Science.gov

Sample records for construction materials laboratory

  1. Construction material

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  2. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  3. Inspection of alleged design and construction deficiencies in the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    On June 8, 1994, the Office of Inspections, Office of Inspector General (OIG), Department of Energy (DOE), received a letter dated May 31, 1994, from a complainant concerning the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The complainant alleged that the NMSF, completed in 1987, was so poorly designed and constructed that it was never usable and that DOE proposed to gut the entire facility and sandblast the walls. According to the complainant, ``these errors are so gross as to constitute professional malpractice in a commercial design setting.`` The complainant further stated that ``DOE proposes to renovate this facility to store large amounts of plutonium (as much as 30 metric tons, by some accounts), and it is imperative that the public receive some assurance that this waste will not recur and that the facility will be made safe.`` The purpose of our inspection was to determine if the allegations regarding the design and construction of the NMSF were accurate, and if so, to determine if the Government could recover damages from the Architect/Engineer and/or the construction contractor. We also reviewed the Department`s proposed actions to renovate the NMSF.

  4. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  5. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  6. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  7. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  8. Volcanic Glasses: Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Samuel E.

    1998-01-01

    Natural glass is the product of rapidly cooled molten rock. Two natural sources of the melt are volcanic eruption and meteoritic impact. Pure glass is an amorphous aggregate. Volcanic glass is a material that could be utilized in the construction of extraterrestrial outposts. Pumice and perlite are volcanic glasses currently used in the building industry. Samples of natural volcanic glass found in the lunar regolith were returned to Earth as part of the Apollo and Luna programs. An alpha proton X-ray spectrometer onboard the Pathfinder recently examined martian rocks located in the vicinity of the lander craft. Preliminary results of chemical composition by weight of SiO2 50-55%, Al203 11-13%, K20 1-2%, Na20 2-5%, CaO 4-6%, MgO 3-7%, FeO 12-14%, S03 2-5%, and MnO <1% were given for two rocks. Parenthetically, the values for K and Mn were perhaps too high, and the analysis was based on X-ray data only. The appreciable amount of silica already found on Mars and empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that the planet once had water sufficient to rapidly cool magma imply the possibility of discovering natural glass of volcanic origin in subsequent missions.

  9. Laboratory Materials: Affordances or Constraints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is critical to the understanding of biology and is a central piece of biological sciences instruction. Although much investigation has focused on the content of biology laboratory exercises, we contend that understanding the extent to which the laboratory materials can aid or limit experimental investigation is of equal…

  10. Construction Material And Method

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2006-02-21

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  11. Chemistry and Biology Laboratories. Design--Construction--Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Werner

    Guidelines for planning, building, and equipping the biological and chemical laboratory are revealed, along with construction methods for the modernization or building of new academic or industrial type laboratories. Building equipment, services, utilities, and materials data are given with rules concerning the dimensions and services of…

  12. Materials Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Materials Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Materials Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) research focus is the physical and photoelectrochemical characterization of novel materials. In this laboratory unknown samples are characterized by identifying and quantifying molecular species present through the implementation of a suite of analytical instrumentation and techniques. This leads to the ability to deconvolute decomposition routes and elucidate reaction mechanisms of materials through thermal and evolved gas analysis. This aids in the synthesis of next generation materials that are tailored to optimize stability and performance. These techniques and next generation materials will have many applications. One particular focus is the stable and conductive tetherable cations for use as membrane materials in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Another is to understand the leachant contaminants derived from balance of plant materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Once identified and quantified, these organic and ionic species are dosed as contaminants into ex/in-situ fuel cell tests, to determine the effect on durability and performance. This laboratory also acts in support of fuel cell catalysis, manufacturing, and other related projects. The Materials Characterization Laboratory will cover multiple analytical operations, with the overall goal of troubleshooting synthetic materials or process streams to improve performance. Having novel evolved gas analysis and other analytical capabilities; this laboratory provides a viable location to analyze small batch samples, whereas setting up these types of capabilities and expertise would be cost and time prohibitive for most institutions. Experiments that can be performed include: (1

  13. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  14. Ice as a Construction Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuppero, Anthony; Lewis, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation shows how water and ice can enable exceptionally simple ways to construct structures in deep space. Practicality is underscored by applying advanced tank methods being developed for Mars missions. Water or ice is now known to be present or abundant on most objects in the solar system, starting with the planet Mercury. Thermal processes alone can be used to melt ice . The cold of space can refreeze water back into ice. The anomalous low vapor pressure of water, about 7 mm Hg, permits bladder containers. Tanks or bladders made with modern polymer fiber and film can exhibit very small (<0.1 %) equivalent tankage and ullage fractions and thus hold thousands of tons of water per ton bladder. Injecting water into a bladder whose shape when inflated is the desired final shape, such as a space vehicle, provides a convenient way to construct large structures. In space, structures of 1O,OOO-T mass become feasible because the bladder mass is low enough to be launched. The bladder can weigh 1OOO times less than its contents, or 10 T. The bladder would be packed like a parachute. Shaped memory materials and/or gas inflation could reestablish the desired structure shape after unpacking. The water comes from space resources. An example examines construction of torus space vehicle with 100-m nominal dimension. People would live inside the torus. A torus, like a tire on an automobile, would spin and provide synthetic gravity at its inner surface. A torus of order 100 m across would provide a gravity with gradients low enough to mitigate against vertigo.

  15. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of available terrestrial skills to the gathering of lunar materials and the processing of raw lunar materials into industrial feed stock were investigated. The literature on lunar soils and rocks was reviewed and the chemical processes by which major oxides and chemical elements can be extracted were identified. The gathering of lunar soil by means of excavation equipment was studied in terms of terrestrial experience with strip mining operations on earth. The application of electrostatic benefication techniques was examined for use on the moon to minimize the quantity of materials requiring surface transport and to optimize the stream of raw materials to be transported off the moon for subsequent industrial use.

  16. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  17. Alternative construction materials in waste containment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Swyka, M.A.

    1996-03-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a challenge presented by the combined forces of industry, the economy, increased regulatory requirements, and the public`s heightened sensitivity to recycling and effective management of solid waste to reduce, reuse, and recycle. Therefore, individuals have begun thinking about landfill construction in new ways and taking a second and third look at ways to reduce construction costs while maintaining system performance and regulatory compliance. As a result of this examination, EMCON (Mahwah, NJ) has begun to identify components of the waste stream that can be redirected into a beneficial use as construction materials. Use of non-traditional materials for landfill construction, such as broken glass, tires, ash, or sludge, has the potential for significant savings, and subsequent benefit of converting potentially unusable waste materials into a useful part of a landfill containment system.

  18. The Extraterrestrial Materials Simulation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to fly-by and orbital missions, in situ missions face an incredible array of challenges in near-target navigation, landing site selection, descent, landing, science operations, sample collection and handling, drilling, anchoring, subsurface descent, communications, and contamination. The wide range of materials characteristics and environments threaten mission safety and success. For example, many physical properties are poorly characterized, including strength, composition, heterogeneity, phase change, texture, thermal properties, terrain features, atmospheric interaction, and stratigraphy. Examples of the range of materials properties include, for example: (1) Comets, with a possible compressive strength ranging from a light fluff to harder than concrete: 10(exp 2) to 10 (exp 8) Pa; (2) Europa, including a possible phase change at the surface, unknown strength and terrain roughness; and (3) Titan, with a completely unknown surface and possible liquid ocean. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Fast mix table construction for material discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a 'mix table,' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in O(number of voxels x log number of mixtures) time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation. (authors)

  20. Lautal as a material for airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1929-01-01

    Lautal is a refinable aluminum alloy which, unlike duralumin, contains no magnesium. According to the statements of the Lauta Works, lautal contains: aluminum, 94%; copper, 4%; silicon, 2%. The use of lautal as a construction material is discussed in relation to specific weight, production methods, and riveting tests.

  1. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

  2. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  3. Two Readily-Constructed Instruments for the Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Neil S.

    1983-01-01

    Reported are designs for a colorimeter (absorptiometer) and polarimeter, both of which may be constructed readily with average workshop facilities and whose performance is superior to many commercial instruments commonly used in teaching laboratories. Includes pertinent diagrams, operating instructions, and sample output. (JN)

  4. Materials and techniques for model construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The problems confronting the designer of models for cryogenic wind tunnel models are discussed with particular reference to the difficulties in obtaining appropriate data on the mechanical and physical properties of candidate materials and their fabrication technologies. The relationship between strength and toughness of alloys is discussed in the context of maximizing both and avoiding the problem of dimensional and microstructural instability. All major classes of materials used in model construction are considered in some detail and in the Appendix selected numerical data is given for the most relevant materials. The stepped-specimen program to investigate stress-induced dimensional changes in alloys is discussed in detail together with interpretation of the initial results. The methods used to bond model components are considered with particular reference to the selection of filler alloys and temperature cycles to avoid microstructural degradation and loss of mechanical properties.

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  6. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  7. Automation software for a materials testing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The software environment in use at the NASA-Lewis Research Center's High Temperature Fatigue and Structures Laboratory is reviewed. This software environment is aimed at supporting the tasks involved in performing materials behavior research. The features and capabilities of the approach to specifying a materials test include static and dynamic control mode switching, enabling multimode test control; dynamic alteration of the control waveform based upon events occurring in the response variables; precise control over the nature of both command waveform generation and data acquisition; and the nesting of waveform/data acquisition strategies so that material history dependencies may be explored. To eliminate repetitive tasks in the coventional research process, a communications network software system is established which provides file interchange and remote console capabilities.

  8. Automation software for a materials testing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive software system for automating much of the experimental process has recently been completed at the Lewis Research Center's high-temperature fatigue and structures laboratory. The system was designed to support experiment definition and conduct, results analysis and archiving, and report generation activities. This was accomplished through the design and construction of several software systems, as well as through the use of several commercially available software products, all operating on a local, distributed minicomputer system. Experimental capabilities currently supported in an automated fashion include both isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue and deformation testing capabilities. The future growth and expansion of this system will be directed toward providing multiaxial test control, enhanced thermomechanical test control, and higher test frequency (hundreds of hertz).

  9. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  11. 49 CFR 176.96 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials of construction. 176.96 Section 176.96... Requirements for Barges § 176.96 Materials of construction. Barges used to transport hazardous materials must be constructed of steel....

  12. 49 CFR 176.96 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction. 176.96 Section 176.96... Requirements for Barges § 176.96 Materials of construction. Barges used to transport hazardous materials must be constructed of steel....

  13. Thermal-Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    1997-01-01

    Since its inception and successful implementation in 1997 at James Madison University, the Thermal Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory (T-SaMTL) funded by the NASA Langley Research Center is evolving into one of the University's premier and exemplary efforts to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten (10) students and faculty directly and almost fifty (50) students indirectly, T-SAMTL, through its recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring program, tutorial services and its research and computational laboratories has marked the completion of the first year with support from NASA totaling $ 100,000. Beginning as an innovative academic research and mentoring program for underrepresented minority science and mathematics students, the program now boasts a constituency which consists of 50% graduating seniors in the spring of 1998 with 50% planning to go to graduate school. The program's intent is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who receive doctoral degrees in the sciences by initiating an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self actualization skills of undergraduate students with the potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The program provides financial assistance, academic enrichment, and professional and personal development support for minority students who demonstrate the potential and strong desire to pursue careers in the sciences and mathematics. James Madison University was awarded the first $100,000, in April 1997, by The NASA Langley Research Center for establishment and support of its Thermal Structures and Materials Testing

  14. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R and D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O and M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R and D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with US geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  15. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  16. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O'Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been evaluated in

  17. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  18. NOVEL METHODS AND MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to identify the structural and nonstructural factors which influence the cost of construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants and to determine if construction costs could be reduced through the modification of the nonstructural factors or th...

  19. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic... workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall conform to the...

  20. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic... workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall conform to the...

  1. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic... workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall conform to the...

  2. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic... workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall conform to the...

  3. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic... workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall conform to the...

  4. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  5. Laboratory experiments designed to test the remediation properties of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.S.; Wildeman, T.R.; Ford, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    Passive treatment systems constructed to remediate mine drainage have proven to be very successful for a wide variety of drainage compositions and volumes. The construction of an anaerobic passive treatment system requires a mixture of local materials with the objective of producing a system that allows adequate water flow while supporting the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. These bacteria have the effect of reducing the oxidizing potential in the system causing many sulfide-forming metals in solution to precipitate. The focus of these experiments was the study of chemical characteristics of materials, individually and in mixtures, with the purpose of determining which would be best suited for incorporation into a treatment system. The materials of interest were manure (fresh and aged), alfalfa, limestone, and sawdust, which were all collected in close proximity to the construction site of the proposed treatment system. A variety of chemical and physical hypotheses were formulated prior to performing simple chemical characterization and anaerobic treatment tests. The hypotheses relating to the chemical nature of the single materials were carbon to nitrogen ratio, availability of low molecular weight organic acids, number of adsorption sites, and organic carbon content. In addition, hypotheses concerning the performance of mixtures were evaluated by looking at the relative amount of bacterial growth (and metal removal) seen in each mixture over a 4-week period. The results of the laboratory experiments confirmed hypotheses, and demonstrated that in the mixtures, the anaerobic bacteria flourish when alfalfa is present, up to a point. The best mixture that allowed proliferation of bacteria while also removing metals consisted of 50% limestone, 25% aged manure, 15% sawdust, and 10% alfalfa (% by weight).

  6. Utilizing Nanofabrication to Construct Strong, Luminescent Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Gang; Lu, Hong B.; McCready, David E.; Joly, Alan G.; Bovin, Jan-Olov

    2006-05-28

    Luminescent materials have been utilized widely in applications from lighting to sensing. The new development of technologies based on luminescence properties requires the materials to have high luminescence efficiency and mechanical strength. In this article, we report the fabrication of luminescent materials possessing high mechanical strength by nanofabrication with polyvinyl alcohol used as a stabilizer or coupling agent. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission microscope observations reveal that the nanocomposite sample contains ZnS and ZnO nanoparticles as well as kozoite and sodium nitrate. The mechanical strength and hardness of these nanocomposite materials are higher than polycarbonate and some carbon nanotube reinforced nanocomposites. Strong luminescence is observed in the new nanocomposites and the luminescence intensity does not degrade following up to 30 minutes of X-ray irradiation. Our results indicate that nanofabrication may provide a good method to improve the mechanical strength of luminescent materials for some applications in which high strength luminescent materials are needed.

  7. Construction Trade Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This building trades course, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to introduce the basic skills that a student must know in the construction field. It is geared to teach the student basic manipulative skills, safety judgments, proper work habits, desirable attitudes, and proper behavior for initial…

  8. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  9. Construction Methods and Materials. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, John H.

    A school construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects information on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides advice on the various types of construction that may be used, the materials available, and some elementary aspects of the services required…

  10. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic. PMID:23663865

  11. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries. PMID:22317574

  12. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  13. Materials technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Betten, P.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne is actively involved in the research and development of new materials research and development (R D). Five new materials technologies have been identified for commercial potential and are presented in this paper as follows: (1) nanophase materials, (2) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of ceramics, (3) superconductivity developments and technology transfer mechanisms, and (4) COMMIX computer code modeling for metal castings, and (5) tribology using ion-assisted deposition (IAB). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fabrication methods for construction from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-driving parameters of space industrialization are discussed, specifically cost of transportation from earth to low earth orbit and productivity of labor in space. A design procedure for a space manufacturing facility (SMF) is outlined, and the design of a reference SMF is described. This SMF receives lunar materials and converts them to components of space structures such as solar power satellites. The effect of machine reliability is discussed. The SMF appears versatile and productive, and the space environment has some beneficial characteristics which may simplify manufacturing processes. Technology demonstration programs are needed, but prototypes of SMF equipment can be small devices.

  15. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Flat samples from various PMMA formulations subjected to accelerated laboratory weathering in an "Atlas Xenotest Alpha +" weathering device operating at 3 Sun irradiance remain transparent after 6.48GJ/m2 radiant exposure (300 - 400nm). Transmittance is reduced and yellowness index increases. However, the amount of change depends largely on the PMMA formulation. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties. Based on a model of CPV efficiency for a particular power train, relative losses of efficiency are between 1 and 28%. Performance regarding these properties can be linked to the UV absorber type and concentrations used.

  16. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory materials highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.R. ); Daghir, R. )

    1990-12-01

    The metallic materials discussed briefly in this report are nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, Fe{sub 3}-Al-based iron aluminides, and advanced austenitic alloys for coal utilization applications. Whisker-reinforced ceramic composites, toughened zirconia ceramics, fiber reinforced composite hot-gas filters, and titanium diboride are all discussed. The sol-gel process for the fabrication of high-yield oxide varistors is presented briefly. The use of zirconia-bonded zirconia for fiber insulation structures is presented. The patent status for all the metallic and ceramic materials and for their uses is reported. Several methods for testing the materials described include pulsed eddy-current non-destructive, Sigmajig (an improved hot-cracking test), and laser diffraction measurements for high-temperature strain measurements. MHD molten metal atomizer for powder production, thermal spraying, and microwave sintering of ceramics are all described. A process for impregnating a concrete or ceramic body with a polymeric material and a thermomechanical software development center are both discussed briefly. (BM)

  18. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  19. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equivalent to the standards established by the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design...

  20. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalent to the standards established by the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design...

  1. Computer Data Acquisition Applications in the Materials Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described are applications of computer data acquisition to three laboratories in materials science at the United States Naval Academy. In each laboratory, data are input to a minicomputer, scaled using previously obtained and stored calibration factors to convert the transducer signals to load, displacement, temperature, etc., and then stored on…

  2. Laser materials processing at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    The interest in laser processing has been driven by Sandia`s responsibility to design, prototype, manufacture, and steward high reliability defense hardware for the Department of Energy. The system requirements for the hardware generally necessitate hermetic sealing for ensured long life operation. With the advent of miniaturized electronic devices, traditional welding processes were no longer practical choices because of their limited ability to make very small weld closures without heat damage to the hardware. Gas and solid state lasers offered the opportunity to make hermetic closure welds in small, heat sensitive hardware. In order to consistently produce quality product, the Sandia laser materials processing team performed research aimed at identifying those critical parameters which controlled the laser welding process. This has been directed towards both the development of quantitative engineering data needed in product design and process control, and research to achieve fundamental process understanding. In addition, they have developed novel diagnostic systems to measure these important parameters, pioneered the use of calorimetric techniques to measure energy transfer efficiencies, and correlated the occurrence of welding defects with alloy compositions and type of laser welding process. Today, Sandia`s laser materials processing team continues to advance the state of laser processing technology in many areas, including aluminum laser welding, the design of novel optics for specific laser processing needs, laser micromachining of silicon and diamond for microelectronics applications, and fluxless laser soldering. This paper will serve to highlight some examples of where Sandia has made contributions to the field of laser materials processing and will indicate the directions where they expect to focus their future efforts.

  3. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  4. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  5. Chemistry-Materials Laboratory Project Book, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This Chemistry-Materials Laboratory Project Book, assembled through a survey of science instructors in vocational-technical schools in Connecticut, is intended to meet a variety of needs. It can serve as an idea book, with the instructor taking from it as needed and adding or substituting material related to class interests; as a guide book for…

  6. Sediment retention in constructed wetland ponds--a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Ursula; Hengl, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard H

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on sediment removal and particle settlement were conducted in a hydraulic laboratory model scaled 1:1 to study processes and mechanisms governing sediment transport under well defined and reproducible conditions. Parameters governing particle settling were varied and their effect studied ceteris paribus. These governing parameters were flow velocity, TSS input concentration, presence of plants, vegetation density, and the presence of wind. Changes in sediment removal due to different parameters were analyzed by means of deposition curves in main flow direction. We found that particle settling is enhanced by increased inflow concentrations of suspended solids in the absence of plant stems (substance used: kaolin), whereas deposition is reduced by wind shear. The presence of plant stems strengthens vertical mixing and, consequently, does not generally result in enhanced deposition of suspended solids. Higher plant densities tend to be associated with lower settling rates. The effect of flow velocity on particle settling is small for the present experimental set-up. PMID:15921291

  7. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems. PMID:20498131

  8. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  9. Construction of the NuMI underground laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laughton, Christopher; Bruen, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    At Fermilab, a 4000-ft long underground complex has recently been constructed for a high-energy physics experiment. The complex is sited up to 350 ft, below grade principally in bedrock. The rock excavations were mined by TBM and drill and blast methods and supported by a combination of rock bolts, dowels and shotcrete. Water control was achieved using a combination of pre- and post-excavation grouting, drainage systems, drip shielding and air desiccation measures.

  10. A Model Framework for Course Materials Construction. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A model framework for course materials construction is presented as an aid to Coast Guard course writers and coordinators, curriculum developers, and instructors who must modify a course or draft a new one. The model assumes that the instructor or other designated person has: (1) completed a task analysis which identifies the competencies, skills…

  11. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  12. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equivalent to the standards established by the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction. 154.1702 Section 154.1702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials of construction. 154.1702 Section 154.1702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating...

  15. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements of this subpart. ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials, construction, and workmanship. 162.017-3 Section 162.017-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with ISO 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements..., Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-3 Materials, construction, and workmanship. (a) The... imperfections which may affect its serviceability. (b) Bodies of pressure-vacuum relief valves must be made...

  17. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equivalent to the standards established by the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN...

  18. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equivalent to the standards established by the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN...

  19. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  20. Potential Polymeric Sphere Construction Materials for a Spacecraft Electrostatic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Smith, Trent; Williams, Martha; Youngquist, Robert; Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    An electrostatic shielding concept for spacecraft radiation protection under NASA s Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program was evaluated for its effectiveness and feasibility. The proposed shield design is reminiscent of a classic quadrupole with positively and negatively charged spheres surrounding the spacecraft. The project addressed materials, shield configuration, power supply, and compared its effectiveness to that of a passive shield. The report herein concerns the identification of commercially available materials that could be used in sphere fabrication. It was found that several materials were needed to potentially construct the spheres for an electrostatic shield operating at 300 MV.

  1. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  2. Fire Signatures of Materials Used in Spacecraft Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The focus of my work this summer was fire safety, specifically determining fire signatures from the combustion of materials commonly found in the construction of spacecraft. This project was undertaken with the aim of addressing concerns for health and safety onboard spacecraft. Under certain conditions, burning electronics produce surprisingly large amounts of acrid smoke, release fine airborne particles and expel condensable aerosols. Similarly, some wire insulation and packing material evolves smoke when in contact with a hot surface. In the limited, enclosed space available on spacecraft, these combustion products may pose a nuisance at the very least - at worst, a hazard to health or equipment. There is also a concern for fire safety in early detection on spacecraft. Our goal for the summer was to determine the most effective methods to test the materials, develop a protocol for sampling, and generate samples for analysis. We restricted our testing to electronic components, packaging and insulation materials, and wire insulation materials.

  3. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  5. Construction material processed using lunar simulant in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Stan; Ocallaghan-Hay, Bridget; Housman, Ralph; Kindig, Michael; King, John; Montegrande, Kevin; Norris, Raymond; Vanscotter, Ryan; Willenborg, Jonathan; Staubs, Harry

    1995-01-01

    The manufacture of construction materials from locally available resources in space is an important first step in the establishment of lunar and planetary bases. The objective of the CoMPULSIVE (Construction Material Processed Using Lunar Simulant In Various Environments) experiment is to develop a procedure to produce construction materials by sintering or melting Johnson Space Center Simulant 1 (JSC-1) lunar soil simulant in both earth-based (1-g) and microgravity (approximately 0-g) environments. The characteristics of the resultant materials will be tested to determine its physical and mechanical properties. The physical characteristics include: crystalline, thermal, and electrical properties. The mechanical properties include: compressive tensile, and flexural strengths. The simulant, placed in a sealed graphite crucible, will be heated using a high temperature furnace. The crucible will then be cooled by radiative and forced convective means. The core furnace element consists of space qualified quartz-halogen incandescent lamps with focusing mirrors. Sample temperatures of up to 2200 C are attainable using this heating method.

  6. Construction of an Instructional Design Model for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Design: A Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunag, Tara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct an instructional systems design model for chemistry teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level to accurately depict the current practices of design experts. This required identifying the variables considered during design, prioritizing and ordering these variables, and constructing a model. Experts…

  7. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  8. Materials, Competence, and Confidence: Products of a District Mathematics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.; Mikesell, Jerald L.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematics laboratory with commercial and teacher-made materials, a workshop, and a discussion room were established. An extension course taught how to use the instructional aids and accompanying behavioral objectives and activity cards. Active use of the lab is increasing. The teachers' enthusiasm has spread to the students. (KM)

  9. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. PMID:23374080

  10. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. PMID:27311782

  11. Environmental Projects. Volume 9: Construction of hazardous materials storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards. This report is one in a series of reports describing environmental projects at GDSCC. The construction of two hazardous materials and wastes storage facilities and an acid-wash facility is described. An overview of the Goldstone complex is also presented along with a description of the environmental aspects of the GDSCC site.

  12. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  13. Advanced Strain-Isolation-Pad Material with Bonded Fibrous Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibold, R. W.; Saito, C. A.; Buller, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing air lay and liquid lay felt deposition techniques to fabricate strain isolation pad (SIP) materials for the Space Shuttle Orbiter was demonstrated. These materials were developed as candidate replacements for the present needled felt SIP used between the ceramic tiles and the aluminum skin on the undersurface of the Orbiter. The SIP materials that were developed consisted of high temperature aramid fibers deposited by controlled fluid (air or liquid) carriers to form low density unbonded felts. The deposited felts were then bonded at the fiber intersections with a small amount of high temperature polyimide resin. This type of bonded felt construction can potentially eliminate two of the problems associated with the present SIP, viz., transmittal of localized stresses into the tiles and load history dependent mechanical response. However, further work is needed to achieve adequate through thickness tensile strength in the bonded felts.

  14. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  15. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John

    2014-04-24

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  16. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2014-06-03

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  17. Evaluation and design considerations of woven composite flywheel materials constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Sapowith, A.D.; Handy, W.E.; Gurson, A.L.; Lerner, G.R.

    1981-06-15

    Work performed from November 1979 to June 1981 on projects for evaluating the specific energy density capability of bidirectional woven flywheel materials and for developing design approaches for the optimization of those materials is reported. After demonstrating the basic geometry needed to construct a constant stress composite flywheel, a method of construction that can integrate radial and hoop fibers, control the relative stiffness in these two principal directions, and offer low cost in production is explained. Such a construction can be accomplished by weaving the radial fibers with the hoop fibers to form a cloth with a circular or spiral configuration. In this design, the warp fibers become the hoops and the pick fibers become the radials. The varying of radial stiffness is controlled by the choice of the pick pattern. In order to evaluate the circular weave, 0.2-in.-thick discs of approximately 20 in.-dia. were molded using S-glass weave and an epoxy matrix. Tensile specimens cut from the discs in both the radial and hoop directions were tested to failure. Further analyses and tests were performed to determine the optimum weave arrangement and the percent of fiber volume needed to optimize the specific material strength. These analyses show that there is a relatively wide range of pick to warp ratios which achieve optimum specific energy densities and that this range includes ratios that are relatively simple to fabricate. The tensile test data show that specific strengths of the fiberglass circular weave approximate 2.5 x 10/sup 6/ in. which results in energy densities at burst of 35 to 40 W-h/lb. A percent of active composite encompassed by the OD for the composite of 78% has been demonstrated. Fiberglass data suggest that the circular weave flywheel can operate over a life cycle equivalent to 10/sup 6/ deep cycles at the energy density level of 15 W-h/lb. (LCL)

  18. Computational modeling of multicellular constructs with the material point method.

    PubMed

    Guilkey, James E; Hoying, James B; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Computational modeling of the mechanics of cells and multicellular constructs with standard numerical discretization techniques such as the finite element (FE) method is complicated by the complex geometry, material properties and boundary conditions that are associated with such systems. The objectives of this research were to apply the material point method (MPM), a meshless method, to the modeling of vascularized constructs by adapting the algorithm to accurately handle quasi-static, large deformation mechanics, and to apply the modified MPM algorithm to large-scale simulations using a discretization that was obtained directly from volumetric confocal image data. The standard implicit time integration algorithm for MPM was modified to allow the background computational grid to remain fixed with respect to the spatial distribution of material points during the analysis. This algorithm was used to simulate the 3D mechanics of a vascularized scaffold under tension, consisting of growing microvascular fragments embedded in a collagen gel, by discretizing the construct with over 13.6 million material points. Baseline 3D simulations demonstrated that the modified MPM algorithm was both more accurate and more robust than the standard MPM algorithm. Scaling studies demonstrated the ability of the parallel code to scale to 200 processors. Optimal discretization was established for the simulations of the mechanics of vascularized scaffolds by examining stress distributions and reaction forces. Sensitivity studies demonstrated that the reaction force during simulated extension was highly sensitive to the modulus of the microvessels, despite the fact that they comprised only 10.4% of the volume of the total sample. In contrast, the reaction force was relatively insensitive to the effective Poisson's ratio of the entire sample. These results suggest that the MPM simulations could form the basis for estimating the modulus of the embedded microvessels through a parameter

  19. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  2. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward the establishment of outposts on the Moon and Mars. Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and tensile, flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal 'liquefaction' of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.), and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress. Details of the development of intermediate ceramic composites (ICC) and testing for their flexural and compression characteristics were described in various reports and papers. The subject of behavior of compacted simulant under vacuum was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum be utilized for further investigation.

  3. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. PMID:21222116

  4. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  5. Review of the proposed materials of construction for the SBWR and AP600 advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.

    1994-06-01

    Two advanced light water reactor (LWR) concepts, namely the General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe Reactor (AP600), were reviewed in detail by Argonne National Laboratory. The objectives of these reviews were to (a) evaluate proposed advanced-reactor designs and the materials of construction for the safety systems, (b) identify all aging and environmentally related degradation mechanisms for the materials of construction, and (c) evaluate from the safety viewpoint the suitability of the proposed materials for the design application. Safety-related systems selected for review for these two LWRs included (a) reactor pressure vessel, (b) control rod drive system and reactor internals, (c) coolant pressure boundary, (d) engineered safety systems, (e) steam generators (AP600 only), (f) turbines, and (g) fuel storage and handling system. In addition, the use of cobalt-based alloys in these plants was reviewed. The selected materials for both reactors were generally sound, and no major selection errors were found. It was apparent that considerable thought had been given to the materials selection process, making use of lessons learned from previous LWR experience. The review resulted in the suggestion of alternate an possibly better materials choices in a number of cases, and several potential problem areas have been cited.

  6. Contributions of NIST/NBS Researchers to the Crystallography of Construction Materials

    PubMed Central

    Stutzman, Paul

    2001-01-01

    For more than 100 years, the primary theme underlying the NBS/NIST staff contribution to the crystallography of building materials has been the development of an improved understanding of concrete materials performance. Over that time period, portland cement concrete has become one of the most important of our construction materials for roads, buildings, and other large municipal structures. At the beginning of the 20th century our understanding of portland cement composition, performance, use in concrete, and how the concrete performs in harsh environments was lacking. The efforts of NIST have served to advance construction materials science and technology through the combined efforts of experimental, field study, and theoretical computational materials science. One major achievement in the late 1920s, derived from studies on phase equilibria in cement clinker, allows calculation of potential cement clinker composition. Known as the Bogue calculation, this continues to be an essential tool in cement plant process control to this day. Additionally, contributions of NIST scientists to our knowledge of the chemistry and nature of cement hydration products have been crucial in our understanding of cement hydration and concrete durability. Today, computational materials science is a rapidly developing discipline, and NIST is developing tools incorporating predictive models aided by empirical studies. Examples include a computer-integrated knowledge system for prediction and optimization of performance and life-cycle cost of high performance concrete and the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory. Understanding the relationships between material and performance properties has not been confined only to portland cements. One of the longest running experiments at NIST, the stone test wall, has stood for over 50 years as one of the world’s largest single collections of building stone, and is invaluable for studying weathering effects associated with stone

  7. Design, construction, and validation of a large capacity rodent magnetic field exposure laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gauger, J R; Johnson, T R; Stangel, J E; Patterson, R C; Williams, D A; Harder, J B; McCormick, D L

    1999-01-01

    A magnetic field exposure laboratory has been constructed to support National Toxicology Program studies for the evaluation of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of pure, linearly polarized, 60 Hz magnetic fields in rodents. This dual corridor, controlled access facility can support the simultaneous exposure of 1200 rats and 1200 mice. The facility contains fully redundant electrical and environmental control systems and was constructed using non-metallic materials to maintain low levels of background (ambient), stray, and cross-talk magnetic fields. The exposure module design provides for large uniform exposure volumes with good control of stray and cross-talk fields, while allowing the use of roll-around cage racks for simplified animal husbandry. Stray fields and cross-talk have been further reduced by the inclusion of "steering coils" in each exposure module. Ambient 60 Hz fields (less cross-talk) in all exposure rooms are <0.1 microT (1 mG), and static magnetic fields have been mapped extensively. Magnetic field strength, waveform, temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, noise level, vibration, and air flow in all animal holding areas are tightly regulated, and are monitored continuously during all studies. Field uniformity in the animal exposure volumes is better than -/+l0%; a systematic program of cage, rack, and room rotation controls for possible positional effects within the exposure system. Magnetic fields are turned on and off over multiple cycles to prevent the induction of transients associated with abrupt field level changes. Total harmonic distortion is <3% at all field strengths. The facility has been used to study magnetic field bioeffects in rodent model systems in experiments ranging in duration from 8 weeks to 2 years. PMID:9915589

  8. Access to Special Nuclear Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bean; J. Barrett; D. Gerts; B. Brush

    2010-07-01

    Access to special nuclear material (SNM) such as enriched uranium or plutonium is critical to the experimental validation of measurement techniques for nuclear nonproliferation applications. It is especially important that realistic quantities be available for measurements in the field. Security and safety requirements have made such access nearly impossible at many U.S. facilities. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been able to provide kilogram quantities of SNM for in situ measurements ranging from testing of equipment in laboratory facilities, to outdoor measurements simulating real conditions, to transfer of the SNM to the customer’s facility and back for measurements in the field. The INL will be working to make SNM more widely accessible for measurements by nuclear nonproliferation projects, including those with international researchers.

  9. Outcomes of Student Participation in Apparel Construction/Sewing Laboratory Classes in Southern California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Goldstein, Diane Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study was an attempt to understand the types of affective learning. The study focused on beginning students who were enrolled in apparel construction/sewing laboratory in community colleges within Los Angeles and Ventura counties during the spring of 2009 (n = 155). The primary purpose of the study was to develop scales that would…

  10. New Ion Beam Materials Laboratory for Materials Modification and Irradiation Effects Research

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Crespillo, Miguel L; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Chen, Chien-Hung; Fontana, Cristiano L; Graham, Dr. Joseph T.; Weber, William J

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  11. New ion beam materials laboratory for materials modification and irradiation effects research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Crespillo, M. L.; Xue, H.; Jin, K.; Chen, C. H.; Fontana, C. L.; Graham, J. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  12. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  13. Thermocouple Calibration and Accuracy in a Materials Testing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Nathal, M. V.; Keller, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    A consolidation of information has been provided that can be used to define procedures for enhancing and maintaining accuracy in temperature measurements in materials testing laboratories. These studies were restricted to type R and K thermocouples (TCs) tested in air. Thermocouple accuracies, as influenced by calibration methods, thermocouple stability, and manufacturer's tolerances were all quantified in terms of statistical confidence intervals. By calibrating specific TCs the benefits in accuracy can be as great as 6 C or 5X better compared to relying on manufacturer's tolerances. The results emphasize strict reliance on the defined testing protocol and on the need to establish recalibration frequencies in order to maintain these levels of accuracy.

  14. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  15. Architectural control of construction materials with application of man-made wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, Ruslan; Abdrakhmanova, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the principles of construction materials formation based on non-organic and organic raw materials when material matrix is filled with particulate fillers from man-made wastes of various nature formed in different conditions. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for mineral, chemical and material composition of wastes to modify construction materials are detailed. The ways to use them as modifiers of construction materials are shown by the example of wastes group belonging to slags.

  16. 48 CFR 1325.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 1325... construction material proposed for exception from the requirements of the Buy America Act is set forth in...

  17. The development of a microwave fluid-bed processor. I. Construction and qualification of a prototype laboratory unit.

    PubMed

    Doelling, M K; Jones, D M; Smith, R A; Nash, R A

    1992-11-01

    The static bed- and planetary-type microwave dryers currently available to process pharmaceutical materials are not designed to use hot-air fluidization for the purpose of maximizing microwave energy inputs and particle drying. To take advantage of the benefits offered by fluidization, a 1-kg Uni-Gatt laboratory fluid bed processor was modified to support microwave-assisted fluid bed drying of several representative pharmaceutical granulations. The construction, design features, and validation of this new microwave fluid bed processor are presented. PMID:1475238

  18. Deformation Monitoring of Materials Under Stress in Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatos, D.; Yiatros, S.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  19. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  20. Process and equipment capabilities materials joining laboratory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.W. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    The Materials Joining Laboratory of the Metals and Ceramics Division has the capabilities and expertise to perform various types of joining emphasizing welding and brazing. Capabilities range from joining of heavy-section steels using a wide variety of welding technology to joining of small parts by brazing or welding. Expertise and facilities also exist for joining ceramic-to-ceramic or ceramic-to-metallic parts using brazing technology. In addition, a newly acquired plasma-spray system is available for coating research. With other laboratories and facilities within the Metals and Ceramics Division, a situation exists for extensive characterization of microstructure and properties of weldments. The Laboratory is fully equipped for the standard welding processes including gas tungsten arc, submerged arc, gas metal arc, and electroslag (ES). Specialized equipment includes pulsed and high-power continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser systems, high-power electron beam welding machines, internal bore tube-to-tubesheet welding system, narrow gap SA welding system, Gleeble thermomechanical simulator, and sessile drop apparatus for braze alloy wetting studies.

  1. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  2. Toward self-constructing materials: a systems chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2012-12-18

    To design the next generation of so-called "smart" materials, researchers will need to develop chemical systems that respond, adapt, and multitask. Because many of these features occur in living systems, we expect that such advanced artificial systems will be inspired by nature. In particular, these new materials should ultimately combine three key properties of life: metabolism, mutation, and self-replication. In this Account, we discuss our endeavors toward the design of such advanced functional materials. First, we focus on dynamic molecular libraries. These molecular and supramolecular chemical systems are based on mixtures of reversibly interacting molecules that are coupled within networks of thermodynamic equilibria. We will explain how the superimposition of combinatorial networks at different length scales of structural organization can provide valuable hierarchical dynamics for producing complex functional systems. In particular, our experimental results highlight why these libraries are of interest for the design of responsive materials and how their functional properties can be modulated by various chemical and physical stimuli. Then, we introduce examples in which these dynamic combinatorial systems can be coupled to kinetic feedback loops to produce self-replicating pathways that amplify a selected component from the equilibrated libraries. Finally, we discuss the discovery of highly functional self-replicating supramolecular assemblies that can transfer an electric signal in space and time. We show how these wires can be directly incorporated within an electronic nanocircuit by self-organization and functional feedback loops. Because the network topologies act as complex algorithms to process information, we present these systems in this order to provide context for their potential for extending the current generation of responsive materials. We propose a general description for a potential autonomous (self-constructing) material. Such a system

  3. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  4. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    PubMed

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. PMID:25986048

  5. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions. PMID:26257054

  6. Importance of material evaluation prior to the construction of devices for in vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Rach, Jessica; Halter, Beat; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-11-01

    The development and validation of new in vitro methods in the field of toxicology have gained more importance in recent years due to stricter guidelines for animal testing, especially in the European Union. Consequently, advances in the construction of technical devices for the exposure of cell or tissue cultures to test substances are necessary. Here, to obtain reliable results, it is important to exclusively use materials that do not interfere with the cell viability. Thus, similar to the biomaterials testing of medical devices which is regulated in the Directive 93/42/EEC, the biocompatibility of the materials has to be verified prior to the construction of such devices. We present here a novel approach for biomaterials testing which allows the quantitative and qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity of material samples. Stainless steel and silicone are often used for laboratory equipment, due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. However, our results highlight that some types of silicone may have adverse effects on cultured cells. Moreover, special methods for the surface treatment of metals may also be a critical factor for in vitro devices. Therefore, the testing of all materials coming in contact with cell cultures is highly recommended. PMID:23452617

  7. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  8. Applied Physics Laboratory, Strength of Materials, High School, 12th Year (Incomplete).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Irving; Goldfarb, Melvin

    The preliminary draft for a course in Strength of Materials and Materials Testing Laboratory contains a day by day teachers guide and an outline for laboratory activities. The guide includes sequence of topics, suggested reading assignments, demonstrations, and worksheets. The outline provides material for the development of a laboratory manual…

  9. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  10. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  11. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  12. Constructing a modern cytology laboratory: A toolkit for planning and design

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Janie; Wrenn, Allison; Poole, John; Jaeger, Andrew; Eltoum, Isam A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Constructing or renovating a laboratory can be both challenging and rewarding. UAB Cytology (UAB CY) recently undertook a project to relocate from a building constructed in 1928 to new space. UAB CY is part of an academic center that provides service to a large set of patients, support training of one cytotechnology program and one cytopathology fellowship training program and involve actively in research and scholarly activity. Our objectives were to provide a safe, aesthetically pleasing space and gain efficiencies through lean processes. Methods: The phases of any laboratory design project are Planning, Schematic Design (SD), Design Development (DD), Construction Documents (CD) and Construction. Lab personnel are most critical in the Planning phase. During this time stakeholders, relationships, budget, square footage and equipment were identified. Equipment lists, including what would be relocated, purchased new and projected for future growth ensure that utilities were matched to expected need. A chemical inventory was prepared and adequate storage space was planned. Regulatory and safety requirements were discussed. Tours and high level process flow diagrams helped architects and engineers understand the laboratory daily work. Future needs were addressed through a questionnaire which identified potential areas of growth and technological change. Throughout the project, decisions were driven by data from the planning phase. During the SD phase, objective information from the first phase was used by architects and planners to create a general floor plan. This was the basis of a series of meetings to brainstorm and suggest modifications. DD brings more detail to the plans with engineering, casework, equipment specifics, finishes. Design changes should be completed at this phase. The next phase, CD took the project from the lab purview into purely technical mode. Construction documents were used by the contractor for the bidding process and

  13. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authority. Requests for approval shall be addressed to DAEN-CWE-DC. (2) Hydraulic laboratories. Division Engineers and District Engineers operating hydraulic laboratories or hydraulic model laboratories are... hydraulic laboratories, and to the Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project. (c) References. (1) AR 37-20. (2)...

  14. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority. Requests for approval shall be addressed to DAEN-CWE-DC. (2) Hydraulic laboratories. Division Engineers and District Engineers operating hydraulic laboratories or hydraulic model laboratories are... hydraulic laboratories, and to the Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project. (c) References. (1) AR 37-20. (2)...

  15. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  16. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 625.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction...

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-9 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Quantity; (D) Price; (E) Time of delivery or availability; (F) Location of the construction project; (G...-Construction Materials. 52.225-9 Section 52.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.225-9 Buy American Act—Construction Materials. As prescribed in 25.1102(a), insert...

  18. Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

    2013-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

  19. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  20. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  1. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  2. Laboratory evidence of MTBE biodegradation in Borden aquifer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mario; Butler, Barbara J.; Church, Clinton D.; Barker, James F.; Nadarajah, Nalina

    2003-02-01

    Mainly due to intrinsic biodegradation, monitored natural attenuation can be an effective and inexpensive remediation strategy at petroleum release sites. However, gasoline additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) can jeopardize this strategy because these compounds often degrade, if at all, at a slower rate than the collectively benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylene (BTEX) compounds. Investigation of whether a compound degrades under certain conditions, and at what rate, is therefore important to the assessment of the intrinsic remediation potential of aquifers. A natural gradient experiment with dissolved MTBE-containing gasoline in the shallow, aerobic sand aquifer at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden (Ontario, Canada) from 1988 to 1996 suggested that biodegradation was the main cause of attenuation for MTBE within the aquifer. This laboratory study demonstrates biologically catalyzed MTBE degradation in Borden aquifer-like environments, and so supports the idea that attenuation due to biodegradation may have occurred in the natural gradient experiment. In an experiment with batch microcosms of aquifer material, three of the microcosms ultimately degraded MTBE to below detection, although this required more than 189 days (or >300 days in one case). Failure to detect the daughter product tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in the field and the batch experiments could be because TBA was more readily degradable than MTBE under Borden conditions.

  3. Effects of Suicide Awareness Material on Implicit Suicide Cognition: A Laboratory Experiment.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasing adoption of suicide awareness campaigns to prevent suicide, little is known about the effective construction of awareness messages used and on their impact on suicidal cognition. We hypothesized that media reporting on an individual overcoming a suicidal crisis increases the automatic association between "life" and self. University students (N = 112) were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a laboratory experiment. Participants allocated to treatment group 1 or group 2 read awareness material about a person coping with suicidal ideation by getting professional help. The only difference between the two groups was the amount of social similarity (low vs. high) between the protagonist and the participants. The control group read an article unrelated to suicide. Awareness material increased implicit cognition in terms of a strengthening of self-life associations. This effect was restricted to participants scoring low on wishful identification with the suicidal protagonist. This finding suggests that only individuals who do not wishfully identify with a protagonist going through difficult life circumstances benefit from the awareness material in terms of suicidal cognition. These findings provide a rich basis for further research and have potentially high relevance to the construction of suicide-awareness messages. PMID:26529239

  4. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  5. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25... exception from the requirements of the Buy American Act based on the unreasonable cost of...

  6. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25... exception from the requirements of the Buy American Act based on the unreasonable cost of...

  7. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  8. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  9. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  10. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  11. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  12. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  13. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  14. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  15. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  16. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  17. Construction techniques for the Taklamakan Desert Highway: research on the construction materials and the results of field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changning; Dong, Zhibao; Li, Zhinong

    2006-03-01

    After conducting many laboratory and field experiments, several key technical issues related to the construction of China’s Taklamakan Desert Highway have been satisfactorily resolved. In particular, considerable progress has been made on the dry compaction of a sand sub-base, road design parameters, the creation of a structure that combines a sub-grade and asphalt pavement, analysis of the stability of a sand sub-base strengthened with geotextiles, and on the development of a complete set of construction techniques. The achievements of this research were successfully applied for the first time in the Taklamakan Desert, where the environmental conditions are extremely harsh. The results suggest that the construction of this highway was economical and that the simple construction methods produced a reliable highway. The resulting highway is believed to be the world’s first long-distance graded highway running through a huge desert with migrating dunes.

  18. Audit of construction of an environmental, safety, and health analytical laboratory at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a report from the Office of the Inspector General, US DOE. The report evaluates the need for the construction of an Environmental, Safety, and Health Laboratory at the Pantex Plant and if this project is the most cost effective manner in which to meet mission needs. It was found that: (1) mission needs were being met with existing facilities, (2) required evaluations of alternatives were not performed, (3) decisions were made based on out-dated justifications, and (4) the expenditure of $8.4M was unnecessary. As a result, it was recommended that funded be suspended until the need is clearly established.

  19. Materials Databases Infrastructure Constructed by First Principles Calculations: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lianshan

    2015-10-13

    The First Principles calculations, especially the calculation based on High-Throughput Density Functional Theory, have been widely accepted as the major tools in atom scale materials design. The emerging super computers, along with the powerful First Principles calculations, have accumulated hundreds of thousands of crystal and compound records. The exponential growing of computational materials information urges the development of the materials databases, which not only provide unlimited storage for the daily increasing data, but still keep the efficiency in data storage, management, query, presentation and manipulation. This review covers the most cutting edge materials databases in materials design, and their hot applications such as in fuel cells. By comparing the advantages and drawbacks of these high-throughput First Principles materials databases, the optimized computational framework can be identified to fit the needs of fuel cell applications. The further development of high-throughput DFT materials database, which in essence accelerates the materials innovation, is discussed in the summary as well.

  20. Problems Involved in the Choice and Use of Materials in Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1932-01-01

    The present state of the problem of materials in airplane construction is studied on the basis of data giving the principal characteristics of different materials and showing how they affect the form of airplane parts.

  1. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Laboratory investigations and... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.340 Laboratory investigations and... procedures applicable to the performance of investigations and tests at Corps of Engineers...

  2. Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

    1999-02-01

    Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

  3. Design, construction, and initial operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Dreicer, J.S.; Grimmer, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    A 232 m/sup 2/ solar pond was constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics on a large scale and to complement the flow visualization and one-dimensional pond simulator experiments that are ongoing at the Laboratory. Design methods and construction techniques, some of which are unique to this pond, are described in detail. The pond was excavated from a soft volcanic rock known as tuff; such rock forms a large fraction of the Los Alamos area surface geology. Because tuff has a small thermal conductivity, little insulation was required to reduce perimeter energy losses. In addition, the strength of tuff permitted the pond to be built with vertical side walls; this design eliminated local side wall convection in the gradient zone that is possible with sloping side walls. Instrumentation in the pond consists of traversing and fixed rakes of thermometers and salinity probes, an underwater pyranometer, and a weather station. The traversing rake is a wheeled trolley driven vertically on a rectangular rail. Installed on the trolley are coplanar platinum RTDs, a point conductivity probe, and an induction salinometer. The stationary rake supports 28 thermocouples and 28 sample-fluid withdrawal taps located every 10 cm. About 127 T of sodium chloride has been introduced and is nearly dissolved. A 120-cm-thick salinity gradient was established and the pond is heating. Preliminary results indicate a lower-convective-zone heating rate of 1.2/sup 0/C/day during the pond's first month of operation. Recommendations on pond design, construction, and instrumentation are presented.

  4. Health-Threatening Building Materials in School Construction and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Rudolf

    Awareness in Europe of the possible health hazards of certain building materials has increased. Many new building products have had no long-term testing, and competition leads to constant product changes. For example, asbestos-laden materials were used widely in schools, and now they must be removed or treated at great cost. Scientists and…

  5. Materials Databases Infrastructure Constructed by First Principles Calculations: A Review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Lianshan

    2015-10-13

    The First Principles calculations, especially the calculation based on High-Throughput Density Functional Theory, have been widely accepted as the major tools in atom scale materials design. The emerging super computers, along with the powerful First Principles calculations, have accumulated hundreds of thousands of crystal and compound records. The exponential growing of computational materials information urges the development of the materials databases, which not only provide unlimited storage for the daily increasing data, but still keep the efficiency in data storage, management, query, presentation and manipulation. This review covers the most cutting edge materials databases in materials design, and their hotmore » applications such as in fuel cells. By comparing the advantages and drawbacks of these high-throughput First Principles materials databases, the optimized computational framework can be identified to fit the needs of fuel cell applications. The further development of high-throughput DFT materials database, which in essence accelerates the materials innovation, is discussed in the summary as well.« less

  6. Use of recycled materials in highway construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, D.L.; Jackson, N.C.; Anderson, K.W.

    1992-02-01

    The major objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the types of recycled materials that are appropriate and feasible as alternative paving materials, such as glass and tires; and (2) the types of recycled materials, such as mixed-plastics and compost, that can be utilized in all types of transportation applications other than pavements. Seven key products are investigated: (1) tires, (2) glass, (3) asphalt concrete, (4) fly ash, (5) compost, (6) mixed plastics, and (7) aluminum sign stock. Performance and cost data for rubber-asphalt pavements is documented for both in-state and nationwide applications. The national experience with the use of waste glass as an additive to asphalt concrete and its use in unbound base materials is also highlighted. Programs for experimental use of recycled materials are outlined. Recommendations for staffing and program changes to deal with recycling issues are also discussed.

  7. Role of primary standards, reference materials, and laboratory intercomparisons in an accredited INAA Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, P.

    1994-12-31

    The terms accreditation and certification may be confusing to newcomers in the field of quality management. One of the differences between ISO-25 (from the International Organization for Standardization) laboratory accreditation and ISO-9000 laboratory certification is that an ISO-25-accredited laboratory has been assessed by an expert outsider on its technical competence, whereas an ISO-9000-certified laboratory has not. Laboratory accreditation includes, therefore, a certainty to the {open_quotes}customer{close_quotes} that analyses will be performed at the state of the practice with a given accuracy and precision, a certainty according to documented criteria, regularly evaluated by peers during their audits. But, when analyses are being carried out by a certified laboratory, this customer has to take all measures himself to ensure the quality of the results, e.g., by blind control samples.

  8. Progress in Design and Construction of the Optical Communications Laser Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Britcliffe, M.; Golshan, N.

    1999-01-01

    The deployment of advanced hyperspectral imaging and other Earth sensing instruments on board Earth observing satellites is driving the demand for high-data-rate communications. Optical communications meet the required data rates with small, low mass, and low-power communications packages. JPL, as NASA's lead center in optical communications, plans to construct a 1-m Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at its Table Mountain Facility (TMF) complex in the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California. The design of the building has been completed, and the construction contractor has been selected. Ground breaking is expected to start at the beginning of the 1999 TMF construction season. A request for proposal (RFP) has been issued for the procurement of the telescope system. Prior to letting the RFP we conducted a request for information with industry for the telescope system. Several vendors responded favorably and provided information on key elements of the proposed design. These inputs were considered in developing the final requirements in the RFP. Keywords: Free space optical communications, lasercom, telescopes, ground stations, adaptive optics, astrometry, Table Mountain Facility

  9. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be financed by RUS. These requirements are set forth in other RUS regulations, especially in 7 CFR..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-9 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act... Clauses 52.225-9 Buy American Act—Construction Materials. As prescribed in 25.1102(a), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Construction Materials (SEP 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  12. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials...

  13. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials...

  14. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials...

  15. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  17. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  18. 49 CFR 178.356-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire-resistant and... fusion welding process in accordance with American Welding Society Codes B-3.0 and D-1.0 (IBR, see §...

  19. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... accordance with CAPE-1662. (f) Welding must be by a fusion process in accordance with the American...

  20. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... accordance with CAPE-1662. (f) Welding must be by a fusion process in accordance with the American...

  1. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... accordance with CAPE-1662. (f) Welding must be by a fusion process in accordance with the American...

  2. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... accordance with CAPE-1662. (f) Welding must be by a fusion process in accordance with the American...

  3. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials...

  4. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  5. 46 CFR 160.156-23 - Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-23 Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change. (a) Each change in design, material, or construction from the plans approved under 46 CFR... approved under 46 CFR 159.005-13 and § 160.156-13(h) of this subpart need not be resubmitted. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 160.156-23 - Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-23 Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change. (a) Each change in design, material, or construction from the plans approved under 46 CFR... approved under 46 CFR 159.005-13 and § 160.156-13(h) of this subpart need not be resubmitted. (b)...

  7. 46 CFR 160.156-23 - Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-23 Procedure for approval of design, material, or construction change. (a) Each change in design, material, or construction from the plans approved under 46 CFR... approved under 46 CFR 159.005-13 and § 160.156-13(h) of this subpart need not be resubmitted. (b)...

  8. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements. (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type line-throwing... affecting appearance or serviceability of the gun. (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with...

  9. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements. (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type line-throwing... affecting appearance or serviceability of the gun. (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with...

  10. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements. (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type line-throwing... affecting appearance or serviceability of the gun. (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with...

  11. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements. (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type line-throwing... affecting appearance or serviceability of the gun. (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with...

  12. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements. (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type line-throwing... affecting appearance or serviceability of the gun. (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with...

  13. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dams constructed of or impounding waste material. 715.18 Section 715.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.18 Dams constructed of or impounding waste material....

  14. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dams constructed of or impounding waste material. 715.18 Section 715.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.18 Dams constructed of or impounding waste material....

  15. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. 160.037-3 Section 160.037-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals §...

  16. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. 160.021-3 Section 160.021-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-3...

  17. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  18. A Place for Materials Science: University of Pennsylvania's Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Brittany

    2013-03-01

    The University of Pennsylvania's Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM) opened its doors in 1965. Constructed to house cutting-edge research on Materials Science, the LRSM building was designed to foster interdisciplinary research among physicists, chemists and metallurgical engineers. Each of the five floors of the new building included a central facility, including a high magnetic field center, an analytical chemistry research center and an electron microscopy center. While primarily funded by the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency, the LRSM also was also partly sponsored by industry. The LRSM received funding from Philadelphia Electric Company, General Electric Company, and IBM, among others. In this paper, I will study how the building was designed to encourage interdisciplinary collaboration, while also becoming a place of intersection among academic, private, and governmental interests. This project is a collaboration with Hyungsub Choi.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 392: Spill Sites and Construction Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2002-02-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities that were conducted to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 392--Spill Sites and Construction Materials located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 392 is listed on in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the NTS: CAS 05-17-02 Construction Materials/Lead Bricks; CAS 06-17-03 Cement Mud Pit; CAS 06-1 9-01 Cable Pile; Powder Piles (3); CAS 06-44-02 Paint Spill; CAS 06-44-03 Plaster Spill; CAS 06-44-04 Cutting Fluid Discharge Ditch. Closure activities were performed in two phases. Phase 1 activities consisted of collecting waste characterization samples of soil and material present on-site, and where appropriate, performing radiological screening of debris at the six CASs. Results were used to determine how waste generated during closure activities would be handled and disposed of, i.e., as nonhazardous sanitary or hazardous waste, etc. Phase 2 activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or soil, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each CAS was clean closed by visual inspection and/or by the collecting soil verification samples for laboratory analysis. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix A. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each of the six CASs are included in Appendix 8. Appendix C contains a copy of the Bechtel Nevada (BN) On-site Waste Transport Manifest for the hazardous waste generated during closure of CAS 06-44-02.

  20. Thermostructural Analysis of Carbon Cloth Phenolic Material Tested at the Laser Hardened Material Evaluation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie; Ehle, Curt; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    RSRM nozzle liner components have been analyzed and tested to explore the occurrence of anomalous material performance known as pocketing erosion. Primary physical factors that contribute to pocketing seem to include the geometric permeability, which governs pore pressure magnitudes and hence load, and carbon fiber high temperature tensile strength, which defines a material limiting capability. The study reports on the results of a coupled thermostructural finite element analysis of Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) material tested at the Laser Hardened Material Evaluation Laboratory (the LHMEL facility). Modeled test configurations will be limited to the special case of where temperature gradients are oriented perpendicular to the composite material ply angle. Analyses were conducted using a transient, one-dimensional flow/thermal finite element code that models pore pressure and temperature distributions and in an explicitly coupled formulation, passes this information to a 2-dimensional finite element structural model for determination of the stress/deformation behavior of the orthotropic fiber/matrix CCP. Pore pressures are generated by thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin which evolve as a multi-component gas phase which is partially trapped in the porous microstructure of the composite. The nature of resultant pressures are described by using the Darcy relationships which have been modified to permit a multi-specie mass and momentum balance including water vapor condensation. Solution to the conjugate flow/thermal equations were performed using the SINDA code. Of particular importance to this problem was the implementation of a char and deformation state dependent (geometric) permeability as describing a first order interaction between the flow/thermal and structural models. Material property models are used to characterize the solid phase mechanical stiffness and failure. Structural calculations were performed using the ABAQUS code. Iterations were made

  1. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  2. A Model Framework for Science and Other Course Materials Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A model is presented to provide guidance for Coast Guard writers, curriculum developers, course coordinators, and instructors who intend to update, or draft course materials. Detailed instructions are provided for developing instructor's guides and student's guides. (CS)

  3. Modern Technologies of Nondestructive Testing of Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the modern methods of research of building materials (such as styrofoam, cement, concrete admixtures, etc.), applied in the Far Eastern Federal University. The latest equipment described for these studies and modern methods of testing.

  4. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or vapor: (a) Aluminum and aluminum bearing alloys. (b) Copper and copper bearing alloys. (c) Zinc or galvanized steel. (d) Magnesium. (e) Mercury. (f) Acetylide forming materials, such as copper, silver,...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or vapor: (a) Aluminum and aluminum bearing alloys. (b) Copper and copper bearing alloys. (c) Zinc or galvanized steel. (d) Magnesium. (e) Mercury. (f) Acetylide forming materials, such as copper, silver,...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or vapor: (a) Aluminum and aluminum bearing alloys. (b) Copper and copper bearing alloys. (c) Zinc or galvanized steel. (d) Magnesium. (e) Mercury. (f) Acetylide forming materials, such as copper, silver,...

  7. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  8. Modelling wet weather sediment removal by stormwater constructed wetlands: Insights from a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Deletic, A.; Fletcher, T. D.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryConstructed wetlands are now commonly used to control polluted urban stormwater discharges. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the treatment of solids in these systems. Three mesocosm stormwater wetlands (vegetated with a well-established canopy of different densities) and one mesocosm non-vegetated pond were used, all sized to achieve particle fall number ( Nf, a ratio between the times of the particle travel in horizontal and vertical directions) and Particle Shear Velocity Reynolds Number, Re∗, which are reflective of full-scale systems. The mesocosm vegetated systems had also similar turbulent Reynolds Numbers ( ReT) to those funds in full-scale systems. Ten groups of steady-state experiments were carried out, all with different hydraulic loadings and sediment inflow concentrations (also maintained within the ranges found in real systems during wet weather). Samples were taken along the mesocosms and analysed for Total Suspended Solids concentrations (TSS) and Particle Size Distribution (PSD). It was found that both Re∗ and ReT do not significantly influence the trapping of sediments, and therefore the particle re-suspension induced by water flow is not important for sedimentation in constructed stormwater wetlands. Vegetation density was found not to be an important factor, while particle diameter, and flow characteristics (e.g., flow rate and velocity) do influence trapping efficiency of particles. It was concluded that sediment trapping correlates strongly with particle fall number, Nf, and therefore can be explained by this single non-dimensional number. A simple non-linear two-parameter regression model is proposed for prediction of particle trapping efficiency in constructed stormwater wetlands. However, further work is needed before the method can be used in practice. The aim of the ongoing work is to test whether the proposed model could be used across a number of real stormwater constructed wetlands without any further

  9. Working with the NCL - Material Transfer Agreement - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    To share and safeguard Research Material, intellectual property and proprietary information, the NCL's interaction with extramural researchers and vendors will normally be conducted under a Material Transfer Agreement (MTA).

  10. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  11. Method for producing fabrication material for constructing micrometer-scaled machines, fabrication material for micrometer-scaled machines

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method for producing fabrication material for use in the construction of nanometer-scaled machines is provided whereby similar protein molecules are isolated and manipulated at predetermined residue positions so as to facilitate noncovalent interaction, but without compromising the folding configuration or native structure of the original protein biomodules. A fabrication material is also provided consisting of biomodules systematically constructed and arranged at specific solution parameters.

  12. Materials characterization capabilities at DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories and Production Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pyper, J.W.

    1984-06-01

    The materials characterization and analytical chemistry capabilities at the 11 DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories or Production Plants have been surveyed and compared. In general, all laboratories have similar capabilities and equipment. Facilities or capabilities that are unique or that exist at only a few laboratories are described in detail.

  13. Treatment of laboratory wastewater in a tropical constructed wetland comparing surface and subsurface flow.

    PubMed

    Meutia, A A

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by constructed wetland is an appropriate technology for tropical developing countries like Indonesia because it is inexpensive, easily maintained, and has environmentally friendly and sustainable characteristics. The aim of the research is to examine the capability of constructed wetlands for treating laboratory wastewater at our Center, to investigate the suitable flow for treatment, namely vertical subsurface or horizontal surface flow, and to study the effect of the seasons. The constructed wetland is composed of three chambered unplanted sedimentation tanks followed by the first and second beds, containing gravel and sand, planted with Typha sp.; the third bed planted with floating plant Lemna sp.; and a clarifier with two chambers. The results showed that the subsurface flow in the dry season removed 95% organic carbon (COD) and total phosphorus (T-P) respectively, and 82% total nitrogen (T-N). In the transition period from the dry season to the rainy season, COD removal efficiency decreased to 73%, T-N increased to 89%, and T-P was almost the same as that in the dry season. In the rainy season COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to 95% respectively, while T-P remained unchanged. In the dry season, COD and T-P concentrations in the surface flow showed that the removal efficiencies were a bit lower than those in the subsurface flow. Moreover, T-N removal efficiency was only half as much as that in the subsurface flow. However, in the transition period, COD removal efficiency decreased to 29%, while T-N increased to 74% and T-P was still constant, around 93%. In the rainy season, COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to almost 95%. On the other hand, T-P decreased to 76%. The results show that the constructed wetland is capable of treating the laboratory wastewater. The subsurface flow is more suitable for treatment than the surface flow, and the seasonal changes have effects on the removal efficiency. PMID:11804141

  14. Modified glycogen as construction material for functional biomimetic microfibers.

    PubMed

    Rabyk, Mariia; Hruby, Martin; Vetrik, Miroslav; Kucka, Jan; Proks, Vladimir; Parizek, Martin; Konefal, Rafal; Krist, Pavel; Chvatil, David; Bacakova, Lucie; Slouf, Miroslav; Stepanek, Petr

    2016-11-01

    We describe a conceptually new, microfibrous, biodegradable functional material prepared from a modified storage polysaccharide also present in humans (glycogen) showing strong potential as direct-contact dressing/interface material for wound healing. Double bonds were introduced into glycogen via allylation and were further exploited for crosslinking of the microfibers. Triple bonds were introduced by propargylation and served for further click functionalization of the microfibers with bioactive peptide. A simple solvent-free method allowing the preparation of thick layers was used to produce microfibers (diameter ca 2μm) from allylated and/or propargylated glycogen. Crosslinking of the samples was performed by microtron beta-irradiation, and the irradiation dose was optimized to 2kGy. The results from biological testing showed that these highly porous, hydrophilic, readily functionalizable materials were completely nontoxic to cells growing in their presence. The fibers were gradually degraded in the presence of cells. PMID:27516273

  15. Design and Construction of a Two-Temperature Preference Behavioral Assay for Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Richard L.; McKemy, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral assays in the undergraduate neuroscience laboratory are useful for illustrating a variety of physiological concepts. An example is homeostatic temperature regulation (thermoregulation). Many model organisms, from flies to mice, regulate internal temperatures in part by moving to suitable climates (thermotaxis). A particularly reliable method of quantifying temperature-dependent thermotactic behaviors is the two-temperature preference behavioral assay. In this preparation, an organism is free to move between two temperature-controlled surfaces, thus revealing its preferred thermal environment. Here we present the design and construction of a two-temperature preference assay chamber. The device uses Peltier-based thermoelectric modules (TECs) for heating and cooling, and is capable of precision control of temperatures from −5ºC to 60ºC. Our approach can be easily adapted for use in a variety of physiological and behavioral assays that require precise temperature control over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:23494724

  16. 40 CFR 262.208 - Removing containers of unwanted material from the laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.208 Removing containers of unwanted material from the laboratory. (a) Removing containers of unwanted material on a regular schedule. An eligible academic entity... months of each container's accumulation start date. (b) The eligible academic entity must specify in...

  17. 40 CFR 262.208 - Removing containers of unwanted material from the laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.208 Removing containers of unwanted material from the laboratory. (a) Removing containers of unwanted material on a regular schedule. An eligible academic entity... months of each container's accumulation start date. (b) The eligible academic entity must specify in...

  18. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements of this subpart. ... Commanding Officer, USCG Marine Safety Center. (d) Where springs are employed to actuate the valve discs, the springs shall be made of corrosion-resistant material. Springs plated with corrosion-resistant...

  19. A Model Framework for Course Materials Construction (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Designed for use by Coast Guard course writers, curriculum developers, course coordinators, and instructors as a decision-support system, this publication presents a model that translates the Intraservices Procedures for Instructional Systems Development curriculum design model into materials usable by classroom teachers and students. Although…

  20. Materials research at selected Japanese laboratories. Based on a 1992 visit: Overview, summary of highlights, notes on laboratories and topics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.

  1. The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.A.; Stansbury, J.S.; Zhang, T.C.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in constructed wetlands was studied by running a synthetic wastewater through a model, laboratory-scale gravel-filled constructed wetland (in which no plants were grown). The wetland was operated at temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C in an environmentally controlled chamber. An influent ammonia concentration of 45 mg/L as nitrogen was used to simulate typical domestic wastewater. For temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C, the wetland model achieved ammonia removal and nitrification of 45, 44, 56, and 65%, respectively. Thus, over the 18 C temperature range ammonia-nitrogen removal and nitrification rates varied only 20%. There was a net decrease in nitrogen as water passed through the wetland; this could be the result of cell growth or denitrification. Measurements were taken at the inlet, outlet, and four additional locations along the length of the reactor. Measurements were also taken at three different depths. Along the length of the reactor, nearly all nitrification was achieved in the first half of the reactor, then stopped because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Nitrification occurred slightly faster at the top of the reactor than at the bottom.

  2. Recent progress in supercapacitors: from materials design to system construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2013-10-01

    Supercapacitors are currently attracting intensive attention because they can provide energy density by orders of magnitude higher than dielectric capacitors, greater power density, and longer cycling ability than batteries. The main challenge for supercapacitors is to develop them with high energy density that is close to that of a current rechargeable battery, while maintaining their inherent characteristics of high power and long cycling life. Consequently, much research has been devoted to enhance the performance of supercapacitors by either maximizing the specific capacitance and/or increasing the cell voltage. The latest advances in the exploration and development of new supercapacitor systems and related electrode materials are highlighted. Also, the prospects and challenges in practical application are analyzed, aiming to give deep insights into the material science and electrochemical fields. PMID:24089352

  3. Sulphate reduction and the removal of carbon and ammonia in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kuschk, P; Kästner, M

    2005-11-01

    Sulphate is a normal constituent of domestic wastewater and reduced sulphur compounds are known to be potent inhibitors of plant growth and certain microbial activities. However, the knowledge about sulphate reduction and the effect on the removal of C and N in constructed wetlands is still limited. Investigations in laboratory-scale constructed wetland reactors were performed to evaluate the interrelation of carbon and nitrogen removal with the sulphate reduction by use of artificial domestic wastewater. Carbon removal was found to be only slightly affected and remained at high levels of efficiency (75-90%). Only at sulphate reduction intensities above 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal), a decrease of carbon removal of up to 20% was observed. A highly contrary behaviour of ammonia removal was found in general, which decreased exponentially from 75% to 35% related to a linear increase of sulphate reduction up to 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal). Since sulphate removal is considered to be dependant on the load of electron donors, the carbon load of the system was varied. Variation of the load changed the intensities of sulphate reduction immediately, but did not influence the carbon removal effectiveness. Doubling of the carbon concentration of 200 mgl(-1) BOD(5) for domestic wastewater usually led to sulphate reduction of up to 150 mgl(-1) (100% removal). The findings show that, particularly in constructed wetland systems, the sulphur cycle in the rhizosphere is of high importance for performance of the waste water treatment and may initiate a reconsideration of the amount of sulphate present in the tap water systems. PMID:16246395

  4. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  5. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applies to Corps of Engineers Divisions and Districts operating soils, concrete, water quality and... materials testing. 209.340 Section 209.340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... materials testing. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to define and establish policies...

  6. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applies to Corps of Engineers Divisions and Districts operating soils, concrete, water quality and... materials testing. 209.340 Section 209.340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... materials testing. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to define and establish policies...

  7. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  8. THE CAST PAPER DOME: AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP NEW MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of years of architectural design and construction practice have reduced our materials options to only the strongest materials, put together in the strongest way. It is difficult for current practitioners to use sustainably produced materials...

  9. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall... corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall be of first...

  10. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall... corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall be of first...

  11. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  12. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  13. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  14. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall... corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall be of first...

  15. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall... corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall be of first...

  16. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall... corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals shall be of first...

  17. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  18. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  19. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... materials establishment. In the analysis of the sales of the building materials establishment for...

  20. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... materials establishment. In the analysis of the sales of the building materials establishment for...

  1. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  2. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors, such as material qualities, construction types and soil types. In our work, we consider a broad range of parameter values in the modeling of leaching and fate. This allows distinguishing between the impacts of various road constructions, as well as sites with different soil properties. The findings of this study promote the quantitative consideration of environmental impacts of long-term leaching in Life Cycle Assessment, complementing site-specific risk

  3. Construction data and retrieval procedures for selected wells drilled from 1985 through 1987 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight wells were constructed by the U. S. Geological Survey for use in describing the groundwater flow system in Melton Valley, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. The wells were installed at 18 locations in Melton Valley and along the Clinch River during the period 1985 through 1987. During the same period, 19 wells were constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 7 locations in or near radioactive-waste burial grounds in Melton Valley. Construction data for all 47 wells are in the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory data system, where information is also stored for 450 wells that were completed at the laboratory in earlier years. The data can be electronically retrieved by personnel who have access to the U.S. Geological Survey Prime computer located in Nashville, Tennessee, and retrieval procedures are given in the report. (USGS)

  4. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American-Construction Materials 25.204... exception from the requirements of the Buy American statute based on the unreasonable cost of...

  5. COMPATIBILITY OF NAPLS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH MATERIALS UED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural integrity of well construction, sampling, and remediation materials may be compromised at many hazardous sites by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and their dissolved constituents. A literature review of compatibility theory and qualitative field experiences are provid...

  6. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dams constructed of or impounding waste material. 717.18 Section 717.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.18 Dams constructed of or impounding...

  7. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dams constructed of or impounding waste material. 717.18 Section 717.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.18 Dams constructed of or impounding...

  8. Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

  9. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  10. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, R.; Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I.

    2011-02-15

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.