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1

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

2011-01-01

2

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A

Andrea R. Milner; Mark A. Templin; Charlene M. Czerniak

2011-01-01

3

Elementary Science Students’ Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory\\u000a and a traditional science classroom on elementary students’ motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching\\u000a Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to\\u000a examine student motivation and learning strategies. A

Andrea R. Milner; Mark A. Templin; Charlene M. Czerniak

2011-01-01

4

The effects of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a differential effect of two different learning environments determined by constructivist classroom contextual factors on elementary science students' motivation and learning strategies. Teaching and learning practices in the regular classroom vs. teaching and learning practices in a life [biodiversity] laboratory were investigated for this study. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory

Andrea Rae Milner

2008-01-01

5

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

2011-03-01

6

The effects of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a differential effect of two different learning environments determined by constructivist classroom contextual factors on elementary science students' motivation and learning strategies. Teaching and learning practices in the regular classroom vs. teaching and learning practices in a life [biodiversity] laboratory were investigated for this study. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory (modified) was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (modified) was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Also, some individual teachers had lower constructivist teaching practices in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom, indicating that classroom contextual factors can be teacher controlled and thus, not simply location dependent. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1, which, although the life laboratory score was higher, did not show a statistically significant difference. A 2 x 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of a teacher-selected convenience sample of students were conducted at the end of the semester and focused on patterns of instruction and student learning. Theme analysis revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study enabling advanced knowledge acquisition; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides; especially when it comes to learning new science concepts.

Milner, Andrea Rae

7

The Constructivist Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining how people learn, the educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner can be synthesized to give this set of core Constructivist principles. Principles of effective mathematics teaching: (1) allows learning that is "active" and "reflective". Students are required to transfer key concepts to new situations; (2) allows…

Jones, Karrie; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.

2010-01-01

8

Technology in a Constructivist Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the constructivist model for teaching the effective uses of computer technology. Details five computer-based constructivist projects based on a problem-solving format: Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE), Learning Through Collaborative Visualization Project (CoVis), Computer Clubhouse, JASPER, and…

Ferguson, Donna

2001-01-01

9

A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for…

Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

10

Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

2008-01-01

11

Seven Posers in the Constructivist Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, "constructivism" constitutes the "grand unified theory" of the moment. In this article, I maintain that constructivism as a theory of knowledge and constructivism as pedagogy are distinct and that the question of what constructivism about knowledge implies for teaching is under-theorised. Seven classroom scenarios are sketched that…

Kotzee, Ben

2010-01-01

12

Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp,

Lory Elen Heron

1997-01-01

13

Comparison of Student Learning about Diffusion and Osmosis in Constructivist and Traditional Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the effects of constructivist versus traditional teaching approaches on university students' learning about osmosis and diffusion. Students understood diffusion and osmosis more deeply in the constructivist-informed classroom, which used small discussion groups rather than traditional large lecture groups. Suggests ways to improve…

Christianson, Roger G.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

1999-01-01

14

Classroom Cultures from a Social Constructivist's Point of View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples from related case studies illustrate possible consequences of a social constructivist approach to learning and teaching mathematics. Discusses student tasks that promote flexibility in mathematizing subject matter; constructive versus Euclidean geometry approaches; working with real-life mathematics problems; and product versus process…

Bauersfeld, Heinrich

1992-01-01

15

Analyzing the Classroom Teachers' Levels of Creating a Constructivist Learning Environments in Terms of Various Variables: A Mersin Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, it was aimed to analyze the classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment in terms of various variables. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. Classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment was determined using the…

Üredi, Lütfi

2014-01-01

16

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

17

Formats of Classroom Talk for Integrating Everyday and Scientific Discourse: Replacement, Interweaving, Contextual Privileging and Pastiche  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we identify four formats of classroom talk for integrating everyday and scientific discourse--replacement, interweaving, contextual privileging and pastiche. In the replacement format, progress in understanding is gauged by the extent to which scientific representations replace the more concrete and everyday representations in…

Renshawa, Peter; Brown, Raymond A. J.

2007-01-01

18

Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

2014-01-01

19

Galileo's 'Jumping-Hill' Experiment in the Classroom--A Constructivist's Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Galileo's 'jumping-hill' experiment as an historical element to improve science teaching in the classroom. Illustrates that the experiment can stimulate an animated discussion in the classroom, even if precise historic circumstances are not mentioned. The historical dimensions bring some color into the lesson, which increases attention. (SAH)

Kubli, Fritz

2001-01-01

20

Classroom Contextual Effects of Race on Children's Peer Nominations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black children generally receive poorer sociometric nominations compared with Whites. This effect is not fully understood because Black children rarely hold a classroom majority and teachers' race is rarely investigated. Research from a person-environment perspective suggests that the effects of children's race depend on the racial composition of…

Jackson, Melissa Faye; Barth, Joan M.; Powell, Nicole; Lochman, John E.

2006-01-01

21

Confronting the Baby Blues: A Social Constructivist Reflects on Time Spent in a Behaviorist Infant Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflective essay describes the author's experiences as an observer in a behaviorist infant classroom. The author developed four categories of practice to describe what happened in the behaviorist infant room: (1) curricular focus on training typically developing infants to meet typical developmental milestones, (2) the use of highly…

McMullen, Mary Benson

2010-01-01

22

Fostering Intercultural Communicative Competence through Reading Authentic Literary Texts in an Advanced Colombian EFL Classroom: A Constructivist Perspective (Desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa intercultural mediante la lectura de textos literarios auténticos: una perspectiva constructivista)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an action research experience carried out in an advanced English as a foreign language classroom of the language program at a university in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2010. The study proposes the inclusion of authentic literary texts in the English as a foreign language classroom through the implementation of four constructivist

Gómez, Luis Fernando R.

2012-01-01

23

Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on self-regulated learning has stressed the importance of both motivational and cognitive components of classroom learning. Much of this research has examined these components without consideration of potential contextual differences. Using a within-subject correlational design, the present study assessed mean level differences in students' task value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, cognitive strategy use, regulatory strategy use, and classroom academic

CHRISTOPHER A. WOLTERS; PAUL R. PINTRICH

1998-01-01

24

Contextual effects of prekindergarten classrooms for disadvantaged children on cognitive development: the case of Chapter 1.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of the social context of Chapter 1 prekindergarten classrooms on children's learning. Chapter 1 (also called Title I) is a federal government preschool program directed at children in low-income schools who are at risk of later school failure. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and a sample of 677 4-year-olds in 55 1990-91 Chapter 1 prekindergarten classes in 5 states, the study explores factors that influence gains on the Preschool Inventory (PSI) over the preschool year. Social context is defined here mainly in terms of the cognitive and social composition of the classroom. Contextual factors defined in terms of demographics are shown to be related to learning, but the average cognitive level of the class is not. On average, children learn less in classrooms with high concentrations of minorities, children with special needs, recent immigrants, and children whose mothers have little education. The study explores differential effects of racial concentration on race differences in learning. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:9586220

Lee, V E; Loeb, S; Lubeck, S

1998-04-01

25

Validation and Application of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey in English Language Teacher Education Classrooms in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the…

Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.

2015-01-01

26

The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

2014-01-01

27

Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

2008-01-01

28

"Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

2010-01-01

29

How Constructivist-Based Teaching Influences Students Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide details about the beneficial processes the constructivist pedagogy has in the area of teaching science. No Child Left Behind could possibly cause detrimental effects to the science classroom and the constructivist teacher, so this essay tells how constructivist-based teaching influences students and their…

Seimears, C. Matt; Graves, Emily; Schroyer, M. Gail; Staver, John

2012-01-01

30

So, What is Constructivist Teaching? A Rubric for Teacher Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the idea that a constructivist classroom is very different from a traditional setting, this article presents a rubric based on current understanding of constructivist theory and education. The rubric is designed as a formative assessment of teachers to stimulate thinking and improve methods related to constructivist teaching. (SD)

Stork, Steve; Engel, Susan

1999-01-01

31

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

32

The Influence of Teacher Beliefs on Constructivist Teaching Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collaborative research study was designed to facilitate, at the local school level, a mathematics teacher's development of a "constructivist" pedagogy. This paper discusses the nature and influence of the teacher's professional beliefs on his attempts to create a classroom learning environment congruent with the principles of a constructivist

Taylor, Peter C. S.

33

Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

Ahmed, Noveera T.

2015-01-01

34

Constructivist Teaching Strategies: Projects in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides information from experienced teachers on constructivist teaching, offering examples of preservice teachers' projects, lesson plans, and real-life advice. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Writing Case Studies: Constructing an Understanding of Student and Classroom" (Bettejim Cates); (2) "Educating Children Who are Racial and Ethnic…

Brown, Jessie C., Ed.; Adams, Arlene, Ed.

35

The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection.…

Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

2015-01-01

36

Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs.…

Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina

2013-01-01

37

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through…

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

2012-01-01

38

Lasting Impact of a Professional Development Program on Constructivist Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the GK-12: Lowcountry Partners for Inquiry program that included an emphasis on constructivist teaching methods for science teachers and science graduate students. The goal was to monitor middle school teachers' use of constructivist practices in their classrooms two years after their last…

Beamer, Tyler; Van Sickle, Meta; Harrison, Gary; Temple, George

2008-01-01

39

Teaching and Learning Cycles in a Constructivist Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to analyze and synthesize the knowledge collected in the area of conceptual models used in teaching and learning during inquiry-based projects, and to propose a new frame for organizing the classroom interactions within a constructivist approach. The IMSTRA model consists in three general phases: Immersion, Structuring,…

Singer, Florence Mihaela; Moscovici, Hedy

2008-01-01

40

Inspiring creative constructivist play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inline with the BSCS 5E instructional model, we are using constructivist learning to teach physics in a heavily modified Minecraft game server. However, not all players like to be creative or are good at it. Because of this, we are creating three inspiration interventions to study their impact on learning and creative outcomes. Our model of inspiration incorporates three of

Chadwick Wingrave; Juliet Norton; Christopher Ross; Nathan Ochoa; Sergiu Veazanchin; Emiko Charbonneau; Joseph LaViola

2012-01-01

41

The Constructivist Learning Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Much cognitive science research has been used to support a new model of learning. This most promising new model is called the Constructivist Learning Model (CLM). Russell Yeany (University of Georgia) has called CLM the most exciting idea of the past 50 y

Robert E. Yager

2000-01-01

42

Constructivist practices: Middle and secondary school science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional practices used by middle and secondary school science teachers from the State of Ohio. Specifically, the study focused on the use of constructivist practices in their teaching. The participants in this study were science teachers from the State of Ohio. A databank including the names and addresses of teachers were received from the State Department of Education. The surveys were mailed to four hundred and sixty five teachers. A survey instrument was mailed to science teachers from the databank along with the cover letter explaining the study and participation agreement. Two hundred and two completed surveys were returned (43%). The survey was categorized into three groups such as Presenting New Information (PNI), Using Learning Activities (ULA), and Assessing Students (AS). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the statistical difference between teachers grade levels of the teachers who reported using constructivist practice sin their classrooms. Results showed that the majority of teachers (70%) report that they use constructivist practices in their classrooms. Results also revealed that teachers use constructivist practices mostly during the presentation of new information. Results also reveal that middle school science teachers use constructivist practices more than the secondary school science teachers. The results of this study hold implications for more research in the area of instructional practices and also careful examination of the beliefs of science teachers.

Star, Rachel Padma

43

Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

2010-01-01

44

Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine how these participants were using ICT and if they had any internal and external impediments in the way of the effective integration of ICT in the teaching of science. Results showed that some participants were using ICT creatively in their science teaching. However, despite considerable political pressure to increase ICT use in the classroom, most expressed frustration at the lack of ICT tools, support from the school, from the Ministry of Education, and from the surrounding community. The article proposes possible resolutions to help these participants overcome their impediments. Some of the suggested resolutions for the internal impediments include involving teachers in preparing the school's time-table, equipping the school with more ICT tools and offering more training courses for teachers. However, the suggested resolutions for the external impediments involve (1) The Ministry of Education to rethink the administration of board examinations, (2) The school to sacrifice scoring higher in board examinations for preparing more creative and more versatile students' perspectives.

Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

2009-06-01

45

Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

Mathews, Minu

2007-01-01

46

Constructivist teaching behaviors of recipients of Presidential Awards for Excellence in mathematics and science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined philosophies, beliefs, and teaching practices of teachers who were cited for excellence in science teaching through receipt of the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) in 2003. Subgroups were compared based on educational preparation, professional development attendance, and teaching level, i.e., middle school or high school. Teaching strategies used by these PAEMST awardees were compared to another teacher group reported as using constructivist teaching practices. Four tools were used to gather information. These included A Survey of Classroom Practices, Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Philosophy of Teaching and Learning Survey, and Science Classroom Observation Rubric (SCOR) from the Expert Science Teacher Educational Evaluation Model (ESTEEM). The rubric was used to review videotapes that were submitted as part of the application process for the PAEMST. Major findings for these PAEMST awardees include: (1) They held constructivist beliefs. (2) They perceived their classroom learning environments to be constructivist. (3) Twelve teachers had composite scores on the SCOR that identified them as expert, nine as proficient, and four as competent. (4) The group was homogenous in terms of the impact of the variables examined for differences in beliefs, classroom environment, and teaching strategies. The only significant difference among the PAEMST group was found for the measure of "attitude toward class" on the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey. Teachers with a Masters in Science Education scored significantly higher than teachers without such a Masters degree. (5) The PAEMST group differed significantly from a teacher group that had participated in staff development on use of constructivist teaching practices. The Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching is intended to recognize exemplary teachers. These teachers were exemplary in their beliefs, perceptions of classroom learning environments, and the teaching strategies they employed. The information can be used in planning professional development activities with the continued emphasis on changes in teaching recommended in the National Science Education Standards. This study provides definition for developing expertise and potential for mentoring programs.

Ibarra, Hector

47

Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

48

Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.  

PubMed

In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

2015-01-01

49

The Paradox of Constructivist Instruction: A Communicative Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of constructivist oriented instruction in learning institutions comes an enormous challenge, that of structuring individual-centered learning within a community of learners. Within this instructional framework, struggles to satisfy both individual and group learning needs can lead to one canceling the other out. Tendencies towards…

Luppicini, Rocci

50

Interactive Whiteboards in State School Settings: Teacher Responses to Socio-Constructivist Hegemonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent CALL research suggests that the arrival of new technologies in the language classroom has led to an increased dominance of the socio-constructivist paradigm (Felix, 2006). Borg (2006) suggests, however, that the hegemony of this paradigm may not extend beyond well-researched university and private ESL contexts. The present study tests this…

Schmid, Euline Cutrim; Whyte, Shona

2012-01-01

51

The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective…

Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2014-01-01

52

Constructivist High School Teachers in a Metropolitan School District: Three Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple-case study describes how three constructivist high school teachers attained their knowledge and skills and how the knowledge and skills translate into classroom applications in the high school setting. Ongoing interviews and observations were conducted over 1 year with selected participants, and documents provided by each…

Seguine, Denise

53

A Constructivist Approach to Listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a constructivist perspective on listening skill. Listening is conceptualized as a process that involves the interpretation of messages that others have intentionally transmitted in the effort to understand those messages and respond to them appropriately. This definition allows listening to be understood both as a mindful (controlled) and a mindless (automatic) process and thus invites a dual-process

Brant R. Burleson

2011-01-01

54

A Constructivist Approach to Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a constructivist perspective on listening skill. Listening is conceptualized as "a process that involves the interpretation of messages that others have intentionally transmitted in the effort to understand those messages and respond to them appropriately." This definition allows listening to be understood both as a mindful…

Burleson, Brant R.

2011-01-01

55

CONSTRUCTIVIST COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION RECONSTRUCTED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merits of Empirical Modelling (EM) principles and tools as a constructivist approach to computer science education are illustrated with reference to ways in which they have been used in teaching topics related to the standard computer science curriculum. The products of EM are interactive models - construals - that serve a sense-making role. Model-building proceeds in an incremental fashion

Meurig Beynon

2009-01-01

56

Using Writing as a Constructivist Instructional Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers in the area of cognitive science and educational psychology have shown that instructors who encourage student writing are actually helping in motivating a reluctant pupil. It has also been reported that writing indirectly rewards an individual with dynamic interest. Furthermore, it is believed that writing strengthens the self-confidence of a lethargic learner. (Kosakowski, 1998). All in all, promoting writing helps and supports learners cultivate a positive attitude toward the subject matter in question. The constructivist approach promotes a learning paradigm and helps individuals learn and understand by "constructing" knowledge. Learners are effectively encouraged to generate and build their own knowledge base. Learners document progress by constructing new concepts based on previously gained knowledge. The role of the teacher is actually to facilitate the creation of a learning environment. The constructivist approach when used in the classroom enables the students to become more active, independent thinkers of knowledge. Education World writer Gloria Chaika (Chaika, 2000) states that "Talent is important, but practice creates the solid base that allows that unique talent to soar. Like athletes, writers learn by doing. Good writing requires the same kind of dedicated practice that athletes put in. Young writers often lack the support they need to practice writing and develop their talent to the fullest, though." The author has successfully utilized some of these principles and techniques in a senior level course he teaches. He has encouraged students to try to solve problems their own way and has asked them to observe, document, assess and evaluate the results. In the classroom, the author takes the role of a coach and helps the students approach the problem with a different viewpoint. Eventually the students document their conclusions in a page-long essay. This type of writing assignment not only builds critical thinking abilities but also generates improved written communication skills among learners. References: Kosakowski, John, (1998). The Benefits of Information Technology. ERIC Digests; Technology Integration; Technology Role, ED0-IR-98-04 Chaika, Gloria (2000),Encourage Student Writing: Published on the Web, Education World http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/tech042.shtml

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

57

Leadership Talent Identification and Development: Perceptions of Heads, Middle Leaders and Classroom Teachers in 70 Contextually Different Primary and Secondary Schools in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to secure perceptions of heads, middle…

Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark; Nevill, Alan

2008-01-01

58

Constructivism in the Languages Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language education professional examines the ways in which constructivism has been applied in the science classroom, and examines several well-known approaches to language teaching that contain elements of constructivism, including the direct method, Total Physical Response, and the Silent Way. Specific ways in which constructivist principles…

Harbon, Lesley

1997-01-01

59

Development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers prepared at the University of Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers was studied during a four year period---student teaching through their first three years of teaching. Constructivist behaviors were examined from four perspectives: actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes; teacher and student perceptions of use of constructivist practices from surveys; and teacher beliefs as gained from open-ended interviews. Data analyses involved constant comparison of data from two or more sources---descriptive statistics, statistical analyses, levels of teacher expertise regarding constructivist behaviors, qualitative descriptions, and direct quotes from videotapes and interview transcripts. The results indicate that the new teachers were largely early constructivist teachers. Constructivist teaching approaches were used during student teaching. Socialization and induction processes had minimal effects. Both observed practices and beliefs about teaching and learning were student-centered; after declines in years one and two, constructivist behaviors improved by the third year of teaching. Students of the new teachers perceived their lessons as being more interesting, more relevant to them, and that they had more autonomy about instruction than reported by students in other programs. Their perceptions better matched those of students taught by more experienced teachers, who were identified as expert constructivists. Although individual teachers were unique with different focuses and strengths, eleven dominant and consistently espoused student-centered beliefs were identified. The new teachers also shared a range of constructivist behaviors that correspond to national standards. These include: (1) Students sharing the responsibility of learning with teachers; (2) Student engagement in activities and experiences; (3) Students with positive attitudes who are motivated to learn; (4) Teaching that focuses on student relevance; (5) Variation in teaching approaches and assessments; (6) Establishing a friendly, non-judgmental learning environment; (7) Teaching that incorporates higher-order thinking skills and the use of scientific knowledge and ideas; (8) Teacher understanding of subject matter and the integration of content and process skills in context; (9) Teacher understanding of science in natural phenomena; (10) Teacher as intellectual, reflective practitioner.

Lew, Lee Yuen

60

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A problem of contextualizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio?cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and explanations in cognitive frameworks and visual descriptions in cultural

Karin Ehrlén

2008-01-01

61

Beyond Information Pumping: Creating a Constructivist E-Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses electronic learning via the Internet, suggests that simply presenting information to learners may not be the best way for learning to occur, and proposes a social constructivist approach based on Vygotskian theories of learning and situated cognition. Highlights include constructivist learning; constructivist models; and an example of…

Tan, Seng Chee; Hung, David

2002-01-01

62

Towards a Cyber-Constructivist Perspective (CCP) of Educational Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theoretical paper uses cybernetic-based approaches and communications theory to advance knowledge of constructivist learning. Explores a cyber-constructivist perspective (CCP) as a tool for increasing awareness of factors that may contribute to effective constructivist educational design within learning communities, and discusses advantages…

Luppicini, Rocci

2003-01-01

63

Supporting elementary science education for English learners: An evaluation instrument to promote constructivist teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation instrument to be used by elementary school administrators in the promotion of constructivist teaching of elementary science for English Learners using a qualitative and quantitative design that identified effective instructional strategies to be included on the evaluation instrument. This study was conducted in fifth grade classrooms of predominately English Learners whose teachers are CLAD-certified, tenured teachers with at least three years of teaching experience. The classroom observations took place within a multicultural school district with predominantly Hispanic and Filipino students in the Southern San Joaquin Valley of California. The evaluation instrument was used to observe these teachers teach elementary science lessons to classrooms of predominately English Learners. The frequency of the use of the ELD/SDAIE instructional strategies were noted on the evaluation instrument with a check mark, indicating the fact that an instructional technique was employed by the teacher. These observation visits revealed what type of instructional strategies were being utilized in the teaching of science to fifth grade English Learners, whether these CLAD-certified teachers were using ELD strategies, and whether the incidence of ELD/SDAIE constructivist instructional techniques increased with the repeated use of the evaluation instrument. As a result of this study, an evaluation instrument to be utilized by school administrators in the evaluation of elementary science instruction to English Learners was developed. The repeated use of this evaluation instrument coupled with preobservation and postobservation conferences may result in the increase in frequency of ELD/SDAIE methodology and constructivist strategies listed on the evaluation instrument in the elementary science classroom.

Gibbons, Beatrice Lowney

2002-01-01

64

Constructivist Ambient Intelligent Agent for Smart Environments  

E-print Network

Constructivist Ambient Intelligent Agent for Smart Environments Amro Najjar1 and Patrick Reignier2 approach for ambient intelligence. Keywords Ambient intelligence, Machine learning, Autonomous mental], technology is less and less a blocking element in the development of ambient intelligence.With the recent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Incremental Inductive Learning in a Constructivist Agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constructivist paradigm in Artificial Intelligence has been definitively inaugurated in the earlier 1990's by Drescher's pioneer work [10]. He faces the challenge of design an alternative model for machine learning, founded in the human cognitive developmental process described by Piaget [x]. His effort has inspired many other researchers.

Perotto, Filipo Studzinski; Älvares, Luís Otávio

66

Preparing Teachers for Tomorrow: A Constructivist Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 12-hour curriculum/methods block designed to lead elementary education teacher candidates through a constructivist, integrated model of teaching and learning is outlined. This block is part of a graduate level program that leads to licensure and a master's of Curriculum and Instruction in Curriculum and Instruction called Initial Teacher…

Damon, Linda; And Others

67

Changes in High School Teachers' Constructivist Philosophies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the evaluation of the effect of the University of Iowa's program on the development of teachers' constructivist philosophies by participating Korean inservice high school science teachers (n= 70). Concludes that the effect of the workshop was significant and that learning was retained. Contains 11 references. (Author/ASK)

Cho, Jung-Il; Yager, Robert E.; Park, Do-Yong; Seo, Hae-Ae

1997-01-01

68

Are pharmacology and constructivist psychotherapy mutually exclusive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument is made that pharmacological therapy and constructivist psychotherapy have no common ground and are mutually exclusive. Therapeutic examples are then offered of how drug and talk therapies interact, in a effort to see whether there is a common ground after all. Some of the incompatabilities can be minimized by changing the amount of control the patient has over

Ernest Keen

1998-01-01

69

Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

2010-01-01

70

Technology Teacher Education through a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews literature on constructivist learning theories relevant to and evident in teacher education in a New Zealand university. These theories are illustrated within an authentic technology education context which involves students from a primary teacher-education degree programme. It investigates how a practical activity, based on…

Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Snape, Paul

2011-01-01

71

A Constructivist Look at Life Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the literature related to life roles and describes a variety of techniques that can be used from a constructivist career counseling perspective. Seven counseling techniques are included: life space map, life line, life-space genogram, life roles circles, life roles assessment, life role analysis, and goal map. Framed from the…

Brott, Pamelia E.

2005-01-01

72

“I can change your opinion on that”: Social constructivist whole class discussions and their effect on scientific reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical and empirical work in science education has led to greater consideration of the role of social constructivist\\u000a discussions in science classrooms. This paper advances an intervention model for effective whole class discussions based on\\u000a the Philosophy for Children program, and reports on a year long study of its application, focussing on the development of\\u000a scientific reasoning. The evaluation

Tim Sprod

1998-01-01

73

The Motivational and Academic Consequences of Elementary Mathematics Environments: Do Constructivist Innovations and Reforms Make a Difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a videodisc-based mathematical problem-solving series known as The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, as implemented by one school district within a constructivist-inspired reform of its math curricula. The motivational and academic consequences of both the specific innovation and the broader reforms were examined in 19 fifth-grade classrooms in two pairs of closely matched schools. One

Daniel T. Hickey; Allison L. Moore; James W. Pellegrino

2001-01-01

74

Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

2014-01-01

75

Developing a constructivist learning environment in online postsecondary science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in research literature surrounding the pedagogical practices that could be successfully applied to future postsecondary online science education. The panel consisted of 30 experts in the area of online postsecondary education. Qualitative data from the initial seed questions were used to create a Likert-type survey to seek consensus of the themes derived from participant responses. Participants reached agreement on six items: apply constructivism to science curricula, identify strengths and challenges of online collegiate students, explicate students' consequences due to lack of participation in discussion forums, ensure that online course content is relevant to students' lives, reinforce academic integrity, and identify qualities face-to-face collegiate science instructors need when transitioning to online science instructors. The majority of participants agreed that gender is not an important factor in determining the success of an online collegiate science student. There was no consensus on the efficacy of virtual labs in an online science classroom. This study contributes to positive social change by providing information to new and struggling postsecondary science teachers to help them successfully align their instruction with students' needs and, as a result, increase students' success.

Hackworth, Sylvester N.

76

The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

Vaca, James L., Jr.

77

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

Cook, Michele T.

2007-12-01

78

Contextual reasoning distilled  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a foundation of a theory of contextual reasoning from the per- spective of a theory of knowledge representation. Starting from the so-called metaphor of the box, we firstly show that the mechanisms of contextual reasoning proposed in the literature can be classified into three general forms (called localised reasoning, push and pop, and shifting). Secondly,

Massimo Benerecetti; Paolo Bouquet; Chiara Ghidini

2000-01-01

79

Snakes or Ladders? An Examination of the Experiences of Two Teacher Leaders Returning to Classroom Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who have held leadership roles at the school, district, or provincial level have the potential to contribute to student and school success when they return to classroom teaching. The contrasting experiences of two teacher leaders who returned voluntarily to classroom teaching are analyzed using Owens's (2004) social constructivist

Munroe, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

80

Evaluation of an Innovative Mathematics Program in Terms of Classroom Environment, Student Attitudes, and Conceptual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dull classroom environments, poor students' attitudes and inhibited conceptual development led to the creation of an innovative mathematics program, the Class Banking System (CBS), which enables teachers to use constructivist ideas and approaches. To assess the effectiveness of the CBS, actual and preferred versions of the Individualized Classroom

Spinner, Howard; Fraser, Barry J.

81

Mentors' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Change in Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentors' perceptions of factors associated with educational change were identified following an individualized mentoring program about constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. A qualitative case study analysis of the mentors' journals of six classrooms was conducted to review their perceptions of change. Classroom

Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen

2013-01-01

82

Constructivists' Use of Mentoring for Success in Broadcast Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study considered women in broadcast communications academe who achieve their own purposes to have one of two epistemological perspectives: constructivist or proceduralist (non-constructivist). Women in broadcast academe were surveyed (N=428) and interviewed in depth (N=14) to measure epistemological perspectives and mentoring experiences. The…

Egan, Kathryn Smoot

83

ICT and Constructivist Strategies Instruction for Science and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept learning in science and mathematics had often times been taught based on assumptions of alternative concepts or even in some instances based on misconceptions. Some educational researchers favour a constructivist approach in teaching science and mathematics. The constructivist literature existing makes use of alternative conceptions as…

Kong, Ng Wai; Lai, Kong Sow

2005-01-01

84

Transforming Constructivist Learning into Action: Design Thinking in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…

Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph

2012-01-01

85

Understanding Teacher Responses to Constructivist Learning Environments: Challenges and Resolutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best…

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2006-01-01

86

Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose…

Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

2014-01-01

87

The relationship between constructivist supervisory practices, school climate, and student proficiency in reading, mathematics, and science: Evidence from NELS:88  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve instruction and student learning, school reform efforts have become prevalent. School reformers have examined many aspects of the school experience, including learning theories such as behaviorism and constructivism, the changing roles of teachers and supervisors, and even the concept of the school itself. The theoretical framework for this study centered around constructivist learning theory. The study itself focused on the application of constructivist learning theory to the supervisory process. The study examined five areas of interest: (a) teachers' perceptions of constructivist supervisory behavior; (b) teachers' perceptions of efficacy and control in the classroom; (c) teachers' perceptions of school climate; (d) teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction, and (e) the influences of each of the aforementioned on student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Data for the study was drawn from the first follow-up survey of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). NELS: 88 investigated a wide variety of factors that influence the educational process. The first follow-up focuses on environmental factors that affect teachers and students. Variables were selected from the NELS:88 data set that represented the areas to be examined. Factor analysis and correlational analysis were applied to ensure that the variables were measuring distinct constructs and to determine ways they could be grouped for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine relationships among the individual and composite variables, controlling for student and teacher demographic factors. The results of the study suggest that varying relationships do exist between constructivist supervisory practices and the constructs measuring school climate and job satisfaction. The results also suggest that varying relationships exist between each of these factors and student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Specifically, school climate, job satisfaction, and student proficiency were influenced by constructivist supervisory practices that included teachers' freedom to experiment with teaching and teachers' control over texts and materials.

Molnar, John Alexander

88

What Makes My School a Good Training Ground for Leadership Development?: The Perceptions of Heads, Middle Leaders and Classroom Teachers from 70 Contextually Different Primary and Secondary Schools in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. It draws upon this larger project and offers evidence not seen before elsewhere. It deals…

Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark

2008-01-01

89

Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also…

Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

90

The Lifenet View: Fostering Contextual Understanding in the Professional Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work described in this article represents an effort to foster a contextual understanding of human development in culturally and developmentally diverse classrooms through autobiographical reflection and reflexive inquiry. The author's goal is to use the exercise to foster "deep learning" about human development and to develop a classroom

Armstrong, Jan

2010-01-01

91

Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 11 chapters comprising this work focus on the interactional influences that may be related to differential classroom experiences for males and females. The effects of contextual factors, teacher characteristics, and student characteristics are investigated. Addressed primarily to researchers, this information should prove useful to teachers,…

Wilkinson, Louise Cherry, Ed.; Marrett, Cora B., Ed.

92

Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study  

E-print Network

M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

2010-01-01

93

Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

2012-02-01

94

Galactic Structure: A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An astrophysics course based on the constructivist approach to science teaching is described. The study of galactic structure is given as an example. Direct experiences and observations, representative-symbolic language, organized knowledge, and formal strategies are emphasized. (KR)

Domenech, Antonio; Casasus, Elena

1991-01-01

95

The Warrant for Constructivist Practice within Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational technology as a form of technical rationality and considers the conflict between practitioners' epistemological position as constructivists and technical rationality. Topics include cybernetics; autonomous systems theory; enactive constructivism; representation versus effective action; mind and memory; enaction in artificial…

Bopry, Jeanette

1999-01-01

96

Designing and Implementing a Constructivist Chemistry Laboratory Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author, an educational program specialist at the University of California, Davis, developed a constructivist chemistry laboratory where students had the opportunity to develop their own experimental procedures. This article describes some of the educa

Alan Blakely

2000-03-01

97

Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

Sweeney, Heidi

98

Classroom Acoustics  

MedlinePLUS

Classroom Acoustics A student's ability to hear and understand what is being said in the classroom is vital for ... reverberation time. Who is affected by poor classroom acoustics? All children are affected by poor classroom acoustics, ...

99

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

100

Contextuality in phase space  

E-print Network

We present a general framework for contextuality tests in phase space using displacement operators. First, we derive a general condition that a single-mode displacement operator should fulfill in order to construct Peres-Mermin square and similar scenarios. This approach offers a straightforward scheme for experimental implementations of the tests via modular variable measurements. In addition to the continuous variable case, our condition can be also applied to finite-dimensional systems in discrete phase space, using Heisenberg-Weyl operators. This approach, therefore, offers a unified picture of contextuality with a geometric flavor.

Ali Asadian; Costantino Budroni; Frank E. S. Steinhoff; Peter Rabl; Otfried Gühne

2015-02-20

101

Contextual behavior and neural circuits  

PubMed Central

Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior. PMID:23675321

Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

2013-01-01

102

Preview Search and Contextual Cuing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effect of contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998) within the preview paradigm (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Contextual cuing was shown with a 10-item letter search but not with more crowded 20-item displays. However, contextual learning did occur in a preview procedure in which 10 preview items were followed by…

Hodsoll, John P.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2005-01-01

103

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

104

Contextual Deterministic Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

We present a simple proof of quantum contextuality for a spinless particle with a one dimensional configuration space. We then discuss how the maximally realistic deterministic quantum mechanics recently constructed by this author and V. Singh can be applied to different contexts.

S. M. Roy

1999-08-18

105

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

106

Contextual Learning Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris Baskett)…

1996

107

The Roles of Teacher Efficacy in Instructional Innovation: Its Predictive Relations to Constructivist and Didactic Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…

Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng

2013-01-01

108

Experimental research on application of constructivist theory to senior middle school students' English reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly discusses the existing problems in current teaching and learning in senior English reading class. It highly stresses that the constructivist-based reading teaching is an effective way to solve these problems. The following contents are also explored: the main constructivist reading teaching methods in FLT abroad, the constructivist views of teaching, learning and reading, and the current research

LIU Xiao-zhen

109

Development and Validation of a Modified Turkish Version of the Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Constructivist Learning Environment Survey is an instrument used for assessing students' and teachers' perceptions of their learning environments. The Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES) was created to better enable teachers and researchers to determine teachers' perception of their use of constructivist approaches in…

Anagun, Sengul S.; Anilan, Huseyin

2013-01-01

110

The Constructivist Mapping of Internet Information At Work with Nestor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Nestor Web Cartographer software, its features, its user interface, the constructivist approach to mapping Internet information that guided its design and the experience gained after 10 years of use in academic contexts. We focus on five selected features such as the hybrid representation system, some original visual widgets, the groupware section, and we discuss their role within a constructivist approach. We argue that they favour the collaborative and incremental construction of formalized knowledge. A case study in Lyon School of Management (EM LYON) is discussed with more details.

Zeiliger, Romain; Esnault, Liliane

111

Does Space Matter? Impact of Classroom Space on Student Learning in an Organic-First Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have reported on the positive impact of social constructivist approaches on learning in introductory chemistry courses. However, the widespread use of such approaches is being hampered to a certain degree by uncertainty as to whether one needs a special type of classroom. In this study, we investigated student learning in two…

Muthyala, Rajeev S.; Wei, Wei

2013-01-01

112

The effect of the Nature's Classroom environmental education program on middle school student performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examine the educative aspects of environmental education and the dynamics of innovation initiation in schools. Environmental education is an approach to learning that includes teaching methods which education reformers are currently advocating: interdisciplinary, relevant context; child-centered constructivist approach; inquiry, problem-solving based; cooperative learning and team teaching. The program under study is the comprehensive environmental education program, Nature's Classroom.

Susan M. Nava-Whitehead

2002-01-01

113

A Joyful Classroom Learning System with Robot Learning Companion for Children to Learn Mathematics Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research demonstrates the design of a Joyful Classroom Learning System (JCLS) with flexible, mobile and joyful features. The theoretical foundations of this research include the experiential learning theory, constructivist learning theory and joyful learning. The developed JCLS consists of the robot learning companion (RLC), sensing input…

Wei, Chun-Wang; Hung, I-Chun; Lee, Ling; Chen, Nian-Shing

2011-01-01

114

Creating an Articulate Classroom: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences of Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the continuing "issue" of developing classrooms where talk is used as means of building concepts and understanding. As curriculum guidance increasingly refers to "exploratory talk" and "dialogic talk", it questions why practice seems resistant to change, despite the promotion of social constructivist approaches to learning in…

Fisher, Annie Therese

2011-01-01

115

Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed around a practical "practice-what-you-teach" approach to methods instruction, "Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher" is based on current constructivist philosophy, organized around 5E inquiry, and guided by the National Science Education Teaching Standards. Written in a reader-friendly style, the…

Goldston, M. Jenice; Downey, Laura

2012-01-01

116

A Step for Evaluating Constructivist Approach Integrated Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to reveal the validation of 86-items in order to develop a scale for evaluating constructivist approach integrated online courses in higher education practices. The main aim of this research process is to reveal a scale to further evaluate whether the online education practices in higher education have the notions of…

Gazi, Zehra A.

2011-01-01

117

Constructivist Pedagogy and Subject-Centered Learning: The Subjectivist Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the subjectivist teaching/learning paradigm (STP), which uses students' social and cultural enculturation processes to structure affect-laden constructivist learning experiences focused in the subject area being taught. STP uses powerful learning experiences to promote two goals: enculturation into the subject area and…

Bastick, Tony

118

Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

2014-01-01

119

A Constructivist Perspective on Teaching and Learning Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two first-grade teachers' hands-on approaches to teach measurement concepts. One, a constructivist, allowed students to figure out the dimensions of a Mayflower ship outline; the other immediately showed kids how to use a yardstick to estimate a whale's dimensions. Although initially more confused, the first class got more out of their…

Schifter, Deborah

1996-01-01

120

Constructivist Approach To Information Security Awareness In The Middle East  

E-print Network

Constructivist Approach To Information Security Awareness In The Middle East Mohammed Boujettif the application of an approach to en- hance information security awareness amongst employees within middle- eastern companies, in effort to improve information security. We aim at surveying the current attitudes

Wang, Yongge

121

Science Made Up: Constructivist Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.  

E-print Network

Science Made Up: Constructivist Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In P. Galison and D. Stump (eds, rationalism and the sociology of knowledge. In M. Hollis and S. Lukes (eds.) Rationality and relativism and the "strong program" in the sociology of knowledge. In E.McMullin (ed.) Construction and constraint. Notre

Fine, Arthur

122

Constructivist mathematics education for students with mild mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a constructivist mathematics intervention for students with mild mental retardation, as compared to direct instruction, which is often recommended for these children. A total of 69 students from elementary schools for special education participated in the study, which focused on multiplication learning. They received one of two kinds of mathematics intervention, guided or directed

Evelyn H. Kroesbergen; Johannes E. H. Van Luit

2005-01-01

123

Engaging Students in Multimedia-mediated Constructivist Learning - Students' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia and investigated students' perceptions while working on a multimedia project that was embedded within a constructivist-based learning environment. We studied the impact of using multimedia on students who have little experience with working in a problem-solving design environment. Students worked in groups and created an interactive multimedia

Mai Neo; Tse-kian Neo

2007-01-01

124

Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at researchers interested in online learning, describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of this new

Dezhi Wu; Michael Bieber

125

Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these…

Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2011-01-01

126

Developing a Constructivist Learning Environment in Online Postsecondary Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in…

Hackworth, Sylvester N.

2010-01-01

127

Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epistemic assumptions of constructive learning are different from those of traditional instruction, so classical methods of needs and task analysis are inappropriate for designing constructivist learning environments (CLEs). This paper argues that activity theory provides an appropriate framework for analyzing needs, tasks, and outcomes for designing CLEs. Activity theory is a socio-cultural, socio-historical lens through which designers can analyze

David H. Jonassen; Lucia Rohrer-Murphy

1999-01-01

128

Researcher as Instrument: Understanding "Shifting" Findings in Constructivist Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigating the meaning and articulation of multiple identities among Black college students revealed shifts in the findings from the 2001 study to the 2005 study. This theoretical review explores the role of the researcher as instrument within the constructivist research paradigm as a possible explanation for some of these apparent…

Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

2010-01-01

129

Implementation challenges for a constructivist physical education curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Curriculum fidelity describes the extent to which a curriculum is implemented faithfully as planned. Curriculum fidelity issues may arise when teachers implement the curriculum inconsistently due to differences in philosophy, barriers in the setting, or other local concerns.Purpose: The study examined challenges that a teacher faced in implementing a constructivist physical education curriculum that had fidelity implications.Research design: Ethnographic

Xihe Zhu; Catherine D. Ennis; Ang Chen

2011-01-01

130

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2012-01-01

131

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2011-01-01

132

Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

133

Activity Theory as a Framework For Designing Constructivist Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines activity theory as a socio-cultural and socio-historical lens through which the interaction of human activity and consciousness within its relevant environmental context can be analyzed. Describes how activity theory can be used as a framework for analyzing activities and settings for the purpose of designing constructivist learning…

Jonassen, David H.; Rohrer-Murphy, Lucia

1999-01-01

134

Understanding teacher responses to constructivist learning environments: Challenges and resolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best constructivist environments or materials. We were invited to work as mediators with a middle-school science staff that was experiencing conflicts regarding two learning environments, PBL (which was the school's politically correc learning environment) and traditional. With mediated group workshops, teachers were sensitized to their own and colleagues' individual learning differences (ILDs), as measured by two styles inventories (the LSI - Kolb, 1976; and the LCI - Johnston & Dainton, 1997). Using these inventories, a learning-environment questionnaire, field notes, and delayed interviews a year later, we found that there was a relationship between teachers' preferred styles, epistemological beliefs, and their preferred teaching environment. Moreover, when the participating teachers, including early-adopters and nonvolunteers to PBL, became more sensitive to their colleagues' preferences, many staff conflicts were resolved and some mismatched teachers expressed more openness to PBL. We argue that having teachers understand their own ILDs and related responses to constructivist learning environments can contribute to resolving staff conflicts and sustaining such environments. We present a cognitive model and a strategy which illustrate this argument.

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2006-05-01

135

Rubrics: Models of Evaluation within a Constructivist Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses rubrics as models of evaluation within a constructivist learning environment. Reasons why rubrics are an appropriate way of evaluating assignments and aspects of importance that are addressed by rubrics are listed. Several World Wide Web sites to gain an understanding and knowledge base through which to further discuss rubrics…

Crawford, Caroline M.

136

Developing a constructivist learning environment in online postsecondary science courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in research literature surrounding the pedagogical practices that could be successfully applied to future

Sylvester N. Hackworth

2010-01-01

137

Placing Cybereducation in the UK Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the Internet in the classroom has often been characterized as a practice that disconnects the teacher from traditional forms of externally imposed influence. This paper examines this assertion by mapping the emerging field of cybereducation and considering how endemic knowledge is contextualized by national curricular authorities. The…

Menchik, Daniel A.

2004-01-01

138

Contextual correlates of semantic similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between semantic and contextual similarity is investigated for pairs of nouns that vary from high to low semantic similarity. Semantic similarity is estimated by subjective ratings; contextual similarity is estimated by the method of sorting sentential contexts. The results show an inverse linear relationship between similarity of meaning and the discriminability of contexts. This relation, is obtained for

George A. Miller; Walter G. Charles

1991-01-01

139

Contextual Coalitional Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

140

Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a variety of pedagogical functions. Students perceived Group-Investigations and Peer Assessments as positive in that they contributed to realizing constructivist features in their classrooms. The students also reported that they gained several learning outcomes through Group-Investigations, including more positive attitudes, new knowledge, greater learning capabilities, and improved self-esteem. However, the Group-Investigation and Peer Assessment methods were perceived as negative and problematic by those who had rarely been exposed to such inquiry-based, student-centered approaches.

Oh, Phil Seok

141

The Convergence of Supervision and Mentoring via "Contextual Supervision": Promising Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the contextual supervision (CS) model that has been developed and applied in several practicum settings of teacher education programs over the past 12 years. The study synthesizes the research findings on the potential effectiveness of CS in assisting faculty supervisors and classroom cooperating teachers with the task of…

Ralph, Edwin G.

142

Essentials of High School Reform: New Forms of Assessment and Contextual Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the important attitudinal, behavioral, and occupational skills needed for work and life are best learned in the workplace or through applied, contextual settings which mirror workplace environments, as opposed to traditional classrooms. This argues for creating stronger relationships between high schools, their communities,…

Brand, Betsy, Ed.

2003-01-01

143

Georgia Tech: Contextual Computing Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Contextual Computing Group is a research organization at Georgia Tech College of Computing that focuses on the field of contextually-aware, wearable computing systems. The group is interested in "how the continued emergence of on-body computational resources will impact society." Topics addressed in its work include Wearable Computing, Augmented Reality, Lifelong Everyday Interfaces, Natural Gestural Interfaces, First-Person Perceptive Agents, Contextual Computing Devices, Human Computer Interaction, Computer Vision, Memory Prostheses, Embedded Computers, and Sensor Fusion. Projects related to Wearable Computing have yielded hardware products that are available to purchase. Resources that the group has found useful are available to download free of charge.

144

Contextual advertising using keyword extraction through collocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual advertising is to place an ad in the web page by analyzing content of the web page. Different contextual advertising approaches are used to make a content match. We analyzed different contextual approaches in this paper to find out how the content-match is performed. Some Contextual advertising approaches use relevance factor between content of ad and web page by

Suleman khan; Qazi Mudassar Ilyas; Waqas Anwar

2009-01-01

145

Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

C. Jill Swango

2003-01-01

146

Grounded practice and the design of constructivist learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of instructional approaches has been studied and implemented across educational and training settings. Vastly different\\u000a design practices have been proposed that reflect fundamentally different philosophies, beliefs, and biases. Yet, evidence\\u000a of mismatched frameworks and methods are widespread. This has become particularly problematic in advancing emerging constructivist\\u000a learning environments. In this paper, we advance the concept of grounded design,

Michael J. Hannafin; Kathleen M. Hannafin; Susan M. Land; Kevin Oliver

1997-01-01

147

Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics   

E-print Network

This thesis is an investigation of phenomena at the interface between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, with the aim of arguing for a view of semantic interpretation as lexically driven yet contextually dependent. I ...

Verspoor, Cornelia M

148

Classroom Planetarium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

Ankney, Paul

1981-01-01

149

The Effects of Grouping and Instructional Strategies on Conceptual Understanding and Critical Thinking Skills in the Secondary Biology Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe selected instructional strategies (traditional and constructivist) and grouping practices (homogeneous and heterogeneous) on conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills in biology classrooms in three high schools. The context of the study was the teaching and learning of plant…

Duffy, Maryellen; Zeidler, Dana L.

150

An Investigation of the Use of Real-Time, Authentic Geospatial Data in the K-12 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article situates geospatial technologies as a constructivist tool in the K-12 classroom and examines student experiences with real-time authentic geospatial data provided through a hybrid adventure learning environment. Qualitative data from seven student focus groups demonstrate the effectiveness of using real-time authentic data, peer…

Doering, Aaron; Veletsianos, George

2007-01-01

151

Classroom Dimensions and Classroom Types.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although classroom "openness" has been much discussed in recent years, there has been little effort to investigate to what degree this openness occurs within a general sample of classrooms. The purpose of this study is to identify significant attributes of classroom activity and organization relevant to the concepts of "traditional" and "open" and…

Kendall, Arthur J.; Solomon, Daniel

152

Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

2010-01-01

153

Empathy and contextual social cognition.  

PubMed

Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-03-01

154

Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,…

Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

2012-01-01

155

Supporting Social Constructivist Learning through the KEEP SLS ePortfolio System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional ePortfolio systems are usually used as an individual learning unit, or an assessment tool in education. However, these systems often lack social constructivist learning features such as sharing, peer review, and group collaboration. This paper describes a new ePortfolio system that supports both personal and social constructivist

Zhang, Xuesong; Olfman, Lorne; Firpo, Daniel

2010-01-01

156

When the Internal and External Collide: A Social Constructivist Reading of Russia's Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a social constructivist reading of Russia's security policy under President Vladimir Putin, by investigating the relationship between the internal and the external security spheres and state identity through the prism of Russia's narrative on the fight against terrorism. Drawing on social constructivist theories of identity, security and narratives, it argues that a change occurred in the Putin

Aglaya Snetkov

2012-01-01

157

A Practical Guide and a Constructivist Rationale for Inquiry Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the practical issues in implementing instructional approaches based on constructivist views of learning. The authors do not view this as a procedural guide, but rather believe that the design of these inquiry based learning (IBL) approaches must be guided by the view of learning represented in constructivist frameworks.…

Duffy, Thomas M.; Raymer, Pamela L.

2010-01-01

158

Doing Social Constructivist Research Means Making Empathic and Aesthetic Connections with Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivist theorists tend to identify qualitative educational research as discovering meaning and understanding by the researcher's active involvement in the construction of meaning. Although these approaches have been widely influenced by Vygotsky's social constructivist approach, his own theoretical framework has received…

Kim, Mi Song

2014-01-01

159

Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

2011-01-01

160

The effects of constructivist teaching approaches on middle school students' algebraic understanding  

E-print Network

). 6 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND LITERATURE Representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and engagement are important contributors to students? learning. These variables rest upon the ideas of Jerome Bruner, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Ernst von... both kinds of learning acquisition. 3 Purpose of This Dissertation This study examined a hypothesized model whereby representations (Bruner, 1966) and constructivist teaching approaches (Piaget, 1954; Piaget, 1970; Piaget, 1973; Vygotsky, 1978...

Ross, Amanda Ann

2009-06-02

161

Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

2012-01-01

162

Employing Constructivist Models of Culture Teaching for Enhanced Efficacy in Pre-Departure, Cross-Cultural Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case for adopting a constructivist approach in the teaching of culture to federal, business and civilian personnel. In support of this argument, the author: (1) outlines the history of culture teaching as it progresses from behaviorist through cognitive to constructivist orientations; (2) argues that a constructivist

Ashby, Wendy

2012-01-01

163

Changing the attitudes and practices of professional developers through a constructivist model: The Technical Assistance Academy for Mathematics and Science Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For much of this century, mathematics and science have been taught in a didactic manner that is characterized by a passive student and a lecturing teacher. Since the late eighties national standards have encouraged professional developers specializing in mathematics and science education to deliver the messages of inquiry-based learning, active student engagement, and learner-constructed knowledge to the teachers they support. Follow-up studies of professional development programs, however, found that telling teachers was no more effective than telling students. Information transmitted in a passive setting was not transferring into effective classroom practices. This phenomenological case study was conducted to determine the effects of a constructivist-oriented professional development experience, the Technical Assistance Academy, in changing the practices and attitudes of mathematics and science professional developers regarding the use of constructivist strategies in workshop design. This study focused on 45 professional developers who participated in the Technical Assistance Academy. Data from a 2 1/2 year period were collected from session evaluations, journal reflections, a follow-up interview, and site visits that included observations and collaborative planning. Content analysis procedures were used to find common themes among the data. Use of new skills developed as a result of participation in the Technical Assistance Academy was determined using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Levels of Use framework (Hall & Hord, 1987). Changes in attitude were determined by examining participants' journal reflections related to common constructivist themes such as those discussed by Fosnot (1996c): learning is developmental, disequilibrium and reflection facilitate learning, and the construction of "big ideas" results from the opportunity to struggle with new information. Results verified that all 45 participants demonstrated some level of use, and that most were in the 3 highest of 5 levels of use: mechanical (11%), routine (16%), refinement (27%), integration (24%), and renewal (22%). Participants reported valuing (a) active engagement necessary for the developmental progression of learning to occur, (b) their own disequilibrium, (c) opportunity to reflect, and they acknowledged a clearer understanding and appreciation of the big ideas in workshop design such as networking, collaboration, content and staff development standards, equity, and community building. Results support the conclusion that learning about constructivist instructional strategies in a long-term program that models them positively affects participants' attitudes and enhances their use of similar strategies in the design of professional development experiences for others. Knowledge developed in a constructivist setting transferred into effective facilitator practices.

Charles, Karen Jungblut

164

Contextual Learning [and] Vocational Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two newsletter issues of the National Transition Alliance (NTA) for Youth with Disabilities present articles concerning the transition of youth with disabilities from school-to-work (STW) and related informational items. The first issue contains the following articles: "Contextual Learning" (analysis of one of the five categories of…

Kohanek, Jean, Ed.; Divita, Therese, Ed.

1997-01-01

165

Sentiment-Oriented Contextual Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web advertising (Online advertising), a form of advertising that uses the World Wide Web to attract customers, has become one of the world's most important marketing channels. This paper addresses the mechanism of Content-based advertising (Contextual advertising), which refers to the assignment of relevant ads to a generic web page, e.g., a blog post. As blogs become a platform for

Teng-kai Fan; Chia-hui Chang

2009-01-01

166

Contextuality, Nonlocality and Counterfactual Arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, following an elementary line of thought which somewhat differs from the usual one, we prove once more that any deterministic theory predictively equivalent to quantum mechanics unavoidably exhibits a contextual character. The purpose of adopting this perspective is that of paving the way for a critical analysis of the use of counterfactual arguments when dealing with nonlocal physical processes.

Ghirardi, Gian Carlo; Wienand, Karl

2009-07-01

167

Contextualism Reconsidered: Some Skeptical Reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of theorists have touted the merits of the contextual approach to political theory, arguing that a close examination of real-world cases is more likely to yield both theoretical insight and practical solutions to pressing problems. This is particularly evident, it is argued, in the field of multiculturalism in political theory. The present paper offers some skeptical reflections on

Chandran Kukathas

2004-01-01

168

A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (5) The inclusion of children's literature in elementary school science promotes a positive attitude toward science, an increase in student self-confidence in science, and fosters accurate understandings of the nature of science. Recommendations focus on student change, constructivist pedagogy, use of literature in science, and parental involvement in science education.

Numedahl, Paul Joseph

169

Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

Mayes, Valynda

2010-01-01

170

Twin inequality for fully contextual quantum correlations  

E-print Network

Quantum mechanics exhibits a very peculiar form of contextuality. Identifying and connecting the simplest scenarios in which more general theories can or cannot be more contextual than quantum mechanics is a fundamental step in the quest for the principle that singles out quantum contextuality. The former scenario corresponds to the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Here we show that there is a simple tight inequality, twin to the KCBS, for which quantum contextuality cannot be outperformed. In a sense, this twin inequality is the simplest tool for recognizing fully contextual quantum correlations.

Adan Cabello

2013-02-15

171

Responsive Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Responsive Classroom addresses some of the challenges present in any elementary classroom, be it first-grade mathematics or third-grade science, by offering "an approach to teaching and learning that fosters safe, challenging, and joyful classrooms and schools, kindergarten through eighth grade." Through this website, classroom teachers share "practical strategies for bringing together social and academic learning throughout the school day." They report that teachers in urban, rural, and suburban settings nationwide find that these strategies have increased student investment, responsibility, and learning, and decreased problem behaviors. Studies detailing the effectiveness of the program are posted on this website. The basic principles of the program are also described, but the books detailing their approach must be purchased. The newsletter, however, is available free of charge and the archive includes previously published articles, which can be searched by topic, such as technology in the classroom and family involvement.

172

Transforming Multicultural Classrooms through Creative Place-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classrooms are spaces where diverse cultures have the potential to share lived experiences and gain insight from each other's "spatial, geographical, and contextual dimensions of existence" (Gruenewald, 2008, p. 310). Teachers facilitate multicultural perspectives being integrated into curriculum by analyzing data at school sites…

Sloan, Connor

2013-01-01

173

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

174

An Elementary School Teacher's Reflection on Implementing Constructivist Instruction in Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper was to describe how the author, Kuo-Chung Hsu, changed his teaching beliefs and science instruction through participating in a cooperative action research, which is conducted by the author, Jing-Ru Wang. Self-study was adopted to explain and interpret Kuo-Chung Hsu's experience of teaching science in Taiwan island.…

Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Wang, Jing-Ru

2012-01-01

175

Big Science for Growing Minds: Constructivist Classrooms for Young Thinkers. Early Childhood Education Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong evidence from recent brain research shows that the intentional teaching of science is crucial in early childhood. "Big Science for Growing Minds" describes a groundbreaking curriculum that invites readers to rethink science education through a set of unifying concepts or "big ideas." Using an integrated learning approach, the author shows…

Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon

2011-01-01

176

Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

Maor, Dorit

177

Hypermedia in the classroom using Earth and space science CD-ROMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hypermedia CD-ROMs has greatly increased during the last five years. Many of these CD-ROMs have applications for use in the K-16 classroom. CD-ROMs have the potential to enhance student learning, motivation and metacognition. CD-ROMs can also help facilitate constructivist-based learning strategies. Commercial vendors (such as Marius Multimedia Ltd. and Expert Software) and US Government agencies (such as

P. E. Adams

1996-01-01

178

Sentiment-oriented contextual advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web advertising (Online advertising), a form of advertising that uses the World Wide Web to attract customers, has become\\u000a one of the world’s most important marketing channels. This paper addresses the mechanism of Content-based advertising (Contextual advertising), which refers to the assignment of relevant ads to a generic web page, e.g., a blog post. As blogs become a platform for

Teng-Kai Fan; Chia-Hui Chang

2010-01-01

179

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Konstantinos Alexakos

2001-03-01

180

Classroom Wildlife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

Fleer, Daryl

1984-01-01

181

Classroom Catapults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wow, our plastic load flew 540 centimeters! This is so cool!" An interdisciplinary unit on catapults was responsible for the excitement and enthusiasm generated in the author's classroom. In their social studies class, students learned about the Middle A

Diane D. Villano

2001-02-01

182

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

2014-09-18

183

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Matt Lippis

2006-01-01

184

Relationships between students’ conceptions of constructivist learning and their regulation and processing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated relationships between students’ conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and\\u000a their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum\\u000a were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as well as their beliefs regarding\\u000a their own (in)ability to learn and motivation to learn. Two hypothesized

Sofie M. M. Loyens; Remy M. J. P. Rikers; Henk G. Schmidt

2008-01-01

185

Prefrontal neuronal circuits of contextual fear conditioning.  

PubMed

Over the past years, numerous studies have provided a clear understanding of the neuronal circuits and mechanisms involved in the formation, expression and extinction phases of conditioned cued fear memories. Yet, despite a strong clinical interest, a detailed understanding of these memory phases for contextual fear memories is still missing. Besides the well-known role of the hippocampus in encoding contextual fear behavior, growing evidence indicates that specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulate contextual fear acquisition and storage in both animals and humans that ultimately leads to expression of contextual fear memories. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the recent literature on the role of distinct prefrontal subregions in contextual fear behavior and provide a working model of the neuronal circuits involved in the acquisition, expression and generalization of contextual fear memories. PMID:25287656

Rozeske, R R; Valerio, S; Chaudun, F; Herry, C

2015-01-01

186

The flipped classroom: now or never?  

PubMed

Pedagogical changes and new models of delivering educational content should be considered in the effort to address the recommendations of the 2007 Institute of Medicine report and Benner's recommendations on the radical transformation of nursing. Transition to the nurse anesthesia practice doctorate addresses the importance of these recommendations, but educational models and specific strategies on how to implement changes in educational models and systems are still emerging. The flipped classroom (FC) is generating a considerable amount of buzz in academic circles. The FC is a pedagogical model that employs asynchronous video lectures, reading assignments, practice problems, and other digital, technology-based resources outside the classroom, and interactive, group-based, problem-solving activities in the classroom. This FC represents a unique combination of constructivist ideology and behaviorist principles, which can be used to address the gap between didactic education and clinical practice performance. This article reviews recent evidence supporting use of the FC in health profession education and suggests ways to implement the FC in nurse anesthesia educational programs. PMID:25167605

Hawks, Sharon J

2014-08-01

187

Contextual logic for quantum systems  

E-print Network

In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.

Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes

2007-02-02

188

Probabilistic models on contextuality scenarios  

E-print Network

We introduce a framework to describe probabilistic models in Bell experiments, and more generally in contextuality scenarios. Such a scenario is a hypergraph whose vertices represent elementary events and hyperedges correspond to measurements. A probabilistic model on such a scenario associates to each event a probability, in such a way that events in a given measurement have a total probability equal to one. We discuss the advantages of this framework, like the unification of the notions of contexuality and nonlocality, and give a short overview of results obtained elsewhere.

Tobias Fritz; Anthony Leverrier; Ana Belén Sainz

2014-12-30

189

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

190

Teacher change and professional development: A case study of teachers engaged in an innovative constructivist science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined both the changes that elementary school teachers experienced when they implemented a reform-based science curriculum and the impact of professional development on this transformation. The research involved a case study of three purposefully selected teachers implementing the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program during the 2002--2003 school year. The LIFE program is a curriculum designed to enhance science literacy among learners from high poverty urban environments. While the study was grounded in the tradition of critical theory (Carspecken, 1996), the theoretical perspective of hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) guided data collection and analysis. Extensive observations of the teachers were made in order to capture and record the teacher change phenomenon. Data were recorded by means of field notes, audio and videotapes, semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and video Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews. Emerging themes relating to teacher change, knowledge interests, constructivist pedagogy, and professional development illustrated how teachers grapple with various aspects of implementing a reform-based science curriculum. The teachers in this study were similar to those in earlier investigations, which found that sustained professional development programs involving mentoring and constant reflection enable elementary science teachers to change their instructional strategies from the technical-realist orientation towards the practical-hermeneutic and emancipatory-liberatory orientations. The study has implications for science curriculum developers and designers of professional development programs.

Akura, Okong'o. Gabriel

191

The Use of Constructivist Teaching Practices by Four New Secondary School Science Teachers: A Comparison of New Teachers and Experienced Constructivist Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the use of constructivist teaching practices by four new secondary school science teachers (NSTs) from a preparation program with a focus on constructivism. Data of the NSTs is compared to data of secondary school teachers from two different sources: (i) new teachers (NTs) from a broad-scale nationally-funded project involving…

Lew, Lee Yuen

2010-01-01

192

Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

2013-01-01

193

Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

194

A Combinatorial Approach to Nonlocality and Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, most of the literature on (quantum) contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem seems either to concern particular examples of contextuality, or be considered as quantum logic. Here, we develop a general formalism for contextuality scenarios based on the combinatorics of hypergraphs, which significantly refines a similar recent approach by Cabello, Severini and Winter (CSW). In contrast to CSW, we explicitly include the normalization of probabilities, which gives us a much finer control over the various sets of probabilistic models like classical, quantum and generalized probabilistic. In particular, our framework specializes to (quantum) nonlocality in the case of Bell scenarios, which arise very naturally from a certain product of contextuality scenarios due to Foulis and Randall. In the spirit of CSW, we find close relationships to several graph invariants. The recently proposed Local Orthogonality principle turns out to be a special case of a general principle for contextuality scenarios related to the Shannon capacity of graphs. Our results imply that it is strictly dominated by a low level of the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy of semidefinite programs, which we also apply to contextuality scenarios. We derive a wealth of results in our framework, many of these relating to quantum and supraquantum contextuality and nonlocality, and state numerous open problems. For example, we show that the set of quantum models on a contextuality scenario can in general not be characterized in terms of a graph invariant. In terms of graph theory, our main result is this: there exist two graphs and with the properties

Acín, Antonio; Fritz, Tobias; Leverrier, Anthony; Sainz, Ana Belén

2015-03-01

195

Introductory geology for elementary education majors utilizing a constructivist approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

"Field Excursions in Earth Science" is designed as a non-prerequisite field-based course for elementary education majors. Classic Canadian Shield and Michigan Basin outcrops and Quaternary features are used to teach those Earth science objectives considered most important for K-8 teachers by the Michigan State Board of Education and by others. We integrated these objectives into five conceptual pathways rather than presenting them as discrete pieces of information. A variety of teaching techniques based on constructivist educational theory are employed, so that pre-service teachers experience active-learning strategies in the context of how science is practiced. Our learning strategies address the cognitive and affective domains and utilize personal experiences in conjunction with pre- and post-experience organizers to allow students to develop individual meanings. We place emphasis on observations and concepts and we encourage students to explain their understanding of concepts verbally and in a variety of written formats. Activities address spatial concepts and map reading; mineral, rock, and fossil identification; formation of rocks; surficial processes and landform development; structural deformation and plate tectonics; and environmental issues. Students keep field notes and have daily projects. They address the pedagogical structure of the course in a daily diary.

Brown, L.M.; Kelso, P.R.; Rexroad, C.B.

2001-01-01

196

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

197

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

198

Classroom Tips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five classroom activities or projects used in Canadian social studies classes. Includes discussions of the use of artifacts, a field trip to Spain, a simulation of the Earth Summit meeting, and the application of mahatma Gandhi's philosophy to current problems. (CFR)

Stevens, Jacqueline; And Others

1993-01-01

199

Classroom Tech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

Instructor, 2006

2006-01-01

200

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Elliot Aronson

201

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.

1969-12-31

202

Ontological Models, Preparation Contextuality and Nonlocality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\psi$-epistemic models without any use of Bell's inequality. In particular, nonlocality of a non maximally $\\psi$-epistemic model has been demonstrated from preparation contextuality of a maximally mixed qubit and Schr\\"{o}dinger's steerability of the maximally entangled state of two qubits [Phys. Rev. Lett {\\bf 110}, 120401 (2013)]. In this paper, we, show that any mixed state is preparation contextual. We, then, show that nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled state, with Schmidt rank two, follows from preparation contextuality and steerability provided we impose certain condition on the epistemicity of the underlying ontological model. More interestingly, if the pure entangled state is of Schmidt rank greater than two, its nonlocality follows without any further condition on the epistemicity. Thus our result establishes a stronger connection between nonlocality and preparation contextuality by revealing nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled states without any use of Bell-type inequality.

Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

2014-10-01

203

The Effects of a Constructivist Teaching Approach on Student Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a constructivist approach on academic achievement, self-concept and learning strategies, and student preference were investigated. The 76 six graders were divided into two groups. The experimental group was taught using the constructivist approach while the control group was taught using the traditional approach. A total of 40 hours…

Kim, Jong Suk

2005-01-01

204

The Correlation of Students' Views on Constructivist Teaching Environment and Teachers' Student Control Ideologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between elementary teachers' student control ideology and students' views on constructivist learning environment. In this study, the correlation between the views of teachers working in elementary schools on student control ideology and students' views on constructivist

Beyhan, Omer

2013-01-01

205

Influences of Constructivist-Oriented Nutrition Education on Urban Middle School Students' Nutrition Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…

McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo

2011-01-01

206

A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles  

PubMed Central

This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

Stamps, Arthur

2014-01-01

207

Facilitating Student Learning through Contextualization. CCRC Working Paper No. 29  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a literature review that explores the nature and effectiveness of contextualization as a way to improve outcomes for academically underprepared college students. Two forms of contextualization have been studied: "contextualized" and "integrated" instruction. There is more descriptive work on the contextualization of basic skills than…

Perin, Dolores

2011-01-01

208

Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This scoping review was the first to examine use of social constructivism in KT studies. While the links between social constructivism and KT have not been fully explored, the Knowledge to Action framework has strong constructivist underpinnings that can be used in moving forward within the broader KT enterprise. PMID:24885925

2014-01-01

209

Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics.  

PubMed

Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (n = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael A; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

2015-04-01

210

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

211

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

212

Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

213

Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called “first-person” knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer’s first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

214

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of units designed to teach students about the global importance of Antarctica. Topics covered in these units includes ice, the ocean, geology, weather, topography, auroras, the history of Antarctic exploration, living in Antarctica, animals, plants, the Antarctic Treaty, and the environment. Each unit has a selection of activities that are adaptable to the range of abilities in a class and the particular interests of the students. There are hundreds of useful web links throughout and a wealth of support material listed under Classroom Resources.

Elizabeth Haywood

215

Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

StarDate.org is the public education and outreach department of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory, which offers astronomy resources for teaches on their Classroom Activities site. The various projects are categorized by age and grade level including k-4, 5-8, and 9-12. Each provides a teachers guide, materials needed, a description of the process, any needed links (such as the StarDate Moon Phase Calculator within the Observing the Moon activity), and even printable versions of each lesson. Although not remarkable, the site does give teachers well designed and easy to accomplish activities which students should enjoy.

216

Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

217

From Neoliberal Policy to Neoliberal Pedagogy: Racializing and Historicizing Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we first trace the history of "management," particularly in the United States, from the plantation to the factory to the corporation, with the intention of understanding and contextualizing "classroom management" in today's educational lexicon. To do so, we look at the intertwining history of racial…

Casey, Zachary A.; Lozenski, Brian D.; McManimon, Shannon K.

2013-01-01

218

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

2012-01-01

219

Teaching Intercultural English Learning/Teaching in World Englishes: Some Classroom Activities in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…

Lee, Kang-Young

2012-01-01

220

Directed Consultation, the SEALS Model, and Teachers' Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed consultation is presented as a professional development framework to guide and support teachers in the implementation of evidence-based interventions that involve contextual and process-oriented approaches designed to be incorporated into daily classroom management. This approach consists of four components: pre-intervention observations…

Motoca, Luci M.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Byun, Soo-yong; Lee, David L.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Rucker, Nkecha; Moohr, Michele M.

2014-01-01

221

The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth…

Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

2012-01-01

222

Insights into Innovative Classroom Practices with ICT: Identifying the Impetus for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…

Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong

2008-01-01

223

Learning in basic electricity: how do motivation, cognitive and classroom climate factors influence achievement in physics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of school learning cannot be reduced to cognitive aspects alone, because motivational factors, teaching methodology and other classroom?contextual factors exercise a significant influence. In this study we describe a school experiment in which the learning history of students is followed by the use of tests, and, at the same time, the psychological context of their learning is monitored

Christoph von Rhöneck; Karl Grob; Gerhard W. Schnaitmann; Bruno Völker

1998-01-01

224

Conflict between Learners' Beliefs and Actions: Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on sociocultural and contextual perspectives, this study examines how Japanese language learners perceive a conflict between their beliefs and actions when speaking the target language in the classroom context, and how these learners change their beliefs or actions to overcome the conflict. Data were collected during a second-year level…

Yoshida, Reiko

2013-01-01

225

Constructivist Perspectives for Developing and Implementing Lesson Plans in General Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stacy McKenzie is challenged to find new ways to involve students in their learning. She begins this journey by developing a lesson planning framework based on constructivist principles for learning. The perspectives Stacy applies in her program are shared in this article: First, by examining how she crafts a lesson framework that provides…

Scott, Sheila J.

2012-01-01

226

Designing and Experimenting of English Instructional Material for Facilitating Constructivist Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Constructivism has emerged as one of the greatest influences on the practice of education in the last twenty-five years. Teachers have embraced constructivist-based pedagogy with an enthusiasm that is rare in these days of quick fixes and a shopping mall approach to school improvement. For many teachers, the focus on constructing…

Sharma, Ritu

2011-01-01

227

In Defense of the Solitary Learner: A Response to Collaborative, Constructivist Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses online course design in higher education and cautions against blindly accepting constructivist and collaborative learning strategies. Explains many of the problems associated with these strategies, including the use of technology; considers social change; and describes groupthink and its influence in online courses. (LRW)

Hopper, Keith B.

2003-01-01

228

Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

Zane, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

229

Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 1)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

Zane, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

230

Experimentation with a Socio-Constructivist Process for Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A socio-constructivist and experiential process for climate change education was experimented within two coastal communities of Eastern Canada with 39 students 13 and 14 years of age. The pedagogical process, based on local observation of climate change, Duit's conceptual change theory (1999) and experiential learning, aimed for the improvement of…

Pruneau, Diane; Gravel, Helene; Bourque, Wendy; Langis, Joanne

2003-01-01

231

Assessing the Contribution of a Constructivist Learning Environment to Academic Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy for learning, which refers to students' beliefs in their capabilities to regulate their own learning, could determine students' motivation and academic achievement and, therefore, is significant in the learning process. This study examined how educational efforts based on constructivist theory were associated with the…

Alt, Dorit

2015-01-01

232

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2012-01-01

233

An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

2009-01-01

234

Critical Thinking Development in Nursing: An Integration of Constructivist and Traditional Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of constructivist teaching strategies has vast professional benefits in nursing education through the promotion of critical thinking skills, as students must demonstrate success on the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses and ultimately perform competently within the nursing profession. While literature…

York, Kimberly

2010-01-01

235

Life-Like Pedagogical Agents in Constructivist Multimedia Environments: Cognitive Consequences of their Interaction  

E-print Network

that animated pedagogical agents can promote constructivist learning in a discovery-based learning environment, and language style in promoting deeper learning. The Case for Software Pedagogical Agents Discovery on the learner's freedom to explore and design artifacts in microworlds, constantly threatens to overwhelm

Young, R. Michael

236

Constructivist Foundations 2005, vol. 1, no. 1 13 Ceci n'est pas Heinz von Foerster  

E-print Network

Constructivist Foundations 2005, vol. 1, no. 1 13 Ceci n'est pas Heinz von Foerster 1995, the Leo- ritte". Nobel prize winner Ilya Prigogine held the opening lecture at the conference, and Heinz von was the second-old- est. Heinz von Foerster, having noticed this arrangement, commented at the conference dinner

Aerts, Diederik

237

Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

Faryadi, Qais

2007-01-01

238

The Perceptions of Prospective Teachers on the Democratic Aspects of the Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The nations which have the aim to create democratic societies should also realize the same ideals in educational practices. Related literature declare that learning environments based on constructivist approach is assumed to be democratic. In line with this frame, the aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of prospective…

Bay, Erdal; Gundogdu, Kerim; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

2010-01-01

239

A dynamic constructivist approach to culture: Lessons learned from personality psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of differences between cultural groups has been a dominant approach in cross-cultural psychology. This approach assumes behavioral influence of a relatively static, monolithic culture on members in a cultural group. This paper, however, calls for a dynamic constructivist approach to the study of culture. We begin by drawing a parallel between past research in cultural and personality psychology.

Ying-yi Hong; LeeAnn M. Mallorie

2004-01-01

240

Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

2014-01-01

241

Mathematics Tutoring through a Constructivist Lens: The Challenges of Sense-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses dilemmas teachers may face when shifting their concept of teaching or tutoring from explaining or telling to a constructivist perspective of facilitating the development of students' knowledge structures. Examines teachers' decisions during a 20-minute segment of dialogue between a student and teacher while studying linear functions. (14…

Arcavi, Abraham; Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1992-01-01

242

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

243

Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

Hartfield, Perry J.

2010-01-01

244

A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Web Development in Post-Secondary Vocational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational education by its nature has a need for delivery methods that place a strong focus on the relationship between school and work and seeks to deliver instruction in a manner that bridges the two as seamlessly as possible. This paper presents a curriculum and constructivist-based instructional delivery approach, designed to emphasize a…

Bunch, John M.

2009-01-01

245

Applying Constructivist Instructional Strategies to E-Learning: A Case Study of a Web Development Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the practice of e-learning continues to proliferate, online educators, especially in the computing disciplines, are facing special challenges, due to the lack of relevant literature, the technical nature of the courses, and the perceived need for direct student support mechanisms. This paper presents a constructivist instructional approach to…

Wang, Ye Diana

2014-01-01

246

Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

Rand, Jane

2013-01-01

247

The Value of Peers and Support from Scaffolding: Applying Constructivist Principles to the Teaching of Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legacy and sustainability of a university education requires student independence and ownership of learning. Adopting a student-centred constructivist approach to teaching and learning allows students to develop a web of self-constructed, interconnected understanding, and supports their development into lifelong learners. The efficacy of this…

Winstone, Naomi; Millward, Lynne

2012-01-01

248

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-01-01

249

The Consideration of a Constructivist Evaluation Framework in Adult Guidance Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the findings of a doctoral study that examined the measurement of individual progression in the Irish Adult Education Guidance Initiative. The critical constructivist stance of the study challenges the prevalence of the positivist paradigm to evaluate long-term outcomes in adult guidance. The research highlights the…

Hearne, Lucy

2011-01-01

250

Integrating Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in Distance Education: A Constructivist Framework for Social Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New communication technologies and constructivist pedagogy have the great potential to build very powerful paradigm shifts that enhance Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in distance education. Therefore, the main purpose of this chapter is to explore the new concerns, issues and potentials for the IPTV delivery of distance education to…

Yuzer, T. Volkan; Kurubacak, Gulsun

2011-01-01

251

Understanding the effects of constructivist learning environments: introducing a multi-directional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea to organize a special issue on the effects of constructivist learning environments originated at the 2007 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in Chicago. We organized a symposium on this topic, which was attended by a large audience and received many positive reactions. Therefore, we came up with the plan to translate our symposium into a

Sofie M. M. Loyens; David Gijbels

2008-01-01

252

Inspiring Creative Constructivist Play Inline with the BSCS 5E instructional model, we are  

E-print Network

are using constructivist learning to teach physics in a heavily modified Minecraft game server. However-building indie game Minecraft. Much of the games for education phenomenon focuses on fun to motivate learning to see how they can use different aspects of Minecraft to tell a story, motivate play and create

LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

253

Perceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers Concerning Constructivist Perspectives to Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify how a four-semester sequence teacher education program helps change pre-service teachers' perceptions about constructivist teaching and learning as they progress through the program. The participants of the study included a total of 194 science pre-service teachers in four different semesters of their…

Taskin-Can, Bilge

2013-01-01

254

Toward a constructivist control mastery theory: An integration with narrative therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of control mastery theory and narrative therapy provides a critical constructivist approach to a psychodynamic psychotherapy. The root metaphor of stories, even more than pathogenic beliefs, offers a fertile landscape in which clients' problems can be deconstructed along the theoretical lines formulated by control mastery. A heightened sensitivity to cultural and intergenerational contexts adds to the power of

Robert J. Lieb; Steven Kanofsky

2003-01-01

255

Effects of Constructivist-Oriented Instruction on Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was primarily to explore the effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on fifth graders' cognitive structures about biological reproduction. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 eleven year olds in Taiwan, who were assigned to either a…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

256

The Effects of Constructivist Learning Environment on Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the effects of constructivist learning environment on prospective teachers' opinions about "mathematics, department of mathematics, discrete mathematics, countable and uncountable infinity" taught under the subject of Cantorian Set Theory in discrete mathematics class, 60 first-year students in the Division of Mathematics Education at…

Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

2010-01-01

257

A Constructivist View of Learning and Teaching in Science. Children's Learning in Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This booklet…

Scott, Philip; And Others

258

Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

Jena, Ananta Kumar

2012-01-01

259

Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

2003-01-01

260

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2010-01-01

261

A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning…

Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

2009-01-01

262

Child Development within Culturally Structured Environments. Volume 3: Comparative-Cultural and Constructivist Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a comparative-cultural perspective, this collection of essays examines the co-constructivist nature of human development in culturally organized environments. The contributions also cover a large age span--infancy to adulthood. Chapters in part 1 cover two different directions in the study of early adult-infant interaction from a comparative…

Valsiner, Jaan, Ed.

263

THE ZHENGHUA PE EXPERIENCE: A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PHYSICAL EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1966) of learning, Zhenghua Secondary School's 'Zhenghua PE Experience' provides students, including the less-skilled or active ones, the opportunity to build authentic personal sense through the experience of being part of a team, working towards common goals. Through the lower secondary Sport Education (Siedentop, 1994) modules, students learn games skills and adopt sporting roles, thus

Hanif Abdul Rahman

264

Engaging Students in Multimedia-Mediated Constructivist Learning--Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia and investigated students' perceptions while working on a multimedia project that was embedded within a constructivist-based learning environment. We studied the impact of using multimedia on students who have little experience with working in a…

Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

2009-01-01

265

Students' Perceptions in Developing a Multimedia Project within a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Malaysian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a research study that was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia, to investigate students' perceptions in developing a multimedia project within a constructivist-based learning environment. Students worked in groups to create an interactive multimedia application using an authoring…

Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

2010-01-01

266

Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

2013-01-01

267

Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

Brendel, Michelle

2014-12-01

268

Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the…

Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2013-01-01

269

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main…

Okland, Gunnar Magne

2012-01-01

270

Applying a Constructivist-Developmental Practice-Based Learning Framework to the Recreation Internship Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreation internship is one of the most critical components of professional preparation education, yet educators have done little to explore the experience from a constructivist-developmental growth perspective. This article presents a practice-based learning framework that shows promise for fostering moral development among recreation…

Craig, Patricia J.; Sable, Janet R.

2011-01-01

271

The Constructivist Resume: Promoting the Career Adaptability of Graduate Students in Counseling Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present the constructivist resume, an original approach developed to promote professional identity development and career adaptability (i.e., concern, curiosity, confidence, and control) in students completing graduate-level counselor training programs. The authors discuss underlying theories, including Super's (1990; Super, Savickas,…

Scholl, Mark B.; Cascone, Jason

2010-01-01

272

College Student Binge Drinking: Implications for a Constructivist Approach to College Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines relationships between college students' alcohol consumption and epistemological development. Results indicate students who are frequent binge drinkers have not developed a value system that transcends the influences of peers. On the basis of these findings, discusses a constructivist approach to counseling students with problems related…

Hensley, Laura G.

2001-01-01

273

Involving older people in research: practical considerations when using the authenticity criteria in constructivist inquiry  

PubMed Central

Aim The purpose of this paper is to identify practical suggestions that could enable other researchers to consider how quality may be evidenced using constructivist principles including the perspectives of older people and their caregivers. Background Constructivism suggests that reality is part of a social construction, which holds different meanings for each person, in which people are active agents, making autonomous decisions. This approach to research has been identified as suitable for health and social care professionals because these underpinning principles reflect the values of these professions, facilitating the involvement of users and carers. The authenticity criteria have been developed to reflect these philosophical principles but have been criticized for their inaccessible language. To incorporate user and carer perspectives, the criteria have been revised into a more accessible model matrix known as the AldreVast Sjuharad criteria. Discussion This paper reports on two constructivist studies that explored relationships between older people, families and staff in different settings – the community and care homes. Examples from both settings demonstrate how the perspectives of users and carers were incorporated throughout the research process. Following the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix, practical guidance is provided on how the quality of constructivist research may be implemented in nursing research. Conclusions The different settings in this paper influenced how the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix was applied. Further work is needed in exploring how the perspective of users and carers may be incorporated into the quality process of constructivist research. PMID:21073505

Wilson, Christine Brown; Clissett, Philip

2011-01-01

274

Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended…

Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

275

Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

276

Integrating algorithm visualization technology into an undergraduate algorithms course: ethnographic studies of a social constructivist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm visualization (AV) software graphically illustrates how algorithms work. Traditionally, computer science instructors have used the software as a visual aid in lectures, or as the basis for interactive laboratories. An alternative approach, inspired by Social Constructivist learning theory, is to have students construct and present their own visualizations. Notice that, in this alternative approach, rather than acting as a

Christopher D. Hundhausen

2002-01-01

277

Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

2003-01-01

278

Guidelines for a constructivist approach: Steps toward the adaptation of ideas from family therapy for use in organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivist family therapy offers a model for the application of Maturana's theories to practice. This paper describes\\u000a key concepts of a constructivist approach and draws on family therapy to provide guidelines for applying them in an organizational\\u000a setting. It offers a view of the organization as a network of conversations in which change occurs through the coconstruction\\u000a of new conversations

Andy Bilson

1997-01-01

279

Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning: A Comparison between a Traditional and a Problem-based Learning Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated students' conceptions of constructivist learning activities in a problem-based learning (PBL) and a traditional curriculum. We examined whether students who have chosen for a problem-based curriculum have different conceptions of constructivist assumptions compared to students who have chosen to be enrolled in a traditional, lecture-based curriculum when they enter university. Although constructivism represents an influential view of

Sofie M. M. Loyens; Remy M. J. P. Rikers; Henk G. Schmidt

2006-01-01

280

Multi-class object localization by combining local contextual interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in object localization has shown that the use of contextual cues can greatly improve accuracy over models that use appearance features alone. Although many of these models have successfully explored different types of contextual sources, they only consider one type of contextual interaction (e.g., pixel, region or object level interactions), leaving open questions about the true potential contribution

Carolina Galleguillos; Brian McFee; Serge J. Belongie; Gert R. G. Lanckriet

2010-01-01

281

Contextual Object Localization With Multiple Kernel Nearest Neighbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many object localization models have shown that incorporating contextual cues can greatly improve ac- curacy over using appearance features alone. Therefore, many of these models have explored different types of contextual sources, but only considering one level of contextual interaction at the time. Thus, what context could truly contribute to object localization, through integrating cues from all levels, simultaneously,

Brian McFee; Carolina Galleguillos; Gert R. G. Lanckriet

2011-01-01

282

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-10-01

283

Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

2010-01-01

284

Contextuality in tree-like graphs  

E-print Network

The contextuality problem connected with existence of joint probability distribution creating all the given marginals is studied. It is shown for several examples considered previously in literature that there exist some new solutions for the joint probability distributions providing the given marginals and numerical example of the new solution is demonstrated.

A. A. Strakhov; V. I. Man'ko

2014-04-25

285

The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

2007-01-01

286

Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with…

Jones, Kim; Howley, Aimee

2009-01-01

287

Contextuality is About Identity of Random Variables  

E-print Network

Contextual situations are those in which seemingly "the same" random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force "one and the same" random variable to change "its" identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different "automatically". They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered non-contextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics.

Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov; Janne V. Kujala

2015-01-29

288

Semantic Contextual Cuing and Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the…

Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne

2009-01-01

289

Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons  

PubMed Central

Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

290

Implicit Spatial Contextual Learning in Healthy Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall

Darlene V. Howard; Nancy A. Dennis; Helen Yankovich; Chandan J. Vaidya

2004-01-01

291

Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems  

SciTech Connect

Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Genovese, Marco [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Olivares, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

2011-09-15

292

A recommendation mechanism for contextualized mobile advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile advertising complements the Internet and interactive television advertising and makes it possible for advertisers to create tailor-made campaigns targeting users according to where they are, their needs of the moment and the devices they are using (i.e. contextualized mobile advertising). Therefore, it is necessary that a fully personalized mobile advertising infrastructure be made. In this paper, we present such

Soe-tsyr Yuan; Y. W. Tsao

2003-01-01

293

Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

Yang, Shih-Ying

2008-01-01

294

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

295

Accessible contextual information for urban orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Talking Points, an urban orientation system based on the idea that an individual's walking journey can be enhanced by providing contextual information about points of interest (POIs) along their route. Our formative research revealed numerous ways to provide serendipitous and task-critical information for both sighted and visually impaired users as they navigate through an urban environment on foot.

Jason Stewart; Sara Bauman; Michelle Escobar; Jakob Hilden; Kumud Bihani; Mark W. Newman

2008-01-01

296

Modeling Contextual Concerns in Enterprise Architecture  

E-print Network

Modeling Contextual Concerns in Enterprise Architecture Gonc¸alo Antunes, Jos´e Barateiro Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria Abstract--Enterprise Architecture approaches are used in an architecture. Thus, an effective Enterprise Architecture ap- proach assists in the management of relations

297

What Is the Difference? Using Contextualized Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mr. Carter is about to start a two-day lesson on subtraction of integers with his sixth-grade prealgebra students. He plans to use contextualized problems that will allow his students to develop an interpretation of subtraction that involves the idea of "difference." This article outlines one way to teach students develop number line…

Tillema, Erik S.

2012-01-01

298

Constructivist values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new mindset  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the implications of constructivism for instructional systems design (ISD) are summarized as five principles\\u000a that integrate the affective and cognitive domains of learning. In contrast to current views, it is suggested that constructivist\\u000a philosophy offers instructional designers an alternative set of values that may significantly influence the emphasis of ISD\\u000a methods without undermining the coherence and consistency

David Lebow

1993-01-01

299

Creating Constructivist Learning Environment for Japanese EFL Students: A Digital Story Program1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the effectiveness of FM Magic, a web-based multimedia English program that teaches EFL in a Japanese university. It uses the Constructivist Multimedia Learning Environment Survey (CMLES) and a Student Open-ended Questionnaire. Results indicate that FM Magic creates a positive learning environment for these EFL students. It is different from the teacher-centered and grammar-translation approaches of language instruction.

Guofang Wan; Rex Tanimoto; Rosalyn Anstine Templeton

2008-01-01

300

Enhancing Teachers’ Application of Inquiry?Based Strategies Using a Constructivist Sociocultural Professional Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two?year school?wide initiative to improve teachers’ pedagogical skills in inquiry?based science instruction using a constructivist sociocultural professional development model involved 30 elementary teachers from one school, three university faculty, and two central office content supervisors. Research was conducted for investigating the impact of the professional development activities on teachers’ practices, documenting changes in their philosophies, instruction, and the learning

Brenda R. Brand; Sandra J. Moore

2011-01-01

301

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

302

Classroom Use and Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

Fink, Ira

2002-01-01

303

Classrooms Are Killing Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From his knowledge of the brain and learning, the author argues that Horace Mann's classroom system is the core cause for the outdated state of public education and attendant problems. He asserts that the conventional classroom is brain-antagonistic and the continued use of graded classrooms, ruinous. (Author/WD)

Hart, Leslie A.

1981-01-01

304

Competition in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

Jameson, Daphne

2007-01-01

305

Arranging the Informal Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of the informal or open classroom, a new area of concern has become important--classroom arrangement. In the past, classrooms were oriented toward the front, toward the teacher's desk and the blackboard. Education depended mainly on the pupil's interaction with the teacher and with printed materials. Nowadays, in informal…

Engel, Brenda S.

306

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome the Madagascar hissing cockroach into your classroom--they are not your average pest! This article describes the basic biology of this relatively tame creature, and how to set up and care for a classroom colony. It includes a list of suggested inquiry-centered classroom activities that you and your students will find both educational and fun!

Christine Moseley

2005-03-01

307

Evidence for Social and Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Urban Preschoolers: Effects of Site, Classroom, and Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher ratings of 336 preschool children (mean age = 48 months) attending two urban Head Start programs were collected to examine the influence of contextual variables of teacher training, classroom, and site on the prevalence of significant problems. The prevalence of externalizing behaviors in the “problem range” was higher than expected and fewer children were rated in the “well-adjusted range”

Bruno J. Anthony; Laura G. Anthony; Tanya M. Morrel; Michelle Acosta

2005-01-01

308

ELT Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards Environmental Education and Their Tendency to Use It in the Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…

Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.

2011-01-01

309

Collaborative Science Work in the Elementary Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not all students with disabilities receive special education accommodations in science class. Without special education support, students with disabilities are unable to comprehend and apply science concepts. Implementing a co-teaching model could be a remedy for this lack of supports. Framed by constructivist theory, this study sought to determine if there was a difference in science assessment scores between students in a co-taught science class and those in a regular education science class. Following a pretest-posttest control group design, this study examined the relation between two teaching models and achievement in science. Using a convenience sample of 84 students drawn from a population of 144 fourth grade special education students in a public school district located in the Southeastern United States, analysis of variance was used to compare the mean growth of the two groups. The data revealed no statistically significant difference in mean gain scores between the two groups. Additional studies using a larger sample and longer trial are needed. Implications for social change include understanding instructional strategies that allow educators to differentiate for diverse learners in mainstreamed classrooms as well as removing barriers for underrepresented groups, thereby allowing equal access to science related professions.

Kersey, Denise A.

310

Interpretive case studies on the influence of a pre-service contextual science research course on novice science and mathematics teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a follow-up, qualitative evaluation to help me understand how participation in a contextual science research course influenced two pre-service science and\\/or mathematics teacher participants as they begin to teach in their own classrooms as novice teachers. My specific questions for this dissertation were: (1) What are the beliefs towards the culture of science and the culture of science

Lori Livingston Hahn

2004-01-01

311

Science Teaching/Science Learning: Constructivist Learning in Urban Classrooms. Ways of Knowing in Science and Mathematics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the professional development program Model Science Lab Project which provides a new perspective of science teaching and learning to both teachers and students. During the project, participants benefited from additional time during the study year, science content training, pedagogy training, curriculum resources, reduced…

Harcombe, Elnora S.

312

A Comparison of Behavioral and Constructivist Interventions for Increasing Math-Fact Fluency in a Second-Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although basic math skill deficits are commonly encountered across elementary and secondary school students, few empirically validated, group-administered interventions are available for educators attempting to prevent or remedy such problems. This study compared the effectiveness of two theoretically distinct interventions for improving the…

Poncy, Brian C.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Schmitt, Ara J.

2010-01-01

313

Managing Spatial Selections With Contextual Snapshots  

PubMed Central

Spatial selections are a ubiquitous concept in visualization. By localizing particular features, they can be analysed and compared in different views. However, the semantics of such selections often depend on specific parameter settings and it can be difficult to reconstruct them without additional information. In this paper, we present the concept of contextual snapshots as an effective means for managing spatial selections in visualized data. The selections are automatically associated with the context in which they have been created. Contextual snapshots can also be used as the basis for interactive integrated and linked views, which enable in-place investigation and comparison of multiple visual representations of data. Our approach is implemented as a flexible toolkit with well-defined interfaces for integration into existing systems. We demonstrate the power and generality of our techniques by applying them to several distinct scenarios such as the visualization of simulation data, the analysis of historical documents and the display of anatomical data.

Mindek, P; Gröller, M E; Bruckner, S

2014-01-01

314

Contextual Pavlovian conditioning in the crab Chasmagnathus.  

PubMed

In contextual conditioning, a complex pattern of information is processed to associate the characteristics of a particular place with incentive or aversive reinforcements. This type of learning has been widely studied in mammals, but studies of other taxa are scarce. The context-signal memory (CSM) paradigm of the crab Chasmagnathus has been extensively used as a model of learning and memory. Although initially interpreted as habituation, some characteristics of contextual conditioning have been described. However, no anticipatory response has been detected for animals exposed to the training context. Thus, CSM could be interpreted either as an associative habituation or as contextual conditioning that occurs without a context-evoked anticipatory response. Here, we describe a training protocol developed for contextual Pavlovian conditioning (CPC). For each training trial, the context (conditioned stimulus, CS) was discretely presented and finished together with the unconditioned stimulus (US). In agreement with the CSM paradigm, a robust freezing response was acquired during the 15 training trials, and clear retention was found when tested with the US presentation after short (2 and 4 h) and long (1-4 days) delays. This CPC memory showed forward but not simultaneous presentation conditioning and was context specific and protein synthesis dependent. Additionally, a weak CPC memory was enhanced during consolidation. One day after training, CPC was extinguished by repeated CS presentation, while one presentation induced a memory labilisation-reconsolidation process. Finally, we found an anticipatory conditioned response (CR) during the CS presentation for both short-term (4 h) and long-term memory (24 h). These findings support the conditioning nature of the new paradigm. PMID:23114692

Fustiñana, María Sol; Carbó Tano, Martín; Romano, Arturo; Pedreira, María Eugenia

2013-03-01

315

A contextual algorithm for AVHRR fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contextual algorithm for fire detection with NOAA-AVHRR-LAC data was developed. Unlike ‘traditional’ fire detection algorithms (e.g., multichannel thresholds), the decision to record a fire is made by comparing a fire pixel with the pixels in its immediate neighbourhood. The algorithm is self-adaptive and therefore very consistent over large areas as well as through seasons. The algorithm appears to operate

S. P. Flasse; P. Ceccato

1996-01-01

316

Proposed test of macroscopic quantum contextuality  

SciTech Connect

We show that, for any system with a number of levels which can be identified with n qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with n, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with n, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

2010-09-15

317

Combining Contextual Features for Word Sense Disambiguation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a maximum en- tropy Word Sense Disambiguation system we developed which performs competi- tively on SENSEVAL-2 test data for En- glish verbs. We demonstrate that using richer linguistic contextual features sig- nificantly improves tagging accuracy, and compare the system's performance with human annotator performance in light of both fine-grained and coarse-grained sense distinctions made by

Hoa Trang Dang; Martha Palmer

2002-01-01

318

Contextuality supplies the magic for quantum computation  

E-print Network

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the answer to the most basic question "What is the source of the power in quantum computing?" has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via magic state distillation. This is a conceptually satisfying link because contextuality provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena and, moreover, magic state distillation is the leading model for experimentally realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the nonlocality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality and nonlocality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation and bounding the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Mark Howard; Joel J. Wallman; Victor Veitch; Joseph Emerson

2014-10-15

319

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

320

Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.  

PubMed

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-19

321

Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

Klopfenstein, Marie

2005-09-01

322

Contextuality is about identity of random variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-12-01

323

Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning  

PubMed Central

The “flipped classroom” is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process. PMID:25699543

Jensen, Jamie L.; Kummer, Tyler A.; Godoy, Patricia D. d. M.

2015-01-01

324

Classroom Vocabulary Classroom Vocabulary [msamiati wa darasani  

E-print Network

/ chaki [chalk / chalks] zulia / mazulia [carpet / carpets] swichi [switch] swichi ya feni [fan switch, ubao... [This classroom has a table, backpack, chalk, board...] 2. Hii ni nini? [What is this?] Hii ni

325

A Constructivist Approach to the Design and Delivery of an Online Professional Development Course: A Case of the iEARN Online Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the International Education and Resource Network Science Technology and Math (iEARN-STM) online professional development course. The study used the constructivist framework as the conceptual model to examine the way in which the constructivist theory has shaped the design and implementation of the course, as reflected by the…

Chitanana, Lockias

2012-01-01

326

Research and Teaching: Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Techniques--Comparing Two Groups of Undergraduate Nonscience Majors in a Biology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Constructivist teaching techniques work well in various instructional settings, but many teachers remain skeptical because there is a lack of quantitative data supporting this model. This study compared an undergraduate nonmajors biology lab section taught in a traditional teacher-centered style to a similar section taught as a constructivist class. Weekly lab quiz scores, attendance, a science attitude inventory, and an analysis of videotapes were used to determine whether student interest and performance were affected by the teaching style used. Evaluative tests showed many significant differences between the groups and demonstrated that the constructivist class had higher quiz scores, more appreciation of science, better attendance, and increased participation in the lab activities than the traditional group.

Holly Travis

2004-11-01

327

Effects of global and contextualized personality on relationship satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have made great strides in conceptualizing and assessing contextualized personality—how people’s personalities vary across different contexts (e.g., among friends, co-workers, and relationship partners). We investigated how global and contextualized personality traits are linked to relationship satisfaction. In Study 1, longitudinal associations between global and contextualized personality and relationship satisfaction were examined in a sample of adults in committed dating

Richard B. Slatcher; Simine Vazire

2009-01-01

328

African-American alcoholics: an interpretive/constructivist model of affiliation with alcoholics anonymous (AA).  

PubMed

It is estimated that two million African-Americans suffer directly and indirectly from alcoholism and its related problems. Yet, because of their cultural background, African-American alcoholics do not readily accept that alcoholism is a disease. This study explores how African-American alcoholics modify the steps and traditions of AA to affiliate with the organization. Data was collected from intensive and semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Procedures and analysis generic to grounded theory were used in the context of an interpretive/ constructivist paradigm. PMID:16870569

Durant, Arthur

2005-01-01

329

Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

330

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words which varied in word frequency and contextual diversity. All first-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

331

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

332

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

333

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

334

Contextual Values of Observables in Quantum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce contextual values as a generalization of the eigenvalues of an observable that takes into account both the system observable and a general measurement procedure. This technique leads to a natural definition of a general conditioned average that converges uniquely to the quantum weak value in the minimal disturbance limit. As such, we address the controversy in the literature regarding the theoretical consistency of the quantum weak value by providing a more general theoretical framework and giving several examples of how that framework relates to existing experimental and theoretical results.

Dressel, J.; Agarwal, S.; Jordan, A. N.

2010-06-01

335

Contextual connections to puns in Tom Swifties.  

PubMed

Previous research conducted with short fables was replicated in this study with Swifties in which sentence length and presence of a pun were controlled. Of the 24 one-sentence word plays shown to each participant, half had an enhanced contextual connection that was predicted to increase appropriateness and detection of the incongruity, resulting in heightened perceived cleverness and humor. Results supported predictions, showing especially strong enhancement of perceived cleverness. The authors suggest that this outcome could be generalized to other forms of word play. PMID:12153136

Lippman, Louis G; Bennington, Kristine; Sucharski, Ivan Laars

2002-04-01

336

Examining contextual control in roulette gambling.  

PubMed

We examined the influence of derived rules on roulette betting. Twelve college students selected between red and black bets on a roulette wheel in a pretest, then participated in a relational training procedure that established functions of more than for the color bet least often and less than for the color bet more frequently. When playing roulette again, 11 of the 12 participants increased betting on the color with the same formal properties of the contextual cue for more than in relational training. PMID:25477290

Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

2015-03-01

337

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

338

A constructivist connectionist model of transitions on false-belief tasks.  

PubMed

How do children come to understand that others have mental representations, e.g., of an object's location? Preschoolers go through two transitions on verbal false-belief tasks, in which they have to predict where an agent will search for an object that was moved in her absence. First, while three-and-a-half-year-olds usually fail at approach tasks, in which the agent wants to find the object, children just under four succeed. Second, only after four do children succeed at tasks in which the agent wants to avoid the object. We present a constructivist connectionist model that autonomously reproduces the two transitions and suggests that the transitions are due to increases in general processing abilities enabling children to (1) overcome a default true-belief attribution by distinguishing false- from true-belief situations, and to (2) predict search in avoidance situations, where there is often more than one correct, empty search location. Constructivist connectionist models are rigorous, flexible and powerful tools that can be analyzed before and after transitions to uncover novel and emergent mechanisms of cognitive development. PMID:23298467

Berthiaume, Vincent G; Shultz, Thomas R; Onishi, Kristine H

2013-03-01

339

Contextualizing Community in Teacher Bible Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interactions surrounding Bible teaching as a means of understanding how Jewish youth are discursively implicated within ideologies of community. Drawing on theoretical frameworks from linguistic anthropology and interactional sociolinguistics, I present a micro-analysis of a classroom lesson on the book of Leviticus to…

Avni, Sharon

2013-01-01

340

Neural Correlates of Contextual Cueing Are Modulated by Explicit Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be…

Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J.; Cohen, Neal J.; Paller, Ken A.

2011-01-01

341

Very ample line bundles, contextuality and quantum computation  

E-print Network

I relate contextuality to line bundles. Line bundles are important in algebraic geometry, they determine, through their global sections, rational maps to projective spaces. I explain how such maps, if they exist, relate linearly the input and output of measurement based computation (MBQC) and show geometrically that, indeed, contextuality is a necessary resource for the computational advantage in MBQC.

Raouf Dridi

2014-12-09

342

Contextual Information Portals Jay Chen, Trishank Karthik, Lakshminaryanan Subramanian  

E-print Network

Contextual Information Portals Jay Chen, Trishank Karthik, Lakshminaryanan Subramanian jchen to their curriculum. This paper presents the design of Contextual Information Portals, searchable in- formation portals that contain a vertical slice of the Web about arbitrary topics tailored to a specific context

Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan

343

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

344

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

345

Implicit, Long-Term Spatial Contextual Memory Marvin M. Chun  

E-print Network

Implicit, Long-Term Spatial Contextual Memory Marvin M. Chun Vanderbilt University Yuhong Jiang such as visual search through an implicit process called contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998 lobe system that includes the hippocampus (M. M. Chun & E. A. Phelps, 1999). Memory research rests

Jiang, Yuhong

346

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism  

E-print Network

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Two of the main forms of anti-scepticism in the contemporary literature--namely, neo beliefs. Whilst it is ar- gued that neo-Mooreanism has a slight edge over attributer contextualism when

Edinburgh, University of

347

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME OF CONTEXTUAL AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE FROM THE VERBAL RESPONSES OF READERS THE TYPES OF CONTEXTUAL AIDS THAT SERVE AS CLUES TO THE MEANINGS THAT MIGHT BE ATTACHED TO SIMULATED WORDS AND TO CLASSIFY THESE CONTEXTUAL AIDS ON THE BASIS OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE VERBAL CONTEXT THAT WAS UTILIZED BY THE READER. AN INTROSPECTIVE TECHNIQUE WAS USED IN…

AMES, WILBUR S.

348

Retrieval of contextual information on Korean road sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic extraction of contextual information on road sign can be used in various applications such as scene interpretation and autonomous navigation. This paper proposes a method for the automatic detection of contextual information on Korean road sign. It usually consists of various information such as directional symbol, the name of place according to direction, and corresponding route number. All this

Jong-Eun Ha; Jin-Bum Shim; Keun-Ho Choi

2008-01-01

349

On Holism and The Contextual Character of Natural Qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a discourse on the contextual nature of physical qualities. The realistic and observational contexts in which a system exists are demonstrated as equally involved in defining its qualities. Each quality could be consequently considered as natural and experiential at the same time. The subsequently proposed thesis of the contextual co-definition of natural\\/experiential qualities in the relationship between the

Vuk Uskokovi?

2012-01-01

350

Hippocampus and contextual fear conditioning: Recent controversies and advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions produce a severe deficit in recently, but not remotely, acquired contextual fear without impairing memory of discrete training stimuli, i.e., DH lesions produce an antero- grade and time-limited retrograde amnesia specific to contextual mem- ory. These data are consistent with the standard model which posits temporary involvement of the hippocampus in recent memory mainte- nance. However,

Stephan G. Anagnostaras; Greg D. Gale; Michael S. Fanselow

2001-01-01

351

Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

2006-01-01

352

Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

Gutiérrez, Orlando M

2015-01-01

353

Intrinsic and contextual features in object recognition.  

PubMed

The context in which an object is found can facilitate its recognition. Yet, it is not known how effective this contextual information is relative to the object's intrinsic visual features, such as color and shape. To address this, we performed four experiments using rendered scenes with novel objects. In each experiment, participants first performed a visual search task, searching for a uniquely shaped target object whose color and location within the scene was experimentally manipulated. We then tested participants' tendency to use their knowledge of the location and color information in an identification task when the objects' images were degraded due to blurring, thus eliminating the shape information. In Experiment 1, we found that, in the absence of any diagnostic intrinsic features, participants identified objects based purely on their locations within the scene. In Experiment 2, we found that participants combined an intrinsic feature, color, with contextual location in order to uniquely specify an object. In Experiment 3, we found that when an object's color and location information were in conflict, participants identified the object using both sources of information equally. Finally, in Experiment 4, we found that participants used whichever source of information-either color or location-was more statistically reliable in order to identify the target object. Overall, these experiments show that the context in which objects are found can play as important a role as intrinsic features in identifying the objects. PMID:25630379

Schlangen, Derrick; Barenholtz, Elan

2015-01-01

354

Ontological models and the interpretation of contextuality  

E-print Network

Studying the extent to which realism is compatible with quantum mechanics teaches us something about the quantum mechanical universe, regardless of the validity of such realistic assumptions. It has also recently been appreciated that these kinds of studies are fruitful for questions relating to quantum information and computation. Motivated by this, we extend the ontological model formalism for realistic theories to describe a set of theories emphasizing the role of measurement and preparation devices by introducing `hidden variables' to describe them. We illustrate both the ontological model formalism and our generalization of it through a series of example models taken from the literature. Our extension of the formalism allows us to quantitatively analyze the meaning contextuality (a constraint on successful realistic theories), finding that - taken at face-value - it can be realized as a natural interaction between the configurations of a system and measurement device. However, we also describe a property that we call deficiency, which follows from contextuality, but does not admit such a natural interpretation. Loosely speaking, deficiency breaks a symmetry between preparations and measurements in quantum mechanics. It is the property that the set of ontic states which a system prepared in quantum state psi may actually be in, is strictly smaller than the set of ontic states which would reveal the measurement outcome psi with certainty.

Nicholas Harrigan; Terry Rudolph

2007-09-26

355

Ideas for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares some of the activities for the classroom invented by Gill Hatch. One of those activities is the activity for older students, which is for the five-year-olds through to post-graduates. Card-sorting game, geometry games, algebra games, and loop games are also some of those activities for the classroom invented by…

Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2006

2006-01-01

356

For the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

Hartig, Gordon; And Others

1978-01-01

357

Technology in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue contains 20 articles dealing with technology in the classroom. The articles are: (1) "Distance Learning and the Future of Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate" (Henry E. Meyer); (2) "Technology and Multiple Intelligences" (Bette Savini); (3) "Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms" (Kristina Inn and others); (4) "Technologies Old…

Speidel, Gisela E., Ed.

1995-01-01

358

Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

359

The Homeliving Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system of point cards, which may be redeemed in tokens, money, or privileges, motivates mentally retarded teenagers to succeed in a "homeliving" classroom employing individualized work stations to prepare functioning students to leave the institution and live in the community. The classroom procedures are outlined. (AJ)

Langdon, Katie

1975-01-01

360

Artifacts, Tools, and Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although schools contain many material artifacts, studies in classrooms have tended to focus on discourse and quality of social interaction even when artifacts are being used. Responding to Engstrom's (1999) invitation to take artifacts seriously, three studies are described in which a material object was essential to a classroom activity. The…

McDonald, Geraldine; Le, Huong; Higgins, Joanna; Podmore, Valerie

2005-01-01

361

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

362

Is Your Classroom Exciting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways for making classrooms fun, including giving children opportunities to work together, moving things around, letting children learn to set their own controls, setting up the classroom so students can experiment and discover together, and providing bonuses or incentives for the child who is falling behind. (CR)

Grambo, Gregory

1997-01-01

363

Evaluation in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

Becnel, Shirley

364

Classroom versus Online Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined students' effort and performance using online versus traditional classroom testing procedures. The instructor and instructional methodology were the same in different sections of an introductory finance class. Only the procedure in which students were tested--online versus in the classroom--differed. The authors measured…

Spivey, Michael F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

365

Classroom Management and Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to the challenge of making good science come to life in your classroom. In this chapter, we look at how to get the science classroom ready for inquiry-based lessons and how to prepare students for engaging, productive, and safe activities. In addition, suggestions are provided to foster an emotionally safe environment for your middle level students.

Jackie Cleveland

2004-01-01

366

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

367

Examining Secondary School Physics Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching and Classroom Practices in Lesotho as a Foundation for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom practices of science teachers are indicative of their beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). PCK is an amalgam of knowledge about subject matter, pedagogy, and contextual issues. This article identifies areas where physics teachers in Lesotho may need professional development support by addressing the research question: How…

Qhobela, Makomosela; Kolitsoe Moru, Eunice

2014-01-01

368

The Effects on Students' Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Teacher-Student Interactions, Students' Social Skills and Classroom Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in classrooms, by taking into consideration teacher-student interactions,…

Poulou, Maria

2014-01-01

369

Are Web-based Adaptive Educational Systems suitable for constructivist instruction in Ill-Structured Knowledge Domains?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Tutoring Systems and the evolution of Adaptive Hypermedia have opened the way for the emergence of Web-based Adaptive Educational Systems (AES). However, AES have not yet been sufficiently tested for ill-structured knowledge domains. In this paper we examine the question of applicability of AES for constructivist- oriented instruction for such domains. More specifically, we identify the basic problems related

C. M. Papaterpos; T. S. Papatheodorou

370

Teachers under Construction--Incorporating Principles of Engaged and Brain Based Learning into a Constructivist "Technology in Education" Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the findings of an action research project conducted during an undergraduate "Technology in Education" class for preservice teachers at Southern Utah University. The course was structured using a constructivist approach and designed to incorporate principles of brain-based and engaged learning. A five-step sequence of…

Montgomery, Lee; Whiting, David

371

What’s Under Construction Here? Social Action, Materiality, and Power in Constructivist Studies of Technology and Organizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, organizational scholars have increasingly argued that technology’s affects on organizations are socially constructed. Constructivists who study implementation generally hold that organizational change emerges from an ongoing stream of social action in which people respond to a technology’s constraints and affordances, as well as to each other. Although most students of technology and organizing generally agree

Paul M. Leonardi; Stephen R. Barley

2010-01-01

372

A Methodology for Measuring Usability Evaluation Skills Using the Constructivist Theory and the Second Life Virtual World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skills of usability analysts are crucial to software success, so mastery of these skills is essential. This study presents a methodology for teaching and measuring usability evaluation skills of graduate students using the constructivist theory, diaries, checklists, and final reports. As part of the study, students spent 4 months as active participants in Second Life, an online virtual world.

Debra J. Slone

373

The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Predicting Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Behaviour towards a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-pronged purpose of this study is to examine factors determining the teaching behaviour of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers towards a constructivist approach, likewise referred to as teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was applied to guide the formulation of research purpose and design. Six…

Wang, Carrie Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2013-01-01

374

An Extension to the Constructivist Coding Hypothesis as a Learning Model for Selective Feedback when the Base Rate Is High  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elwin, Juslin, Olsson, and Enkvist (2007) and Henriksson, Elwin, and Juslin (2010) offered the constructivist coding hypothesis to describe how people code the outcomes of their decisions when availability of feedback is conditional on the decision. They provided empirical evidence only for the 0.5 base rate condition. This commentary argues that…

Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Stewart, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

375

Development of Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures and Information Processing Strategies under Long-Term Constructivist-Oriented Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

376

East Coast/West Coast Art Project: A Constructivist and Technological Approach to Middle Level and Higher Education Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors report on usage of 21st-century technology, and a collaborative project that allowed middle school art students and preservice teachers to share their artwork and receive feedback in a constructivist learning environment. Middle school students often deal with issues such as bullying, divorce, and depression; they can…

Johnson, Margaret H.; Kieling, Linda W.; Cooper, Susan L.

2014-01-01

377

The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

Willis, Jerry

2011-01-01

378

Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade…

Balim, Ali Günay

2013-01-01

379

Discovering Constructivism: How a Project-Oriented Activity-Based Media Production Course Effectively Employed Constructivist Teaching Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author uses his experience leading a project-oriented special-topics course as a case study in constructivist teaching methods. Citing relevant literature from the education field, this paper considers why students chosen to work for course credit on a promotional video for a university program considered the project their greatest academic…

Hubbard, Glenn T.

2012-01-01

380

When the Old Is Stronger than the New: Introduction of Constructivist Methodology in a Special Education School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we describe an action-research project that our research team proposed to a group of teachers working in a special education school. The main idea was to introduce new methods to teach reading and writing in their school, mainly constructivist-based ones on teaching the function of writing text. In this paper we focus on the process…

Martin-del-Campo, Beatriz; Garcia, Lidia Rodriguez; Lorca, Manuela Martinez; de las Heras Minguez, Gema; del Rosario Diaz-Perea, Maria

2010-01-01

381

A Constructivist Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning: A TUNEL Assay for the Detection of Apoptosis in Cheek Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory exercise is presented that incorporates constructivist principles into a learning experience designed for upper-level university biology courses. The specific objectives for this exercise are as follows: (1) To introduce students to cancer biology and to the regulation of programmed cell death as part of the cell cycle; (2) To engage…

Correiro, Elizabeth E.; Griffin, Leanne R.; Hart, Peter E.

2008-01-01

382

The Impact of Teachers Integrating Constructivist Strategies on Students' Mathematics Problem Solving Skills in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students at the elementary level grapple with problem solving in mathematics, and low success in mathematics is prevalent in elementary schools in The Bahamas. The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to determine the degree that 12 teachers, from 4 public elementary schools in 3 districts are currently using constructivist

Rolle, Joan D.

2012-01-01

383

Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

2012-01-01

384

On the Pregnance of Bodily Movement and Geometrical Objects: A Post-Constructivist Account of the Origin of Mathematical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional (e.g., constructivist) accounts of knowledge ground its origin in the "intentional construction" on the part of the learner. Such accounts are blind to the fact that learners, by the fact that they do not know the knowledge to be learned, cannot orient toward it as an object to be constructed. In this study, I provide a…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2014-01-01

385

Constructing Media Artifacts in a Social Constructivist Environment to Enhance Students' Environmental Awareness and Activism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current science education reforms and policy documents highlight the importance of environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. As "environmental problems are socially constructed in terms of their conceptualized effects on individuals, groups, other living things and systems research based on constructivist principles provides…

Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

2015-01-01

386

Effects of Instructional Support within Constructivist Learning Environments for Elementary School Students' Understanding of "Floating and Sinking"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a repeated measures design (pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up) with 161 3rd-grade students, the authors compared 2 curricula on floating and sinking within constructivist learning environments, varying in instructional support. The 2 curricula differed in the sequencing of content and the teacher's cognitively structuring statements. At the…

Hardy, Ilonca; Jonen, Angela; Moller, Komelia; Stern, Elsbeth

2006-01-01

387

Observed Classroom Quality Profiles of Kindergarten Classrooms in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to examine classroom quality profiles of kindergarten classrooms using a person-centered approach and to analyze these patterns in regard to teacher and classroom characteristics. Observations of the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support were conducted in…

Salminen, Jenni; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

2012-01-01

388

The effect of a laboratory-based, in-context, constructivist teaching approach on preservice teachers' science knowledge and teaching efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study began with a concern about elementary teachers, as a whole, avoiding the teaching of science in the elementary classroom. The three main factors noted as reasons for this avoidance were: (1) minimum science requirements to reach certification, leading to a lack of preparedness; (2) lack of exposure to science in elementary school; and (3) general dislike for and understanding of science leading to a low self-efficacy in science teaching. The goal of the Environmental Science Lab for Elementary Educators (ESLEE) was to conduct an intervention. The intervention was lab-based and utilized in-context, constructivist approaches to positively influence participants' abilities to retain science content knowledge and to affect their belief in themselves as teachers. This intervention was created to respond to all three of the main avoidance factors noted above. The research utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design. Two pretests and two posttests (science teaching efficacy and content knowledge) were given to all 1,100 environmental science lab students at the participating institution over two long semesters. Three experimental/control groups were formed from this population. The Experimental Group was comprised of 46 students who participated in the ESLEE Intervention. Control Group 1 was comprised of 232 self-described preservice educators (SDPEEs) in "regular" labs. Control Group 2 was comprised of 62 nonSDPEEs taught by ESLEE instructors in "regular" lab settings. A DM MANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated that the ESLEE Intervention was statistically significant at the p > .05 level for science teaching efficacy between the Experimental Group and Control Group 1, and was statistically significant for both content knowledge and efficacy between the Experimental Group and Control Group 2. More notably, the effect size (delta) results ranged from .19 to .71 and .06 to .55 (partial eta squared) and demonstrated the practical significance of implementing the ESLEE Intervention.

Thompson, Ruthanne

389

Classroom Management: Theory into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators cite classroom management as intrinsic to the learning process. This paper presents a broad picture of classroom management and offers some suggestions for actual classroom implementation. Major findings are highlighted, along with practical techniques for their instructional application. Classroom management is an organizational process…

Guernsey, Marsha A.; Peary, Marjorie

390

The Inclusion Classroom. Your Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education students struggle with labels. Other kids can be very cruel with names and attitudes toward anyone who is different. Teachers cannot solve this problem completely, but they can minimize its effects with careful manipulation. The author, a teacher in an inclusion classroom, suggests passing out modified assignments along with all…

Barnes, Peter

2006-01-01

391

Classroom Research by Classroom Teachers, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume celebrates teachers as life-long learners of the art of teaching, by presenting 21 action research studies designed and implemented by classroom teachers. A "How To Get Started" section outlines action research steps and offers worksheets. Descriptions of the research studies begin with ethnographic studies, which include "Adopt a…

Tanner, Michael, Ed.

1992-01-01

392

Contextual reasoning is NP-complete  

SciTech Connect

The logic of context with the ist (c, p) modality has been proposed by McCarthy as a foundation for contextual reasoning. This paper shows that propositional logic of context is NP-complete and therefore more tractable than multimodal logics or Multi Language hierarchical logics which are PSPACE-complete. This result is given in a proof-theoretical way by providing a tableau calculus, which can be used as a decision procedure for automated reasoning. The computational gap between logic of context and modal logics is analyzed and some indications for the use of either formalisms are drawn on the basis of the tradeoff between compactness of representation and tractability of reasoning.

Massacci, F. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza via Salaria, Roma (Italy)

1996-12-31

393

Real-life contextual manifestations of wisdom.  

PubMed

Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as its predominant philosophies. Analysis of these interview transcripts yielded 220 wisdom incidents that fall into five categories of wisdom. Results of the present study suggests that in real life, wisdom most likely is manifested through: 1) striving for common good by helping others and contributing to society; 2) achieving and maintaining a satisfactory state of life; 3) deciding and developing life paths; 4) resolving difficult problems at work; and 5) insisting on doing the right thing when facing adversity. PMID:19266867

Yang, Shih-Ying

2008-01-01

394

Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality  

E-print Network

The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

Marian Kupczynski

2014-12-12

395

Anomalous Weak Values Are Proofs of Contextuality  

E-print Network

The average result of a weak measurement of some observable $A$ can, under post-selection of the measured quantum system, exceed the largest eigenvalue of $A$. The nature of weak measurements, as well as the presence of post-selection and hence possible contribution of measurement-disturbance, has led to a long-running debate about whether or not this is surprising. Here, it is shown that such "anomalous weak values" are non-classical in a precise sense: a sufficiently weak measurement of one constitutes a proof of contextuality. This clarifies, for example, which features must be present (and in an experiment, verified) to demonstrate an effect with no satisfying classical explanation.

Matthew F. Pusey

2014-11-12

396

Learning to write in science in the primary grades: A contextual study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study described the way three children appropriated scientific discourse in their writing (and drawing) during second and third grades. Their scientific writing was situated within an "integrated" curriculum in which science instruction included hands-on activities as well as literacy events such as the reading of informational books and the writing of various scientific texts. The study included long-term participant observation of the children during their science lessons. Interviews of the teachers and children were also conducted. The findings indicate that, in this community, the process of learning how to express new scientific ideas in word and images is a complex one, in which children must simultaneously take up distinct theoretical ideas, scientific vocabulary, generic text structure, generic linguistic skills, methods of illustration to express empirical and theoretical ideas, and audience awareness. Writing in this science classroom was highly scaffolded by classroom discussion, teacher read-alouds, hands-on activities, and teacher modeling, as well as by the kinds of writing tasks (or genre set) that were made available to children. Three children, Hannah, Jason, and Rose, took up various aspects of this scaffolding in unique ways, producing unique forms of scientific writing and drawing as they constructed meanings in science. The study provides insights into the relationship between contextual influences and young children's appropriation of scientific discourse. The study has implications for elementary school science instruction, at a time when "scientific literacy" is highly contested.

Honig, Sheryl L.

397

Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation.  

PubMed

While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal adjectives. Experiment 1 focused on intersective adjectives. Experiment 1A provided further evidence that intersective adjectives are processed incrementally. Experiment 1B compared response times to follow instructions such as 'Pick up the blue comb' under conditions where there were two blue objects (e.g. a blue pen and a blue comb), but only one of these objects had a contrasting member in the display. Responses were faster to objects with a contrasting member, establishing that the listeners initially assume a contrastive interpretation for intersective adjectives. Experiments 2 and 3 focused on vague scalar adjectives examining the time course with which listeners establish contrast for scalar adjectives such as tall using information provided by the head noun (e.g. glass) and information provided by the visual context. Use of head-based information was examined by manipulating the typicality of the target object (e.g. whether it was a good or poor example of a tall glass. Use of context-dependent contrast was examined by either having only a single glass in the display (the no contrast condition) or a contrasting object (e.g. a smaller glass). The pattern of results indicated that listeners interpreted the scalar adjective incrementally taking into account context-specific contrast prior to encountering the head. Moreover, the presence of a contrasting object, sharply reduced, and in some conditions completely eliminated, typicality effects. The results suggest a language processing system in which semantic interpretation, as well as syntactic processing, is conducted incrementally, with early integration of contextual information. PMID:10444906

Sedivy, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Chambers, C G; Carlson, G N

1999-06-22

398

Implications of quantum automata for contextuality  

E-print Network

We construct zero-error quantum finite automata (QFAs) for promise problems which cannot be solved by bounded-error probabilistic finite automata (PFAs). Here is a summary of our results: - There is a promise problem solvable by an exact two-way QFA in exponential expected time, but not by any bounded-error sublogarithmic space probabilistic Turing machine (PTM). - There is a promise problem solvable by an exact two-way QFA in quadratic expected time, but not by any bounded-error $ o(\\log \\log n) $-space PTMs in polynomial expected time. The same problem can be solvable by a one-way Las Vegas (or exact two-way) QFA with quantum head in linear (expected) time. - There is a promise problem solvable by a Las Vegas realtime QFA, but not by any bounded-error realtime PFA. The same problem can be solvable by an exact two-way QFA in linear expected time but not by any exact two-way PFA. - There is a family of promise problems such that each promise problem can be solvable by a two-state exact realtime QFAs, but, there is no such bound on the number of states of realtime bounded-error PFAs solving the members this family. Our results imply that there exist zero-error quantum computational devices with a \\emph{single qubit} of memory that cannot be simulated by any finite memory classical computational model. This provides a computational perspective on results regarding ontological theories of quantum mechanics \\cite{Hardy04}, \\cite{Montina08}. As a consequence we find that classical automata based simulation models \\cite{Kleinmann11}, \\cite{Blasiak13} are not sufficiently powerful to simulate quantum contextuality. We conclude by highlighting the interplay between results from automata models and their application to developing a general framework for quantum contextuality.

Jibran Rashid; Abuzer Yakaryilmaz

2014-04-10

399

The myth of objectivity: is medicine moving towards a social constructivist medical paradigm?  

PubMed

Biomedicine is improperly imbued with a nomothetic methodology, which views 'disease' in a similar way to other 'natural' phenomena. This arises from a 300-year history of a positivist domination of science, meaning that objectivist research (e.g. randomized controlled trials or biochemical research) attracts more funding and is more readily published than 'softer' qualitative research. A brief review of objectivism and subjectivism is followed by a definition of an emerging medical paradigm. Current 'inappropriate' medical practices become understandable in this broader context, and examples are given. A constructivist paradigm can continue to incorporate 'objective' clinical findings and interventions, as well as the recent evidence for the doctor-patient relationship as a major contributor to patient outcomes. PMID:10758087

Wilson, H J

2000-04-01

400

Long term effectiveness of a team-taught, constructivist, experiential secondary science methods course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of a secondary science methods course that was moved to an on-site setting in a local high school. The methods course was team taught by the university science methods instructor and two teachers---one biology and one chemistry---from the school in which the class was located. During the sequence of the course, the instructors often traded classes based on topic expertise. As a result of the experiential situation, the preservice teachers were able to participate in constructivist-based lessons, observe the teacher---administered lessons and ultimately have day-to-day interactions with high school students while teaching their own lessons. The theoretical background of this research is based on a constructivist teaching and learning model. In order for the preservice science teachers to build knowledge of popular pedagogical practices, they had to be given the opportunity to experience the ideas and try them out for themselves. They had to experience and judge for themselves the methods for which current reform documents in science education propose. This study utilized an exploratory mixed-methods approach with observations, semi-structured interviews, surveys and Rasch analysis techniques to investigate the practices and beliefs of several former students---now practicing teachers---that participated in the teacher preparation program both before and after the major changes were made. Findings suggest that participants from the experiential methods course were more likely to both identify elaborate upon the methods course as being a major philosophical and pedagogical influence than those who had the university-based methods course. The findings did not, however, find a difference between the groups regarding pedagogical practices or teacher and student beliefs about the learning environment.

Townsend, Jeffery Scott

401

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

402

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

403

Cartoons in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches the topic of responsible pet care through the use of cartoon strips. Provides a two-page cartoon layout that can be duplicated for classroom use. Poses questions for possible discussions and investigations. (ML)

Children and Animals, 1985

1985-01-01

404

Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

1980-01-01

405

Polymer Literature for Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists eight sources of technical information suitable for classroom use which deal with polymer materials. Provides the names and addresses of these societies and associations and describes the type of information each has available. (TW)

Kirshenbaum, Gerald S.

1987-01-01

406

Frontloading Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new

Keith Roscoe

2010-07-01

407

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

408

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

409

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the behavior, housing, care, diet, and feeding of painted turtles. Also suggests several classroom activities and provides guidelines related to long-term captivity and human disease prevention. (DH)

Kramer, David C., Ed.

1985-01-01

410

The Classroom Space Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

Verbickas, Sarah

2002-01-01

411

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

412

In the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cartoons and comic strips to teach the concept of social class and newspapers to teach economic principles are suggested classroom activities for elementary and secondary courses. A lesson plan for teaching democratic values is also included. (JR)

History and Social Science Teacher, 1975

1975-01-01

413

Stargazing in Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When taking students outside to see the stars is not an option, teachers can bring the stars inside the classroom. These instructions for building a portable planetarium also include suggestions for cross-cultural and social studies connections.

Jos? Rios

2003-05-01

414

Natural Resources: Outdoor Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community

Valynda Mayes

2010-02-01

415

Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

416

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

417

Floor Plan Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guides the learner, step-by-step, in creating a scale floor plan of a classroom. The instructions include sample drawings of student work. The activity includes: sketching a map of the classroom; measuring the room and calculating the area and perimeter; creating a scale drawing; and drafting a CAD (computer-aided design) floor plan. The lesson provides students with hands-on, real world practice solving problems of measurement, ratio, and scale.

2010-07-19

418

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

419

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

420

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13

421

Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman 2 during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic selfefficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Results of the PCA/EFA revealed three dimensions of perceived classroom assessment environment: learning-, harsh-, and public-oriented assessment environments; and three dimensions of achievement goal orientations: mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Results of the HLM showed that class contextual features and teacher's teaching experience and assessment practices interacted significantly with student characteristics in influencing students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The findings were compared with findings from previous studies related to classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Recommendations, implications, and suggestions for future research were discussed.

Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

2007-12-01

422

Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Results of the PCA/EFA revealed three dimensions of perceived classroom assessment environment: learning-, harsh-, and public-oriented assessment environments; and three dimensions of achievement goal orientations: mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Results of the HLM showed that class contextual features and teacher's teaching experience and assessment practices interacted significantly with student characteristics in influencing students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The findings were compared with findings from previous studies related to classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Recommendations, implications, and suggestions for future research were discussed.

Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

2007-12-01

423

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end of bridge, view to south-southeast with Rawson Road in foreground. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

424

Lexicographic Slips: Gathering and Organising Contextual Data for Dictionary Entries  

E-print Network

The paper discusses the process of incorporating contextual information in bilingual dictionaries, with especial focus on the task of organising the textual source-material for a Greek-English dictionary. A description is given of the two functions...

Fraser, Bruce L

425

Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 in view, as well as Whiting Way, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

426

Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 on right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

427

Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on left; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

428

Non-contextual chocolate ball versus value indefinite quantum cryptography  

E-print Network

Non-contextual chocolate ball versus value indefinite quantum cryptography Karl Svozil Institute chocolate balls representing local hidden variables, others protected by value indefiniteness cannot on chocolate ball configurations utilizable for cryptography which cannot be realized by quantum systems

Svozil, Karl

429

Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

430

Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine No. 2, Railroad Avenue, west side near intersection with Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

431

83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, NORTH SIDE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

432

89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

433

90. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

434

93. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF EAST BAY SPANS WITH SUBSTATION IN FOREGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

435

91. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING SHOWING THROUGH TRUSS SPANS, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

436

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

437

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

438

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

439

23. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF CABIN SITE NO. TWO WITH TERRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF CABIN SITE NO. TWO WITH TERRY BIRK, FOREST ARCHAEOLOGIST (RIGHT), AND JOHN ELLIOTT, HISTORIAN (LEFT), FACING SOUTHWEST. - Genoa Peak Road, James Canyon Road, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

440

Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

441

Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

442

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

443

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

444

Contextual view of building UD, showing quarters U in foreground; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building U-D, showing quarters U in foreground; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters U Servants Quarters, Cedar Avenue, behind Quarters U, west side between Tenth Street & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

445

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end of bridge, view to north along Dillon Road. Former Valley Flower Creamery at right center. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

446

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

447

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

448

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, EAST SIDE, WITH BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

449

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING AND BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

450

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

451

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

452

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

453

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

454

1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

455

Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly from entrance road. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

456

Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

457

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port buildings visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

458

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing southsouthwest, with ocean bank ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing south-southwest, with ocean bank visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

459

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city of Port Hueneme visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

460

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELTDRIVEN BACKUP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELT-DRIVEN BACKUP SYSTEM ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

461

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

462

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH FEATURES 7, 6, 8, AND 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

463

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, 5, 4, AND 3 WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

464

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 (RIGHT) WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

465

11. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REHABILITATED BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM GRAVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REHABILITATED BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM GRAVEL BAR ON EAST BANK OF GRAYS RIVER, May 1991 - Grays River Covered Bridge, Worrel Road spanning Grays River, Grays River, Wahkiakum County, WA

466

12. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REHABILITATED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REHABILITATED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM EAST SIDE OF GRAYS RIVER, May 1991 - Grays River Covered Bridge, Worrel Road spanning Grays River, Grays River, Wahkiakum County, WA

467

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

468

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

469

Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

470

7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

471

Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

472

Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia  

PubMed Central

Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

Smolak, Alex

2010-01-01

473

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

474

Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

2014-08-01

475

Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization  

PubMed Central

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-01-01

476

Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.  

PubMed

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

2014-01-01

477

Teachers' Practical Knowledge about Classroom Management in Multicultural Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…

van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo

2009-01-01

478

Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

Sterling, Donna R.

2009-01-01

479

Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

Faia, Jean E.

1988-01-01

480

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

481

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. An

Christie Nicole Wolfgang

2009-07-01

482

Security for Classroom Learning Partner  

E-print Network

This MENG thesis implements a security system for a classroom presentation system called the Classroom Learning Partner (CLP). The goal of the security system is to prevent cheating on electronic quizzes. CLP is a system ...

Iancu, Karin

2006-01-01

483

The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance of early educative experiences and their reinforcement throughout formal education including the STEM pipeline. The findings suggest that how one understands and interprets STEM work, and the compatibility ones' own identity with this work are crucial, reinforcing the some of the diverse body of literature that seeks to understand women's underrepresentation in STEM. Although literature focused on STEM related education, including work examining gender, offers suggestions compatible with the findings of this study, experiences that are match the stories of the respondents appear to be outside of the norm.

Gamm, Ryan

484

Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

Talbert, Robert

2014-01-01

485

Flipping the classroom (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a flipped classroom, students watch or listen to the lecture at home and do homework in the classroom. The classroom becomes much more interactive and the educator has ample opportunity to provide individualized guidance when it's most needed. The watch-at-home content can include recorded lectures, demonstration videos, adaptive quizzes, or anything in between. Come share your experiences developing \\

Barry Brown

2012-01-01

486

MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM  

E-print Network

MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Mental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help

487

Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research was designed to investigate the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

2009-01-01

488

Sound Advice on Classroom Acoustics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of acoustic standards in classroom design, presenting an interview with the Acoustical Society of America's (ASA's) standards manager which focuses on reasons for the new ASA standards, the standards document (which was written for K-12 classroom but applies to college classrooms), the need to avoid echo and be able to…

Sturgeon, Julie

2003-01-01

489

GALAXY Classroom: Television for Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive learning service for elementary grades, "GALAXY Classroom," offers enrichment opportunities to classrooms. Students communicate via fax in response to questions posed in satellite transmitted segments. The primary market for "GALAXY Classroom" is the at-risk student. Sidebars describe costs and current offerings. (SLW)

Graumann, Peter

1994-01-01

490

Quantifying and transferring contextual information in object detection.  

PubMed

Context is critical for reducing the uncertainty in object detection. However, context modeling is challenging because there are often many different types of contextual information coexisting with different degrees of relevance to the detection of target object(s) in different images. It is therefore crucial to devise a context model to automatically quantify and select the most effective contextual information for assisting in detecting the target object. Nevertheless, the diversity of contextual information means that learning a robust context model requires a larger training set than learning the target object appearance model, which may not be available in practice. In this work, a novel context modeling framework is proposed without the need for any prior scene segmentation or context annotation. We formulate a polar geometric context descriptor for representing multiple types of contextual information. In order to quantify context, we propose a new maximum margin context (MMC) model to evaluate and measure the usefulness of contextual information directly and explicitly through a discriminant context inference method. Furthermore, to address the problem of context learning with limited data, we exploit the idea of transfer learning based on the observation that although two categories of objects can have very different visual appearance, there can be similarity in their context and/or the way contextual information helps to distinguish target objects from nontarget objects. To that end, two novel context transfer learning models are proposed which utilize training samples from source object classes to improve the learning of the context model for a target object class based on a joint maximum margin learning framework. Experiments are carried out on PASCAL VOC2005 and VOC2007 data sets, a luggage detection data set extracted from the i-LIDS data set, and a vehicle detection data set extracted from outdoor surveillance footage. Our results validate the effectiveness of the proposed models for quantifying and transferring contextual information, and demonstrate that they outperform related alternative context models. PMID:21844619

Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

2012-04-01

491

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agriculture in the Classroom Web site(last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently been updated. One of the current features, Listening to the Prairie - Farming in Nature's Image, is a useful resource which has many lesson plans and classroom activities for all grades and can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. These lesson plans explore subjects like how energy passes through food webs, where our food comes from, how agriculture affects our lives, and soil and erosion. This is a useful site that focuses on a subject that many urban students may not normally be exposed to.

492

Portraiture of constructivist parental involvement: A model to develop a community of practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.

Dignam, Christopher Anthony

493

Opening new institutional spaces for grappling with uncertainty: A constructivist perspective  

SciTech Connect

In the context of an increasing reliance on predictive computer simulation models to calculate potential project impacts, it has become common practice in impact assessment (IA) to call on proponents to disclose uncertainties in assumptions and conclusions assembled in support of a development project. Understandably, it is assumed that such disclosures lead to greater scrutiny and better policy decisions. This paper questions this assumption. Drawing on constructivist theories of knowledge and an analysis of the role of narratives in managing uncertainty, I argue that the disclosure of uncertainty can obscure as much as it reveals about the impacts of a development project. It is proposed that the opening up of institutional spaces that can facilitate the negotiation and deliberation of foundational assumptions and parameters that feed into predictive models could engender greater legitimacy and credibility for IA outcomes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reliance on supposedly objective disclosure is unreliable in the predictive model context in which IA is now embedded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reliance on disclosure runs the risk of reductionism and leaves unexamined the social-interactive aspects of uncertainty. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Opening new institutional spaces could facilitate deliberation on foundational predictive model assumptions.

Duncan, Ronlyn, E-mail: Ronlyn.Duncan@lincoln.ac.nz

2013-01-15

494

The Role of Metaphor in Scientific Epistemology: A Constructivist Perspective and Consequences for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the role played by metaphor, in supporting andconditioning our thinking about theoretical models of learning in science education.Some examples are given, of cases where the use of inappropriate metaphors can actually counteract a properunderstanding of the topic being learnt. With special reference to von Glasersfeld's theory of radicalconstructivism, it is argued that much of the controversy appearing in the academic discussion of this theorystems from the injudicious use of metaphors of ``truth'' and ``reality'', concepts that are in a sense inheritedfrom the domain of Law. These metaphors are often taken too literally, as representing ``obvious'' and henceindisputable constraints on scientific investigation; and they then strongly favour the adoption of an epistemologyof scientific realism, which is at variance with the theory of knowledge that is proposed by radical constructivism.However, it is argued that this realist epistemology is not compelling, since it rests on a somewhat contentiousmetaphoric base, and that a radical-constructivist epistemology offers a better strategy for the purposesof science education.

Quale, Andreas

495

Classroom Management: Beliefs of Preservice Teachers and Classroom Teachers Concerning Classroom Management Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that preservice teachers and experienced teachers share a concern for classroom management, this study compared the beliefs of classroom teachers, intern teachers, and senior level practicum students regarding classroom management styles. Participating in the study were 43 early childhood and 44 elementary education preservice teachers, and…

Laut, John

496

Fostering Second Language Oral Communication through Constructivist Interaction in Desktop Videoconferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a classroom project using one-to-one desktop videoconferencing to enhance the development of second language (1.2) oral skills. Eighteen university students worked collaboratively with expert speakers to complete task-based activities. The author gathered data from video-recording samples, reflections, and oral interviews to…

Lee, Lina

2007-01-01

497

Challenges Encountered in Implementing Constructivist Teaching in Physics: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of constructivism has resulted in teaching modifications in the science classroom. While the majority of the literature has focused on the promising outcomes of the teaching reform, the present study reports various minor but persistent criticisms. This paper qualitatively analyzes skeptical students' criticisms regarding the…

Chang, Wheijen

2008-01-01

498

BASES CONSTRUCTIVISTAS PARA LA INTEGRACIÓN DE TICS A CONSTRUCTIVIST FRAMEWORK TO INTEGRATE TECHNOLOGY INTO CURRICULUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being used for diverse educational purposes. We observe that increasingly the majority of the educational organizations provide teachers and learners with a variety of these tools. A key aspect of using technology in the classroom is the pedagogical model behind this implementation. A number of research studies mention categorically that a deeper and more

Jaime Sánchez Ilabaca

499

Contextuality in Three Types of Quantum-Mechanical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type, and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biases or signaling. Based on the same principles that underly these derivations we also propose a measure for the degree of contextuality and compute it for the three systems in question.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.; Larsson, Jan-Åke

2015-03-01

500

A role for anterior thalamic nuclei in contextual fear memory.  

PubMed

Understanding the neural processes that govern the attribution of a predictive value to environmental stimuli is a major issue in behavioural neuroscience. The main strategy to explore this question has been the use of Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms. While a majority of studies have focussed on the specific role of the hippocampus and amygdala in contextual versus cued fear, very few studies examined the potential role of subcortical limbic areas. Among those, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) connect to both the hippocampus and the amygdala and also to the cingulate region which is known to support fear-related activity. Here, we show that rats sustaining ATN lesions exhibit a specific impairment following context but not tone conditioning. ATN lesions slowed down acquisition without preventing normal freezing behaviour when rats were reexposed to the conditioning context 24 h later. However, ATN rats exhibited poor retrieval of contextual but not cued fear when assessed 3 weeks after conditioning. In addition, extinction was faster in ATN rats and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear was impaired by the lesions. These deficits indicate that contextual fear memories established in the absence of the ATN are not robust. Collectively, these findings support an involvement of the ATN in the circuits underlying contextual fear memory. PMID:23733176

Marchand, A; Faugère, A; Coutureau, E; Wolff, M

2014-09-01