmed into a nonlinear finite element algorithm to find the large strain energy at critical limit loads. Examples of highly nonlinear trusses found in literature are presented to verify the method.

  10. Surface effects on shape and topology optimization of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Valizadeh, Navid; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-07-01

    We present a computational method for the optimization of nanostructures, where our specific interest is in capturing and elucidating surface stress and surface elastic effects on the optimal nanodesign. XFEM is used to solve the nanomechanical boundary value problem, which involves a discontinuity in the strain field and the presence of surface effects along the interface. The boundary of the nano-structure is implicitly represented by a level set function, which is considered as the design variable in the optimization process. Two objective functions, minimizing the total potential energy of a nanostructure subjected to a material volume constraint and minimizing the least square error compared to a target displacement, are chosen for the numerical examples. We present results of optimal topologies of a nanobeam subject to cantilever and fixed boundary conditions. The numerical examples demonstrate the importance of size and aspect ratio in determining how surface effects impact the optimized topology of nanobeams.

  11. Feasibility of using Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method for Shape and Topology Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape and topology optimization of fluid flows. Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid in complex geometries (where grid resolution varies both in space and time time), while Brinkman volume penalization allows easy variation of flow geometry without using body-fitted meshes by simply changing the shape of the penalization region. The use of Brinkman volume penalization approach allow seamless transition from shape to topology optimization by combining it with level set approach and increasing the size of the optimization space. The approach is demonstrated for shape optimization of a variety of fluid flows by optimizing single cost function (time averaged Drag coefficient) using covariance matrix adaptation (CMA) evolutionary algorithm.

  12. Optimized Shapes of Ocsillating Resonators for Generating High-Amplitude Pressure Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiao-Fan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the resonator geometry strongly influences the resonant frequencies of an acoustical resonator and the generated nonlinear standing pressure waveform. Maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of an oscillating resonator by optimizing the cavity contour is investigated numerically. A quasi-Newton type scheme is used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes to achieve the maximum pressure compression ratio. The acoustical field is solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects are obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation methods. Results are presented from optimizing cone, horn-cone, and cosine resonator geometries. Significant performance improvement is found in the optimized shapes over others previously published. Different optimized shapes are found when starting with different initial guesses, indicating multiple local extrema. The numerical model is validated by comparing with the experimental results of a horn-cone shaped resonator.

  13. Controls-structures integrated design optimization with shape variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koganti, Gopichand; Hou, Gene

    1993-01-01

    The shape design variables have been introduced into the set of design variables of the Controls-Structure Integrated (CSI) Design of space-structures. The importance of the shape variations in improving the design (obtained with only control and sizing variables) has been aptly illustrated. Two different types of design variables that describe the shape variations of the structure have been introduced. In the first case, the nodal coordinates have been considered as design variables. This has the inherent difficulty of having too many design variables. This not only is time consuming but also memory intensive and may not yield a manufacturable shape to the structure. The second approach has been introduced to overcome this difficulty. The structure is allowed to vary in a particular pre defined pattern. The coefficients of these patterns are considered as the shape design variables. The eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivity equations with respect to these coefficient design variables have been developed and are used to approximate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in a perturbed design.

  14. Optimizing two-photon fluorescence of Coumarin dye by combined temporal-spatial pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Saisai; Wang, Shufeng; Deng, Yongkai; Gong, Qihuang

    2011-08-01

    Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) process is an important research subject and can be optimized by pulse shaping techniques. In addition to temporal femtosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase modulation, we take into account of spatial configuration in the shaping process. The TPF of Coumarin 500 increases 40% with this additional modulation step. This spatial modulation results in not only transverse spatial profile variation but also effect of temporal redistribution at focus. We show that this spatial modulation is an important dimension for pulse shaping and optimization for TPF.

  15. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  16. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei; Huang, Yunbao; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-10-01

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  17. Haar wavelet operational matrix method for solving constrained nonlinear quadratic optimal control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaidan, Waleeda; Hussin, Amran

    2015-10-01

    Most direct methods solve finite time horizon optimal control problems with nonlinear programming solver. In this paper, we propose a numerical method for solving nonlinear optimal control problem with state and control inequality constraints. This method used quasilinearization technique and Haar wavelet operational matrix to convert the nonlinear optimal control problem into a quadratic programming problem. The linear inequality constraints for trajectories variables are converted to quadratic programming constraint by using Haar wavelet collocation method. The proposed method has been applied to solve Optimal Control of Multi-Item Inventory Model. The accuracy of the states, controls and cost can be improved by increasing the Haar wavelet resolution.

  18. Automated Finite Element Modeling of Wing Structures for Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Michael Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The displacement formulation of the finite element method is the most general and most widely used technique for structural analysis of airplane configurations. Modem structural synthesis techniques based on the finite element method have reached a certain maturity in recent years, and large airplane structures can now be optimized with respect to sizing type design variables for many load cases subject to a rich variety of constraints including stress, buckling, frequency, stiffness and aeroelastic constraints (Refs. 1-3). These structural synthesis capabilities use gradient based nonlinear programming techniques to search for improved designs. For these techniques to be practical a major improvement was required in computational cost of finite element analyses (needed repeatedly in the optimization process). Thus, associated with the progress in structural optimization, a new perspective of structural analysis has emerged, namely, structural analysis specialized for design optimization application, or.what is known as "design oriented structural analysis" (Ref. 4). This discipline includes approximation concepts and methods for obtaining behavior sensitivity information (Ref. 1), all needed to make the optimization of large structural systems (modeled by thousands of degrees of freedom and thousands of design variables) practical and cost effective.

  19. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Zarepisheh, M; Li, R; Xing, L; Ye, Y; Boyd, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  20. Multi-objective aerodynamic shape optimization of small livestock trailers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkeson, C. A.; Toropov, V. V.; Thompson, H. M.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Foxley, N. A.; Gaskell, P. H.

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a formal optimization study of the design of small livestock trailers, within which the majority of animals are transported to market in the UK. The benefits of employing a headboard fairing to reduce aerodynamic drag without compromising the ventilation of the animals' microclimate are investigated using a multi-stage process involving computational fluid dynamics (CFD), optimal Latin hypercube (OLH) design of experiments (DoE) and moving least squares (MLS) metamodels. Fairings are parameterized in terms of three design variables and CFD solutions are obtained at 50 permutations of design variables. Both global and local search methods are employed to locate the global minimum from metamodels of the objective functions and a Pareto front is generated. The importance of carefully selecting an objective function is demonstrated and optimal fairing designs, offering drag reductions in excess of 5% without compromising animal ventilation, are presented.

  1. Influence of Anisotropy Properties in Finite Element Optimization of Blank Shape Using NURBS Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, R.; Oliveira, M. C.; Baptista, A. J.; Menezes, L. F.; Alves, J. L.

    2007-04-07

    Sheet metal forming is a complex process controlled by process parameters and material properties of the blank sheet. The initial anisotropy has influence on the determination of optimal blank shape because it governs the material flow. In this paper, the influence of the initial anisotropy, in achieving an optimal blank shape, is analyzed using mild steel (DC06) blank sheet and two different tool geometries: circular and rectangular cup. The numerical method is based on the initial NURBS surface used to produce the mesh that models the blank and the resulting flange geometry of the deformed part. Different rolling direction orientations were considered in the blanks for deep drawing to investigate their effect on the blank shape optimization procedure. From the numerical study it is evident that the described method is sensitive to the initial anisotropy in the material and can produce optimal initial blank shape within few iterations.

  2. Profile shape optimization in multi-jet impingement cooling of dimpled topologies for local heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, Deepchand Singh; Pattamatta, Arvind

    2015-04-01

    The present study deals with shape optimization of dimples on the target surface in multi-jet impingement heat transfer. Bezier polynomial formulation is incorporated to generate profile shapes for the dimple profile generation and a multi-objective optimization is performed. The optimized dimple shape exhibits higher local Nusselt number values compared to the reference hemispherical dimpled plate optimized shape which can be used to alleviate local temperature hot spots on target surface.

  3. Co-Optimization of Blunt Body Shapes for Moving Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Garcia, Joseph A (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor); Bowles, Jeffrey V (Inventor); Mansour, Nagi N (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and associated system for multi-disciplinary optimization of various parameters associated with a space vehicle that experiences aerocapture and atmospheric entry in a specified atmosphere. In one embodiment, simultaneous maximization of a ratio of landed payload to vehicle atmospheric entry mass, maximization of fluid flow distance before flow separation from vehicle, and minimization of heat transfer to the vehicle are performed with respect to vehicle surface geometric parameters, and aerostructure and aerothermal vehicle response for the vehicle moving along a specified trajectory. A Pareto Optimal set of superior performance parameters is identified.

  4. A new module for constrained multi-fragment geometry optimization in internal coordinates implemented in the MOLCAS package.

    PubMed

    Vysotskiy, Victor P; Boström, Jonas; Veryazov, Valera

    2013-11-15

    A parallel procedure for an effective optimization of relative position and orientation between two or more fragments has been implemented in the MOLCAS program package. By design, the procedure does not perturb the electronic structure of a system under the study. The original composite system is divided into frozen fragments and internal coordinates linking those fragments are the only optimized parameters. The procedure is capable to handle fully independent (no border atoms) fragments as well as fragments connected by covalent bonds. In the framework of the procedure, the optimization of relative position and orientation of the fragments are carried out in the internal "Z-matrix" coordinates using numerical derivatives. The total number of required single points energy evaluations scales with the number of fragments rather than with the total number of atoms in the system. The accuracy and the performance of the procedure have been studied by test calculations for a representative set of two- and three-fragment molecules with artificially distorted structures. The developed approach exhibits robust and smooth convergence to the reference optimal structures. As only a few internal coordinates are varied during the procedure, the proposed constrained fragment geometry optimization can be afforded even for high level ab initio methods like CCSD(T) and CASPT2. This capability has been demonstrated by applying the method to two larger cases, CCSD(T) and CASPT2 calculations on a positively charged benzene lithium complex and on the oxygen molecule interacting to iron porphyrin molecule, respectively. PMID:24006272

  5. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony

    2015-03-31

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony

    2015-03-01

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  7. Optimized shapes of magnetic arrays for drug targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, Lester C.; Carugo, Dario; Stride, Eleanor

    2016-06-01

    Arrays of permanent magnet elements have been utilized as light-weight, inexpensive sources for applying external magnetic fields in magnetic drug targeting applications, but they are extremely limited in the range of depths over which they can apply useful magnetic forces. In this paper, designs for optimized magnet arrays are presented, which were generated using an optimization routine to maximize the magnetic force available from an arbitrary arrangement of magnetized elements, depending on a set of design parameters including the depth of targeting (up to 50 mm from the magnet) and direction of force required. A method for assembling arrays in practice is considered, quantifying the difficulty of assembly and suggesting a means for easing this difficulty without a significant compromise to the applied field or force. Finite element simulations of in vitro magnetic retention experiments were run to demonstrate the capability of a subset of arrays to retain magnetic microparticles against flow. The results suggest that, depending on the choice of array, a useful proportion of particles (more than 10% ) could be retained at flow velocities up to 100 mm s‑1 or to depths as far as 50 mm from the magnet. Finally, the optimization routine was used to generate a design for a Halbach array optimized to deliver magnetic force to a depth of 50 mm inside the brain.

  8. Finite dimensional approximation of a class of constrained nonlinear optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunzburger, Max D.; Hou, L. S.

    1994-01-01

    An abstract framework for the analysis and approximation of a class of nonlinear optimal control and optimization problems is constructed. Nonlinearities occur in both the objective functional and in the constraints. The framework includes an abstract nonlinear optimization problem posed on infinite dimensional spaces, and approximate problem posed on finite dimensional spaces, together with a number of hypotheses concerning the two problems. The framework is used to show that optimal solutions exist, to show that Lagrange multipliers may be used to enforce the constraints, to derive an optimality system from which optimal states and controls may be deduced, and to derive existence results and error estimates for solutions of the approximate problem. The abstract framework and the results derived from that framework are then applied to three concrete control or optimization problems and their approximation by finite element methods. The first involves the von Karman plate equations of nonlinear elasticity, the second, the Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, and the third, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible, viscous flows.

  9. Three-Dimensional Viscous Alternating Direction Implicit Algorithm and Strategies for Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Baysal, Oktay

    1997-01-01

    A gradient-based shape optimization based on quasi-analytical sensitivities has been extended for practical three-dimensional aerodynamic applications. The flow analysis has been rendered by a fully implicit, finite-volume formulation of the Euler and Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations. Initially, the viscous laminar flow analysis for a wing has been compared with an independent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code which has been extensively validated. The new procedure has been demonstrated in the design of a cranked arrow wing at Mach 2.4 with coarse- and fine-grid based computations performed with Euler and TLNS equations. The influence of the initial constraints on the geometry and aerodynamics of the optimized shape has been explored. Various final shapes generated for an identical initial problem formulation but with different optimization path options (coarse or fine grid, Euler or TLNS), have been aerodynamically evaluated via a common fine-grid TLNS-based analysis. The initial constraint conditions show significant bearing on the optimization results. Also, the results demonstrate that to produce an aerodynamically efficient design, it is imperative to include the viscous physics in the optimization procedure with the proper resolution. Based upon the present results, to better utilize the scarce computational resources, it is recommended that, a number of viscous coarse grid cases using either a preconditioned bi-conjugate gradient (PbCG) or an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) method, should initially be employed to improve the optimization problem definition, the design space and initial shape. Optimized shapes should subsequently be analyzed using a high fidelity (viscous with fine-grid resolution) flow analysis to evaluate their true performance potential. Finally, a viscous fine-grid-based shape optimization should be conducted, using an ADI method, to accurately obtain the final optimized shape.

  10. Fixed structure compensator design using a constrained hybrid evolutionary optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhojit; Samanta, Susovon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for designing a fixed order compensator for compensating current mode control architecture of DC-DC converters. The compensator design is formulated as an optimization problem, which seeks to attain a set of frequency domain specifications. The highly nonlinear nature of the optimization problem demands the use of an initial parameterization independent global search technique. In this regard, the optimization problem is solved using a hybrid evolutionary optimization approach, because of its simple structure, faster execution time and greater probability in achieving the global solution. The proposed algorithm involves the combination of a population search based optimization approach i.e. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and local search based method. The op-amp dynamics have been incorporated during the design process. Considering the limitations of fixed structure compensator in achieving loop bandwidth higher than a certain threshold, the proposed approach also determines the op-amp bandwidth, which would be able to achieve the same. The effectiveness of the proposed approach in meeting the desired frequency domain specifications is experimentally tested on a peak current mode control dc-dc buck converter. PMID:24768082

  11. An a posteriori error estimator for shape optimization: application to EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, M.; Pantz, O.; Trabelsi, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we account for the numerical error introduced by the Finite Element approximation of the shape gradient to construct a guaranteed shape optimization method. We present a goal-oriented strategy inspired by the complementary energy principle to construct a constant-free, fully-computable a posteriori error estimator and to derive a certified upper bound of the error in the shape gradient. The resulting Adaptive Boundary Variation Algorithm (ABVA) is able to identify a genuine descent direction at each iteration and features a reliable stopping criterion for the optimization loop. Some preliminary numerical results for the inverse identification problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography are presented.

  12. Time and frequency constrained sonar signal design for optimal detection of elastic objects.

    PubMed

    Hamschin, Brandon; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the task of model-based transmit signal design for optimizing detection is considered. Building on past work that designs the spectral magnitude for optimizing detection, two methods for synthesizing minimum duration signals with this spectral magnitude are developed. The methods are applied to the design of signals that are optimal for detecting elastic objects in the presence of additive noise and self-noise. Elastic objects are modeled as linear time-invariant systems with known impulse responses, while additive noise (e.g., ocean noise or receiver noise) and acoustic self-noise (e.g., reverberation or clutter) are modeled as stationary Gaussian random processes with known power spectral densities. The first approach finds the waveform that preserves the optimal spectral magnitude while achieving the minimum temporal duration. The second approach yields a finite-length time-domain sequence by maximizing temporal energy concentration, subject to the constraint that the spectral magnitude is close (in a least-squares sense) to the optimal spectral magnitude. The two approaches are then connected analytically, showing the former is a limiting case of the latter. Simulation examples that illustrate the theory are accompanied by discussions that address practical applicability and how one might satisfy the need for target and environmental models in the real-world. PMID:23556586

  13. Optimal control landscape for the generation of unitary transformations with constrained dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Michael; Wu, Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel; Lidar, Daniel

    2010-06-15

    The reliable and precise generation of quantum unitary transformations is essential for the realization of a number of fundamental objectives, such as quantum control and quantum information processing. Prior work has explored the optimal control problem of generating such unitary transformations as a surface-optimization problem over the quantum control landscape, defined as a metric for realizing a desired unitary transformation as a function of the control variables. It was found that under the assumption of nondissipative and controllable dynamics, the landscape topology is trap free, which implies that any reasonable optimization heuristic should be able to identify globally optimal solutions. The present work is a control landscape analysis, which incorporates specific constraints in the Hamiltonian that correspond to certain dynamical symmetries in the underlying physical system. It is found that the presence of such symmetries does not destroy the trap-free topology. These findings expand the class of quantum dynamical systems on which control problems are intrinsically amenable to a solution by optimal control.

  14. Implementation of a multiblock sensitivity analysis method in numerical aerodynamic shape optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacasse, James M.

    1995-01-01

    A multiblock sensitivity analysis method is applied in a numerical aerodynamic shape optimization technique. The Sensitivity Analysis Domain Decomposition (SADD) scheme which is implemented in this study was developed to reduce the computer memory requirements resulting from the aerodynamic sensitivity analysis equations. Discrete sensitivity analysis offers the ability to compute quasi-analytical derivatives in a more efficient manner than traditional finite-difference methods, which tend to be computationally expensive and prone to inaccuracies. The direct optimization procedure couples CFD analysis based on the two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with a gradient-based numerical optimization technique. The linking mechanism is the sensitivity equation derived from the CFD discretized flow equations, recast in adjoint form, and solved using direct matrix inversion techniques. This investigation is performed to demonstrate an aerodynamic shape optimization technique on a multiblock domain and its applicability to complex geometries. The objectives are accomplished by shape optimizing two aerodynamic configurations. First, the shape optimization of a transonic airfoil is performed to investigate the behavior of the method in highly nonlinear flows and the effect of different grid blocking strategies on the procedure. Secondly, shape optimization of a two-element configuration in subsonic flow is completed. Cases are presented for this configuration to demonstrate the effect of simultaneously reshaping interfering elements. The aerodynamic shape optimization is shown to produce supercritical type airfoils in the transonic flow from an initially symmetric airfoil. Multiblocking effects the path of optimization while providing similar results at the conclusion. Simultaneous reshaping of elements is shown to be more effective than individual element reshaping due to the inclusion of mutual interference effects.

  15. Effect of Local Junction Losses in the Optimization of T-shaped Flow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaraju, Srinivas

    2015-11-01

    T-shaped channels are extensively used in flow distribution applications such as irrigation, chemical dispersion, gas pipelines and space heating and cooling. The geometry of T-shaped channels can be optimized to reduce the overall pressure drop in stem and branch sections. Results of such optimizations are in the form of geometric parameters such as the length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. The traditional approach of this optimization accounts for the pressure drop across the stem and branch sections, however, ignores the pressure drop in the T-junction. In this paper, we conduct geometry optimization while including the effect of local junction losses in laminar flows. From the results, we are able to identify a non-dimensional parameter that can be used to predict the optimal geometric configurations. This parameter can also be used to identify the conditions in which the local junction losses can be ignored during the optimization.

  16. Shape Optimization of Cylindrical Shell for Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Jay H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an analytic method is used to solve for the cross spectral density of the interior acoustic response of a cylinder with nonuniform thickness subjected to turbulent boundary layer excitation. The cylinder is of honeycomb core construction with the thickness of the core material expressed as a cosine series in the circumferential direction. The coefficients of this series are used as the design variable in the optimization study. The objective function is the space and frequency averaged acoustic response. Results confirm the presence of multiple local minima as previously reported and demonstrate the potential for modest noise reduction.

  17. A method for stochastic constrained optimization using derivative-free surrogate pattern search and collocation

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Audet, Charles; Marsden, Alison L.

    2010-06-20

    Recent advances in coupling novel optimization methods to large-scale computing problems have opened the door to tackling a diverse set of physically realistic engineering design problems. A large computational overhead is associated with computing the cost function for most practical problems involving complex physical phenomena. Such problems are also plagued with uncertainties in a diverse set of parameters. We present a novel stochastic derivative-free optimization approach for tackling such problems. Our method extends the previously developed surrogate management framework (SMF) to allow for uncertainties in both simulation parameters and design variables. The stochastic collocation scheme is employed for stochastic variables whereas Kriging based surrogate functions are employed for the cost function. This approach is tested on four numerical optimization problems and is shown to have significant improvement in efficiency over traditional Monte-Carlo schemes. Problems with multiple probabilistic constraints are also discussed.

  18. PDE constrained optimization of electrical defibrillation in a 3D ventricular slice geometry.

    PubMed

    Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    A computational study of an optimal control approach for cardiac defibrillation in a 3D geometry is presented. The cardiac bioelectric activity at the tissue and bath volumes is modeled by the bidomain model equations. The model includes intramural fiber rotation, axially symmetric around the fiber direction, and anisotropic conductivity coefficients, which are extracted from a histological image. The dynamics of the ionic currents are based on the regularized Mitchell-Schaeffer model. The controls enter in the form of electrodes, which are placed at the boundary of the bath volume with the goal of dampening undesired arrhythmias. The numerical optimization is based on Newton techniques. We demonstrated the parallel architecture environment for the computation of potentials on multidomains and for the higher order optimization techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26249168

  19. A linearized theory method of constrained optimization for supersonic cruise wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. S.; Carlson, H. W.; Middleton, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    A linearized theory wing design and optimization procedure which allows physical realism and practical considerations to be imposed as constraints on the optimum (least drag due to lift) solution is discussed and examples of application are presented. In addition to the usual constraints on lift and pitching moment, constraints are imposed on wing surface ordinates and wing upper surface pressure levels and gradients. The design procedure also provides the capability of including directly in the optimization process the effects of other aircraft components such as a fuselage, canards, and nacelles.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaraju, Srinivas

    2015-11-01

    The T- and Y-shaped flow channels can be optimized for reduced pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, we studied the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same pumping power and heat generation constraints and their heat transfer performance is studied.

  1. A sparse superlinearly convergent SQP with applications to two-dimensional shape optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Anitescu, M.

    1998-04-15

    Discretization of optimal shape design problems leads to very large nonlinear optimization problems. For attaining maximum computational efficiency, a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm should achieve superlinear convergence while preserving sparsity and convexity of the resulting quadratic programs. Most classical SQP approaches violate at least one of the requirements. We show that, for a very large class of optimization problems, one can design SQP algorithms that satisfy all these three requirements. The improvements in computational efficiency are demonstrated for a cam design problem.

  2. Shape optimization in exoskeletons and endoskeletons: a biomechanics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David; Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of strength and mechanical failure in exoskeletons and endoskeletons. We developed a new, more sophisticated model to predict failure in bones and other limb segments, modelled as hollow tubes of radius r and thickness t. Five failure modes were considered: transverse fracture; buckling (of three different kinds) and longitudinal splitting. We also considered interactions between failure modes. We tested the hypothesis that evolutionary adaptation tends towards an optimum value of r/t, this being the value which gives the highest strength (i.e. load-carrying capacity) for a given weight. We analysed two examples of arthropod exoskeletons: the crab merus and the locust tibia, using data from the literature and estimating the stresses during typical activities. In both cases, the optimum r/t value for bending was found to be different from that for axial compression. We found that the crab merus experiences similar levels of bending and compression in vivo and that its r/t value represents an ideal compromise to resist these two types of loading. The locust tibia, however, is loaded almost exclusively in bending and was found to be optimized for this loading mode. Vertebrate long bones were found to be far from optimal, having much lower r/t values than predicted, and in this respect our conclusions differ from those of previous workers. We conclude that our theoretical model, though it has some limitations, is useful for investigating evolutionary development of skeletal form in exoskeletons and endoskeletons. PMID:22977103

  3. Constrained Optimization Problems in Cost and Managerial Accounting--Spreadsheet Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amlie, Thomas T.

    2009-01-01

    A common problem addressed in Managerial and Cost Accounting classes is that of selecting an optimal production mix given scarce resources. That is, if a firm produces a number of different products, and is faced with scarce resources (e.g., limitations on labor, materials, or machine time), what combination of products yields the greatest profit…

  4. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:23706414

  5. Peptide identification via constrained multi-objective optimization: Pareto-based genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Malard, Joel M.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cannon, William R.; Mooney, Ryan W.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2005-12-10

    Automatic data-base independent peptide identification from collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data is made difficult by large plateaus in the fitness landscapes of scoring functions and the fuzzy nature of the constraints that is due to noise in the data. Two different scoring functions are combined into a parallel multi-objective optimization framework.

  6. Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, ZhiQiang; Wu, ChuiJie

    2013-02-01

    Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish, to increase the swimming efficiency and the swimming speed and control the motion direction more easily, is investigated by combining optimization algorithms, unsteady computational fluid dynamics and dynamic control in this study. The 3D computational fluid dynamics package contains the immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the control strategy of fish swimming. Through shape optimizations of various swimming speeds, the results show that the optimal caudal fins of different swimming modes are not exactly the same shape. However, the optimal fish of high swimming speed, whose caudal fin shape is similar to the crescent, also have higher efficiency and better maneuverability than the other optimal bionic fish at low and moderate swimming speeds. Finally, the mechanisms of vorticity creation of different optimal bionic fish are studied by using boundary vorticity-flux theory, and three-dimensional wake structures of self-propelled swimming of these fish are comparatively analyzed. The study of vortex dynamics reveals the nature of efficient swimming of the 3D bionic fish with the lunate caudal fin.

  7. Mechanical behavior and shape optimization of lining structure for subsea tunnel excavated in weathered slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-fei; Zhou, Xiao-jun

    2015-12-01

    Subsea tunnel lining structures should be designed to sustain the loads transmitted from surrounding ground and groundwater during excavation. Extremely high pore-water pressure reduces the effective strength of the country rock that surrounds a tunnel, thereby lowering the arching effect and stratum stability of the structure. In this paper, the mechanical behavior and shape optimization of the lining structure for the Xiang'an tunnel excavated in weathered slots are examined. Eight cross sections with different geometric parameters are adopted to study the mechanical behavior and shape optimization of the lining structure. The hyperstatic reaction method is used through finite element analysis software ANSYS. The mechanical behavior of the lining structure is evidently affected by the geometric parameters of crosssectional shape. The minimum safety factor of the lining structure elements is set to be the objective function. The efficient tunnel shape to maximize the minimum safety factor is identified. The minimum safety factor increases significantly after optimization. The optimized cross section significantly improves the mechanical characteristics of the lining structure and effectively reduces its deformation. Force analyses of optimization process and program are conducted parametrically so that the method can be applied to the optimization design of other similar structures. The results obtained from this study enhance our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the lining structure for subsea tunnels. These results are also beneficial to the optimal design of lining structures in general.

  8. A Generalized Framework for Constrained Design Optimization of General Supersonic Configurations Using Adjoint Based Sensitivity Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) sent out an NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for proposals soliciting research and technical development. The proposed research program was aimed at addressing the desired milestones and outcomes of ROA (ROA-2006) Subtopic A.4.1.1 Advanced Computational Methods. The second milestone, SUP.1.06.02 Robust, validated mesh adaptation and error quantification for near field Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was addressed by the proposed research. Additional research utilizing the direct links to geometry through a CAD interface enabled by this work will allow for geometric constraints to be applied and address the final milestone, SUP2.07.06 Constrained low-drag supersonic aerodynamic design capability. The original product of the proposed research program was an integrated system of tools that can be used for the mesh mechanics required for rapid high fidelity analysis and for design of supersonic cruise vehicles. These Euler and Navier-Stokes volume grid manipulation tools were proposed to efficiently use parallel processing. The mesh adaptation provides a systematic approach for achieving demonstrated levels of accuracy in the solutions. NASA chose to fund only the mesh generation/adaptation portion of the proposal. So this report describes the completion of the proposed tasks for mesh creation, manipulation and adaptation as it pertains to sonic boom prediction of supersonic configurations.

  9. Optimized removal of the tongue-and-groove underdose via constrained partial synchronization and variable depth recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siochi, R. Alfredo C.

    2009-03-01

    Full synchronization (FS) leaf sequencing removes tongue-and-groove underdosages (TGU) but increases the number of segments. Constrained partial synchronization (CPS) uses a minimum tongue-and-groove ratio (TGR) to reduce the number of segments while achieving acceptable TGUs. TGR is the ratio of non-overlapping intensities that irradiate a common junction. For TGRs of 1, 1.5 and 2, the TGUs were measured as 18%, 4% and 0%, respectively, for a 6 MV beam and a Siemens 82 leaf MLC. The extraction and sweep processes of the variable depth recursion (VDR) leaf-sequencing algorithm were constrained to satisfy a minimum TGR. For a Siemens MLC and 15 clinical cases, VDR with a TGR = 1.5 produced 7% more segments than the unsynchronized VDR, while a fully synchronized sweeping window algorithm produces 62% more segments. For random intensity maps, VDR with CPS produced significantly fewer segments than an unsynchronized sweeping window. Similar results can be obtained for MLCs that interdigitate. This has implications for direct aperture optimization algorithms (DAO) that use the sweeping window as a starting point (Pinnacle), for which a significant TGU has been observed. The concept of CPS can be applied to DAO by choosing appropriate levels for each of the segments in DAO.

  10. Blind Channel Equalization Using Constrained Generalized Pattern Search Optimization and Reinitialization Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaouche, Abdelouahib; Dayoub, Iyad; Rouvaen, Jean Michel; Tatkeu, Charles

    2008-12-01

    We propose a global convergence baud-spaced blind equalization method in this paper. This method is based on the application of both generalized pattern optimization and channel surfing reinitialization. The potentially used unimodal cost function relies on higher- order statistics, and its optimization is achieved using a pattern search algorithm. Since the convergence to the global minimum is not unconditionally warranted, we make use of channel surfing reinitialization (CSR) strategy to find the right global minimum. The proposed algorithm is analyzed, and simulation results using a severe frequency selective propagation channel are given. Detailed comparisons with constant modulus algorithm (CMA) are highlighted. The proposed algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of intersymbol interference, normalized received signal constellations, and root mean square error vector magnitude. In case of nonconstant modulus input signals, our algorithm outperforms significantly CMA algorithm with full channel surfing reinitialization strategy. However, comparable performances are obtained for constant modulus signals.

  11. How does network design constrain optimal operation of intermittent water supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Urban water distribution systems do not always supply water continuously or reliably. As pipes fill and empty, pressure transients may contribute to degraded infrastructure and poor water quality. To help understand and manage this undesirable side effect of intermittent water supply--a phenomenon affecting hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world--we study the relative contributions of fixed versus dynamic properties of the network. Using a dynamical model of unsteady transition pipe flow, we study how different elements of network design, such as network geometry, pipe material, and pipe slope, contribute to undesirable pressure transients. Using an optimization framework, we then investigate to what extent network operation decisions such as supply timing and inflow rate may mitigate these effects. We characterize some aspects of network design that make them more or less amenable to operational optimization.

  12. Biogeography-based particle swarm optimization with fuzzy elitism and its applications to constrained engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weian; Li, Wuzhao; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi; Ren, Hongliang

    2014-11-01

    In evolutionary algorithms, elites are crucial to maintain good features in solutions. However, too many elites can make the evolutionary process stagnate and cannot enhance the performance. This article employs particle swarm optimization (PSO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) to propose a hybrid algorithm termed biogeography-based particle swarm optimization (BPSO) which could make a large number of elites effective in searching optima. In this algorithm, the whole population is split into several subgroups; BBO is employed to search within each subgroup and PSO for the global search. Since not all the population is used in PSO, this structure overcomes the premature convergence in the original PSO. Time complexity analysis shows that the novel algorithm does not increase the time consumption. Fourteen numerical benchmarks and four engineering problems with constraints are used to test the BPSO. To better deal with constraints, a fuzzy strategy for the number of elites is investigated. The simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. The L_infinity constrained global optimal histogram equalization technique for real time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiongwei; Niu, Yi; Liu, Lin; Jiao, Yang; Shi, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Although the current imaging sensors can achieve 12 or higher precision, the current display devices and the commonly used digital image formats are still only 8 bits. This mismatch causes significant waste of the sensor precision and loss of information when storing and displaying the images. For better usage of the precision-budget, tone mapping operators have to be used to map the high-precision data into low-precision digital images adaptively. In this paper, the classic histogram equalization tone mapping operator is reexamined in the sense of optimization. We point out that the traditional histogram equalization technique and its variants are fundamentally improper by suffering from local optimum problems. To overcome this drawback, we remodel the histogram equalization tone mapping task based on graphic theory which achieves the global optimal solutions. Another advantage of the graphic-based modeling is that the tone-continuity is also modeled as a vital constraint in our approach which suppress the annoying boundary artifacts of the traditional approaches. In addition, we propose a novel dynamic programming technique to solve the histogram equalization problem in real time. Experimental results shows that the proposed tone-preserved global optimal histogram equalization technique outperforms the traditional approaches by exhibiting more subtle details in the foreground while preserving the smoothness of the background.

  14. Total Wiring Length Minimization of C. elegans Neural Network: A Constrained Optimization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gushchin, Andrey; Tang, Ao

    2015-01-01

    Using the most recent data on the connectivity of the C. elegans neural network, we find optimal two-dimensional positions of interneurons that minimize the total wiring length provided that the positions of motor and sensory neurons are fixed. The rationale behind fixing motor and sensory neurons is the following: while positions of motor and sensory neurons can be influenced by the locations of muscles and sensory organs they are attached to, the main function of interneurons is to connect other neurons, and their placement could try to minimize the wiring length. Solutions for l1, l2 and squared l2–norm were obtained. For the Euclidean norm l2, the relative and absolute difference between the real and optimal total wiring lengths is minimal among these functions of distance. Additional network constraints were discussed such as assignment of different weights to electrical or chemical connections, fixation of “tail” interneurons, minimal interneural distance limitation, and others. These constraints were compared by their influence on the optimal positions of interneurons. PMID:26659722

  15. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  16. A general approach based on constrained parameter-optimization for the implicit representation of information concerning welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrakos, S.G.; Milewski, J.O.

    1998-12-01

    An analysis of weld morphology which typically occurs in deep penetration welding processes using electron or laser beams is presented. The method of analysis is based on geometric constraints with formal mathematical foundation within the theory of constrained parameter optimization. The analysis presented in this report serves as an example of the application of the geometric-constraints method to the analysis of weld fusion boundary morphology where there can be fragmented and incomplete information concerning material properties and only approximate information concerning the character of energy deposition, thus making a direct first principals approach difficult. A significant aspect of the geometric-constraints method is that it permits the implicit representation of information concerning temperature dependence of material properties and of coupling between heat transfer and fluid convection occurring in the weld meltpool.

  17. Optimization of peak kilovoltage and spectral shape for digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrig, Rebecca; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    1992-06-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the most demanding radiological techniques, simultaneously requiring excellent image quality and low dose to the breast. In current mammographic practice, both image quality and dose are found to vary over a wide range of values. Previous attempts to define the optimum operating parameters for mammography systems have been limited due to the lack of realistic attenuation coefficients and absorbed dose data. These data are now available, and have been incorporated into an energy transport model which describes the image acquisition process. The model includes measured x-ray spectra and considers beam filtration, breast thickness and composition, lesion size and composition, scatter, grid transmission, and the production and propagation of light in a phosphor-based image receptor. The applied kilovoltage for molybdenum and tungsten target x-ray sources with various spectral filters and average breast composition (50% adipose, 50% fibroglandular) has been optimized with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and absorbed dose and was found to vary between 19 and 29 kVp as breast thickness increased from 4 to 8 cm. Preliminary results for various breast compositions and lesions, and experimental verification of the model are presented. The model may be extended to include either mammographic film or new detector designs for digital mammography.

  18. A biarc-based shape optimization approach to reduce stress concentration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xia, Liang

    2014-06-01

    In order to avoid stress concentration, the shape boundary must be properly designed via shape optimization. Traditional shape optimization approach eliminates the stress concentration effect by using free-form curve to present the design boundaries without taking the machinability into consideration. In most numerical control (NC) machines, linear as well as circular interpolations are used to generate the tool path. Non-circular curves, such as nonuniform rotational B-spline (NURBS), need other more advanced interpolation functions to formulate the tool path. Forming the circular tool path by approximating the optimal free curve boundary with arcs or biarcs is another option. However, these two approaches are both at a cost of sharp expansion of program code and long machining time consequently. Motivated by the success of recent researches on biarcs, a reliable shape optimization approach is proposed in this work to directly optimize the shape boundaries with biarcs while the efficiency and precision of traditional method are preserved. Finally, the approach is validated by several illustrative examples.

  19. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  20. Correction of linear-array lidar intensity data using an optimal beam shaping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Yang, Xingyu; Zhang, Bingqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-08-01

    The linear-array lidar has been recently developed and applied for its superiority of vertically non-scanning, large field of view, high sensitivity and high precision. The beam shaper is the key component for the linear-array detection. However, the traditional beam shaping approaches can hardly satisfy our requirement for obtaining unbiased and complete backscattered intensity data. The required beam distribution should roughly be oblate U-shaped rather than Gaussian or uniform. Thus, an optimal beam shaping approach is proposed in this paper. By employing a pair of conical lenses and a cylindrical lens behind the beam expander, the expanded Gaussian laser was shaped to a line-shaped beam whose intensity distribution is more consistent with the required distribution. To provide a better fit to the requirement, off-axis method is adopted. The design of the optimal beam shaping module is mathematically explained and the experimental verification of the module performance is also presented in this paper. The experimental results indicate that the optimal beam shaping approach can effectively correct the intensity image and provide ~30% gain of detection area over traditional approach, thus improving the imaging quality of linear-array lidar.

  1. An algorithmic calibration approach to identify globally optimal parameters for constraining the DayCent model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafique, Rashid; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Kiely, Gerard; Asrar, Ghassem R.

    2015-02-01

    he accurate calibration of complex biogeochemical models is essential for the robust estimation of soil greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as other environmental conditions and parameters that are used in research and policy decisions. DayCent is a popular biogeochemical model used both nationally and internationally for this purpose. Despite DayCent’s popularity, its complex parameter estimation is often based on experts’ knowledge which is somewhat subjective. In this study we used the inverse modelling parameter estimation software (PEST), to calibrate the DayCent model based on sensitivity and identifi- ability analysis. Using previously published N2 O and crop yield data as a basis of our calibration approach, we found that half of the 140 parameters used in this study were the primary drivers of calibration dif- ferences (i.e. the most sensitive) and the remaining parameters could not be identified given the data set and parameter ranges we used in this study. The post calibration results showed improvement over the pre-calibration parameter set based on, a decrease in residual differences 79% for N2O fluxes and 84% for crop yield, and an increase in coefficient of determination 63% for N2O fluxes and 72% for corn yield. The results of our study suggest that future studies need to better characterize germination tem- perature, number of degree-days and temperature dependency of plant growth; these processes were highly sensitive and could not be adequately constrained by the data used in our study. Furthermore, the sensitivity and identifiability analysis was helpful in providing deeper insight for important processes and associated parameters that can lead to further improvement in calibration of DayCent model.

  2. Three-dimensional shape optimization of a cemented hip stem and experimental validations.

    PubMed

    Higa, Masaru; Tanino, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Ikuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Matsuno, Takeo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes novel optimized stem geometry with low stress values in the cement using a finite element (FE) analysis combined with an optimization procedure and experimental measurements of cement stress in vitro. We first optimized an existing stem geometry using a three-dimensional FE analysis combined with a shape optimization technique. One of the most important factors in the cemented stem design is to reduce stress in the cement. Hence, in the optimization study, we minimized the largest tensile principal stress in the cement mantle under a physiological loading condition by changing the stem geometry. As the next step, the optimized stem and the existing stem were manufactured to validate the usefulness of the numerical models and the results of the optimization in vitro. In the experimental study, strain gauges were embedded in the cement mantle to measure the strain in the cement mantle adjacent to the stems. The overall trend of the experimental study was in good agreement with the results of the numerical study, and we were able to reduce the largest stress by more than 50% in both shape optimization and strain gauge measurements. Thus, we could validate the usefulness of the numerical models and the results of the optimization using the experimental models. The optimization employed in this study is a useful approach for developing new stem designs. PMID:25320015

  3. Contribution to the optimal shape design of two-dimensional internal flows with embedded shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iollo, Angelo; Salas, Manuel D.

    1995-01-01

    We explore the practicability of optimal shape design for flows modeled by the Euler equations. We define a functional whose minimum represents the optimality condition. The gradient of the functional with respect to the geometry is calculated with the Lagrange multipliers, which are determined by solving a co-state equation. The optimization problem is then examined by comparing the performance of several gradient-based optimization algorithms. In this formulation, the flow field can be computed to an arbitrary order of accuracy. Finally, some results for internal flows with embedded shocks are presented, including a case for which the solution to the inverse problem does not belong to the design space.

  4. Optimal shapes of surface-slip driven self-propelled swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilfan, Andrej; Osterman, Natan

    2012-11-01

    If one defines the swimming efficiency of a microorganism as the power needed to move it against viscous drag, divided by the total dissipated power, one usually finds values no better than 1%. In order to find out how close this is to the theoretically achievable optimum, we first introduced a new efficiency measure at the level of a single cilium or an infinite ciliated surface and numerically determined the optimal beating patterns according to this criterion. In the following we also determined the optimal shape of a swimmer such that the total power is minimal while maintaining the volume and the swimming speed. The resulting shape depends strongly on the allowed maximum curvature. When sufficient curvature is allowed the optimal swimmer exhibits two protrusions along the symmetry axis. The results show that prolate swimmers such as Paramecium have an efficiency that is ~ 20% higher than that of a spherical body, whereas some microorganisms have shapes that allow even higher efficiency.

  5. Using High Resolution Design Spaces for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains why high resolution design spaces encourage traditional airfoil optimization algorithms to generate noisy shape modifications, which lead to inaccurate linear predictions of aerodynamic coefficients and potential failure of descent methods. By using auxiliary drag constraints for a simultaneous drag reduction at all design points and the least shape distortion to achieve the targeted drag reduction, an improved algorithm generates relatively smooth optimal airfoils with no severe off-design performance degradation over a range of flight conditions, in high resolution design spaces parameterized by cubic B-spline functions. Simulation results using FUN2D in Euler flows are included to show the capability of the robust aerodynamic shape optimization method over a range of flight conditions.

  6. Direct method for the design of optimal three-dimensional aerodynamic shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, N. P.; Kraiko, A. A.; P'yankov, K. S.

    2012-11-01

    A direct optimization method for a broad class of three-dimensional aerodynamic shapes based on the approximation of the desired geometry by Bernstein-Bézier surfaces is developed. The high efficiency of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the design of an optimal supersonic section of an axisymmetric maximum-thrust de Laval nozzle. The method is also tested as applied to the design of a three-dimensional supersonic nozzle section in a dense multi-nozzle setup. In addition to three-dimensional supersonic nozzle sections with a circular throat, nozzles with a varying throat shape are considered. The results suggest that the method can be applied to various problems of 3D shape optimization.

  7. Optimization of the heating surface shape in the contact melting problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomin, Sergei A.; Cheng, Shangmo

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of contact melting by the migrating heat source with an arbitrary shaped isothermal heating surface is presented. After the substantiated simplification, the governing equations are transformed to the convenient equations for engineering calculations relationships. Analytical solutions are used for numerical prediction of optimal shape of the heating surface. The problem is investigated for the constant and for temperature dependent physical properties of the melt.

  8. A multi-fidelity analysis selection method using a constrained discrete optimization formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stults, Ian C.

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method for selecting the fidelity of contributing analyses in computer simulations. Model uncertainty is a significant component of result validity, yet it is neglected in most conceptual design studies. When it is considered, it is done so in only a limited fashion, and therefore brings the validity of selections made based on these results into question. Neglecting model uncertainty can potentially cause costly redesigns of concepts later in the design process or can even cause program cancellation. Rather than neglecting it, if one were to instead not only realize the model uncertainty in tools being used but also use this information to select the tools for a contributing analysis, studies could be conducted more efficiently and trust in results could be quantified. Methods for performing this are generally not rigorous or traceable, and in many cases the improvement and additional time spent performing enhanced calculations are washed out by less accurate calculations performed downstream. The intent of this research is to resolve this issue by providing a method which will minimize the amount of time spent conducting computer simulations while meeting accuracy and concept resolution requirements for results. In many conceptual design programs, only limited data is available for quantifying model uncertainty. Because of this data sparsity, traditional probabilistic means for quantifying uncertainty should be reconsidered. This research proposes to instead quantify model uncertainty using an evidence theory formulation (also referred to as Dempster-Shafer theory) in lieu of the traditional probabilistic approach. Specific weaknesses in using evidence theory for quantifying model uncertainty are identified and addressed for the purposes of the Fidelity Selection Problem. A series of experiments was conducted to address these weaknesses using n-dimensional optimization test functions. These experiments found that model

  9. Optimization and control of the plasma shape and current profile in noncircular cross-section tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.H.; Dobrott, D.R.; Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.; Pfeiffer, W.; Waltz, R.E.; Wang, T.S.

    1980-06-01

    High-..beta.. equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analyzed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analyzed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high ..beta.. is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of ..beta../sub poloidal/ approx. =1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest ..beta.. limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral beam heating, and electron cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum ..beta.. predicted by the MHD theory.

  10. Numerical optimization approaches of single-pulse conduction laser welding by beam shape tailoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, J.; Kaplan, A. F. H.; Shachaf, L.; Brodsky, A.; Kong, C.; Blackburn, J.; Assuncao, E.; Quintino, L.

    2016-04-01

    While circular laser beams are usually applied in laser welding, for certain applications tailoring of the laser beam shape, e.g. by diffractive optical elements, can optimize the process. A case where overlap conduction mode welding should be used to produce a C-shaped joint was studied. For the dimensions studied in this paper, the weld joint deviated significantly from the C-shape of the single-pulse laser beam. Because of the complex heat flow interactions, the process requires optimization. Three approaches for extracting quantitative indicators for understanding the essential heat flow contributions process and for optimizing the C-shape of the weld and of the laser beam were studied and compared. While integral energy properties through a control volume and temperature gradients at key locations only partially describe the heat flow behaviour, the geometrical properties of the melt pool isotherm proved to be the most reliable method for optimization. While pronouncing the C-ends was not sufficient, an additional enlargement of the laser beam produced the desired C-shaped weld joint. The approach is analysed and the potential for generalization is discussed.

  11. Optimal shaping of acoustic resonators for the generation of high-amplitude standing waves.

    PubMed

    Červenka, Milan; Šoltés, Martin; Bednařík, Michal

    2014-09-01

    Within this paper, optimal shaping of acoustic resonators for the generation of high-amplitude standing waves through the use of evolutionary algorithms is discussed. The resonator shapes are described using sets of control points interconnected with cubic-splines. Positions of the control points are calculated by means of an evolutionary algorithm in order to maximize acoustic pressure amplitude at a given point of the resonator cavity. As an objective function for the optimization procedure, numerical solution of one-dimensional linear wave equation taking into account boundary-layer dissipation is used. Resonator shapes maximizing acoustic pressure amplitude are found in case of a piston, shaker, or loudspeaker driving. It is shown that the optimum resonator shapes depend on the method of driving. In all the cases, acoustic field attains higher amplitude in the optimized resonators than in simple-shaped non-optimized resonators of similar dimensions. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data in the case of a loudspeaker driving, good agreement of which is achieved. PMID:25190376

  12. Tooth shape optimization of brushless permanent magnet motors for reducing torque ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Liang-Yi; Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a tooth shape optimization method based on a generic algorithm to reduce the torque ripple of brushless permanent magnet motors under two different magnetization directions. The analysis of this design method mainly focuses on magnetic saturation and cogging torque and the computation of the optimization process is based on an equivalent magnetic network circuit. The simulation results, obtained from the finite element analysis, are used to confirm the accuracy and performance. Finite element analysis results from different tooth shapes are compared to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Li, N

    2014-09-01

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator-prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. PMID:24713876

  14. A Numerical Comparison of Barrier and Modified Barrier Methods for Large-Scale Bound-Constrained Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Stephen G.; Polyak, R.; Sofer, Ariela

    1994-01-01

    When a classical barrier method is applied to the solution of a nonlinear programming problem with inequality constraints, the Hessian matrix of the barrier function becomes increasingly ill-conditioned as the solution is approached. As a result, it may be desirable to consider alternative numerical algorithms. We compare the performance of two methods motivated by barrier functions. The first is a stabilized form of the classical barrier method, where a numerically stable approximation to the Newton direction is used when the barrier parameter is small. The second is a modified barrier method where a barrier function is applied to a shifted form of the problem, and the resulting barrier terms are scaled by estimates of the optimal Lagrange multipliers. The condition number of the Hessian matrix of the resulting modified barrier function remains bounded as the solution to the constrained optimization problem is approached. Both of these techniques can be used in the context of a truncated-Newton method, and hence can be applied to large problems, as well as on parallel computers. In this paper, both techniques are applied to problems with bound constraints and we compare their practical behavior.

  15. Cross-layer protocols optimized for real-time multimedia services in energy-constrained mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2003-07-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) supports self-organizing, mobile infrastructures and enables an autonomous network of mobile nodes that can operate without a wired backbone. Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop, wireless connectivity via packet radios and by the need for efficient dynamic protocols. All routers are mobile and can establish connectivity with other nodes only when they are within transmission range. Importantly, ad hoc wireless nodes are resource-constrained, having limited processing, memory, and battery capacity. Delivery of high quality-ofservice (QoS), real-time multimedia services from Internet-based applications over a MANET is a challenge not yet achieved by proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ad hoc network protocols in terms of standard performance metrics such as end-to-end throughput, packet error rate, and delay. In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across MANET protocol layers, in particular, the physical, media access control (MAC), network, and application layers. The QoS requirements are specified for the service classes by the application layer. The cross-layer design must also satisfy the battery-limited energy constraints, by minimizing the distributed power consumption at the nodes and of selected routes. Interactions across the layers are modeled in terms of the set of concatenated design parameters including associated energy costs. Functional dependencies of the QoS metrics are described in terms of the concatenated control parameters. New cross-layer designs are sought that optimize layer interdependencies to achieve the "best" QoS available in an energy-constrained, time-varying network. The protocol design, based on a reactive MANET protocol, adapts the provisioned QoS to dynamic network conditions and residual energy capacities. The cross-layer optimization is based on stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from time-dependent models of

  16. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  17. Exploring the relationship between vibrational mode locality and coupling using constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Andrew; Smereka, Peter; Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of alternate coordinate systems as a means to improve the efficiency and accuracy of anharmonic vibrational structure analysis has seen renewed interest in recent years. While normal modes (which diagonalize the mass-weighted Hessian matrix) are a typical choice, the delocalized nature of this basis makes it less optimal when anharmonicity is in play. When a set of modes is not designed to treat anharmonicity, anharmonic effects will contribute to inter-mode coupling in an uncontrolled fashion. These effects can be mitigated by introducing locality, but this comes at its own cost of potentially large second-order coupling terms. Herein, a method is described which partially localizes vibrations to connect the fully delocalized and fully localized limits. This allows a balance between the treatment of harmonic and anharmonic coupling, which minimizes the error that arises from neglected coupling terms. Partially localized modes are investigated for a range of model systems including a tetramer of hydrogen fluoride, water dimer, ethene, diphenylethane, and stilbene. Generally, partial localization reaches ˜75% of maximal locality while introducing less than ˜30% of the harmonic coupling of the fully localized system. Furthermore, partial localization produces mode pairs that are spatially separated and thus weakly coupled to one another. It is likely that this property can be exploited in the creation of model Hamiltonians that omit the coupling parameters of the distant (and therefore uncoupled) pairs.

  18. Scheduling Multilevel Deadline-Constrained Scientific Workflows on Clouds Based on Cost Optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malawski, Maciej; Figiela, Kamil; Bubak, Marian; Deelman, Ewa; Nabrzyski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a cost optimization model for scheduling scientific workflows on IaaS clouds such as Amazon EC2 or RackSpace. We assume multiple IaaS clouds with heterogeneous virtual machine instances, with limited number of instances per cloud and hourly billing. Input and output data are stored on a cloud object store such as Amazon S3. Applications are scientific workflows modeled as DAGs as in the Pegasus Workflow Management System. We assume that tasks in the workflows are grouped into levels of identical tasks. Our model is specified using mathematical programming languages (AMPL and CMPL) and allows us to minimize themore » cost of workflow execution under deadline constraints. We present results obtained using our model and the benchmark workflows representing real scientific applications in a variety of domains. The data used for evaluation come from the synthetic workflows and from general purpose cloud benchmarks, as well as from the data measured in our own experiments with Montage, an astronomical application, executed on Amazon EC2 cloud. We indicate how this model can be used for scenarios that require resource planning for scientific workflows and their ensembles.« less

  19. Exploring the relationship between vibrational mode locality and coupling using constrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Molina, Andrew; Smereka, Peter; Zimmerman, Paul M

    2016-03-28

    The use of alternate coordinate systems as a means to improve the efficiency and accuracy of anharmonic vibrational structure analysis has seen renewed interest in recent years. While normal modes (which diagonalize the mass-weighted Hessian matrix) are a typical choice, the delocalized nature of this basis makes it less optimal when anharmonicity is in play. When a set of modes is not designed to treat anharmonicity, anharmonic effects will contribute to inter-mode coupling in an uncontrolled fashion. These effects can be mitigated by introducing locality, but this comes at its own cost of potentially large second-order coupling terms. Herein, a method is described which partially localizes vibrations to connect the fully delocalized and fully localized limits. This allows a balance between the treatment of harmonic and anharmonic coupling, which minimizes the error that arises from neglected coupling terms. Partially localized modes are investigated for a range of model systems including a tetramer of hydrogen fluoride, water dimer, ethene, diphenylethane, and stilbene. Generally, partial localization reaches ∼75% of maximal locality while introducing less than ∼30% of the harmonic coupling of the fully localized system. Furthermore, partial localization produces mode pairs that are spatially separated and thus weakly coupled to one another. It is likely that this property can be exploited in the creation of model Hamiltonians that omit the coupling parameters of the distant (and therefore uncoupled) pairs. PMID:27036431

  20. Copy number variants calling for single cell sequencing data by multi-constrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Cai, Hongmin; Zhang, Changsheng; Yang, Xi; Han, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    Variations in DNA copy number carry important information on genome evolution and regulation of DNA replication in cancer cells. The rapid development of single-cell sequencing technology allows one to explore gene expression heterogeneity among single-cells, thus providing important cancer cell evolution information. Single-cell DNA/RNA sequencing data usually have low genome coverage, which requires an extra step of amplification to accumulate enough samples. However, such amplification will introduce large bias and makes bioinformatics analysis challenging. Accurately modeling the distribution of sequencing data and effectively suppressing the bias influence is the key to success variations analysis. Recent advances demonstrate the technical noises by amplification are more likely to follow negative binomial distribution, a special case of Poisson distribution. Thus, we tackle the problem CNV detection by formulating it into a quadratic optimization problem involving two constraints, in which the underling signals are corrupted by Poisson distributed noises. By imposing the constraints of sparsity and smoothness, the reconstructed read depth signals from single-cell sequencing data are anticipated to fit the CNVs patterns more accurately. An efficient numerical solution based on the classical alternating direction minimization method (ADMM) is tailored to solve the proposed model. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method using both synthetic and empirical single-cell sequencing data. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves excellent performance and high promise of success with single-cell sequencing data. PMID:26923213

  1. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Real-Number-Encoded Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for aerodynamic shape optimization using a genetic algorithm with real number encoding is presented. The algorithm is used to optimize three different problems, a simple hill climbing problem, a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem using an Euler equation solver and a three-dimensional transonic wing problem using a nonlinear potential solver. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement and extremely reliable, being relatively insensitive to design space noise.

  2. Shape Optimization of Supersonic Turbines Using Response Surface and Neural Network Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei; Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Turbine performance directly affects engine specific impulse, thrust-to-weight ratio, and cost in a rocket propulsion system. A global optimization framework combining the radial basis neural network (RBNN) and the polynomial-based response surface method (RSM) is constructed for shape optimization of a supersonic turbine. Based on the optimized preliminary design, shape optimization is performed for the first vane and blade of a 2-stage supersonic turbine, involving O(10) design variables. The design of experiment approach is adopted to reduce the data size needed by the optimization task. It is demonstrated that a major merit of the global optimization approach is that it enables one to adaptively revise the design space to perform multiple optimization cycles. This benefit is realized when an optimal design approaches the boundary of a pre-defined design space. Furthermore, by inspecting the influence of each design variable, one can also gain insight into the existence of multiple design choices and select the optimum design based on other factors such as stress and materials considerations.

  3. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M. Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  4. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R D; Arango, C A; Reyes, A

    2016-07-21

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies. PMID:27448862

  5. Constraining the Physical Properties of Meteor Stream Particles by Light Curve Shapes Using the Virtual Meteor Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koschny, D.; Gritsevich, M.; Barentsen, G.

    2011-01-01

    Different authors have produced models for the physical properties of meteoroids based on the shape of a meteor's light curve, typically from short observing campaigns. We here analyze the height profiles and light curves of approx.200 double-station meteors from the Leonids and Perseids using data from the Virtual Meteor Observatory, to demonstrate that with this web-based meteor database it is possible to analyze very large datasets from different authors in a consistent way. We compute the average heights for begin point, maximum luminosity, and end heights for Perseids and Leonids. We also compute the skew of the light curve, usually called the F-parameter. The results compare well with other author's data. We display the average light curve in a novel way to assess the light curve shape in addition to using the F-parameter. While the Perseids show a peaked light curve, the average Leonid light curve has a more flat peak. This indicates that the particle distribution of Leonid meteors can be described by a Gaussian distribution; the Perseids can be described with a power law. The skew for Leonids is smaller than for Perseids, indicating that the Leonids are more fragile than the Perseids.

  6. Three-dimensional canard-wing shape optimization in aircraft cruise and maneuver environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Silva, B. M. E.; Carmichael, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a numerical technique for canard-wing shape optimization at two operating conditions. For purposes of simplicity, a mean surface wing paneling code is employed for the aerodynamic calculations. The optimization procedures are based on the method of feasible directions. The shape functions for describing the thickness, camber, and twist are based on polynomial representations. The primary design requirements imposed restrictions on the canard and wing volumes and on the lift coefficients at the operating conditions. Results indicate that significant improvements in minimum drag and lift-to-drag ratio are possible with reasonable aircraft geometries. Calculations were done for supersonic speeds with Mach numbers ranging from 1 to 6. Planforms were mainly of a delta shape with aspect ratio of 1.

  7. A Numerical Methodology for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization in Turbulent Flow Enabling Large Geometric Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osusky, Lana Maria

    The increase in the availability and power of computational resources over the last fifteen years has contributed to the development of many different types of numerical optimization methods and created a large area of research focussed on numerical aerodynamic shape optimization and, more recently, high-fidelity multidisciplinary optimization. Numerical optimization provides dramatic savings when designing new aerodynamic configurations, as it allows the designer to focus more on the development of a well-posed design problem rather than on performing an exhaustive search of the design space via the traditional cut-and-try approach, which is expensive and time-consuming. It also reduces the dependence on the designer's experience and intuition, which can potentially lead to more optimal designs. Numerical optimization methods are particularly attractive when designing novel, unconventional aircraft for which the designer has no pre-existing studies or experiences from which to draw; these methods have the potential to discover new designs that might never have been arrived at without optimization. This work presents an extension of an efficient gradient-based numerical aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm to enable optimization in turbulent flow. The algorithm includes an integrated geometry parameterization and mesh movement scheme, an efficient parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur algorithm for solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, which are fully coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, and a discrete-adjoint gradient evaluation. In order to develop an efficient methodology for optimization in turbulent flows, the viscous and turbulent terms in the ii governing equations were linearized by hand. Additionally, a set of mesh refinement tools was introduced in order to obtain both an acceptable control volume mesh and a sufficiently refined computational mesh from an initial coarse mesh. A series of drag minimization

  8. Optimized comb-drive finger shape for shock-resistant actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, Johan B. C.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2010-10-01

    This work presents the analytical solution, finite-element analysis, realization and measurement of comb drives with finger shapes optimized for shock-resistant actuation. The available force for actuating an external load determines how large shock forces can be compensated for. The optimized finger shape provides much more available force than the standard straight finger shape, especially at large displacements. A graphical method is presented to determine whether stable voltage control is possible for a given available force curve. An analytical expression is presented for the finger shape that provides a constant large available force over the actuation range. The new finger shape is asymmetric, and the unit-cell width is equal to the unit-cell width of standard straight fingers that are commonly used, and can be used in all applications where a large force is required. Because the unit-cell width is not increased, straight fingers can be replaced by the new finger shape without changing the rest of the design. It is especially suited for shock-resistant positioning and for applications where a constant force is desired.

  9. Optimal ligand descriptor for pocket recognition based on the Beta-shape.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwan; Won, Chung-In; Cha, Jehyun; Lee, Kichun; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is one of the most important and common computational methods for the identification of predicted hit at the beginning of drug discovery. Pocket recognition and definition is frequently a prerequisite of structure-based virtual screening, reducing the search space of the predicted protein-ligand complex. In this paper, we present an optimal ligand shape descriptor for a pocket recognition algorithm based on the beta-shape, which is a derivative structure of the Voronoi diagram of atoms. We investigate six candidates for a shape descriptor for a ligand using statistical analysis: the minimum enclosing sphere, three measures from the principal component analysis of atoms, the van der Waals volume, and the beta-shape volume. Among them, the van der Waals volume of a ligand is the optimal shape descriptor for pocket recognition and best tunes the pocket recognition algorithm based on the beta-shape for efficient virtual screening. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by a benchmark test. PMID:25835497

  10. Efficient Gradient-Based Shape Optimization Methodology Using Inviscid/Viscous CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1997-01-01

    The formerly developed preconditioned-biconjugate-gradient (PBCG) solvers for the analysis and the sensitivity equations had resulted in very large error reductions per iteration; quadratic convergence was achieved whenever the solution entered the domain of attraction to the root. Its memory requirement was also lower as compared to a direct inversion solver. However, this memory requirement was high enough to preclude the realistic, high grid-density design of a practical 3D geometry. This limitation served as the impetus to the first-year activity (March 9, 1995 to March 8, 1996). Therefore, the major activity for this period was the development of the low-memory methodology for the discrete-sensitivity-based shape optimization. This was accomplished by solving all the resulting sets of equations using an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) approach. The results indicated that shape optimization problems which required large numbers of grid points could be resolved with a gradient-based approach. Therefore, to better utilize the computational resources, it was recommended that a number of coarse grid cases, using the PBCG method, should initially be conducted to better define the optimization problem and the design space, and obtain an improved initial shape. Subsequently, a fine grid shape optimization, which necessitates using the ADI method, should be conducted to accurately obtain the final optimized shape. The other activity during this period was the interaction with the members of the Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Methods Branch of Langley Research Center during one stage of their investigation to develop an adjoint-variable sensitivity method using the viscous flow equations. This method had algorithmic similarities to the variational sensitivity methods and the control-theory approach. However, unlike the prior studies, it was considered for the three-dimensional, viscous flow equations. The major accomplishment in the second period of this project

  11. Shape optimization of pulsatile ventricular assist devices using FSI to minimize thrombotic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. C.; Marsden, A. L.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we perform shape optimization of a pediatric pulsatile ventricular assist device (PVAD). The device simulation is carried out using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling techniques within a computational framework that combines FEM for fluid mechanics and isogeometric analysis for structural mechanics modeling. The PVAD FSI simulations are performed under realistic conditions (i.e., flow speeds, pressure levels, boundary conditions, etc.), and account for the interaction of air, blood, and a thin structural membrane separating the two fluid subdomains. The shape optimization study is designed to reduce thrombotic risk, a major clinical problem in PVADs. Thrombotic risk is quantified in terms of particle residence time in the device blood chamber. Methods to compute particle residence time in the context of moving spatial domains are presented in a companion paper published in the same issue (Comput Mech, doi: 10.1007/s00466-013-0931-y, 2013). The surrogate management framework, a derivative-free pattern search optimization method that relies on surrogates for increased efficiency, is employed in this work. For the optimization study shown here, particle residence time is used to define a suitable cost or objective function, while four adjustable design optimization parameters are used to define the device geometry. The FSI-based optimization framework is implemented in a parallel computing environment, and deployed with minimal user intervention. Using five SEARCH/ POLL steps the optimization scheme identifies a PVAD design with significantly better throughput efficiency than the original device.

  12. Demonstration of Automatically-Generated Adjoint Code for Use in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence; Carle, Alan; Fagan, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Gradient-based optimization requires accurate derivatives of the objective function and constraints. These gradients may have previously been obtained by manual differentiation of analysis codes, symbolic manipulators, finite-difference approximations, or existing automatic differentiation (AD) tools such as ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation in FORTRAN). Each of these methods has certain deficiencies, particularly when applied to complex, coupled analyses with many design variables. Recently, a new AD tool called ADJIFOR (Automatic Adjoint Generation in FORTRAN), based upon ADIFOR, was developed and demonstrated. Whereas ADIFOR implements forward-mode (direct) differentiation throughout an analysis program to obtain exact derivatives via the chain rule of calculus, ADJIFOR implements the reverse-mode counterpart of the chain rule to obtain exact adjoint form derivatives from FORTRAN code. Automatically-generated adjoint versions of the widely-used CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an algebraic wing grid generation code were obtained with just a few hours processing time using the ADJIFOR tool. The codes were verified for accuracy and were shown to compute the exact gradient of the wing lift-to-drag ratio, with respect to any number of shape parameters, in about the time required for 7 to 20 function evaluations. The codes have now been executed on various computers with typical memory and disk space for problems with up to 129 x 65 x 33 grid points, and for hundreds to thousands of independent variables. These adjoint codes are now used in a gradient-based aerodynamic shape optimization problem for a swept, tapered wing. For each design iteration, the optimization package constructs an approximate, linear optimization problem, based upon the current objective function, constraints, and gradient values. The optimizer subroutines are called within a design loop employing the approximate linear problem until an optimum shape is found, the design loop

  13. Shape optimization of the diffuser blade of an axial blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lailai; Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been a viable and effective way to predict hydraulic performance, flow field, and shear stress distribution within a blood pump. We developed an axial blood pump with CFD and carried out a CFD-based shape optimization of the diffuser blade to enhance pressure output and diminish backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region at a fixed design point. Our optimization combined a computer-aided design package, a mesh generator, and a CFD solver in an automation environment with process integration and optimization software. A genetic optimization algorithm was employed to find the pareto-optimal designs from which we could make trade-off decisions. Finally, a set of representative designs was analyzed and compared on the basis of the energy equation. The role of the inlet angle of the diffuser blade was analyzed, accompanied by its relationship with pressure output and backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region. PMID:20447042

  14. Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene J.-W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics. The focus here is on those methods particularly well- suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.

  15. Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J.-W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The focus here is on those methods particularly well-suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid CFD algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid CFDs in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.

  16. Optimal design for fluidic systems: Topology and shape optimization with the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingen, Georg

    The objective of this work is the development of a formal design approach for fluidic systems, providing conceptually novel design layouts with the provision of only boundary conditions and some basic parameters. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is chosen as a flow model due to its simplicity, inherent use of immersed boundary methods, parallelizability, and general flexibility. Immersed Boundary Methods in the form of a Brinkmann penalization are used to continuously vary the flow from fluid to solid, leading to a material distribution based boundary representation. An analytical adjoint sensitivity analysis is derived for the lattice Boltzmann method, enabling the combination of the lattice Boltzmann method with optimization techniques. This results in the first application of design optimization with the lattice Boltzmann method. In particular, the first LBM topology optimization framework for 2D and 3D problems is developed and validated with numerical design optimization problems for drag and pressure drop minimization. To improve the parallel scalability of the LBM sensitivity analysis and permit the solution of large 2D and 3D problems, iterative solvers are studied and a parallel GMRES Schur Complement method is applied to the solution of the linear adjoint problem in the LBM sensitivity analysis. This leads to improved parallel scalability through reduced memory use and algorithmic speedup. The potential of the developed design approach for fluidic systems is illustrated with the optimization of a 3D dual-objective fixed-geometry valve. The use of a parametric level-set method coupled with the LBM material distribution based topology optimization framework is shown to provide further versatility for design applications. Finally, the use of a penalty formulation of the fluid volume constraint permits the topology optimization of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers for a steady-state pipe bend application. Concluding, this work has led to the development of

  17. Shape optimization of axisymmetric solids with the finite cell method using a fixed grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xu, Zhao; Cai, Shou-Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a design procedure extending the B-spline based finite cell method into shape optimization is developed for axisymmetric solids involving the centrifugal force effect. We first replace the traditional conforming mesh in the finite element method with structured cells that are fixed during the whole design process with a view to avoid the sophisticated re-meshing and eventual mesh distortion. Then, B-spline shape functions are further implemented to yield a high-order continuity field along the cell boundary in stress analysis. By means of the implicit description of the shape boundary, stress sensitivity is analytically derived with respect to shape design variables. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed protocol by several numerical test cases as well as a whole design procedure carried out on an aeronautic turbine disk.

  18. Shape optimization of axisymmetric solids with the finite cell method using a fixed grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xu, Zhao; Cai, Shou-Hu

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a design procedure extending the B-spline based finite cell method into shape optimization is developed for axisymmetric solids involving the centrifugal force effect. We first replace the traditional conforming mesh in the finite element method with structured cells that are fixed during the whole design process with a view to avoid the sophisticated re-meshing and eventual mesh distortion. Then, B-spline shape functions are further implemented to yield a high-order continuity field along the cell boundary in stress analysis. By means of the implicit description of the shape boundary, stress sensitivity is analytically derived with respect to shape design variables. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed protocol by several numerical test cases as well as a whole design procedure carried out on an aeronautic turbine disk.

  19. An Algorithm for Real-Time Optimal Photocurrent Estimation Including Transient Detection for Resource-Constrained Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Michael; Crill, Brendan; Ryan, Matthew; Staniszewski, Zak

    2016-06-01

    Mega-pixel charge-integrating detectors are common in near-IR imaging applications. Optimal signal-to-noise ratio estimates of the photocurrents, which are particularly important in the low-signal regime, are produced by fitting linear models to sequential reads of the charge on the detector. Algorithms that solve this problem have a long history, but can be computationally intensive. Furthermore, the cosmic ray background is appreciable for these detectors in Earth orbit, particularly above the Earth’s magnetic poles and the South Atlantic Anomaly, and on-board reduction routines must be capable of flagging affected pixels. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates optimal photocurrent estimates and flags random transient charge generation from cosmic rays, and is specifically designed to fit on a computationally restricted platform. We take as a case study the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx), a NASA Small Explorer astrophysics experiment concept, and show that the algorithm can easily fit in the resource-constrained environment of such a restricted platform. Detailed simulations of the input astrophysical signals and detector array performance are used to characterize the fitting routines in the presence of complex noise properties and charge transients. We use both Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera-3 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to develop an empirical understanding of the susceptibility of near-IR detectors in low earth orbit and build a model for realistic cosmic ray energy spectra and rates. We show that our algorithm generates an unbiased estimate of the true photocurrent that is identical to that from a standard line fitting package, and characterize the rate, energy, and timing of both detected and undetected transient events. This algorithm has significant potential for imaging with charge-integrating detectors in astrophysics, earth science, and remote

  20. Constrained optimization by radial basis function interpolation for high-dimensional expensive black-box problems with infeasible initial points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Rommel G.

    2014-02-01

    This article develops two new algorithms for constrained expensive black-box optimization that use radial basis function surrogates for the objective and constraint functions. These algorithms are called COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF and, unlike previous surrogate-based approaches, they can be used for high-dimensional problems where all initial points are infeasible. They both follow a two-phase approach where the first phase finds a feasible point while the second phase improves this feasible point. COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF are compared with alternative methods on 20 test problems and on the MOPTA08 benchmark automotive problem (D.R. Jones, Presented at MOPTA 2008), which has 124 decision variables and 68 black-box inequality constraints. The alternatives include a sequential penalty derivative-free algorithm, a direct search method with kriging surrogates, and two multistart methods. Numerical results show that COBRA algorithms are competitive with Extended ConstrLMSRBF and they generally outperform the alternatives on the MOPTA08 problem and most of the test problems.

  1. Effects of Loading and Constraining Conditions on the Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of NiTi Shape Memory Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè Mammano, G.; Dragoni, E.

    2014-07-01

    The availability of engineering strength data on shape memory alloys (SMAs) under cyclic thermal activation (thermomechanical fatigue) is central to the rational design of smart actuators based on these materials. Test results on SMAs under thermomechanical fatigue are scarce in the technical literature, and even the few data that are available are mainly limited to constant-stress loading. Since the SMA elements used within actuators are normally biased by elastic springs or by antagonist SMA elements, their stress states are far from being constant in operation. The mismatch between actual working conditions and laboratory settings leads to suboptimal designs and undermines the prediction of the actuator lifetime. This paper aims at bridging the gap between experiment and reality by completing an experimental campaign involving four fatigue test conditions, which cover most of the typical situations occurring in practice: constant stress, constant-strain, constant stress with limited maximum strain, and linear stress-strain variation with limited maximum strain. The results from the first three test settings, recovered from the previously published works, are critically reviewed and compared with the outcome of the newly performed tests under the fourth arrangement (linear stress-strain variation). General design recommendations emerging from the experimental data are put forward for engineering use.

  2. Design Optimization of Mixed-flow Pump Impellers and Diffusers in a Fixed Meridional Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung; Choi, Young-Seok; Lee, Kyoung-Yong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, design optimization for mixed-flow pump impellers and diffusers has been studied by using a commercial CFD code and DOE(design of experiments). We also discussed how to improve the performance of the mixed-flow pump by designing the impeller and diffuser in the mixed-flow pump. Geometric design variables were defined by the vane plane development which indicates the blade-angle distributions and length of the impeller and the diffusers. The vane plane development was controlled by using blade-angle in a fixed meridional shape. First the design optimization of the defined impeller geometric variables was done, and then the flow characteristics were analyzed in the point of incidence angle at the diffuser leading edge for the optimized impeller. Then design optimizations of the defined diffuser shape variables were performed. The importance of the geometric design variables was analyzed by using 2k factorial designs, and the design optimization of the geometric variables were determined using the response surface method. The objective functions are defined as the total head and the total efficiency at the design flow-rate. From the comparison of CFD results between optimized pump and base design model, the reason for the performance improvement was discussed.

  3. Optimized mirror shape tuning using beam weightings based on distance, angle of incidence, reflectivity, and power.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Kenneth A; Yashchuk, Valeriy V

    2016-05-01

    For glancing-incidence optical systems, such as short-wavelength optics used for nano-focusing, incorporating physical factors in the calculations used for shape optimization can improve performance. Wavefront metrology, including the measurement of a mirror's shape or slope, is routinely used as input for mirror figure optimization on mirrors that can be bent, actuated, positioned, or aligned. Modeling shows that when the incident power distribution, distance from focus, angle of incidence, and the spatially varying reflectivity are included in the optimization, higher Strehl ratios can be achieved. Following the works of Maréchal and Mahajan, optimization of the Strehl ratio (for peak intensity with a coherently illuminated system) occurs when the expectation value of the phase error's variance is minimized. We describe an optimization procedure based on regression analysis that incorporates these physical parameters. This approach is suitable for coherently illuminated systems of nearly diffraction-limited quality. Mathematically, this work is an enhancement of the methods commonly applied for ex situ alignment based on uniform weighting of all points on the surface (or a sub-region of the surface). It follows a similar approach to the optimization of apodized and non-uniformly illuminated optical systems. Significantly, it reaches a different conclusion than a more recent approach based on minimization of focal plane ray errors. PMID:27250372

  4. Generalizing Murray's law: An optimization principle for fluidic networks of arbitrary shape and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Patronis, Alexander; Holland, David M.; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2015-11-01

    Murray's law states that the volumetric flow rate is proportional to the cube of the radius in a cylindrical channel optimized to require the minimum work to drive and maintain the fluid. However, application of this principle to the biomimetic design of micro/nano fabricated networks requires optimization of channels with arbitrary cross-sectional shape (not just circular) and smaller than is valid for Murray's original assumptions. We present a generalized law for symmetric branching that (a) is valid for any cross-sectional shape, providing that the shape is constant through the network; (b) is valid for slip flow and plug flow occurring at very small scales; and (c) is valid for networks with a constant depth, which is often a requirement for lab-on-a-chip fabrication procedures. By considering limits of the generalized law, we show that the optimum daughter-parent area ratio Γ, for symmetric branching into N daughter channels of any constant cross-sectional shape, is Γ=N-2 /3 for large-scale channels, and Γ=N-4 /5 for channels with a characteristic length scale much smaller than the slip length. Our analytical results are verified by comparison with a numerical optimization of a two-level network model based on flow rate data obtained from a variety of sources, including Navier-Stokes slip calculations, kinetic theory data, and stochastic particle simulations.

  5. Lateral Penumbra Modelling Based Leaf End Shape Optimization for Multileaf Collimator in Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2016-01-01

    Lateral penumbra of multileaf collimator plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Growing evidence has revealed that, for a single-focused multileaf collimator, lateral penumbra width is leaf position dependent and largely attributed to the leaf end shape. In our study, an analytical method for leaf end induced lateral penumbra modelling is formulated using Tangent Secant Theory. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing algorithm, our model serves well the purpose of cost-efficient penumbra evaluation. Leaf ends represented in parametric forms of circular arc, elliptical arc, Bézier curve, and B-spline are implemented. With biobjective function of penumbra mean and variance introduced, genetic algorithm is carried out for approximating the Pareto frontier. Results show that for circular arc leaf end objective function is convex and convergence to optimal solution is guaranteed using gradient based iterative method. It is found that optimal leaf end in the shape of Bézier curve achieves minimal standard deviation, while using B-spline minimum of penumbra mean is obtained. For treatment modalities in clinical application, optimized leaf ends are in close agreement with actual shapes. Taken together, the method that we propose can provide insight into leaf end shape design of multileaf collimator. PMID:27110274

  6. Shape optimization of three-dimensional stamped and solid automotive components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, M. E.; Yang, R.-J.; Bennett, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The shape optimization of realistic, 3-D automotive components is discussed. The integration of the major parts of the total process: modeling, mesh generation, finite element and sensitivity analysis, and optimization are stressed. Stamped components and solid components are treated separately. For stamped parts a highly automated capability was developed. The problem description is based upon a parameterized boundary design element concept for the definition of the geometry. Automatic triangulation and adaptive mesh refinement are used to provide an automated analysis capability which requires only boundary data and takes into account sensitivity of the solution accuracy to boundary shape. For solid components a general extension of the 2-D boundary design element concept has not been achieved. In this case, the parameterized surface shape is provided using a generic modeling concept based upon isoparametric mapping patches which also serves as the mesh generator. Emphasis is placed upon the coupling of optimization with a commercially available finite element program. To do this it is necessary to modularize the program architecture and obtain shape design sensitivities using the material derivative approach so that only boundary solution data is needed.

  7. Multi-objective shape optimization of runner blade for Kaplan turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, A.; Chirkov, D.; Lyutov, A.; Chemy, S.; Skorospelov, V.; Pylev, I.

    2014-03-01

    Automatic runner shape optimization based on extensive CFD analysis proved to be a useful design tool in hydraulic turbomachinery. Previously the authors developed an efficient method for Francis runner optimization. It was successfully applied to the design of several runners with different specific speeds. In present work this method is extended to the task of a Kaplan runner optimization. Despite of relatively simpler blade shape, Kaplan turbines have several features, complicating the optimization problem. First, Kaplan turbines normally operate in a wide range of discharges, thus CFD analysis of each variant of the runner should be carried out for several operation points. Next, due to a high specific speed, draft tube losses have a great impact on the overall turbine efficiency, and thus should be accurately evaluated. Then, the flow in blade tip and hub clearances significantly affects the velocity profile behind the runner and draft tube behavior. All these features are accounted in the present optimization technique. Parameterization of runner blade surface using 24 geometrical parameters is described in details. For each variant of runner geometry steady state three-dimensional turbulent flow computations are carried out in the domain, including wicket gate, runner, draft tube, blade tip and hub clearances. The objectives are maximization of efficiency in best efficiency and high discharge operation points, with simultaneous minimization of cavitation area on the suction side of the blade. Multiobjective genetic algorithm is used for the solution of optimization problem, requiring the analysis of several thousands of runner variants. The method is applied to optimization of runner shape for several Kaplan turbines with different heads.

  8. Optimal design at inner core of the shaped pyramidal truss structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung-Uk; Yang, Dong-Yol

    2013-12-16

    Sandwich material is a type of composite material with lightweight, high strength, good dynamic properties and high bending stiffness-to-weight ratio. This can be found well such structures in the nature (for example, internal structure of bones, plants, etc.). New trend which prefers eco-friendly products and energy efficiency is emerging in industries recently. Demand for materials with high strength and light weight is also increasing. In line with these trends, researches about manufacturing methods of sandwich material have been actively conducted. In this study, a sandwich structure named as “Shaped Pyramidal Truss Structure” is proposed to improve mechanical strength and to apply a manufacturing process suitable for massive production. The new sandwich structure was designed to enhance compressive strength by changing the cross-sectional shape at the central portion of the core. As the next step, optimization of the shape was required. Optimization technique used here was the SZGA(Successive Zooming Genetic Algorithm), which is one of GA(Genetic Algorithm) methods gradually reducing the area of design variable. The objective function was defined as moment of inertia of the cross-sectional shape of the strut. The control points of cubic Bezier curve, which was assumed to be the shape of the cross section, were used as design variables. By using FEM simulation, it was found that the structure exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to the simple design of the prior art.

  9. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  10. A genetic algorithm based multi-objective shape optimization scheme for cementless femoral implant.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Souptick; Gupta, Sanjay; Kumar Pratihar, Dilip

    2015-03-01

    The shape and geometry of femoral implant influence implant-induced periprosthetic bone resorption and implant-bone interface stresses, which are potential causes of aseptic loosening in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Development of a shape optimization scheme is necessary to achieve a trade-off between these two conflicting objectives. The objective of this study was to develop a novel multi-objective custom-based shape optimization scheme for cementless femoral implant by integrating finite element (FE) analysis and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA). The FE model of a proximal femur was based on a subject-specific CT-scan dataset. Eighteen parameters describing the nature of four key sections of the implant were identified as design variables. Two objective functions, one based on implant-bone interface failure criterion, and the other based on resorbed proximal bone mass fraction (BMF), were formulated. The results predicted by the two objective functions were found to be contradictory; a reduction in the proximal bone resorption was accompanied by a greater chance of interface failure. The resorbed proximal BMF was found to be between 23% and 27% for the trade-off geometries as compared to ∼39% for a generic implant. Moreover, the overall chances of interface failure have been minimized for the optimal designs, compared to the generic implant. The adaptive bone remodeling was also found to be minimal for the optimally designed implants and, further with remodeling, the chances of interface debonding increased only marginally. PMID:25392855

  11. PATH OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATED CATHETER FOR ENDOCARDIAL RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Jennifer H.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a real-time path optimization and control strategy for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated cardiac ablation catheters, potentially enabling the creation of more precise lesions with reduced procedure times and improved patient outcomes. Catheter tip locations and orientations are optimized using parallel genetic algorithms to produce continuous ablation paths with near normal tissue contact through physician-specified points. A nonlinear multivariable control strategy is presented to compensate for SMA hysteresis, bandwidth limitations, and coupling between system inputs. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate efficient generation of ablation paths and optimal reference trajectories. Closed-loop control of the SMA-actuated catheter along optimized ablation paths is validated experimentally. PMID:25684857

  12. Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.

  13. Optimal ultrafast laser pulse-shaping to direct photo-induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Bin; Portman, Jenni; Duxbury, Phillip

    Photo-induced phase transitions (PIPT) in quantum and/or complex materials are the epitome of challenging non-equilibrium many-body phenomena, that also have a wide range of potential applications. We present a computational approach to finding optimal ultrafast laser pulse shapes to control the outcome of pump-probe PIPT experiments. The Krotov approach for optimal control is combined with a Keldysh Green's function calculation to describe experimental outcomes such as photoemission, transient single particle density of states and optical responses. Results for a simple model charge density wave system will be presented. main author.

  14. Adjoint Algorithm for CAD-Based Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Adjoint solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape optimization. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (geometric parameters that control the shape). More recently, emerging adjoint applications focus on the analysis problem, where the adjoint solution is used to drive mesh adaptation, as well as to provide estimates of functional error bounds and corrections. The attractive feature of this approach is that the mesh-adaptation procedure targets a specific functional, thereby localizing the mesh refinement and reducing computational cost. Our focus is on the development of adjoint-based optimization techniques for a Cartesian method with embedded boundaries.12 In contrast t o implementations on structured and unstructured grids, Cartesian methods decouple the surface discretization from the volume mesh. This feature makes Cartesian methods well suited for the automated analysis of complex geometry problems, and consequently a promising approach to aerodynamic optimization. Melvin et developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the Euler equations. In both approaches, a boundary condition is introduced to approximate the effects of the evolving surface shape that results in accurate gradient computation. Central to automated shape optimization algorithms is the issue of geometry modeling and control. The need to optimize complex, "real-life" geometry provides a strong incentive for the use of parametric-CAD systems within the optimization procedure. In previous work, we presented

  15. A study of shape optimization on the metallic nanoparticles for thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The shape of metallic nanoparticles used to enhance the performance of thin-film solar cells is described by Gielis' superformula and optimized by an evolutionary algorithm. As a result, we have found a lens-like nanoparticle capable of improving the short circuit current density to 19.93 mA/cm2. Compared with a two-scale nanospherical configuration recently reported to synthesize the merits of large and small spheres into a single structure, the optimized nanoparticle enables the solar cell to achieve a further 7.75% improvement in the current density and is much more fabrication friendly due to its simple shape and tolerance to geometrical distortions. PMID:24168131

  16. Optimizing micropattern geometries for cell shape and migration with genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Albert, Philipp J; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2016-07-11

    Adhesive micropatterns have become a standard tool to control cell shape and function in cell culture. However, the variety of possible patterns is infinitely large and experiments often restrict themselves to established designs. Here we suggest a systematic method to establish novel micropatterns for desired functions using genetic algorithms. The evolutionary fitness of a certain pattern is computed using a cellular Potts model that describes cell behavior on micropattern. We first predict optimal patterns for a desired cell shape. We then optimize ratchet geometries to bias cell migration in a certain direction and find that asymmetric triangles are superior over the symmetric ones often used in experiments. Finally we design geometries which reverse the migration direction of cells when cell density increases due to cell division. PMID:27334659

  17. Controlling the Attitude Maneuvers of Flexible Spacecraft by Using Time-Optimal Shaped Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parman, S.; Koguchi, H.

    1999-04-01

    A three-dimensional rest-to-rest attitude maneuver of flexible spacecraft equipped with on-off reaction jets is studied. Equations of motion of the spacecraft are developed by using Lagrangian formulation. The finite element method is used to discretize elastic deformations of a particular model of satellite with flexible solar panels by modelling the panels as flat plate structures in bending. Under unshaped inputs, the maneuvers induce an undesirable motion of the satellite as well as vibration of the solar panels. Time-optimal and fuel-efficient input shapers are then applied to reduce the residual oscillation of its motion at several natural frequencies in order to get an expected pointing precision of the satellite. Once the shaped inputs are given to the satellite, the performance improves significantly. Results indicate that, the fuel-efficient shaped inputs give smaller maximum deflections of flexible members compared with the time-optimal ones.

  18. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  19. Joint optimization of segmentation and shape prior from level-set-based statistical shape model, and its application to the automated segmentation of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Nawano, Shigeru; Shimizu, Akinobu

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a theoretical framework for accurately optimizing the segmentation energy considering all of the possible shapes generated from the level-set-based statistical shape model (SSM). The proposed algorithm solves the well-known open problem, in which a shape prior may not be optimal in terms of an objective functional that needs to be minimized during segmentation. The algorithm allows the selection of an optimal shape prior from among all possible shapes generated from an SSM by conducting a branch-and-bound search over an eigenshape space. The proposed algorithm does not require predefined shape templates or the construction of a hierarchical clustering tree before graph-cut segmentation. It jointly optimizes an objective functional in terms of both the shape prior and segmentation labeling, and finds an optimal solution by considering all possible shapes generated from an SSM. We apply the proposed algorithm to both pancreas and spleen segmentation using multiphase computed tomography volumes, and we compare the results obtained with those produced by a conventional algorithm employing a branch-and-bound search over a search tree of predefined shapes, which were sampled discretely from an SSM. The proposed algorithm significantly improves the segmentation performance in terms of the Jaccard index and Dice similarity index. In addition, we compare the results with the state-of-the-art multiple abdominal organs segmentation algorithm, and confirmed that the performances of both algorithms are comparable to each other. We discuss the high computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm, which was determined experimentally using a normalized number of traversed nodes in a search tree, and the extensibility of the proposed algorithm to other SSMs or energy functionals. PMID:26716720

  20. Muscle force regulates bone shaping for optimal load-bearing capacity during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharir, Amnon; Stern, Tomer; Rot, Chagai; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2011-08-01

    The vertebrate skeleton consists of over 200 individual bones, each with its own unique shape, size and function. We study the role of intrauterine muscle-induced mechanical loads in determining the three-dimensional morphology of developing bones. Analysis of the force-generating capacity of intrauterine muscles in mice revealed that developing bones are subjected to significant and progressively increasing mechanical challenges. To evaluate the effect of intrauterine loads on bone morphogenesis and the contribution of the emerging shape to the ability of bones to withstand these loads, we monitored structural and mineral changes during development. Using daily micro-CT scans of appendicular long bones we identify a developmental program, which we term preferential bone growth, that determines the specific circumferential shape of each bone by employing asymmetric mineral deposition and transient cortical thickening. Finite element analysis demonstrates that the resulting bone structure has optimal load-bearing capacity. To test the hypothesis that muscle forces regulate preferential bone growth in utero, we examine this process in a mouse strain (mdg) that lacks muscle contractions. In the absence of mechanical loads, the stereotypical circumferential outline of each bone is lost, leading to the development of mechanically inferior bones. This study identifies muscle force regulation of preferential bone growth as the module that shapes the circumferential outline of bones and, consequently, optimizes their load-bearing capacity during development. Our findings invoke a common mechanism that permits the formation of different circumferential outlines in different bones. PMID:21750035

  1. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  2. The Optimization of a Shaped-Charge Design Using Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER,DAVID R.; VAUGHAN,COURTENAY T.

    1999-11-01

    Current supercomputers use large parallel arrays of tightly coupled processors to achieve levels of performance far surpassing conventional vector supercomputers. Shock-wave physics codes have been developed for these new supercomputers at Sandia National Laboratories and elsewhere. These parallel codes run fast enough on many simulations to consider using them to study the effects of varying design parameters on the performance of models of conventional munitions and other complex systems. Such studies maybe directed by optimization software to improve the performance of the modeled system. Using a shaped-charge jet design as an archetypal test case and the CTH parallel shock-wave physics code controlled by the Dakota optimization software, we explored the use of automatic optimization tools to optimize the design for conventional munitions. We used a scheme in which a lower resolution computational mesh was used to identify candidate optimal solutions and then these were verified using a higher resolution mesh. We identified three optimal solutions for the model and a region of the design domain where the jet tip speed is nearly optimal, indicating the possibility of a robust design. Based on this study we identified some of the difficulties in using high-fidelity models with optimization software to develop improved designs. These include developing robust algorithms for the objective function and constraints and mitigating the effects of numerical noise in them. We conclude that optimization software running high-fidelity models of physical systems using parallel shock wave physics codes to find improved designs can be a valuable tool for designers. While current state of algorithm and software development does not permit routine, ''black box'' optimization of designs, the effort involved in using the existing tools may well be worth the improvement achieved in designs.

  3. Optimal shape control of a beam using piezoelectric actuators with low control voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Zhang, X. N.; Xie, S. L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper deals with the shape control of a cantilever beam structure by using laminated piezoelectric actuators (LPAs) with a low control voltage. The shape control equation of the cantilever beam partially covered with LPAs is derived based on the constitutive relations of the elastic material and piezoelectric material and shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko theory). The actuating forces produced by the LPAs are formulated as well. It reveals how the actuating forces depend on the number of piezoelectric layers, the thickness of piezoelectric layers and the position of the actuators. The driving voltages of the LPAs are then determined by a genetic optimization algorithm. The shape control of the cantilever beam from applying the optimal voltage to the LPAs is simulated. The simulation results show that an LPA of large layer number is able to diminish effectively the pre-deflection of the beam under a low control voltage. The voltage applied to the LPA of five layers was almost five times smaller than that of one layer. In addition, increasing the number of LPA layers can significantly improve the control performance as the acting forces of the LPA are a quadratic function of the LPA layer number. The L2 norm of the displacement array of all nodes is diminished about 30% after optimization. Also with the same low control voltage, the LPA can obtain a better control performance than the conventional single layer piezoelectric actuator.

  4. Gradient-Based Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using ADI Method for Large-Scale Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Baysal, Oktay

    1997-01-01

    A gradient-based shape optimization methodology, that is intended for practical three-dimensional aerodynamic applications, has been developed. It is based on the quasi-analytical sensitivities. The flow analysis is rendered by a fully implicit, finite volume formulation of the Euler equations.The aerodynamic sensitivity equation is solved using the alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for memory efficiency. A flexible wing geometry model, that is based on surface parameterization and platform schedules, is utilized. The present methodology and its components have been tested via several comparisons. Initially, the flow analysis for for a wing is compared with those obtained using an unfactored, preconditioned conjugate gradient approach (PCG), and an extensively validated CFD code. Then, the sensitivities computed with the present method have been compared with those obtained using the finite-difference and the PCG approaches. Effects of grid refinement and convergence tolerance on the analysis and shape optimization have been explored. Finally the new procedure has been demonstrated in the design of a cranked arrow wing at Mach 2.4. Despite the expected increase in the computational time, the results indicate that shape optimization, which require large numbers of grid points can be resolved with a gradient-based approach.

  5. Under-Track CFD-Based Shape Optimization for a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Mathias; Ordaz, Irian; Fenbert, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed outer mold line shaping of a Mach 1.6, demonstrator-sized low-boom concept is presented. Cruise trim is incorporated a priori as part of the shaping objective, using an equivalent-area-based approach. Design work is performed using a gradient-driven optimization framework that incorporates a three-dimensional, nonlinear flow solver, a parametric geometry modeler, and sensitivities derived using the adjoint method. The shaping effort is focused on reducing the under-track sonic boom level using an inverse design approach, while simultaneously satisfying the trim requirement. Conceptual-level geometric constraints are incorporated in the optimization process, including the internal layout of fuel tanks, landing gear, engine, and crew station. Details of the model parameterization and design process are documented for both flow-through and powered states, and the performance of these optimized vehicles presented in terms of inviscid L/D, trim state, pressures in the near-field and at the ground, and predicted sonic boom loudness.

  6. Interactive Inverse Design Optimization of Fuselage Shape for Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood; Le, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool called BOSS (Boom Optimization using Smoothest Shape modifications). BOSS utilizes interactive inverse design optimization to develop a fuselage shape that yields a low-boom aircraft configuration. A fundamental reason for developing BOSS is the need to generate feasible low-boom conceptual designs that are appropriate for further refinement using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based preliminary design methods. BOSS was not developed to provide a numerical solution to the inverse design problem. Instead, BOSS was intended to help designers find the right configuration among an infinite number of possible configurations that are equally good using any numerical figure of merit. BOSS uses the smoothest shape modification strategy for modifying the fuselage radius distribution at 100 or more longitudinal locations to find a smooth fuselage shape that reduces the discrepancies between the design and target equivalent area distributions over any specified range of effective distance. For any given supersonic concept (with wing, fuselage, nacelles, tails, and/or canards), a designer can examine the differences between the design and target equivalent areas, decide which part of the design equivalent area curve needs to be modified, choose a desirable rate for the reduction of the discrepancies over the specified range, and select a parameter for smoothness control of the fuselage shape. BOSS will then generate a fuselage shape based on the designer's inputs in a matter of seconds. Using BOSS, within a few hours, a designer can either generate a realistic fuselage shape that yields a supersonic configuration with a low-boom ground signature or quickly eliminate any configuration that cannot achieve low-boom characteristics with fuselage shaping alone. A conceptual design case study is documented to demonstrate how BOSS can be used to develop a low-boom supersonic concept from a low-drag supersonic concept. The paper also contains a study

  7. Optimization of ultra-fast interactions using laser pulse temporal shaping controlled by a deterministic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan-Sosa, M.; Portilla, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.; Moreno, L.; Ruiz de la Cruz, A.; Solis, J.

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond laser pulse temporal shaping techniques have led to important advances in different research fields like photochemistry, laser physics, non-linear optics, biology, or materials processing. This success is partly related to the use of optimal control algorithms. Due to the high dimensionality of the solution and control spaces, evolutionary algorithms are extensively applied and, among them, genetic ones have reached the status of a standard adaptive strategy. Still, their use is normally accompanied by a reduction of the problem complexity by different modalities of parameterization of the spectral phase. Exploiting Rabitz and co-authors' ideas about the topology of quantum landscapes, in this work we analyze the optimization of two different problems under a deterministic approach, using a multiple one-dimensional search (MODS) algorithm. In the first case we explore the determination of the optimal phase mask required for generating arbitrary temporal pulse shapes and compare the performance of the MODS algorithm to the standard iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Based on the good performance achieved, the same method has been applied for optimizing two-photon absorption starting from temporally broadened laser pulses, or from laser pulses temporally and spectrally distorted by non-linear absorption in air, obtaining similarly good results which confirm the validity of the deterministic search approach.

  8. Optimization of ultra-fast interactions using laser pulse temporal shaping controlled by a deterministic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan-Sosa, M.; Portilla, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.; Moreno, L.; Ruiz de la Cruz, A.; Solis, J.

    2013-04-01

    Femtosecond laser pulse temporal shaping techniques have led to important advances in different research fields like photochemistry, laser physics, non-linear optics, biology, or materials processing. This success is partly related to the use of optimal control algorithms. Due to the high dimensionality of the solution and control spaces, evolutionary algorithms are extensively applied and, among them, genetic ones have reached the status of a standard adaptive strategy. Still, their use is normally accompanied by a reduction of the problem complexity by different modalities of parameterization of the spectral phase. Exploiting Rabitz and co-authors' ideas about the topology of quantum landscapes, in this work we analyze the optimization of two different problems under a deterministic approach, using a multiple one-dimensional search (MODS) algorithm. In the first case we explore the determination of the optimal phase mask required for generating arbitrary temporal pulse shapes and compare the performance of the MODS algorithm to the standard iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Based on the good performance achieved, the same method has been applied for optimizing two-photon absorption starting from temporally broadened laser pulses, or from laser pulses temporally and spectrally distorted by non-linear absorption in air, obtaining similarly good results which confirm the validity of the deterministic search approach.

  9. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Dual-Stream Supersonic Plug Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.; Park, Michael A.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape optimization was performed on an isolated axisymmetric plug nozzle sized for a supersonic business jet. The dual-stream concept was tailored to attenuate nearfield pressure disturbances without compromising nozzle performance. Adjoint-based anisotropic mesh refinement was applied to resolve nearfield compression and expansion features in the baseline viscous grid. Deformed versions of the adapted grid were used for subsequent adjoint-driven shape optimization. For design, a nonlinear gradient-based optimizer was coupled to the discrete adjoint formulation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. All nozzle surfaces were parameterized using 3rd order B-spline interpolants and perturbed axisymmetrically via free-form deformation. Geometry deformations were performed using 20 design variables shared between the outer cowl, shroud and centerbody nozzle surfaces. Interior volume grid deformation during design was accomplished using linear elastic mesh morphing. The nozzle optimization was performed at a design cruise speed of Mach 1.6, assuming core and bypass pressure ratios of 6.19 and 3.24, respectively. Ambient flight conditions at design were commensurate with 45,000-ft standard day atmosphere.

  10. Tetrahedral element shape optimization via the Jacobian determinant and condition number.

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, L. A.; Knupp, P. M.

    1999-07-30

    We present a new shape measure for tetrahedral elements that is optimal in the sense that it gives the distance of a tetrahedron from the set of inverted elements. This measure is constructed from the condition number of the linear transformation between a unit equilateral tetrahedron and any tetrahedron with positive volume. We use this shape measure to formulate two optimization objective functions that are differentiated by their goal: the first seeks to improve the average quality of the tetrahedral mesh; the second aims to improve the worst-quality element in the mesh. Because the element condition number is not defined for tetrahedral with negative volume, these objective functions can be used only when the initial mesh is valid. Therefore, we formulate a third objective function using the determinant of the element Jacobian that is suitable for mesh untangling. We review the optimization techniques used with each objective function and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the mesh improvement and untangling methods. We show that a combined optimization approach that uses both condition number objective functions obtains the best-quality meshes.

  11. Operationally optimal vertex-based shape coding with arbitrary direction edge encoding structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhongyuan; Zhu, Junhuan; Luo, Jiebo

    2014-07-01

    The intention of shape coding in the MPEG-4 is to improve the coding efficiency as well as to facilitate the object-oriented applications, such as shape-based object recognition and retrieval. These require both efficient shape compression and effective shape description. Although these two issues have been intensively investigated in data compression and pattern recognition fields separately, it remains an open problem when both objectives need to be considered together. To achieve high coding gain, the operational rate-distortion optimal framework can be applied, but the direction restriction of the traditional eight-direction edge encoding structure reduces its compression efficiency and description effectiveness. We present two arbitrary direction edge encoding structures to relax this direction restriction. They consist of a sector number, a short component, and a long component, which represent both the direction and the magnitude information of an encoding edge. Experiments on both shape coding and hand gesture recognition validate that our structures can reduce a large number of encoding vertices and save up to 48.9% bits. Besides, the object contours are effectively described and suitable for the object-oriented applications.

  12. Gain-scheduling Control of Rotary Inverted Pendulum by Weight Optimization and H∞ Loop Shaping Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubai, Kazuhiro; Okuhara, Kazunori; Hirai, Junji

    Gain-scheduling control is one of effective methods for plants whose dynamics changes significantly according to its operating point. A frozen parameter method is known to be a practical gain-scheduling controller synthesis, which interpolates the controllers designed at the prespecified (frozen) operating points according to the current operation point. Hyde et al. proposed a gain-scheduling control that H∞ loop shaping procedure is adopted as a controller synthesis at each operating point. H∞ loop shaping procedure is based on loop shaping of an open loop characteristic by frequency weights and is known to be effective for plants with bad condition number. However, weight selection satisfying control specifications is hard job for a designer. This paper describes the design of a suboptimal weight and a controller by means of algorithm that maximizes the robust stability margin and shapes the open loop characteristic into the desired shape at each operating point. Moreover, we formulate a weight optimization problem as a generalized eigenvalue minimization problem, which reduces the designer's burden of weight selection. Finally, we realize robust and high performance control system by scheduling both weights and controllers. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is verified in terms of the achieved robust stability margin and experimental time responses of a rotary inverted pendulum which involves strong nonlinear dynamics.

  13. Numerical study on the performance of rotational supercavitating evaporator with optimized blade shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Li, Q.; Li, F. C.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Based on supercavitation effect, a novel device named Rotational Supercavitating Evaporator (RSCE) has been designed for desalination. In order to improve the performance of RSCE, the optimal design of three-dimensional blade shape is performed by utilizing the empirical formulae which have been validated before. Numerical simulation is then conducted on the supercavitating flow in RSCE with the optimized blade, and the supercavity dimension generated by rotational cavitator is obtained, which is further compared with the above- mentioned empirical formulae obtained by two-dimensional calculations. The results show that the supercavity length obtained by numerical simulation on the optimized blade increases with the increase of radius at first, and then decreases at larger radii, which is much smaller than the result of empirical formula at each radius.

  14. Reentry-Vehicle Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Adjoint Method and CAD Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A DJOINT solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (e.g., geometric parameters that control the shape). Classic aerodynamic applications of gradient-based optimization include the design of cruise configurations for transonic and supersonic flow, as well as the design of high-lift systems. are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric computer-aided design (CAD). In previous work on Cartesian adjoint solvers, Melvin et al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the two-dimensional Euler equations using a ghost-cell method to enforce the wall boundary conditions. In Refs. 18 and 19, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm were the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The accuracy of the gradient computation was verified using several three-dimensional test cases, which included design

  15. Extending amulti-scale parameter regionalization (MPR) method by introducing parameter constrained optimization and flexible transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    A multi-scale parameter-estimation method, as presented by Samaniego et al. (2010), is implemented and extended for the conceptual hydrological model COSERO. COSERO is a HBV-type model that is specialized for alpine-environments, but has been applied over a wide range of basins all over the world (see: Kling et al., 2014 for an overview). Within the methodology available small-scale information (DEM, soil texture, land cover, etc.) is used to estimate the coarse-scale model parameters by applying a set of transfer-functions (TFs) and subsequent averaging methods, whereby only TF hyper-parameters are optimized against available observations (e.g. runoff data). The parameter regionalisation approach was extended in order to allow for a more meta-heuristical handling of the transfer-functions. The two main novelties are: 1. An explicit introduction of constrains into parameter estimation scheme: The constraint scheme replaces invalid parts of the transfer-function-solution space with valid solutions. It is inspired by applications in evolutionary algorithms and related to the combination of learning and evolution. This allows the consideration of physical and numerical constraints as well as the incorporation of a priori modeller-experience into the parameter estimation. 2. Spline-based transfer-functions: Spline-based functions enable arbitrary forms of transfer-functions: This is of importance since in many cases the general relationship between sub-grid information and parameters are known, but not the form of the transfer-function itself. The contribution presents the results and experiences with the adopted method and the introduced extensions. Simulation are performed for the pre-alpine/alpine Traisen catchment in Lower Austria. References: Samaniego, L., Kumar, R., Attinger, S. (2010): Multiscale parameter regionalization of a grid-based hydrologic model at the mesoscale, Water Resour. Res., doi: 10.1029/2008WR007327 Kling, H., Stanzel, P., Fuchs, M., and

  16. A Preconditioning Method for Shape Optimization Governed by the Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, Eyal; Vatsa, Veer N.

    1998-01-01

    We consider a classical aerodynamic shape optimization problem subject to the compressible Euler flow equations. The gradient of the cost functional with respect to the shape variables is derived with the adjoint method at the continuous level. The Hessian (second order derivative of the cost functional with respect to the shape variables) is approximated also at the continuous level, as first introduced by Arian and Ta'asan (1996). The approximation of the Hessian is used to approximate the Newton step which is essential to accelerate the numerical solution of the optimization problem. The design space is discretized in the maximum dimension, i.e., the location of each point on the intersection of the computational mesh with the airfoil is taken to be an independent design variable. We give numerical examples for 86 design variables in two different flow speeds and achieve an order of magnitude reduction in the cost functional at a computational effort of a full solution of the analysis partial differential equation (PDE).

  17. Optimal Viscosity and Particle Shape of Hyaluronic Acid Filler as a Scaffold for Human Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Won, Chang-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The authors previously reported that cultured human fibroblasts suspended in a hyaluronic acid filler can produce human dermal matrices with extended in vivo stability in animal and clinical studies. The present study was undertaken to determine the optimal viscosity and particle shape of hyaluronic acid filler as a scaffold for cultured human dermal fibroblasts to enhance the maximal viability of injected cells. The fibroblasts were suspended in either 1 of 3 hyaluronic acid viscosities at 2 different particle shapes. The viscosities used in this study were low (600,000-800,000 centipoises), moderate (2,000,000-4,000,000 centipoises), and high (8,000,000-12,000,000 centipoises). The particle shape was evaluated by testing round and irregular shapes. The fibroblast mixed bioimplants were injected into the back of individual athymic nude mice. The levels of type I collagen were measured using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining at 16 weeks after the injections. Results of FACS demonstrated that the mean cell ratio with human collagens in the moderate viscosity group was greater than those of control, low, and high viscosity groups. An immunohistochemical study showed similar results. The moderate viscosity group demonstrated the highest positive staining of human collagens. However, there were no significant differences between groups of irregular and round shape particles. A hyaluronic acid bioimplant with moderate viscosity is superior to that with low or high viscosity in the viability for human fibroblasts. However, the particle shape does not influence the viability of the fibroblasts. PMID:26163839

  18. Packing Optimization of Sorbent Bed Containing Dissimilar and Irregular Shaped Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Nathan; Guttromson, Jayleen; Piowaty, Hailey

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Cartridge is a packed bed air filter with two different and separate layers of media designed to provide respiratory protection from combustion products after a fire event on the International Space Station (ISS). The first layer of media is a carbon monoxide catalyst and the second layer of media is universal carbon. During development of Fire Cartridge prototypes, the two media beds were noticed to have shifted inside the cartridge. The movement of media within the cartridge can cause mixing of the bed layers, air voids, and channeling, which could cause preferential air flow and allow contaminants to pass through without removal. An optimally packed bed mitigates these risks and ensures effective removal of contaminants from the air. In order to optimally pack each layer, vertical, horizontal, and orbital agitations were investigated and a packed bulk density was calculated for each method. Packed bulk density must be calculated for each media type to accommodate variations in particle size, shape, and density. Additionally, the optimal vibration parameters must be re-evaluated for each batch of media due to variations in particle size distribution between batches. For this application it was determined that orbital vibrations achieve an optimal pack density and the two media layers can be packed by the same method. Another finding was media with a larger size distribution of particles achieve an optimal bed pack easier than media with a smaller size distribution of particles.

  19. Lasing in optimized two-dimensional iron-nail-shaped rod photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Moon, Seul-Ki; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Hwan; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Yang, Jin-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated lasing at the Γ-point band-edge (BE) modes in optimized two-dimensional iron-nail-shaped rod photonic crystals by optical pulse pumping at room temperature. As the radius of the rod increased quadratically toward the edge of the pattern, the quality factor of the Γ-point BE mode increased up to three times, and the modal volume decreased to 56% compared with the values of the original Γ-point BE mode because of the reduction of the optical loss in the horizontal direction. Single-mode lasing from an optimized iron-nail-shaped rod array with an InGaAsP multiple quantum well embedded in the nail heads was observed at a low threshold pump power of 160 μW. Real-image-based numerical simulations showed that the lasing actions originated from the optimized Γ-point BE mode and agreed well with the measurement results, including the lasing polarization, wavelength, and near-field image.

  20. Shape optimization of a printed-circuit heat exchanger to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. M.; Kim, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recently considered as a recuperator for the high temperature gas cooled reactor. In this work, the zigzag-channels of a PCHE have been optimized by using three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and response surface approximation (RSA) modeling technique to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance. Shear stress transport turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of the functions related to heat transfer and friction loss of the PCHE, respectively. Three geometric design variables viz., the ratio of the radius of the fillet to hydraulic diameter of the channels, the ratio of wavelength to hydraulic diameter of the channels, and the ratio of wave height to hydraulic diameter of the channels, are used for the optimization. Design points are selected through Latin-hypercube sampling. The optimal design is determined through the RSA model which uses RANS derived calculations at the design points. The results show that the optimum shape enhances considerably the thermal-hydraulic performance than a reference shape. (authors)

  1. Simultaneous power and beam-shape optimization of an OPSL resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Sauer, Sebastian; Garlich, Torsten; Seelert, Wolf; Brecher, Christian; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In the assembly of optical resonators of optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSL), the highly reflective resonator mirror is the most crucial component. In previous cooperation, Coherent and Fraunhofer IPT have developed a robust active alignment strategy to optimize the output power of the OPSL resonator using search strategies for finding the laser threshold as well as hill-climbing algorithms for maximizing the output power. Beam-shape as well as the laser mode have major influence on the quality and the duration of subsequent beam-shaping and fiber-coupling steps. Therefore, the alignment algorithm optimizing the output power has been extended recently by simultaneous image processing for ensuring a Gaussian beam as the result of alignment. The paper describes the enhanced approach of automated alignment by additionally scanning along the optical resonator and subsequently evaluating and optimizing the roundness of the beam as well as minimizing the beam radius through twisting and tilting of the mirror. A quality metric combining these measures is defined substituting an M² measurement. The paper also describes the approach for automated assembly including the measuring setup, micromanipulation and dispensing devices.

  2. Energy-optimal electrical-stimulation pulses shaped by the Least-Action Principle.

    PubMed

    Krouchev, Nedialko I; Danner, Simon M; Vinet, Alain; Rattay, Frank; Sawan, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) devices interact with excitable neural tissue toward eliciting action potentials (AP's) by specific current patterns. Low-energy ES prevents tissue damage and loss of specificity. Hence to identify optimal stimulation-current waveforms is a relevant problem, whose solution may have significant impact on the related medical (e.g. minimized side-effects) and engineering (e.g. maximized battery-life) efficiency. This has typically been addressed by simulation (of a given excitable-tissue model) and iterative numerical optimization with hard discontinuous constraints--e.g. AP's are all-or-none phenomena. Such approach is computationally expensive, while the solution is uncertain--e.g. may converge to local-only energy-minima and be model-specific. We exploit the Least-Action Principle (LAP). First, we derive in closed form the general template of the membrane-potential's temporal trajectory, which minimizes the ES energy integral over time and over any space-clamp ionic current model. From the given model we then obtain the specific energy-efficient current waveform, which is demonstrated to be globally optimal. The solution is model-independent by construction. We illustrate the approach by a broad set of example situations with some of the most popular ionic current models from the literature. The proposed approach may result in the significant improvement of solution efficiency: cumbersome and uncertain iteration is replaced by a single quadrature of a system of ordinary differential equations. The approach is further validated by enabling a general comparison to the conventional simulation and optimization results from the literature, including one of our own, based on finite-horizon optimal control. Applying the LAP also resulted in a number of general ES optimality principles. One such succinct observation is that ES with long pulse durations is much more sensitive to the pulse's shape whereas a rectangular pulse is most frequently

  3. Energy-Optimal Electrical-Stimulation Pulses Shaped by the Least-Action Principle

    PubMed Central

    Krouchev, Nedialko I.; Danner, Simon M.; Vinet, Alain; Rattay, Frank; Sawan, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) devices interact with excitable neural tissue toward eliciting action potentials (AP’s) by specific current patterns. Low-energy ES prevents tissue damage and loss of specificity. Hence to identify optimal stimulation-current waveforms is a relevant problem, whose solution may have significant impact on the related medical (e.g. minimized side-effects) and engineering (e.g. maximized battery-life) efficiency. This has typically been addressed by simulation (of a given excitable-tissue model) and iterative numerical optimization with hard discontinuous constraints - e.g. AP’s are all-or-none phenomena. Such approach is computationally expensive, while the solution is uncertain - e.g. may converge to local-only energy-minima and be model-specific. We exploit the Least-Action Principle (LAP). First, we derive in closed form the general template of the membrane-potential’s temporal trajectory, which minimizes the ES energy integral over time and over any space-clamp ionic current model. From the given model we then obtain the specific energy-efficient current waveform, which is demonstrated to be globally optimal. The solution is model-independent by construction. We illustrate the approach by a broad set of example situations with some of the most popular ionic current models from the literature. The proposed approach may result in the significant improvement of solution efficiency: cumbersome and uncertain iteration is replaced by a single quadrature of a system of ordinary differential equations. The approach is further validated by enabling a general comparison to the conventional simulation and optimization results from the literature, including one of our own, based on finite-horizon optimal control. Applying the LAP also resulted in a number of general ES optimality principles. One such succinct observation is that ES with long pulse durations is much more sensitive to the pulse’s shape whereas a rectangular pulse is most

  4. Aerodynamic Shape Sensitivity Analysis and Design Optimization of Complex Configurations Using Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed and is extended to model geometrically complex configurations. The advantage of unstructured grids (when compared with a structured-grid approach) is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional geometry and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Simple parameterization techniques are utilized for demonstrative purposes. Once the surface has been deformed, the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR (which is an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool). To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of practical interest, the sensitivity analysis and shape optimization has been performed for a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and for a three-dimensional Boeing 747-200 aircraft.

  5. Optimal feature point selection and automatic initialization in active shape model search.

    PubMed

    Lekadir, Karim; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for robust and fully automatic segmentation with active shape model search. The proposed method incorporates global geometric constraints during feature point search by using interlandmark conditional probabilities. The A* graph search algorithm is adapted to identify in the image the optimal set of valid feature points. The technique is extended to enable reliable and fast automatic initialization of the ASM search. Validation with 2-D and 3-D MR segmentation of the left ventricular epicardial border demonstrates significant improvement in robustness and overall accuracy, while eliminating the need for manual initialization. PMID:18979776

  6. Shape optimization governed by the Euler equations using an adjoint method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iollo, Angelo; Salas, Manuel D.; Taasan, Shlomo

    1993-01-01

    A numerical approach for the treatment of optimal shape problems governed by the Euler equations is discussed. Focus is on flows with embedded shocks. A very simple problem is considered: the design of a quasi-one-dimensional Laval nozzle. A cost function and a set of Lagrange multipliers are introduced to achieve the minimum. The nature of the resulting costate equations is discussed. A theoretical difficulty that arises for cases with embedded shocks is pointed out and solved. Finally, some results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Multi-objective selection and optimization of shaped materials and laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jasveer

    Most of the current optimization techniques for the design of light-weight structures are unable to generate structural alternatives at the concept stage of design. This research tackles the challenge of developing methods for the early stage of design involving structures made up of conventional materials and composite laminates. For conventional materials, the recently introduced shape transformer approach is used. This work extends the method to deal with the case of torsional stiffness design, and generalizes it to single and multi-criteria selection of lightweight shafts subjected to a combination of bending, shear, and torsional load. The prominent feature of the work is the useful integration of shape and material to model and visualize multi-objective selection problems. The scheme is centered on concept selection in structural design, and hinges on measures that govern the shape properties of a cross-section regardless of its size. These measures, referred to as shape transformers, can classify shapes in a way similar to material classification. The procedure is demonstrated by considering torsional stiffness as a constraint. Performance charts are developed for both single and multi-criteria cases to let the reader visualize in a glance the whole range of cross-sectional shapes for each material. Each design chart is explained with a brief example. The above mentioned approach is also extended to incorporate orthotropic composite laminates. Design charts are obtained for the selection of five generic design variables: shape, size, material, layup, and number of plies. These charts also aid in comparing the performances of two commonly used laminates in bending and torsion - angle plies and cross plies. For a generic composite laminate, due to the number of variables involved, these kinds of design charts are very difficult. However, other tactics like using an analytical model for function evaluation can be used at conceptual stage of design. This is

  8. Parametric geometric model and shape optimization of an underwater glider with blended-wing-body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunya; Song, Baowei; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Underwater glider, as a new kind of autonomous underwater vehicles, has many merits such as long-range, extended-duration and low costs. The shape of underwater glider is an important factor in determining the hydrodynamic efficiency. In this paper, a high lift to drag ratio configuration, the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB), is used to design a small civilian under water glider. In the parametric geometric model of the BWB underwater glider, the planform is defined with Bezier curve and linear line, and the section is defined with symmetrical airfoil NACA 0012. Computational investigations are carried out to study the hydrodynamic performance of the glider using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent. The Kriging-based genetic algorithm, called Efficient Global Optimization (EGO), is applied to hydrodynamic design optimization. The result demonstrates that the BWB underwater glider has excellent hydrodynamic performance, and the lift to drag ratio of initial design is increased by 7% in the EGO process.

  9. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a HSCT type configuration with improved surface definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Almuttil M.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    Two distinct parametrization procedures of generating free-form surfaces to represent aerospace vehicles are presented. The first procedure is the representation using spline functions such as nonuniform rational b-splines (NURBS) and the second is a novel (geometrical) parametrization using solutions to a suitably chosen partial differential equation. The main idea is to develop a surface which is more versatile and can be used in an optimization process. Unstructured volume grid is generated by an advancing front algorithm and solutions obtained using an Euler solver. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an automatic differentiator precompiler software tool. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. High speed civil transport aircraft (HSCT) configurations are targeted to demonstrate the process.

  10. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  11. Surrogate modelling and optimization using shape-preserving response prediction: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifsson, Leifur; Koziel, Slawomir

    2016-03-01

    Computer simulation models are ubiquitous in modern engineering design. In many cases, they are the only way to evaluate a given design with sufficient fidelity. Unfortunately, an added computational expense is associated with higher fidelity models. Moreover, the systems being considered are often highly nonlinear and may feature a large number of designable parameters. Therefore, it may be impractical to solve the design problem with conventional optimization algorithms. A promising approach to alleviate these difficulties is surrogate-based optimization (SBO). Among proven SBO techniques, the methods utilizing surrogates constructed from corrected physics-based low-fidelity models are, in many cases, the most efficient. This article reviews a particular technique of this type, namely, shape-preserving response prediction (SPRP), which works on the level of the model responses to correct the underlying low-fidelity models. The formulation and limitations of SPRP are discussed. Applications to several engineering design problems are provided.

  12. Shape optimization for layer detection in geothermal reservoirs: new insights and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Simin; Wellmann, Florian; Marquart, Gabriele; Herty, Michael; Clauser, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow and heat transport in geothermal reservoirs is strongly controlled by the spatial distribution of relevant petrophysical properties. We investigate here if we can solve the inverse problem to determine the location of boundaries between regions with distinctively different properties on the basis of temperature measurements in geothermal reservoir studies. More specifically, we aim to obtain the shape of a layer boundary, described with a level-set function, through a shape optimisation method. In order to reduce computational cost, we implement our method on the basis of the adjoint equation for temperature and avoid the full calculation of the sensitivity matrix in each optimisation step. The method was tested to determine the interface position in a set of two-layer models with differently shaped interfaces, based on synthetic observation data of temperature. We extend previous work in this direction with the investigation of both head conduction and advection and investigate in synthetic case studies the efficiency of the method, and, more importantly, the possibility to determine shapes even in cases of strongly advective heat transport. To more realistically simulate the measurements, we also take into consideration the noise on data, and the case when only shallower borehole data is available. The results show that with our method it is indeed possible to obtain shapes of layers and we discuss the relevance of parameter ratios which enable this detection, including an analysis for the potential error of the obtained layer. The results presented also show how the quality of optimization might be affected by some factors such as number and location of boreholes, and the regularization parameter, but their detailed relationship is still one of our fugure work. Another next step will be the extension to multiple layers, and an application to case studies.

  13. Shape optimization of a sheet swimming over a thin liquid layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2008-12-10

    Motivated by the propulsion mechanisms adopted by gastropods, annelids and other invertebrates, we consider shape optimization of a flexible sheet that moves by propagating deformation waves along its body. The self-propelled sheet is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin layer of viscous Newtonian fluid. We use a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics and derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to simultaneously optimize swimming speed, efficiency and fluid loss. We find that as the parameters controlling these quantities approach critical values, the optimal solutions become singular in a self-similar fashion and sometimes leave the realm of validity of the lubrication model. We explore these singular limits by computing higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and find that wave profiles that develop cusp-like singularities are appropriately penalized, yielding non-singular optimal solutions. These corrections are themselves validated by comparison with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations, and, to the extent possible, using recent rigorous a-priori error bounds.

  14. Shape optimization of a sheet swimming over a thin liquid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, Jon; Hosoi, A. E.

    Motivated by the propulsion mechanisms adopted by gastropods, annelids and other invertebrates, we consider shape optimization of a flexible sheet that moves by propagating deformation waves along its body. The self-propelled sheet is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin layer of viscous Newtonian fluid. We use a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics and derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to simultaneously optimize swimming speed, efficiency and fluid loss. We find that as the parameters controlling these quantities approach critical values, the optimal solutions become singular in a self-similar fashion and sometimes leave the realm of validity of the lubrication model. We explore these singular limits by computing higher-order corrections to the zeroth order theory and find that wave profiles that develop cusp-like singularities are appropriately penalized, yielding non-singular optimal solutions. These corrections are themselves validated by comparison with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations, and, to the extent possible, using recent rigorous a priori error bounds.

  15. Aerodynamic shape optimization of space vehicle in very-low-earth-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Myong, Rho Shin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Seung Wook

    2014-12-01

    Space vehicles orbiting in Very-Low-Earth-Orbit (VLEO, h = 200˜300 km) experience considerably large aerodynamic drag due to high air-density in comparison with Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO, h = 600 ˜ 700 km). Therefore, the optimization of vehicle shape via minimization of aerodynamic drag is essential for accurate estimation of satellite lifetime and fuel budget at the design stage. In this study, the aerodynamic drag is computed with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) because even in VLEO, whose free stream Knudsen number is sufficiently large, some errors are still found in the prediction using free molecular approach. In order to find the optimized configuration, we vary the shape of frontal surface normal to the flight direction. Interestingly, the effects of such geometrical change appear distinctively depending on the gas-surface interaction (GSI, diffuse or specular) which can be represented by the thermal accommodation coefficient. The satellite aerodynamic characteristics including force, torque, and thermal loading are also identified by changing the pitch and the side angle.

  16. Arterial cannula shape optimization by means of the rotational firefly algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, K.; Kaczorowska, K.

    2016-03-01

    This article presents global optimization results of arterial cannula shapes by means of the newly modified firefly algorithm. The search for the optimal arterial cannula shape is necessary in order to minimize losses and prepare the flow that leaves the circulatory support system of a ventricle (i.e. blood pump) before it reaches the heart. A modification of the standard firefly algorithm, the so-called rotational firefly algorithm, is introduced. It is shown that the rotational firefly algorithm allows for better exploration of search spaces which results in faster convergence and better solutions in comparison with its standard version. This is particularly pronounced for smaller population sizes. Furthermore, it maintains greater diversity of populations for a longer time. A small population size and a low number of iterations are necessary to keep to a minimum the computational cost of the objective function of the problem, which comes from numerical solution of the nonlinear partial differential equations. Moreover, both versions of the firefly algorithm are compared to the state of the art, namely the differential evolution and covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategies.

  17. Mitigation of Adverse Effects Caused by Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions Through Optimal Wall Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.

  18. Folding patterns and shape optimization using SMA-based self-folding laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin A.; Frei, Katherine R.; Hartl, Darren J.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-03-01

    Origami engineering, a discipline encompassing the creation of practical three-dimensional structures from two- dimensional entities via folding operations, has the potential to impact multiple fields of manufacturing and design. In some circumstances, it may be practical to have self-folding capabilities instead of creating folds by external manipulations (as in morphing structures in outer space or on the ocean floor). This paper considers the use of a self-folding laminate composite consisting of two outer layers of thermally actuated shape memory alloy (SMA) wire meshes separated by an inner compliant insulating layer. Methods for designing folding patterns and determining temperature fields to obtain desired shapes and behaviors are proposed. Sheets composed of the self-folding laminate are modeled via finite element analysis (FEA) and the proposed methods are implemented to test their capabilities. One method uses a previously developed and freely available software called Freeform Origami for folding pattern design. The second method entails the use of optimization to determine the localized activation temperatures required to obtain desired shapes or to perform specific functions. The proposed methods are demonstrated to be applicable for the design of folding patterns and determination of activation temperatures for the self-folding laminate by showing successful examples of their implementation. This exploratory study provides new tools that can be integrated into the design framework of self-folding origami structures.

  19. Segmentation of deformable organs from medical images using particle swarm optimization and nonlinear shape priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Ahmed; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2010-03-01

    In many medical applications, the automatic segmentation of deformable organs from medical images is indispensable and its accuracy is of a special interest. However, the automatic segmentation of these organs is a challenging task according to its complex shape. Moreover, the medical images usually have noise, clutter, or occlusion and considering the image information only often leads to meager image segmentation. In this paper, we propose a fully automated technique for the segmentation of deformable organs from medical images. In this technique, the segmentation is performed by fitting a nonlinear shape model with pre-segmented images. The kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) is utilized to capture the complex organs deformation and to construct the nonlinear shape model. The presegmentation is carried out by labeling each pixel according to its high level texture features extracted using the overcomplete wavelet packet decomposition. Furthermore, to guarantee an accurate fitting between the nonlinear model and the pre-segmented images, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to adapt the model parameters for the novel images. In this paper, we demonstrate the competence of proposed technique by implementing it to the liver segmentation from computed tomography (CT) scans of different patients.

  20. Aerodynamic shape optimization directed toward a supersonic transport using sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was conducted from March 1994 to August 1995, primarily, to extend and implement the previously developed aerodynamic design optimization methodologies for the problems related to a supersonic transport design. These methods had demonstrated promise to improve the designs (more specifically, the shape) of aerodynamic surfaces, by coupling optimization algorithms (OA) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithms via sensitivity analyses (SA) with surface definition methods from Computer Aided Design (CAD). The present extensions of this method and their supersonic implementations have produced wing section designs, delta wing designs, cranked-delta wing designs, and nacelle designs, all of which have been reported in the open literature. Despite the fact that these configurations were highly simplified to be of any practical or commercial use, they served the algorithmic and proof-of-concept objectives of the study very well. The primary cause for the configurational simplifications, other than the usual simplify-to-study the fundamentals reason, were the premature closing of the project. Only after the first of the originally intended three-year term, both the funds and the computer resources supporting the project were abruptly cut due to their severe shortages at the funding agency. Nonetheless, it was shown that the extended methodologies could be viable options in optimizing the design of not only an isolated single-component configuration, but also a multiple-component configuration in supersonic and viscous flow. This allowed designing with the mutual interference of the components being one of the constraints all along the evolution of the shapes.

  1. Proportional Topology Optimization: A New Non-Sensitivity Method for Solving Stress Constrained and Minimum Compliance Problems and Its Implementation in MATLAB

    PubMed Central

    Biyikli, Emre; To, Albert C.

    2015-01-01

    A new topology optimization method called the Proportional Topology Optimization (PTO) is presented. As a non-sensitivity method, PTO is simple to understand, easy to implement, and is also efficient and accurate at the same time. It is implemented into two MATLAB programs to solve the stress constrained and minimum compliance problems. Descriptions of the algorithm and computer programs are provided in detail. The method is applied to solve three numerical examples for both types of problems. The method shows comparable efficiency and accuracy with an existing optimality criteria method which computes sensitivities. Also, the PTO stress constrained algorithm and minimum compliance algorithm are compared by feeding output from one algorithm to the other in an alternative manner, where the former yields lower maximum stress and volume fraction but higher compliance compared to the latter. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method and future works are discussed. The computer programs are self-contained and publicly shared in the website www.ptomethod.org. PMID:26678849

  2. Proportional Topology Optimization: A New Non-Sensitivity Method for Solving Stress Constrained and Minimum Compliance Problems and Its Implementation in MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Biyikli, Emre; To, Albert C

    2015-01-01

    A new topology optimization method called the Proportional Topology Optimization (PTO) is presented. As a non-sensitivity method, PTO is simple to understand, easy to implement, and is also efficient and accurate at the same time. It is implemented into two MATLAB programs to solve the stress constrained and minimum compliance problems. Descriptions of the algorithm and computer programs are provided in detail. The method is applied to solve three numerical examples for both types of problems. The method shows comparable efficiency and accuracy with an existing optimality criteria method which computes sensitivities. Also, the PTO stress constrained algorithm and minimum compliance algorithm are compared by feeding output from one algorithm to the other in an alternative manner, where the former yields lower maximum stress and volume fraction but higher compliance compared to the latter. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method and future works are discussed. The computer programs are self-contained and publicly shared in the website www.ptomethod.org. PMID:26678849

  3. Plasma Profile and Shape Optimization for the Advanced Tokamak Power Plant, ARIES-AT

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; T.K. Mau; S.C. Jardin; and F. Najmabadi

    2001-06-05

    An advanced tokamak plasma configuration is developed based on equilibrium, ideal-MHD stability, bootstrap current analysis, vertical stability and control, and poloidal-field coil analysis. The plasma boundaries used in the analysis are forced to coincide with the 99% flux surface from the free-boundary equilibrium. Using an accurate bootstrap current model and external current-drive profiles from ray-tracing calculations in combination with optimized pressure profiles, beta(subscript N) values above 7.0 have been obtained. The minimum current drive requirement is found to lie at a lower beta(subscript N) of 5.4. The external kink mode is stabilized by a tungsten shell located at 0.33 times the minor radius and a feedback system. Plasma shape optimization has led to an elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.9 at the separatrix. Vertical stability could be achieved by a combination of tungsten shells located at 0.33 times the minor radius and feedback control coils located behind the shield. The poloidal-field coils were optimized in location and current, providing a maximum coil current of 8.6 MA. These developments have led to a simultaneous reduction in the power plant major radius and toroidal field.

  4. SU-E-T-574: Novel Chance-Constrained Optimization in Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Planning to Account for Range and Patient Setup Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    An, Y; Liang, J; Liu, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose to apply a probabilistic framework, namely chanceconstrained optimization, in the intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) planning subject to range and patient setup uncertainties. The purpose is to hedge against the influence of uncertainties and improve robustness of treatment plans. Methods: IMPT plans were generated for a typical prostate patient. Nine dose distributions are computed — the nominal one and one each for ±5mm setup uncertainties along three cardinal axes and for ±3.5% range uncertainty. These nine dose distributions are supplied to the solver CPLEX as chance constraints to explicitly control plan robustness under these representative uncertainty scenarios with certain probability. This probability is determined by the tolerance level. We make the chance-constrained model tractable by converting it to a mixed integer optimization problem. The quality of plans derived from this method is evaluated using dose-volume histogram (DVH) indices such as tumor dose homogeneity (D5% – D95%) and coverage (D95%) and normal tissue sparing like V70 of rectum, V65, and V40 of bladder. We also compare the results from this novel method with the conventional PTV-based method to further demonstrate its effectiveness Results: Our model can yield clinically acceptable plans within 50 seconds. The chance-constrained optimization produces IMPT plans with comparable target coverage, better target dose homogeneity, and better normal tissue sparing compared to the PTV-based optimization [D95% CTV: 67.9 vs 68.7 (Gy), D5% – D95% CTV: 11.9 vs 18 (Gy), V70 rectum: 0.0 % vs 0.33%, V65 bladder: 2.17% vs 9.33%, V40 bladder: 8.83% vs 21.83%]. It also simultaneously makes the plan more robust [Width of DVH band at D50%: 2.0 vs 10.0 (Gy)]. The tolerance level may be varied to control the tradeoff between plan robustness and quality. Conclusion: The chance-constrained optimization generates superior IMPT plan compared to the PTV-based optimization with

  5. Free-form Airfoil Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty Using Maximum Expected Value and Second-order Second-moment Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huyse, Luc; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Free-form shape optimization of airfoils poses unexpected difficulties. Practical experience has indicated that a deterministic optimization for discrete operating conditions can result in dramatically inferior performance when the actual operating conditions are different from the - somewhat arbitrary - design values used for the optimization. Extensions to multi-point optimization have proven unable to adequately remedy this problem of "localized optimization" near the sampled operating conditions. This paper presents an intrinsically statistical approach and demonstrates how the shortcomings of multi-point optimization with respect to "localized optimization" can be overcome. The practical examples also reveal how the relative likelihood of each of the operating conditions is automatically taken into consideration during the optimization process. This is a key advantage over the use of multipoint methods.

  6. Improved Hierarchical Optimization-Based Classification of Hyperspectral Images Using Shape Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Tilton, James C.

    2012-01-01

    A new spectral-spatial method for classification of hyperspectral images is proposed. The HSegClas method is based on the integration of probabilistic classification and shape analysis within the hierarchical step-wise optimization algorithm. First, probabilistic support vector machines classification is applied. Then, at each iteration two neighboring regions with the smallest Dissimilarity Criterion (DC) are merged, and classification probabilities are recomputed. The important contribution of this work consists in estimating a DC between regions as a function of statistical, classification and geometrical (area and rectangularity) features. Experimental results are presented on a 102-band ROSIS image of the Center of Pavia, Italy. The developed approach yields more accurate classification results when compared to previously proposed methods.

  7. Supersonic wing and wing-body shape optimization using an adjoint formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design of supersonic configurations. The work represents an extension of our earlier research in which control theory is used to devise a design procedure that significantly reduces the computational cost by employing an adjoint equation. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used toeviseransonic design methods for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. The method has also been implemented for both transonic potential flows and transonic flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can treat more general configurations. Here results are presented for three-dimensional design cases subject to supersonic flows governed by the Euler equation.

  8. DG method for the numerical solution of the state problem in shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozman, J.; Šimůnková, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we are concerned with the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in connection with the numerical solution of the state problem in the field of shape optimization techniques. The presented state problem is described by the stationary energy equation of the system of the mould, glass piece, plunger and plunger cavity arising from the forming process in the glass industry. The attention is paid to the development of the numerical scheme based on the piecewise polynomial, generally discontinuous approximation, which enables to better resolve various phenomena typical for such a heterogeneous medium problem, compared with standard common numerical techniques. The studied problem is supplemented with the preliminary numerical results demonstrating the potency of the proposed scheme.

  9. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Huang, Yunbao; Jing, Longfei; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Tianxuan; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-01-01

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule.

  10. Truss optimization on shape and sizing with frequency constraints based on orthogonal multi-gravitational search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibinia, Mohsen; Sadegh Naseralavi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Structural optimization on shape and sizing with frequency constraints is well-known as a highly nonlinear dynamic optimization problem with several local optimum solutions. Hence, efficient optimization algorithms should be utilized to solve this problem. In this study, orthogonal multi-gravitational search algorithm (OMGSA) as a meta-heuristic algorithm is introduced to solve truss optimization on shape and sizing with frequency constraints. The OMGSA is a hybrid approach based on a combination of multi-gravitational search algorithm (multi-GSA) and an orthogonal crossover (OC). In multi-GSA, the population is split into several sub-populations. Then, each sub-population is independently evaluated by an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA). Furthermore, the OC is used in the proposed OMGSA in order to find and exploit the global solution in the search space. The capability of OMGSA is demonstrated through six benchmark examples. Numerical results show that the proposed OMGSA outperform the other optimization techniques.

  11. Interpolation of longitudinal shape and image data via optimal mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhu, Liang-Jia; Bouix, Sylvain; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal analysis of medical imaging data has become central to the study of many disorders. Unfortunately, various constraints (study design, patient availability, technological limitations) restrict the acquisition of data to only a few time points, limiting the study of continuous disease/treatment progression. Having the ability to produce a sensible time interpolation of the data can lead to improved analysis, such as intuitive visualizations of anatomical changes, or the creation of more samples to improve statistical analysis. In this work, we model interpolation of medical image data, in particular shape data, using the theory of optimal mass transport (OMT), which can construct a continuous transition from two time points while preserving "mass" (e.g., image intensity, shape volume) during the transition. The theory even allows a short extrapolation in time and may help predict short-term treatment impact or disease progression on anatomical structure. We apply the proposed method to the hippocampus-amygdala complex in schizophrenia, the heart in atrial fibrillation, and full head MR images in traumatic brain injury.

  12. Optimization of a T-shaped optical grating for specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szarvas, Tamás; Kis, Zsolt

    2016-07-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical reflectivity of a monolithic, T-shaped surface relief grating structure is carried out. It is shown that by changing the groove depths and widths, the frequency-dependent reflectivity of the diffraction grating can be greatly modified to obtain various specific optical elements. The basic T-shaped grating structure is optimized for three specific applications: a perfect mirror with a wide maximal reflection plateau, a bandpass filter, and a dichroic beam splitter. These specific mirrors could be used to steer the propagation of bichromatic laser fields, in situations where multilayer dielectric mirrors cannot be applied due to their worse thermomechanical properties. Colored maps are presented to show the reflection dependency on the variation of several critical structure parameters. To check the accuracy of the numerical results, four independent methods are used: finite-difference time-domain, finite-difference frequency-domain, method of lines, and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The results of the independent numerical methods agree very well with each other indicating their correctness.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Optimal Longitudinal-Mode Control for Drag Reduction through Distributed Aeroelastic Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Nguyen, Nhan; Lohn, Jason; Dolan, John

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of advanced lightweight materials is resulting in a new generation of lighter, flexible, more-efficient airframes that are enabling concepts for active aeroelastic wing-shape control to achieve greater flight efficiency and increased safety margins. These elastically shaped aircraft concepts require non-traditional methods for large-scale multi-objective flight control that simultaneously seek to gain aerodynamic efficiency in terms of drag reduction while performing traditional command-tracking tasks as part of a complete guidance and navigation solution. This paper presents results from a preliminary study of a notional multi-objective control law for an aeroelastic flexible-wing aircraft controlled through distributed continuous leading and trailing edge control surface actuators. This preliminary study develops and analyzes a multi-objective control law derived from optimal linear quadratic methods on a longitudinal vehicle dynamics model with coupled aeroelastic dynamics. The controller tracks commanded attack-angle while minimizing drag and controlling wing twist and bend. This paper presents an overview of the elastic aircraft concept, outlines the coupled vehicle model, presents the preliminary control law formulation and implementation, presents results from simulation, provides analysis, and concludes by identifying possible future areas for research

  14. Interpolation of Longitudinal Shape and Image Data via Optimal Mass Transport

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Zhu, Liang-Jia; Bouix, Sylvain; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of medical imaging data has become central to the study of many disorders. Unfortunately, various constraints (study design, patient availability, technological limitations) restrict the acquisition of data to only a few time points, limiting the study of continuous disease/treatment progression. Having the ability to produce a sensible time interpolation of the data can lead to improved analysis, such as intuitive visualizations of anatomical changes, or the creation of more samples to improve statistical analysis. In this work, we model interpolation of medical image data, in particular shape data, using the theory of optimal mass transport (OMT), which can construct a continuous transition from two time points while preserving “mass” (e.g., image intensity, shape volume) during the transition. The theory even allows a short extrapolation in time and may help predict short-term treatment impact or disease progression on anatomical structure. We apply the proposed method to the hippocampus-amygdala complex in schizophrenia, the heart in atrial fibrillation, and full head MR images in traumatic brain injury. PMID:25302008

  15. Design optimization study of a shape memory alloy active needle for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-05-01

    Majority of cancer interventions today are performed percutaneously using needle-based procedures, i.e. through the skin and soft tissue. The difficulty in most of these procedures is to attain a precise navigation through tissue reaching target locations. To overcome this challenge, active needles have been proposed recently where actuation forces from shape memory alloys (SMAs) are utilized to assist the maneuverability and accuracy of surgical needles. In the first part of this study, actuation capability of SMA wires was studied. The complex response of SMAs was investigated via a MATLAB implementation of the Brinson model and verified via experimental tests. The isothermal stress-strain curves of SMAs were simulated and defined as a material model in finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA was validated experimentally with developed prototypes. In the second part of this study, the active needle design was optimized using genetic algorithm aiming its maximum flexibility. Design parameters influencing the steerability include the needle's diameter, wire diameter, pre-strain and its offset from the needle. A simplified model was presented to decrease the computation time in iterative analyses. Integration of the SMA characteristics with the automated optimization schemes described in this study led to an improved design of the active needle. PMID:25782329

  16. An optimized toolchain for predicting directivity patterns from digital representations of biological shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Animals have evolved intricate shapes which diffract emitted or received sound and thereby generate a specific directivity pattern. Computer-tomographic methods can generate high-resolution digital representations of these morphological structures in the form of three-dimensional voxel arrays. However, predicting acoustic directivity patterns from these representations with numerical methods can incur high computational cost, e.g., for large structures with fine detail and/or high wave numbers (as in bats and dolphins). Here, the design of a toolchain is described which can handle all steps of deriving a directivity prediction from a voxel representation: generation of a finite-element mesh, assembly of the system matrix, computation of an approximate solution, forward projection into the far field. All individual operations are performed by self-contained tools, which communicate through files. This gives access to intermediate results and limits re-execution upon parameter changes to downstream steps. At each stage, optimizations can be made based on the specifics of the problem such as the regular structure of the voxel array and the distance independence of the directivity. Use of these optimizations has resulted in a highly efficient performance, which is documented by measures for execution speed, memory usage, and accuracy.

  17. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Supersonic Aircraft Configurations via an Adjoint Formulation on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods (13, 12, 44, 38). The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method (19, 20, 21, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42, 43, 9) was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations (39, 25). In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that the basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures [241. In this paper, our concem will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.

  18. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Supersonic Aircraft Configurations via an Adjoint Formulation on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations. In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that this basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures. In this paper, our concern will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.

  19. Design sensitivity analysis of three-dimensional body by boundary element method and its application to shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1993-02-01

    A design sensitivity calculation technique based on the implicit differentiation method is formulated for isoparametric boundary elements for three-dimensional (3D) shape optimization problems. The practical sensitivity equations for boundary displacements and stresses are derived, and the efficiency and accuracy of the technique are compared with the semi-analytic method by implementing the sensitivity analysis of typical and basic shape design problems numerically. The sensitivity calculation technique is then applied to the minimum weight design problems of 3D bodies under stress constraints, such as the shape optimization of the ellipsoidal cavity in a cube and the connecting rod, where the Taylor series approximation, based on the boundary element sensitivity analysis at current design point, is adopted for the efficient implementation of the optimization.

  20. Optimal size, shape, and control design in dynamics of planar frame structures under large displacements and rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, M.; Saje, M.; Planinc, I.; Kegl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Size, shape, and drive optimization procedures are combined with an energy-conserving time-integration scheme for the dynamic analysis of planar geometrically non-linear frame structures undergoing large overall motions. The solution method is based on the finite-element formulation, employing the classical displacement-based planar beam finite elements described in an inertial frame. Finite axial, bending, and shear strains are taken into account. If the system is conservative, the energy and momenta conservation in the discrete system during motion is guaranteed. Size, shape, and drive design variables are introduced into the model. Shape parameterization is achieved by the design element technique, using Bezier patches. The sensitivity analysis is performed by the discrete approach and the analytical direct differentiation method. A gradient-based optimization method, using an automatically adjustable convex approximation technique, is employed. The efficiency and the applicability of the approach are demonstrated via numerical examples. The shape and the driving function of a load-moving robot arm are optimized to reduce oscillations in its final position. The shape of a steel frame is optimized to reduce oscillations after an idealized ground motion jerk.

  1. Optimization of spectral shape in digital mammography: dependence on anode material, breast thickness, and lesion type.

    PubMed

    Fahrig, R; Yaffe, M J

    1994-09-01

    It has been proposed that breast cancer detection can be improved through the use of digital mammography. It is hypothesized that the choice of proper shape of the x-ray spectrum incident upon the breast can yield an improved image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given dose. To test this hypothesis, an energy transport model incorporating measured breast tissue attenuation coefficients and published exposure-to-dose conversion values was developed to describe the image acquisition process. The choice of applied kilovoltage and filter for Mo and W target x-ray sources has been optimized with respect to SNR and absorbed dose for detectors based on a Gd2O2S scintillating screen under the conditions of perfect coupling of light between the screen and a solid state photodetector. For the W spectra, the optimum filter-kVp combinations could provide 41%, 13%, and 42% improvements in SNR for 2-cm, 6-cm and 8-cm breasts, respectively, over the conventional Mo filtration, for a practical imaging time of 1.0 s. W and Mo spectra produce similar SNR values for a given filter thickness except for the 4-cm breast. Given the limitations of current technology, however, the W spectra produce the optimum SNRs in a shorter imaging time for breast thicknesses greater than and less than 4 cm. The maximum SNR for imaging both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and calcifications is provided by the same filter-kVp combination, allowing optimization based on breast thickness and composition only. The model can now be used to compare and improve upon novel detector designs. PMID:7838059

  2. A Constrained Differential Evolution Algorithm for Reservoir Management: Optimal Placement and Control of Wells for Geological Carbon Storage with Uncertainty in Reservoir Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Bianchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of large volume of CO2 into deep geological reservoirs for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is expected to cause significant pressure perturbations in subsurface. Large-scale pressure increases in injection reservoirs during GCS operations, if not controlled properly, may limit dynamic storage capacity and increase risk of environmental impacts. The high pressure may impact caprock integrity, induce fault slippage, and cause leakage of brine and/or CO2 into shallow fresh groundwater resources. Thus, monitoring and controlling pressure buildup are critically important for environmentally safe implementation of GCS projects. Extraction of native brine during GCS operations is a pressure management approach to reduce significant pressure buildup. Extracted brine can be transferred to the surface for utilization or re-injected into overlying/underlying saline aquifers. However, pumping, transportation, treatment and disposal of extracted brine can be challenging and costly. Therefore, minimizing volume of extracted brine, while maximizing CO2 storage, is an essential objective of the pressure management with brine extraction schemes. Selection of optimal well locations and extraction rates are critical for maximizing storage and minimizing brine extraction during GCS. However, placing of injection and extraction wells is not intuitive because of heterogeneity in reservoir properties and complex reservoir geometry. Efficient computerized algorithms combining reservoir models and optimization methods are needed to make proper decisions on well locations and control parameters. This study presents a global optimization methodology for pressure management during geologic CO2 sequestration. A constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm is introduced for solving optimization problems involving well placement and injection/extraction control. The CDE methodology is tested and applied for realistic CO2 storage scenarios with the presence of uncertainty in

  3. Mechanical properties identification and design optimization of nitinol shape memory alloy microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Hamedi, M.; Salmani Nohouji, H.; Arghavani, J.

    2014-02-01

    Microactuators are essential elements of MEMS and are widely used in these devices. Microgrippers, micropositioners, microfixtures, micropumps and microvalves are well-known applications of microstructures. In this paper, the design optimization of shape memory alloy microactuators is discussed. Four different configurations of microactuator with variable geometrical parameters, generating different levels of displacement and force, are designed and analysed. In order to determine the optimum values of parameters for each microactuator, statistical design of experiments (DOE) is used. For this purpose, the Souza et al constitutive model (1988 Eur. J. Mech. A 17 789-806) is adapted for use in finite element analysis software. Mechanical properties of the SMA are identified by performing experimental tests on Ti-49.8%Ni. Finally, the specific energy of each microactuator is determined using the calibrated model and regression analysis. Moreover, the characteristic curve of each microactuator is obtained and with this virtual tool one can choose a microactuator with the desired force and displacement. The methodology discussed in this paper can be used as a reference to design appropriate microactuators for different MEMS applications producing various ranges of displacement and force.

  4. On the proper treatment of grid sensitivities in continuous adjoint methods for shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvadias, I. S.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2015-11-01

    The continuous adjoint method for shape optimization problems, in flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, can be formulated in two different ways, each of which leads to a different expression for the sensitivity derivatives of the objective function with respect to the control variables. The first formulation leads to an expression including only boundary integrals; it, thus, has low computational cost but, when used with coarse grids, its accuracy becomes questionable. The second formulation comprises a sum of boundary and field integrals; due to the field integrals, it has noticeably higher computational cost, obtaining though higher accuracy. In this paper, the equivalence of the two formulations is revisited from the mathematical and, particularly, the numerical point of view. Internal and external aerodynamics cases, in which the objective function is either the total pressure losses or the force exerted on a solid body, are examined and differences in the computed gradients are discussed. After identifying the reason behind these discrepancies, the adjoint formulation is enhanced by the adjoint to a (hypothetical) grid displacement model and the new approach is proved to reproduce the accuracy of the second adjoint formulation while maintaining the low cost of the first one.

  5. Optimal Inlet Shape Design of N2B Hybrid Wing Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2012-01-01

    The N2B hybrid wing body aircraft was conceptually designed to meet environmental and performance goals for the N+2 generation transport set by the Subsonic Fixed Wing project of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program. In the present study, flow simulations are conducted around the N2B configuration by a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver using unstructured meshes. Boundary conditions at engine fan face and nozzle exhaust planes are provided by the NPSS thermodynamic engine cycle model. The flow simulations reveal challenging design issues arising from boundary layer ingestion offset inlet and airframe-propulsion integration. Adjoint-based optimal designs are then conducted for the inlet shape to minimize the airframe drag force and flow distortion at fan faces. Design surfaces are parameterized by NURBS, and the cowl lip geometry is modified by a spring analogy approach. By the drag minimization design, flow separation on the cowl surfaces are almost removed, and shock wave strength got remarkably reduced. For the distortion minimization design, a circumferential distortion indicator DPCP(sub avg) is adopted as the design objective and diffuser bottom and side wall surfaces are perturbed for the design. The distortion minimization results in a 12.5 % reduction in the objective function.

  6. Shape Optimization for Drag Reduction in Linked Bodies using Evolution Strategies and the Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape optimization for drag reduction in flows past linked bodies. This optimization relies on Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method along with the Brinkman penalization technique and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid, while a level set approach is used to describe the body shape and the Brinkman volume penalization allows for an easy variation of flow geometry without requiring body-fitted meshes. We perform 2D simulations of linked bodies in order to investigate whether flat geometries are optimal for drag reduction. In order to accelerate the costly cost function evaluations we exploit the inherent parallelism of ES and we extend the CMA-ES implementation to a multi-host framework. This framework allows for an easy distribution of the cost function evaluations across several parallel architectures and it is not limited to only one computing facility. The resulting optimal shapes are geometrically consistent with the shapes that have been obtained in the pioneering wind tunnel experiments for drag reduction using Evolution Strategies by Ingo Rechenberg.

  7. Head Shape and Winding Angle Optimization of Composite Pressure Vessels Based on a Multi-level Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeesefat, A.; Khani, A.

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-level strategy for the optimization of composite pressure vessels with nonmetallic liners. The design variables for composite vessels include the head shape, the winding angle, the layer thickness, the number of layers, and the stacking sequence. A parameter called “modified shape factor” is introduced as an objective function. This parameter takes into account the effects of the internal pressure and volume, the vessel weight, and the composite material properties. The proposed algorithm uses genetic algorithm and finite element analysis to optimize the design parameters. As a few examples, this procedure is implemented on geodesic and ellipsoidal heads. The results show that for the given vessel conditions, the geodesic head shape with helical winding angle of nine degrees has the better performance.

  8. Computing global minimizers to a constrained B-spline image registration problem from optimal l1 perturbations to block match data

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Edward; Castillo, Richard; Fuentes, David; Guerrero, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Block matching is a well-known strategy for estimating corresponding voxel locations between a pair of images according to an image similarity metric. Though robust to issues such as image noise and large magnitude voxel displacements, the estimated point matches are not guaranteed to be spatially accurate. However, the underlying optimization problem solved by the block matching procedure is similar in structure to the class of optimization problem associated with B-spline based registration methods. By exploiting this relationship, the authors derive a numerical method for computing a global minimizer to a constrained B-spline registration problem that incorporates the robustness of block matching with the global smoothness properties inherent to B-spline parameterization. Methods: The method reformulates the traditional B-spline registration problem as a basis pursuit problem describing the minimal l1-perturbation to block match pairs required to produce a B-spline fitting error within a given tolerance. The sparsity pattern of the optimal perturbation then defines a voxel point cloud subset on which the B-spline fit is a global minimizer to a constrained variant of the B-spline registration problem. As opposed to traditional B-spline algorithms, the optimization step involving the actual image data is addressed by block matching. Results: The performance of the method is measured in terms of spatial accuracy using ten inhale/exhale thoracic CT image pairs (available for download at www.dir-lab.com) obtained from the COPDgene dataset and corresponding sets of expert-determined landmark point pairs. The results of the validation procedure demonstrate that the method can achieve a high spatial accuracy on a significantly complex image set. Conclusions: The proposed methodology is demonstrated to achieve a high spatial accuracy and is generalizable in that in can employ any displacement field parameterization described as a least squares fit to block match

  9. Aerothermal shape optimization for a double row of discrete film cooling holes on the suction surface of a turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ayoubi, Carole; Ghaly, Wahid; Hassan, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    A multiple-objective optimization is implemented for a double row of staggered film holes on the suction surface of a turbine vane. The optimization aims to maximize the film cooling performance, which is assessed using the cooling effectiveness, while minimizing the corresponding aerodynamic loss, which is measured with a mass-averaged total pressure coefficient. Three geometric variables defining the hole shape are optimized: the conical expansion angle, compound angle and length to diameter ratio of the non-diffused portion of the hole. The optimization employs a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm coupled with an artificial neural network to generate the Pareto front. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are employed to construct the neural network and investigate the aerodynamic and thermal optimum solutions. The optimum designs exhibit improved performance in comparison to the reference design. The optimization methodology allowed investigation into the impact of varying the geometric variables on the cooling effectiveness and the aerodynamic loss.

  10. Sensor networks for optimal target localization with bearings-only measurements in constrained three-dimensional scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Salinas, David; Pascoal, Antonio; Aranda, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal geometric configuration of an acoustic sensor network that will maximize the angle-related information available for underwater target positioning. In the set-up adopted, a set of autonomous vehicles carries a network of acoustic units that measure the elevation and azimuth angles between a target and each of the receivers on board the vehicles. It is assumed that the angle measurements are corrupted by white Gaussian noise, the variance of which is distance-dependent. Using tools from estimation theory, the problem is converted into that of minimizing, by proper choice of the sensor positions, the trace of the inverse of the Fisher Information Matrix (also called the Cramer-Rao Bound matrix) to determine the sensor configuration that yields the minimum possible covariance of any unbiased target estimator. It is shown that the optimal configuration of the sensors depends explicitly on the intensity of the measurement noise, the constraints imposed on the sensor configuration, the target depth and the probabilistic distribution that defines the prior uncertainty in the target position. Simulation examples illustrate the key results derived. PMID:23941912

  11. Sensor Networks for Optimal Target Localization with Bearings-Only Measurements in Constrained Three-Dimensional Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Salinas, David; Pascoal, Antonio; Aranda, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal geometric configuration of an acoustic sensor network that will maximize the angle-related information available for underwater target positioning. In the set-up adopted, a set of autonomous vehicles carries a network of acoustic units that measure the elevation and azimuth angles between a target and each of the receivers on board the vehicles. It is assumed that the angle measurements are corrupted by white Gaussian noise, the variance of which is distance-dependent. Using tools from estimation theory, the problem is converted into that of minimizing, by proper choice of the sensor positions, the trace of the inverse of the Fisher Information Matrix (also called the Cramer-Rao Bound matrix) to determine the sensor configuration that yields the minimum possible covariance of any unbiased target estimator. It is shown that the optimal configuration of the sensors depends explicitly on the intensity of the measurement noise, the constraints imposed on the sensor configuration, the target depth and the probabilistic distribution that defines the prior uncertainty in the target position. Simulation examples illustrate the key results derived. PMID:23941912

  12. The Optimization of Spatial, Spectral, and Temporal Resolution for Constraining Eruption Style on Earth and Io with Thermal Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Harris, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions on Io and Earth are monitored by a variety of thermal remote sensing instruments. While higher resolution data are always desirable, we have developed methodologies to constrain the style of volcanic eruption using low spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution data. For the volcanic moon Io, this is necessitated by the limits of spacecraft and Earth-based telescopic observations. Eruption style can be classified using the concept of "thermal signature" which focuses on the temporal evolution of thermal emission spectra [1]. We find that the ratio of the emission at 2 µm and 5 µm, and how this ratio changes temporally, is often diagnostic of effusive eruption style, even in low spatial resolution data [2]. Tests using ground-based thermal data for terrestrial “ground truth” cases show that this classification system is equally valid for Earth. A square meter of an active lava lake on Io looks very similar to a square meter of an active lava lake on Earth. The same goes for pahoehoe flows. This validation of “thermal signature” means that appropriate physical models can be selected to interpret the data. On Io, the scale of eruptions can utterly dwarf their terrestrial counterparts. “Outburst” eruptions, known to be caused by extensive lava fountaining, can radiate >1013 W. The smallest thermal anomalies detected on Io in thermal infrared data are still larger than any contemporaneous mafic volcanic activity on Earth. The large volumes of lava erupted on Io (e.g., >56 km3 at Pillan in 1997) are an expression of internal tidal heating. It may be that high compressive stresses in the lower lithosphere inhibit magma ascent, and so only relatively large volumes of magma can overcome this “stress barrier” and reach the surface. The results of the “thermal signature” analysis [2] can be used as an aid in the planning of future space-borne instruments that can be used for volcano monitoring on Io, as well as on Earth. This work was

  13. A Computational Approach to Model Vascular Adaptation During Chronic Hemodialysis: Shape Optimization as a Substitute for Growth Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M. Javid; Boghosian, Michael; Cassel, Kevin; Hammes, Mary

    2015-11-01

    End-stage-renal disease patients depend on successful long-term hemodialysis via vascular access, commonly facilitated via a Brachiocephalic Fistula (BCF). The primary cause of BCF failure is Cephalic Arch Stenosis (CAS). It is believed that low Wall Shear Stress (WSS) regions, which occur because of the high flow rates through the natural bend in the cephalic vein, create hemodynamic circumstances that trigger the onset and development of Intimal Hyperplasia (IH) and subsequent CAS. IH is hypothesized to be a natural effort to reshape the vessel, aiming to bring the WSS values back to a physiologically acceptable range. We seek to explore the correlation between regions of low WSS and subsequent IH and CAS in patient-specific geometries. By utilizing a shape optimization framework, a method is proposed to predict cardiovascular adaptation that could potentially be an alternative to vascular growth and remodeling. Based on an objective functional that seeks to alter the vessel shape in such a way as to readjust the WSS to be within the normal physiological range, CFD and shape optimization are then coupled to investigate whether the optimal shape evolution is correlated with actual patient-specific geometries thereafter. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  14. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    PubMed Central

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change. PMID:27278260

  15. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  16. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System.

    PubMed

    Jacox, Michael G; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998-1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change. PMID:27278260

  17. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  18. Optimal magnet shape to improve torque characteristics of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kab-jae; Kim, KiChan; Kim, Sol; Ahn, Joon-Seon; Lim, SeongYeop; Lee, Ju

    2005-05-01

    Permanent magnet (PM) motor is the best choice in the application to a hybrid vehicle. PM configuration is one of the critical design points for the application. This paper presents the effect of PM shapes on the motor performance, especially sinusoidal induced voltage. The proposed design by finite element method has been confirmed by comparing emf wave form, harmonics, reluctance torque, and rated torque between conventional and models. Quantitative comparison of the characteristics for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor of four models is shown. The four models are lateral magnet, V-shape magnet, modified V-shape magnet, and C-shape magnet.

  19. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures--A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Suenaga, Hanako; Li, Wei; Sasaki, Keiichi; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption. PMID:26161878

  20. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures - A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption. PMID:26161878

  1. APPLICATION OF A BIP CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION MODEL COMBINED WITH NASA's ATLAS MODEL TO OPTIMIZE THE SOCIETAL BENEFITS OF THE USA's INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION AND UTILIZATION INITIATIVE OF 1/14/04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Glover, Fred W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Laguna, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The 1/14/04 USA Space Exploratiofltilization Initiative invites all Space-faring Nations, all Space User Groups in Science, Space Entrepreneuring, Advocates of Robotic and Human Space Exploration, Space Tourism and Colonization Promoters, etc., to join an International Space Partnership. With more Space-faring Nations and Space User Groups each year, such a Partnership would require Multi-year (35 yr.-45 yr.) Space Mission Planning. With each Nation and Space User Group demanding priority for its missions, one needs a methodology for obiectively selecting the best mission sequences to be added annually to this 45 yr. Moving Space Mission Plan. How can this be done? Planners have suggested building a Reusable, Sustainable, Space Transportation Infrastructure (RSSn) to increase Mission synergism, reduce cost, and increase scientific and societal returns from this Space Initiative. Morgenthaler and Woodcock presented a Paper at the 55th IAC, Vancouver B.C., Canada, entitled Constrained Optimization Models For Optimizing Multi - Year Space Programs. This Paper showed that a Binary Integer Programming (BIP) Constrained Optimization Model combined with the NASA ATLAS Cost and Space System Operational Parameter Estimating Model has the theoretical capability to solve such problems. IAA Commission III, Space Technology and Space System Development, in its ACADEMY DAY meeting at Vancouver, requested that the Authors and NASA experts find several Space Exploration Architectures (SEAS), apply the combined BIP/ATLAS Models, and report the results at the 56th Fukuoka IAC. While the mathematical Model is in Ref.[2] this Paper presents the Application saga of that effort.

  2. Optimal interpolation schemes to constrain pmPM2.5 in regional modeling over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousan, Sinan Dhia Jameel

    This thesis presents the use of data assimilation with optimal interpolation (OI) to develop atmospheric aerosol concentration estimates for the United States at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Concentration estimates are highly desirable for a wide range of applications, including visibility, climate, and human health. OI is a viable data assimilation method that can be used to improve Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model fine particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates. PM2.5 is the mass of solid and liquid particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 µm suspended in the gas phase. OI was employed by combining model estimates with satellite and surface measurements. The satellite data assimilation combined 36 x 36 km aerosol concentrations from CMAQ with aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by MODIS and AERONET over the continental United States for 2002. Posterior model concentrations generated by the OI algorithm were compared with surface PM2.5 measurements to evaluate a number of possible data assimilation parameters, including model error, observation error, and temporal averaging assumptions. Evaluation was conducted separately for six geographic U.S. regions in 2002. Variability in model error and MODIS biases limited the effectiveness of a single data assimilation system for the entire continental domain. The best combinations of four settings and three averaging schemes led to a domain-averaged improvement in fractional error from 1.2 to 0.97 and from 0.99 to 0.89 at respective IMPROVE and STN monitoring sites. For 38% of OI results, MODIS OI degraded the forward model skill due to biases and outliers in MODIS AOD. Surface data assimilation combined 36 × 36 km aerosol concentrations from the CMAQ model with surface PM2.5 measurements over the continental United States for 2002. The model error covariance matrix was constructed by using the observational method. The observation error covariance matrix included site representation that

  3. Numerical simulation for optimizing mode shaping and supercontinuum flatness of liquid filled seven-core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liang; Wei, Li; Guoying, Feng

    2015-05-01

    A seven-core photonic crystal fiber filled with commercial index-matching liquids is designed to optimize mode shaping and supercontinuum flatness. Numerical simulation of supercontinuum generation in these liquid-filled seven-core PCFs is conducted at 25 °C. The definition of spectral flatness measure is used to quantitatively describe SC flatness. Numerical simulations are performed to study the propagation of femtosecond pulse in the liquid-filled seven-core PCFs. Results show that mode shaping and supercontinuum flatness can be easily optimized and modified using the index-matching liquids in seven-core PCF without varying the structure of the air rings around the guiding cores. Simulations also show that 50 fs pulses with a center wavelength of 1064 nm generate relatively flat SC spectra in the 25 cm-long liquid-filled PCF. A flat spectral bandwidth of 400 nm (900-1300 nm) is achieved with an applied pump power of 30 kW. The simulation results demonstrate that using index-matching liquids to fill the inner ring of the seven-core PCF optimizes mode shaping and generates flat SC spectrum in specified wavelength region. Results further demonstrate that the SC flatness increased with increasing PCF dispersion corresponding to pump wavelength, on the premise that generated enough spectrum width, when the pump worked in the normal dispersion region. Temperature barely affects the spectrum flatness, but can affect spectrum broadening.

  4. Shape optimization of 3D continuum structures via force approximation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, Garret N.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    The existing need to develop methods whereby the shape design efficiency can be improved through the use of high quality approximation methods is addressed. An efficient approximation method for stress constraints in 3D shape design problems is proposed based on expanding the nodal forces in Taylor series with respect to shape variations. The significance of this new method is shown through elementary beam theory calculations and via numerical computations using 3D solid finite elements. Numerical examples including the classical cantilever beam structure and realistic automotive parts like the engine connecting rod are designed for optimum shape using the proposed method. The numerical results obtained from these methods are compared with other published results, to assess the efficiency and the convergence rate of the proposed method.

  5. A credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural and water resources management: A case study in South Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongwei; Du, Peng; Chen, Yizhong; He, Li

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural irrigation and water resources management. The model not only deals with parameter uncertainty represented as fuzzy sets, but also provides a credibility level which indicates the confidence level of the generated optimal management strategies. The model is used on a real-world case study in South Central China. Results from the case study reveal that: (1) a reduction in credibility level would result in an increasing planting area of watermelon, but impaired the planting acreage of high-quality rice and silk; (2) groundwater allocation would be prioritized for reducing surface water utilization cost; (3) the actual phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reached their limit values in most of the zones over the planning horizon (i.e., phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 969 tonnes and 3814 tonnes under λ = 1.00, respectively; phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 972 tonnes and 3891 tonnes under λ = 0.70, respectively). When the credibility level reduces from 1.00 to 0.70, system benefit would rise by 32.60% and groundwater consumption would be reduced by 79.51%. However, the pollutant discharge would not increase as expected, which would be reduced by 40.14% on the contrary. If system benefit is not of major concern, an aggressive strategy is suggested by selecting a rather low credibility level (say, 0.70). This strategy is suggested for guaranteeing protection of local groundwater resources and mitigation of local environmental deterioration by sacrificing part of system benefit.

  6. Investigating preferences for color-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Tim; Zanker, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioral measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA), which has been demonstrated as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes and Zanker, 2012). In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of color and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same three shapes (square, circle, triangle) used by Kandinsky (1923), with the three color palette from the original experiment (A), an extended seven color palette (B), and eight different shape orientation (C). Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with eight stimuli of different shapes, colors and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested six participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for color-shape combinations for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for clear color/shape preference consistent with Kandinsky's claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of color and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way toward challenging the claims of the universal preference for color/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the

  7. An optimal set of landmarks for metopic craniosynostosis diagnosis from shape analysis of pediatric CT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos S.; Safdar, Nabile; Myers, Emmarie; Kittisarapong, Tanakorn; Rogers, Gary F.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Craniosynostosis (premature fusion of skull sutures) is a severe condition present in one of every 2000 newborns. Metopic craniosynostosis, accounting for 20-27% of cases, is diagnosed qualitatively in terms of skull shape abnormality, a subjective call of the surgeon. In this paper we introduce a new quantitative diagnostic feature for metopic craniosynostosis derived optimally from shape analysis of CT scans of the skull. We built a robust shape analysis pipeline that is capable of obtaining local shape differences in comparison to normal anatomy. Spatial normalization using 7-degree-of-freedom registration of the base of the skull is followed by a novel bone labeling strategy based on graph-cuts according to labeling priors. The statistical shape model built from 94 normal subjects allows matching a patient's anatomy to its most similar normal subject. Subsequently, the computation of local malformations from a normal subject allows characterization of the points of maximum malformation on each of the frontal bones adjacent to the metopic suture, and on the suture itself. Our results show that the malformations at these locations vary significantly (p<0.001) between abnormal/normal subjects and that an accurate diagnosis can be achieved using linear regression from these automatic measurements with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0.97.

  8. A path to asteroid bulk densities: Simultaneous size and shape optimization from optical lightcurves and Keck disk-resolved data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Josef; Viikinkoski, Matti; Marchis, Franck; Durech, Josef

    2015-11-01

    A reliable bulk density of an asteroid can be determined from the knowledge of its volume and mass. This quantity provides hints on the internal structure of asteroids and their origin. We compute volume of several asteroids by scaling sizes of their 3D shape models to fit the disk-resolved images, which are available in the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) and the Virtual Observatory Binary Asteroids Database (VOBAD). The size of an asteroid is optimized together with its shape by the All-Data Asteroid Modelling inversion algorithm (ADAM, Viikinkoski et al., 2015, A&A, 576, A8), while the spin state of the original convex shape model from the DAMIT database is only used as an initial guess for the modeling. Updated sets of optical lightcurves are usually employed. Thereafter, we combine obtained volume with mass estimates available in the literature and derive bulk densities for tens of asteroids with a typical accuracy of 20-50%.On top of that, we also provide a list of asteroids, for which (i) there are already mass estimates with reported uncertainties better than 20% or their masses will be most likely determined in the future from Gaia astrometric observations, and (ii) their 3D shape models are currently unknown. Additional optical lightcurves are necessary in order to determine convex shape models of these asteroids. Our web page (https://asteroid-obs.oca.eu/foswiki/bin/view/Main/Photometry) contains additional information about this observation campaign.

  9. MATERIAL SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES APPLYING A DAMAGE FORMULATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Junji; Ramm, Ekkehard; Terada, Kenjiro; Kyoya, Takashi

    The present contribution deals with an optimization strategy of fiber reinforced composites. Although the methodical concept is very general we concentrate on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with a complex failure mechanism resulting from material brittleness of both constituents matrix and fibers. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the structural ductility of the fiber reinforced composites applying an optimization method with respect to the geometrical layout of continuous long textile fibers. The method proposed is achieved by applying a so-called embedded reinforcement formulation. This methodology is extended to a damage formulation in order to represent a realistic structural behavior. For the optimization problem a gradient-based optimization scheme is assumed. An optimality criteria method is applied because of its numerically high efficiency and robustness. The performance of the method is demonstrated by a series of numerical examples; it is verified that the ductility can be substantially improved.

  10. Does the hourglass shape of aquaporins optimize water permeability This research was supported by the ERC program, project Micromegas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cecile; Bocquet, Lyderic; Liquide et interfaces Team

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitous aquaporin channels are able to conduct water across cell membranes, combining the seemingly antagonist functions of a very high selectivity with a remarkable permeability. While molecular details are obvious keys to perform these tasks, the overall efficiency of transport in such nanopores is also strongly limited by viscous dissipation arising at the connection between the nanoconstriction and the nearby bulk reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on these so-called entrance effects and specifically examine whether the characteristic hourglass shape of aquaporins may arise from a geometrical optimum for such hydrodynamic dissipation. Using a combination of finite element calculations and analytical modeling, we show that conical entrances with suitable opening angle can indeed provide a large increase of the overall channel permeability. Moreover, the optimal opening angles that maximize the permeability are found to compare well with the angles measured in a large variety of aquaporins. This suggests that the hourglass shape of aquaporins could be the result of a natural selection process toward optimal hydrodynamic transport. Finally, in a biomimetic perspective, these results provide guidelines to design artificial nanopores with optimal performances.

  11. Optical simulation of laser beam phase-shaping focusing optimization in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Ricardo; Vieira, Pedro; Coelho, João. M. P.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we report the development of an optical simulator that can be used in the development of methodologies for compensate/decrease the light scattering effect of most biological tissues through phase-shaping methods. In fact, scattering has long been a major limitation for the medical applications of lasers where in-depth tissues concerns due to the turbid nature of most biological media in the human body. In developing the simulator, two different approaches were followed: one using multiple identical beams directed to the same target area and the other using a phase-shaped beam. In the multiple identical beams approach (used mainly to illustrate the limiting effect of scattering on the beam's propagation) there was no improvement in the beam focus at 1 mm compared to a single beam layout but, in phase-shaped beam approach, a 8x improvement on the radius of the beam at the same depth was achieved. The models were created using the optical design software Zemax and numerical algorithms created in Matlab programming language to shape the beam wavefront. A dedicated toolbox allowed communication between both programs. The use of the two software's proves to be a simple and powerful solution combining the best of the two and allowing a significant potential for adapting the simulations to new systems and thus allow to assess their response and define critical engineering parameters prior to laboratorial implementation.

  12. Constrained optimization framework for interface-aware sub-scale dynamics closure model for multimaterial cells in Lagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Andrew; Hill, Ryan; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-11-01

    A systematic description of the new interface-aware sub-scale-dynamics (IA-SSD) closure model for the Lagrangian stage of multimaterial arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods is presented. The IA-SSD closure model consists of two stages. During the first, bulk, stage, the well known equal compressibility model is used. During the second stage, sub-scale interactions of the materials inside the multimaterial cell are taken into account. At this stage, information about the topology of the materials inside the multimaterial cell is utilized, allowing the orientations of internal interfaces to be included in the model. Each material interacts in a pair-wise fashion with the materials with which it has a common boundary. The interactions are based on the solution of the acoustic Riemann problem between each pair of materials and is limited using physically justified constraints: positivity of volume, positivity of internal energy and controlled rate of pressure relaxation. To determine the values of the limiter coefficients, a constrained-optimization framework is employed using a quadratic objective function with linear constraints. The algorithm guarantees the positivity of the material volume and internal energy as well as the smooth relaxation of the pressure - this allows a significant increase in the robustness of the overall algorithm. The results of comprehensive testing of the new model have been presented for one- and two-dimensional multimaterial Lagrangian hydrodynamics along with representative results for 2D multimaterial arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) calculations. The numerical tests have shown that in most cases the new IA-SSD closure model produces better results compared to the well known Tipton's closure model.

  13. Free Shape Context Descriptors Optimized with Genetic Algorithm for the Detection of Dead Tree Trunks in ALS Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Heurich, M.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new family of shape descriptors called Free Shape Contexts (FSC) is introduced to generalize the existing 3D Shape Contexts. The FSC introduces more degrees of freedom than its predecessor by allowing the level of complexity to vary between its parts. Also, each part of the FSC has an associated activity state which controls whether the part can contribute a feature value. We describe a method of evolving the FSC parameters for the purpose of creating highly discriminative features suitable for detecting specific objects in sparse point clouds. The evolutionary process is built on a genetic algorithm (GA) which optimizes the parameters with respect to cross-validated overall classification accuracy. The GA manipulates both the structure of the FSC and the activity flags, allowing it to perform an implicit feature selection alongside the structure optimization by turning off segments which do not augment the discriminative capabilities. We apply the proposed descriptor to the problem of detecting single standing dead tree trunks from ALS point clouds. The experiment, carried out on a set of 285 objects, reveals that an FSC optimized through a GA with manually tuned recombination parameters is able to attain a classification accuracy of 84.2%, yielding an increase of 4.2 pp compared to features derived from eigenvalues of the 3D covariance matrix. Also, we address the issue of automatically tuning the GA recombination metaparameters. For this purpose, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) which dynamically adjusts the magnitude of the recombination effects is co-evolved with the FSC parameters in a two-tier evolution scheme. We find that it is possible to obtain an FLC which retains the classification accuracy of the manually tuned variant, thereby limiting the need for guessing the appropriate meta-parameter values.

  14. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Parapat, Riny Y; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Correction for 'Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805. PMID:26961853

  15. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parapat, Riny Y.; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Correction for `Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805.

  16. Optimal-adaptive filters for modelling spectral shape, site amplification, and source scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces some applications of optimal filtering techniques to earthquake engineering by using the so-called ARMAX models. Three applications are presented: (a) spectral modelling of ground accelerations, (b) site amplification (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at different sites during an earthquake), and (c) source scaling (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at a site during two different earthquakes). A numerical example for each application is presented by using recorded ground motions. The results show that the optimal filtering techniques provide elegant solutions to above problems, and can be a useful tool in earthquake engineering.

  17. The continuous adjoint approach to the k-ω SST turbulence model with applications in shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvadias, I. S.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Dimitrakopoulos, G.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the gradient of aerodynamic objective functions with respect to design variables, in problems governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the k-ω SST turbulence model, is computed using the continuous adjoint method, for the first time. Shape optimization problems for minimizing drag, in external aerodynamics (flows around isolated airfoils), or viscous losses in internal aerodynamics (duct flows) are considered. Sensitivity derivatives computed with the proposed adjoint method are compared to those computed with finite differences or a continuous adjoint variant based on the frequently used assumption of frozen turbulence; the latter proves the need for differentiating the turbulence model. Geometries produced by optimization runs performed with sensitivities computed by the proposed method and the 'frozen turbulence' assumption are also compared to quantify the gain from formulating and solving the adjoint to the turbulence model equations.

  18. Iterative most-likely point registration (IMLP): a robust algorithm for computing optimal shape alignment.

    PubMed

    Billings, Seth D; Boctor, Emad M; Taylor, Russell H

    2015-01-01

    We present a probabilistic registration algorithm that robustly solves the problem of rigid-body alignment between two shapes with high accuracy, by aptly modeling measurement noise in each shape, whether isotropic or anisotropic. For point-cloud shapes, the probabilistic framework additionally enables modeling locally-linear surface regions in the vicinity of each point to further improve registration accuracy. The proposed Iterative Most-Likely Point (IMLP) algorithm is formed as a variant of the popular Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, which iterates between point-correspondence and point-registration steps. IMLP's probabilistic framework is used to incorporate a generalized noise model into both the correspondence and the registration phases of the algorithm, hence its name as a most-likely point method rather than a closest-point method. To efficiently compute the most-likely correspondences, we devise a novel search strategy based on a principal direction (PD)-tree search. We also propose a new approach to solve the generalized total-least-squares (GTLS) sub-problem of the registration phase, wherein the point correspondences are registered under a generalized noise model. Our GTLS approach has improved accuracy, efficiency, and stability compared to prior methods presented for this problem and offers a straightforward implementation using standard least squares. We evaluate the performance of IMLP relative to a large number of prior algorithms including ICP, a robust variant on ICP, Generalized ICP (GICP), and Coherent Point Drift (CPD), as well as drawing close comparison with the prior anisotropic registration methods of GTLS-ICP and A-ICP. The performance of IMLP is shown to be superior with respect to these algorithms over a wide range of noise conditions, outliers, and misalignments using both mesh and point-cloud representations of various shapes. PMID:25748700

  19. Iterative Most-Likely Point Registration (IMLP): A Robust Algorithm for Computing Optimal Shape Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Seth D.; Boctor, Emad M.; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a probabilistic registration algorithm that robustly solves the problem of rigid-body alignment between two shapes with high accuracy, by aptly modeling measurement noise in each shape, whether isotropic or anisotropic. For point-cloud shapes, the probabilistic framework additionally enables modeling locally-linear surface regions in the vicinity of each point to further improve registration accuracy. The proposed Iterative Most-Likely Point (IMLP) algorithm is formed as a variant of the popular Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, which iterates between point-correspondence and point-registration steps. IMLP’s probabilistic framework is used to incorporate a generalized noise model into both the correspondence and the registration phases of the algorithm, hence its name as a most-likely point method rather than a closest-point method. To efficiently compute the most-likely correspondences, we devise a novel search strategy based on a principal direction (PD)-tree search. We also propose a new approach to solve the generalized total-least-squares (GTLS) sub-problem of the registration phase, wherein the point correspondences are registered under a generalized noise model. Our GTLS approach has improved accuracy, efficiency, and stability compared to prior methods presented for this problem and offers a straightforward implementation using standard least squares. We evaluate the performance of IMLP relative to a large number of prior algorithms including ICP, a robust variant on ICP, Generalized ICP (GICP), and Coherent Point Drift (CPD), as well as drawing close comparison with the prior anisotropic registration methods of GTLS-ICP and A-ICP. The performance of IMLP is shown to be superior with respect to these algorithms over a wide range of noise conditions, outliers, and misalignments using both mesh and point-cloud representations of various shapes. PMID:25748700

  20. Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nordin, N. H. Diyana

    2015-03-01

    Harvesting energy from the surroundings has become a new trend in saving our environment. Among the established ones are solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric generators which have successfully grown in meeting the world's energy demand. However, for low powered electronic devices; especially when being placed in a remote area, micro scale energy harvesting is preferable. One of the popular methods is via vibration energy scavenging which converts mechanical energy (from vibration) to electrical energy by the effect of coupling between mechanical variables and electric or magnetic fields. As the voltage generated greatly depends on the geometry and size of the piezoelectric material, there is a need to define an optimum shape and configuration of the piezoelectric energy scavenger. In this research, mathematical derivations for unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester are presented. Simulation is done using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics software to study the effect of varying the length and shape of the beam to the generated voltage. Experimental results comparing triangular and rectangular shaped piezoelectric beam are also presented.

  1. Constructivism, Optimality Theory and Language Acquisition. The Shapes We Make in Each Other's Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whincop, Chris

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies a feature of human brain neural nets that may be described as the principle of ease of processing (PEP), and that, it is argued, is the primary force guiding a learner towards a target grammar. It is suggested that the same principle lies at the heart of Optimality Theory, which characterizes the course of language…

  2. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. PMID:24345525

  3. Optimization of LED-based non-imaging optics with orthogonal polynomial shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brick, Peter; Wiesmann, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Starting with a seminal paper by Forbes [1], orthogonal polynomials have received considerable interest as descriptors of lens shapes for imaging optics. However, there is little information on the application of orthogonal polynomials in the field of non-imaging optics. Here, we consider fundamental cases related to LED primary and secondary optics. To make it most realistic, we avoid many of the simplifications of non-imaging theory and consider the full complexity of LED optics. In this framework, the benefits of orthogonal polynomial surface description for LED optics are evaluated in comparison to a surface description by widely used monomials.

  4. Genetic algorithm optimization of the forming process in case of a U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurelian, Albut

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an optimization method to minimize the springback phenomenon, which generate the main dimensional errors in case of sheet metal forming. The present work deals with numerical simulation related to draw bending and springback of U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks. The base materials from tailor welded blanks have different springback behaviours, fact that must be taken in consideration in the optimisation process. The Dynaform 5.8.1 software was used to simulate the forming process, in which the blank holder is segmented in two parts in order to apply different holding force for each material. In this research the blank holder forces and the deformation speed take different numerical values. The factorial simulations test plan was made using the Design Experts 7.0 software to cover completely the variation domain. The part obtained after each simulation is analyzed and measured to quantify the errors caused by springback. Parameters as: angle between flange and sidewall, angle between sidewall and part bottom are recorded in a data base. The initial simulations plan together with the obtained results is used to understand the influence of the variable parameters on the springback behaviour of the U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks. The gained knowledge is used to generate the objective function required by the genetic algorithm optimization method.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles for power absorption: Optimizing size, shape and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, M.A.; Torres, T.E.; Andres-Verges, M.; Costo, R.; Presa, P. de la; Serna, C.J.; Morales, M.P.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Goya, G.F.

    2009-10-15

    We present a study on the magnetic properties of naked and silica-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 110 nm. Their efficiency as heating agents was assessed through specific power absorption (SPA) measurements as a function of particle size and shape. The results show a strong dependence of the SPA with the particle size, with a maximum around 30 nm, as expected for a Neel relaxation mechanism in single-domain particles. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness was found to play an important role in the SPA mechanism by hindering the heat outflow, thus decreasing the heating efficiency. It is concluded that a compromise between good heating efficiency and surface functionality for biomedical purposes can be attained by making the SiO{sub 2} functional coating as thin as possible. - Graphical Abstract: The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from 5 to 110 nm are presented, and their efficiency as heating agents discussed as a function of particle size, shape and surface functionalization.

  6. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process: Optimization of surface finish and microstructural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Smugeresky, J.E.; Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.

    1997-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) has revolutionized the approach to fabricating geometrically complex hardware from a CAD solid model. The various RP techniques allow component designers to directly fabricate conceptual models in plastics and polymer coated metals; however, each of the techniques requires additional processes, e.g. investment casting, to allow the fabrication of functional metallic hardware. This limitation has provided the impetus for further development of solid freeform fabrication technologies which enable fabrication of functional metallic hardware directly from the CAD solid model. The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process holds promise in satisfying this need. This newly emerging technology possesses the capability to fabricate fully dense components with good dimensional accuracy and with unique materials properties. Relatively complex geometrical shapes have been fabricated using this technology. In continuing to develop the LENS{trademark} process, further advancements are required. The functional dependence of the component surface finish and microstructural characteristics on process parameters including power size and size distribution are being evaluated. A set of statistically designed experiments is being used to sort through the various process parameters and identify significant process variables for improving surface finish and achieving optimum material microstructural properties.

  7. Mechanical Characterization and Shape Optimization of Fascicle-Like 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissues Contracted with Electrical and Optical Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Neal, Devin; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Bashir, Rashid; Chan, Vincent; Asada, Haruhiko Harry

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we present a quantitative approach to construct effective 3D muscle tissues through shape optimization and load impedance matching with electrical and optical stimulation. We have constructed long, thin, fascicle-like skeletal muscle tissue and optimized its form factor through mechanical characterization. A new apparatus was designed and built, which allowed us to measure force-displacement characteristics with diverse load stiffnesses. We have found that (1) there is an optimal form factor that maximizes the muscle stress, (2) the energy transmitted to the load can be maximized with matched load stiffness, and (3) optical stimulation using channelrhodopsin2 in the muscle tissue can generate a twitch force as large as its electrical counterpart for well-developed muscle tissue. Using our tissue construct method, we found that an optimal initial diameter of 500 μm outperformed tissues using 250 μm by more than 60% and tissues using 760 μm by 105%. Using optimal load stiffness, our tissues have generated 12 pJ of energy per twitch at a peak generated stress of 1.28 kPa. Additionally, the difference in optically stimulated twitch performance versus electrically stimulated is a function of how well the overall tissue performs, with average or better performing strips having less than 10% difference. The unique mechanical characterization method used is generalizable to diverse load conditions and will be used to match load impedance to muscle tissue impedance for a wide variety of applications. PMID:25714129

  8. Revising the retrieval technique of a long-term stratospheric HNO3 data set: from a constrained matrix inversion to the optimal estimation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, I.; Muscari, G.; de Zafra, R. L.

    2011-07-01

    The Ground-Based Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (GBMS) was designed and built at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in the early 1990s and since then has carried out many measurement campaigns of stratospheric O3, HNO3, CO and N2O at polar and mid-latitudes. Its HNO3 data set shed light on HNO3 annual cycles over the Antarctic continent and contributed to the validation of both generations of the satellite-based JPL Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Following the increasing need for long-term data sets of stratospheric constituents, we resolved to establish a long-term GMBS observation site at the Arctic station of Thule (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland, beginning in January 2009, in order to track the long- and short-term interactions between the changing climate and the seasonal processes tied to the ozone depletion phenomenon. Furthermore, we updated the retrieval algorithm adapting the Optimal Estimation (OE) method to GBMS spectral data in order to conform to the standard of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) microwave group, and to provide our retrievals with a set of averaging kernels that allow more straightforward comparisons with other data sets. The new OE algorithm was applied to GBMS HNO3 data sets from 1993 South Pole observations to date, in order to produce HNO3 version 2 (v2) profiles. A sample of results obtained at Antarctic latitudes in fall and winter and at mid-latitudes is shown here. In most conditions, v2 inversions show a sensitivity (i.e., sum of column elements of the averaging kernel matrix) of 100 ± 20 % from 20 to 45 km altitude, with somewhat worse (better) sensitivity in the Antarctic winter lower (upper) stratosphere. The 1σ uncertainty on HNO3 v2 mixing ratio vertical profiles depends on altitude and is estimated at ~15 % or 0.3 ppbv, whichever is larger. Comparisons of v2 with former (v1) GBMS HNO3 vertical profiles, obtained employing the constrained matrix inversion method, show that

  9. A non-invasive heuristic approach to shape optimization in forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landkammer, P.; Steinmann, P.

    2016-02-01

    The aim is to determine—relating to a given forming process—the optimal material (undeformed) configuration of a workpiece when knowing the target spatial (deformed) configuration. Therefore, the nodal positions of a discretized setting based on the finite element method (FEM) are the discrete free parameters of the form finding problem. As a verification, inputting the determined optimal material nodal positions, a subsequent re-computation of the forming process should then result in exactly the target spatial nodal positions. A new, non-invasive iterative algorithm, which is purely based on the nodal data of each iteration, is proposed to determine the discretized optimal material configuration. Specifically, the L^2-smoothed deformation gradient at each discretization node is used to update the discretized material configuration by a transformation of the difference vectors between the currently computed and the target spatial nodal positions. The iterative strategy can be easily coupled in a non-invasive fashion via subroutines with arbitrary external FEM software. Since only the computed positions of the discretization nodes are required for an update step within the form finding algorithm, the procedure does not depend on the specific material modelling and is moreover applicable to arbitrary element types, e. g. solid- or solid-shell-elements. Furthermore the convergence rate for solving the form finding problem is nearly linear. This is demonstrated by examples that are realized by a coupling of Matlab (iterative update procedure) and MSC.Marc (external FEM software). Solving the form finding problem to determine an optimum workpiece design is of great interest especially for metal forming applications.

  10. Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Thermoelectric Elements for Double-Pipe-Shaped Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Sae; Ito, Keita O.; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-03-01

    Electric power and efficiency are numerically evaluated for thermoelectric (TE) module designs by assuming that the hot fluid is carried in a pipe with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape and that trapezoidal columnar TE elements are attached to the external surface of the pipe. The thermal heat balance and successive TE phenomena are studied by combining commercial software and our original TE program. The upper length, height, and thickness of the trapezoidal TE elements are assumed to be constant. By varying the base length, the maximum power and maximum efficiency were evaluated for the case where the radiation heat ratio is minimized. It was demonstrated that the choice of a hexagonal cross-section for the TE module is the best one under the assumed material properties and for the allowed space between the two pipes.

  11. Pseudo-time method for optimal shape design using the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iollo, Angelo; Kuruvila, Geojoe; Ta'asan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a novel idea for the optimization of flows governed by the Euler equations. The algorithm consists of marching on the design hypersurface while improving the distance to the state and costate hypersurfaces. We consider the problem of matching the pressure distribution to a desired one, subject to the euler equations, both for subsonic and supersonic flows. The rate of convergence to the minimum for the cases considered is 3 to 4 times slower than that of the analysis problem. Results are given for Ringleb flow and a shockless recompression case.

  12. Shape optimization of staggered ribs in a rotating equilateral triangular cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Mi-Ae; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2014-04-01

    A rotating equilateral triangular cooling channel with staggered square ribs inside the leading edge of a turbine blade has been optimized in this work based on surrogate modeling. The fluid flow and heat transfer in the channel have been analyzed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations under uniform heat flux condition. Shear stress transport turbulence model has been used as a turbulence closure. Computational results for area-averaged Nusselt number have been validated compared to the experimental data. The objectives related to the heat transfer rate and pressure drop has been linearly combined with a weighting factor to define the objective function. The angle of the rib, the rib pitch-to-hydraulic diameter ratio, and the rib width-to-hydraulic diameter ratio have been selected as the design variables. Twenty-two design points have been generated by Latin Hypercube sampling, and the values of the objective function have been calculated by the RANS analysis at these points. The surrogate model for the objective function has been constructed using the radial basis neural network method. Through the optimization, the objective function value has been improved by 21.5 % compared to that of the reference geometry.

  13. The impact of realistic source shape and flexibility on source mask optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Mizuno, Yasushi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Kita, Naonori; Matsui, Ryota; Izumi, Hirohiko; Tajima, Keiichi; Siebert, Joachim; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) is widely used to make state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in high volume manufacturing. To realize mature SMO solutions in production, the Intelligent Illuminator, which is an illumination system on Nikon scanner, is useful because it can provide generation of freeform sources with high fidelity to the target. Proteus SMO, which employs co-optimization method and an insertion of validation with mask 3D effect and resist properties for an accurate prediction of wafer printing, can take into account the properties of Intelligent Illuminator. We investigate an impact of the source properties on the SMO to pattern of a static-random access memory. Quality of a source made on the scanner compared to the SMO target is evaluated with in-situ measurement and aerial image simulation using its measurement data. Furthermore we discuss an evaluation of a universality of the source to use it in multiple scanners with a validation with estimated value of scanner errors.

  14. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Complex Aircraft Configurations via an Adjoint Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Farmer, James; Martinelli, Luigi; Saunders, David

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for complex aircraft configurations. Here control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which allows for a drastic reduction in computational costs over previous design methods (13, 12, 43, 38). In our earlier studies (19, 20, 22, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42) it was shown that this method could be used to devise effective optimization procedures for airfoils, wings and wing-bodies subject to either analytic or arbitrary meshes. Design formulations for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations have been demonstrated, showing that such methods can be devised for various governing equations (39, 25). In our most recent works (40, 42) the method was extended to treat wing-body configurations with a large number of mesh points, verifying that significant computational savings can be gained for practical design problems. In this paper the method is extended for the Euler equations to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. New elements include a multiblock-multigrid flow solver, a multiblock-multigrid adjoint solver, and a multiblock mesh perturbation scheme. Two design examples are presented in which the new method is used for the wing redesign of a transonic business jet.

  15. Shaping frequency response of a vibrating plate for passive and active control applications by simultaneous optimization of arrangement of additional masses and ribs. Part II: Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2016-03-01

    It was shown in Part I that an ability to shape frequency response of a vibrating plate according to precisely defined demands has a very high practical potential. It can be used to improve acoustic radiation of the plate for required frequencies or enhance acoustic isolation of noise barriers and device casings. It can be used for both passive and active control. The proposed method is based on mounting several additional ribs and masses (passive and/or active) to the plate surface at locations followed from an optimisation process. In Part I a relevant model of such structure, as a function of arrangement of the additional elements was derived and validated. The model allows calculating natural frequencies and mode-shapes of the whole structure. The aim of this companion paper, Part II, is to present the second stage of the method. This is an optimization process that results in arrangement of the elements guaranteeing desired plate frequency response, and enhancement of controllability and observability measures. For that purpose appropriate cost functions, and constraints followed from technological feasibility are defined. Then, a memetic algorithm is employed to obtain a numerical solution with parameters of the arrangement. The optimization results are initially presented for simple cases to validate the method. Then, more complex scenarios are analysed with very special demands concerning the frequency response to present the full potential of the method. Subsequently, a laboratory experiment is presented and discussed. Finally, other areas of applications of the proposed method are shown and conclusions for future research are drawn.

  16. Optimization and testing of a continuous rotary motor based on shape memory wires and overrunning clutches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè Mammano, Giovanni; Dragoni, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    A relatively unexplored but extremely attractive field for the application of the shape memory technology is the area of rotary actuators, especially for generating continuous rotations. This paper deals with a novel design of a rotary motor based on SMA wires and overrunning clutches which features high output torque and boundless angular stroke in a compact package. The concept uses a long SMA wire wound round a low-friction cylindrical drum upon which the wire can contract and extend with minimum effort and limited space demand. Fitted to the output shaft by means of an overrunning clutch the output shaft rotates unidirectionally despite the sequence of contractions-elongation cycles of the wire. Following a design procedure developed in a former paper, a six-stage miniature prototype is built and tested showing excellent performance in terms of torque, speed and power density. Characteristic performances of the motor are as follows: size envelope = 48×22×30 mm3; maximum torque = 20 Nmm; specific torque = 6.31×10-4 Nmm/mm3; rotation per module = 15 deg; continuous speed (unloaded) = 4 rpm.

  17. Robust boundary detection and tracking of left ventricles on ultrasound images using active shape model and ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaonan; Gao, Yuan; Jiao, Jinling; Li, Xian; Li, Sai; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the motion, strain and synchronization are important for cardiac diagnosis and therapy. Extraction of such information from ultrasound images remains an open problem till today. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to extract the boundaries of left ventricles and track these boundaries in ultrasound image sequences. The initial detection of boundaries was performed by an active shape model scheme. Subsequent refinement of the boundaries was done by using local variance information of the images. The main objective of this paper is the formulation of a new boundary tracking algorithm using ant colony optimization technique. The experiments conducted on the simulated image sequences and the real cardiac ultrasound image sequences shows a positive and promising result. PMID:25226995

  18. The optimization of j-groove shape in the draft tube of a francis turbine to suppress the draft surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Q. S.; Choi, Y. D.

    2013-12-01

    Suppression of draft surge caused by vortex and cavitation surge in the draft tube is very important to improve the turbine performance when the turbine is operated in the range of partial load condition. In present work, a series of CFD analysis have been conducted in the range of partial load, design condition and over load of a Francis turbine model with a kind of J-Grooves. The pressure contours, circumferential velocity vectors and vortex core regions in the draft tube are compared by the conditions with or without J-Grooves. Study results show that the J-Grooves can suppress the abnormal phenomena to some extents on the condition of maintaining the efficiency. In the second stage, the shape of J-Groove is optimized step by step considering the groove length, depth and width normalized by the diameter of outlet of turbine runner.

  19. Constraining inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the theoretical limits on slow roll reconstruction, an optimal algorithm for recovering the inflaton potential (assuming a single-field slow roll scenario) from observational data. Slow roll reconstruction is based upon the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the inflationary dynamics. We show that at low inflationary scales the Hamilton-Jacobi equations simplify considerably. We provide a new classification scheme for inflationary models, based solely on the number of parameters needed to specify the potential, and provide forecasts for the bounds on the slow roll parameters from future data sets. A minimal running of the spectral index, induced solely by the first two slow roll parameters ({epsilon} and {eta}), appears to be effectively undetectable by realistic cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. However, since the ability to detect any running increases with the lever arm in comoving wavenumber, we conjecture that high redshift 21 cm data may allow tests of second-order consistency conditions on inflation. Finally, we point out that the second-order corrections to the spectral index are correlated with the inflationary scale, and thus the amplitude of the CMB B mode.

  20. Design optimization of a smooth headlamp reflector to SAE/DOT beam-shape requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatz, Narkis E.; Bortz, John C.; Dassanayake, Mahendra S.

    1999-10-01

    The optical design of Ford Motor Company's 1992 Mercury Grand Marquis headlamp utilized a Sylvania 9007 filament source, a paraboloidal reflector and an array of cylindrical lenses (flutes). It has been of interest to Ford to determine the practicality of closely reproducing the on- road beam pattern performance of this headlamp, with an alternate optical arrangement whereby the control of the beam would be achieved solely by means of the geometry of the surface of the reflector, subject to a requirement of smooth-surface continuity; replacing the outer lens with a clear plastic cover having no beam-forming function. To this end the far-field intensity distribution produced by the 9007 bulb was measured at the low-beam setting. These measurements were then used to develop a light-source model for use in ray tracing simulations of candidate reflector geometries. An objective function was developed to compare candidate beam patterns with the desired beam pattern. Functional forms for the 3D reflector geometry were developed with free parameters to be subsequently optimized. A solution was sought meeting the detailed US SAE/DOT constraints for minimum and maximum permissible levels of illumination in the different portions of the beam pattern. Simulated road scenes were generated by Ford Motor Company to compare the illumination properties of the new design with those of the original Grand Marquis headlamp.

  1. Optimal Shape Design of Mail-Slot Nacelle on N3-X Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    System studies show that a N3-X hybrid wing-body aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion system using a mail-slot inlet/nozzle nacelle can meet the environmental and performance goals for N+3 generation transports (three generations beyond the current air transport technology level) set by NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. In this study, a Navier-Stokes flow simulation of N3-X on hybrid unstructured meshes was conducted, including the mail-slot propulsor. The geometry of the mail-slot propulsor was generated by a CAD (Computer-Aided Design)-free shape parameterization. A novel body force model generation approach was suggested for a more realistic and efficient simulation of the flow turning, pressure rise and loss effects of the fan blades and the inlet-fan interactions. Flow simulation results of the N3-X demonstrates the validity of the present approach. An optimal Shape design of the mail-slot nacelle surface was conducted to reduce strength of shock waves and flow separations on the cowl surface.

  2. Design-oriented thermoelastic analysis, sensitivities, and approximations for shape optimization of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Manav

    Aerospace structures operate under extreme thermal environments. Hot external aerothermal environment at high Mach number flight leads to high structural temperatures. At the same time, cold internal cryogenic-fuel-tanks and thermal management concepts like Thermal Protection System (TPS) and active cooling result in a high temperature gradient through the structure. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of such structures requires a design-oriented approach to this problem. The broad goal of this research effort is to advance the existing state of the art towards MDO of large scale aerospace structures. The components required for this work are the sensitivity analysis formulation encompassing the scope of the physical phenomena being addressed, a set of efficient approximations to cut-down the required CPU cost, and a general purpose design-oriented numerical analysis tool capable of handling problems of this scope. In this work finite element discretization has been used to solve the conduction partial differential equations and the Poljak method has been used to discretize the integral equations for internal cavity radiation. A methodology has been established to couple the conduction finite element analysis to the internal radiation analysis. This formulation is then extended for sensitivity analysis of heat transfer and coupled thermal-structural problems. The most CPU intensive operations in the overall analysis have been identified, and approximation methods have been proposed to reduce the associated CPU cost. Results establish the effectiveness of these approximation methods, which lead to very high savings in CPU cost without any deterioration in the results. The results presented in this dissertation include two cases: a hexahedral cavity with internal and external radiation with conducting walls, and a wing box which is geometrically similar to the orbiter wing.

  3. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  4. Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

    2014-08-21

    Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model. PMID:24681404

  5. Shape Metamorphism Using p-Laplacian Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Ge; Esser, Mehmet; Parvin, Bahram; Bebis, George

    2004-05-19

    We present a new approach for shape metamorphism, which is a process of gradually changing a source shape (known) through intermediate shapes (unknown) into a target shape (known). The problem, when represented with implicit scalar function, is under-constrained, and regularization is needed. Using the p-Laplacian equation (PLE), we generalize a series of regularization terms based on the gradient of the implicit function, and we show that the present methods lack additional constraints for a more stable solution. The novelty of our approach is in the deployment of a new regularization term when p --> infinity which leads to the infinite Laplacian equation (ILE). We show that ILE minimizes the supremum of the gradient and prove that it is optimal for metamorphism since intermediate solutions are equally distributed along their normal direction. Applications of the proposed algorithm for 2D and 3D objects are demonstrated.

  6. A Sequential Linear Quadratic Approach for Constrained Nonlinear Optimal Control with Adaptive Time Discretization and Application to Higher Elevation Mars Landing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Amit

    A sequential quadratic programming method is proposed for solving nonlinear optimal control problems subject to general path constraints including mixed state-control and state only constraints. The proposed algorithm further develops on the approach proposed in [1] with objective to eliminate the use of a high number of time intervals for arriving at an optimal solution. This is done by introducing an adaptive time discretization to allow formation of a desirable control profile without utilizing a lot of intervals. The use of fewer time intervals reduces the computation time considerably. This algorithm is further used in this thesis to solve a trajectory planning problem for higher elevation Mars landing.

  7. Hybrid evolutionary programming for heavily constrained problems.

    PubMed

    Myung, H; Kim, J H

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid of evolutionary programming (EP) and a deterministic optimization procedure is applied to a series of non-linear and quadratic optimization problems. The hybrid scheme is compared with other existing schemes such as EP alone, two-phase (TP) optimization, and EP with a non-stationary penalty function (NS-EP). The results indicate that the hybrid method can outperform the other methods when addressing heavily constrained optimization problems in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. PMID:8833746

  8. Comment on ‘The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, I.; Lozovenko, O.; Minaiev, Yu

    2016-09-01

    In their recent paper, Wang and Su (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 055010) acquainted readers with a solution to a problem about the optimal shape of an object for generating a maximum gravity field at a given point in space. After applying the variational principal and the Euler–Lagrange equation they obtained the shape for two-, three- and arbitrary n-dimensional cases. We are convinced that the problem is interesting enough to consider it with students. In this Comment we will try to present an easier way to solve it for the three-dimensional space.

  9. Constrained Vapor Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Plawsky, J.; Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The nonisothermal Constrained Vapor Bubble, CVB, is being studied to enhance the understanding of passive systems controlled by interfacial phenomena. The study is multifaceted: 1) it is a basic scientific study in interfacial phenomena, fluid physics and thermodynamics; 2) it is a basic study in thermal transport; and 3) it is a study of a heat exchanger. The research is synergistic in that CVB research requires a microgravity environment and the space program needs thermal control systems like the CVB. Ground based studies are being done as a precursor to flight experiment. The results demonstrate that experimental techniques for the direct measurement of the fundamental operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and interfacial curvature fields) have been developed. Fluid flow and change-of-phase heat transfer are a function of the temperature field and the vapor bubble shape, which can be measured using an Image Analyzing Interferometer. The CVB for a microgravity environment, has various thin film regions that are of both basic and applied interest. Generically, a CVB is formed by underfilling an evacuated enclosure with a liquid. Classification depends on shape and Bond number. The specific CVB discussed herein was formed in a fused silica cell with inside dimensions of 3x3x40 mm and, therefore, can be viewed as a large version of a micro heat pipe. Since the dimensions are relatively large for a passive system, most of the liquid flow occurs under a small capillary pressure difference. Therefore, we can classify the discussed system as a low capillary pressure system. The studies discussed herein were done in a 1-g environment (Bond Number = 3.6) to obtain experience to design a microgravity experiment for a future NASA flight where low capillary pressure systems should prove more useful. The flight experiment is tentatively scheduled for the year 2000. The SCR was passed on September 16, 1997. The RDR is tentatively scheduled for October, 1998.

  10. Shaping frequency response of a vibrating plate for passive and active control applications by simultaneous optimization of arrangement of additional masses and ribs. Part I: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2016-03-01

    An ability to shape frequency response of a vibrating plate according to precisely defined demands has a very high practical potential. It can be applied to improve acoustic radiation of the plate for required frequencies or enhance acoustic isolation of noise barriers and device casings by using both passive and active control. The proposed method is based on mounting severaladditional ribs and masses (passive and/or active) to the plate surface at locations followed from an optimization process. This paper, Part I, concerns derivation of a mathematical model of the plate with attached elements in the function of their shape and placement. The model is validated by means of simulations and laboratory experiments, and compared with models known from the literature. This paper is followed by a companion paper, Part II, where the optimization process is described. It includes arrangement of passive elements as well as actuators and sensors to improve controllability and observability measures, if active control is concerned.

  11. Optimization of the preform shape in the three-stage forming process of the shielded slot plate in fuel cell manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Yol; Lee, Chang-Whan; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2013-05-01

    The shielded slot plate, a repeated structure of high sheared protrusions, is a major component of metallic bipolar plates for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the MCFC and long-term operation capability, the sheared protrusion should have a relatively large flat contact area. In addition, defects from the forming process such as local thinning should be minimized. In this work, the preform shape in the three-stage forming process that integrates the slitting process, the preforming process, and the final forming process was optimized to minimize the effective plastic strain. In the simulation of the forming process, the ductile fracture criterion was employed to the user material subroutine VUMAT in ABAQUS/Explicit. Steepest descent method was utilized in the design of the forming process to minimize equivalent plastic strain. High sheared protrusions were manufactured without defects from the three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape. The minimum thickness of one sheared protrusion was increased by 25% over that of the two-stage forming process. The three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape enables more uniformly distributed deformation and reduces localized deformation.

  12. Left-ventricle segmentation in real-time 3D echocardiography using a hybrid active shape model and optimal graph search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Abiose, Ademola K.; Campbell, Dwayne N.; Sonka, Milan; Martins, James B.; Wahle, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of the left ventricular shape and motion patterns associated with left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning in congestive heart failure. Real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) used for LVMD analysis is frequently limited by heavy speckle noise or partially incomplete data, thus a segmentation method utilizing learned global shape knowledge is beneficial. In this study, the endocardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) is segmented using a hybrid approach combining active shape model (ASM) with optimal graph search. The latter is used to achieve landmark refinement in the ASM framework. Optimal graph search translates the 3D segmentation into the detection of a minimum-cost closed set in a graph and can produce a globally optimal result. Various information-gradient, intensity distributions, and regional-property terms-are used to define the costs for the graph search. The developed method was tested on 44 RT3DE datasets acquired from 26 LVMD patients. The segmentation accuracy was assessed by surface positioning error and volume overlap measured for the whole LV as well as 16 standard LV regions. The segmentation produced very good results that were not achievable using ASM or graph search alone.

  13. Options for Robust Airfoil Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2002-01-01

    A robust optimization method is developed to overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points. This method combines the best features from several preliminary methods proposed by the authors and their colleagues. The robust airfoil shape optimization is a direct method for drag reduction over a given range of operating conditions and has three advantages: (1) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (2) it uses a large number of spline control points as design variables yet the resulting airfoil shape does not need to be smoothed, and (3) it allows the user to make a tradeoff between the level of optimization and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, the robust optimization method is used to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for a two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil in Euler flow with 20 geometric design variables.

  14. Constraining Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta

    2010-12-01

    Future advances in cosmology will depend on the next generation of cosmological observations and how they shape our theoretical understanding of the universe. Current theoretical ideas, however, have an important role to play in guiding the design of such observational programs. The work presented in this thesis concerns the intersection of observation and theory, particularly as it relates to advancing our understanding of the accelerated expansion of the universe (or the dark energy). Chapters 2 - 4 make use of the simulated data sets developed by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) for a number of cosmological observations currently in the experimental pipeline. We use these forecast data in the analysis of four quintessence models of dark energy: the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis and Inverse Power Law (IPL) models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of these models. We examine the potential of the data for differentiating time-varying models from a pure cosmological constant. Additionally, we introduce an abstract parameter space to facilitate comparison between models and investigate the ability of future data to distinguish between these quintessence models. In Chapter 5 we present work towards understanding the effects of systematic errors associated with photometric redshift estimates. Due to the need to sample a vast number of deep and faint galaxies, photometric redshifts will be used in a wide range of future cosmological observations including gravitational weak lensing, baryon accoustic oscillations and type 1A supernovae observations. The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from such observations. We introduce a method for parameterizing uncertainties in modeling assumptions affecting photometric redshift calculations and for propagating these

  15. Constrained simultaneous stitching measurement for aspheric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weibo; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Significant errors could be result from multiple data sets due to error transfer and accumulation in each sub-aperture. The constrained simultaneous stitching method with error calibration is proposed to increase the stability of the numerical solution of the stitching algorithm. Global averaging error and constrained optimization are applied to simultaneous stitching after alignment errors calibrated. The goal of optimization and merit function is the minimization of the discrepancy between multiple data sets by including components related to various alignment errors. The values for stitching coefficients that fall within the unit sphere and minimize the mean square difference between and overlapping values can be found by iterative constrained optimization. At last, the full aperture wave-front was reconstructed by simultaneous stitching with the stitching coefficients required to remain within meaningful bounds.

  16. The control and estimation of large space structures. [for optimal shape variation with respect to space and time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, C.

    1980-01-01

    A shape control or estimation problem for a large space structure can be modeled by a partial differential equation which represents changes in shape with respect to space and time, together with spatially discrete forcing functions or observations which represent the placement of actuators or sensors at discrete points along the structure. The use of Green's functions to convert boundary value problems into integral equations provides a convenient treatment of this mixture of continuous and discrete mathematics. Control and estimation algorithms are developed for the one-dimensional static beam to illustrate this technique.

  17. Design and optimization of small-sized actuators for driving optical lens with different shapes based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing; Luo, Bin; Zhu, Zicai

    2012-04-01

    Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs), as one of the most promising smart materials, can produce a large deformation for low voltage in the range of 0-5V. Since the materials were found, IPMCs have often been studied as actuators for their large deformation and inherent flexibility. Recently, IPMCs are applied to the optical lens-driving system. In this paper, we design miniature optical lens actuators for the focusing requirements. And two kinds of the driving structure, the petal-shaped and annular structure, are proposed. Then, the preparation processes of IPMCs and the actuators are presented and five kinds of petal-shaped and annular actuators are manufactured and their performances are tested, respectively. Finally, the performances of the actuators with different parameters are analyzed by an equivalent thermal model with FEA software.

  18. The relevance of molecular weight in the design of amorphous biodegradable polymers with optimized shape memory effect.

    PubMed

    Petisco-Ferrero, S; Fernández, J; Fernández San Martín, M M; Santamaría Ibarburu, P A; Sarasua Oiz, J R

    2016-08-01

    The shape memory effect (SME) has long been the focus of interest of many research groups that have studied many facets of it, yet to the authors' knowledge some molecular parameters, such as the molecular weight, have been skipped. Thus, the aim of this work is to offer further insight into the shape memory effect, by disclosing the importance of the molecular weight as the relevant parameter dictating the extension of the rubbery plateau, which is the scenario where the entropic network of entanglements manifests. For this, a set of biodegradable amorphous poly(rac-d,l)lactides have been synthesised by ring opening copolymerization of a racemic mixture of L-and D-lactide. The analysis performed on the synthesised enantiomeric copolylactides includes the determination of molecular weights by means of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), thermal properties by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and rheological tests using small amplitude oscillatory flow analysis. Shape memory properties have been determined by means of specific cyclic thermo-mechanic test protocol. It has been shown that the recovery capacity of amorphous PDLLA is linked to the disentanglement time through an exponential law. PMID:27136090

  19. Constraining Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Anderson, Gemma J.; Hull, Matthew; Seery, David E-mail: G.Anderson@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: D.Seery@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    In this short paper, we present constraints on the Galileon inflationary model from the CMB bispectrum. We employ a principal-component analysis of the independent degrees of freedom constrained by data and apply this to the WMAP 9-year data to constrain the free parameters of the model. A simple Bayesian comparison establishes that support for the Galileon model from bispectrum data is at best weak.

  20. Genetic Evolution of Shape-Altering Programs for Supersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two constrained shape optimization problems relevant to aerodynamics are solved by genetic programming, in which a population of computer programs evolves automatically under pressure of fitness-driven reproduction and genetic crossover. Known optimal solutions are recovered using a small, naive set of elementary operations. Effectiveness is improved through use of automatically defined functions, especially when one of them is capable of a variable number of iterations, even though the test problems lack obvious exploitable regularities. An attempt at evolving new elementary operations was only partially successful.