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1

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

2011-01-01

2

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

2011-03-01

3

The effects of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a differential effect of two different learning environments determined by constructivist classroom contextual factors on elementary science students' motivation and learning strategies. Teaching and learning practices in the regular classroom vs. teaching and learning practices in a life [biodiversity] laboratory were investigated for this study. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory (modified) was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (modified) was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Also, some individual teachers had lower constructivist teaching practices in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom, indicating that classroom contextual factors can be teacher controlled and thus, not simply location dependent. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1, which, although the life laboratory score was higher, did not show a statistically significant difference. A 2 x 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of a teacher-selected convenience sample of students were conducted at the end of the semester and focused on patterns of instruction and student learning. Theme analysis revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study enabling advanced knowledge acquisition; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides; especially when it comes to learning new science concepts.

Milner, Andrea Rae

4

A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for…

Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

5

Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

2008-01-01

6

Constructivist learning perspectives in the online public relations classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers and educators use constructivist theory to analyse what works well in online classrooms. Past research suggests successful online teaching strategies involve community learning, shared interactions, and meaningful learning experiences. In this study, educators who taught public relations online, in either graduate or undergraduate settings, were interviewed using in-depth key informant surveys. Most interviewees reported successful integration of community

Ann Peru Knabe

7

Seven Posers in the Constructivist Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, "constructivism" constitutes the "grand unified theory" of the moment. In this article, I maintain that constructivism as a theory of knowledge and constructivism as pedagogy are distinct and that the question of what constructivism about knowledge implies for teaching is under-theorised. Seven classroom scenarios are sketched that…

Kotzee, Ben

2010-01-01

8

Learners' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in the process of a constructivist-learning environment in Classroom Management Course. Teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained before and after a social constructivist curriculum implementation. Prior to the…

Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

2006-01-01

9

Change in Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in a constructivist learning environment in a classroom management course. Within a qualitative case study design, teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained through document analysis before and after they were…

Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

2009-01-01

10

Classroom Contextual Effects on Children's Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the effects of age, sex, and context of preschool classrooms on children's play. In Study 1, observed 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds playing in art, blocks, and replica play areas in their age-graded classrooms. Results suggested that children's play was related to Age × Play Area interactions. These relations were not independent of children's sex-related self-selection into the play areas

A. D. Pellegrini; Jane C. Perlmutter

1989-01-01

11

Conflict Resolution in a Preschool Constructivist Classroom: A Case Study in Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document a child's development of conflict resolution skills when a peer problem-solving model was used in a constructivist-designed classroom. At a laboratory preschool in an upper middle-class community, a 4-year, 11-month-old male, Stephen, was observed through audio- and videotaping 3 times weekly for 9 months by his preschool teacher. Findings revealed that Stephen

Rena Arcaro-McPhee; Elizabeth E. Doppler; Debra A. Harkins

2002-01-01

12

Analyzing the Classroom Teachers' Levels of Creating a Constructivist Learning Environments in Terms of Various Variables: A Mersin Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, it was aimed to analyze the classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment in terms of various variables. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. Classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment was determined using the…

Üredi, Lütfi

2014-01-01

13

A study of secondary science teacher efficacy and level of constructivist instructional practice implementation in West Virginia science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of use of selected constructivist instructional practices and level of teacher efficacy in West Virginia secondary science classrooms. The study next sought to determine if a relationship existed between level of use of the constructivist practices and teacher efficacy. In addition the study sought to determine if differences existed in level of use of the selected constructivist practices and/or teacher efficacy based on selected demographic variables. The study was a mixed-methods design. First, a researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data regarding the level of use of constructivist instructional practices. Efficacy data were collected using an adapted (with permission) version of the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale ( TSES) by Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, and Hoy (1998). The study population consisted of secondary science teachers (middle, junior, and high school) in the state of West Virginia. The last survey question allowed educators to volunteer for a short follow-up interview to clarify the quantitative data. Overall, West Virginia science teachers reported frequent use of the selected constructivist instructional practices. Few significant differences were found based on the selected demographic variables. West Virginia science teachers reported moderately high efficacy levels. Few significant differences were found based on selected demographic variables. A moderate but significant correlation was found between teacher efficacy level and the level of use of the selected constructivist practices. The follow-up interviews clarified concepts and revealed barriers to implementation of new practices in the science classroom.

Knapp, Amanda Kristen

14

The effect of pedagogy informed by constructivism: A comparison of student achievement across constructivist and traditional classroom environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implicit in the call for educational reform in the teaching of science has been the suggestion that pursuing constructivist principles in science teaching will lead to improvement in student achievement. (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 1990; National Research Council, 1995; NSTA, 1992). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of pedagogy; didactic/traditional and constructivist-informed pedagogy on student achievement. Secondly, this study examined the relationship between students' and teachers' perception of constructivism in classroom environments. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest and delayed posttest quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Subjects involved in this study included two teachers and their respective students from a suburban public school district in the South. The sample consisted of two groups, one taught by traditional/didactic instruction (n = 25) and the other taught by constructivist informed pedagogy (n = 26). Data for this study was collected using the Constructivist Learning Environmental Survey, The Science Classroom Observation Rubric, the Teaching Practices Assessment, and a demographic survey. Ancillary data was collected with the Student Outcome Assessment and interpretive methodologies. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (p < .05; pretest as covariate) was used to measure the effects of constructivist informed and traditional pedagogy on student achievement. Student achievement was measured with a researcher-designed pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. A significance difference was found on the science achievement posttest where the students receiving the traditional pedagogy scored higher than the students taught by the constructivist pedagogy. However, the scores of students receiving constructivist-informed pedagogy showed a slight increase on the delayed posttest, while the traditionally taught students' scores decreased, thus the difference in the achievement of the two groups was diminished over time. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the ancillary data from the Student Outcome Assessment. (p < .05) Among 51 students tested, those who received the constructivist informed pedagogy had higher retention, approaching significance of the biology concepts tested over time. Ancillary data was used to assist the interpretation of the assessment measurements. Using ratios of students' and teachers' scores of perceived constructivist attributes in their classroom appeared to be an effective way for teachers to compare student perceptions with their own.

Gatlin, Linda Sue

15

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

16

Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict Observe Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.

Kearney, Matthew

2004-08-01

17

VULNERABILITIES OF CONSTRUCTIVIST PRACTICE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE CLASSROOM: PRECAUTIONS AND REMEDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the researches in constructivist context have focused upon the comparative advantages it 'offers over other contemporary approaches to teaching. But constructivist's increased reliance on the students taking charge of their learning and direct experiences as the prime source of learning has equally opened the chances for students acquiring logically consistent misconception supported by their direct experience for any

Nasir Mahmood

18

Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

2010-01-01

19

The Contextual Application of Observation Schedules Within Naturalistic Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen teachers from grades one through twelve and sixty pupils were sampled using a contextual approach to the investigation of teachers' verbal and nonverbal behavior. Pupils were categorized as accepting, concerned, indifferent, or rejecting by their respective teachers, and the student-initiated question frame was selected as a suitable and…

Brooks, Douglas M.

20

Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

2014-01-01

21

Tools of Contextualization: Extending the Classroom to the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project based education is becoming an increasingly impor- tant work form in elementary schools while still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to ac- tively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geo-spatial hypermedia system that supports project based

Niels Olof Bouvin; Christina Brodersen; Frank Allan Hansen

2004-01-01

22

Expanding the Disciplinary Expertise of a Middle School Mathematics Classroom: Re-Contextualizing Student Models in Conversations With Visiting Specialists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how conversations during design reviews in which 8th-grade mathematics students shared population models with visiting specialists expanded the disciplinary expertise of the classroom. Re-contextualizing is a conversational exchange that visiting specialists initiated to invite groups to consider their models in novel contexts. Analysis of 14 design reviews in 2 classrooms showed that re-contextualizing resulted in both the

A. Susan Jurow; Rogers Hall; Jasmine Y. Ma

2008-01-01

23

Galileo's 'Jumping-Hill' Experiment in the Classroom--A Constructivist's Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Galileo's 'jumping-hill' experiment as an historical element to improve science teaching in the classroom. Illustrates that the experiment can stimulate an animated discussion in the classroom, even if precise historic circumstances are not mentioned. The historical dimensions bring some color into the lesson, which increases attention. (SAH)

Kubli, Fritz

2001-01-01

24

A Qualitative Participant Observation Study Investigating the Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in One High School Visual Arts Classroom Using a Social Constructivist Lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative project studied the benefits of Web 2.0 technology in one high school visual arts classroom using a participant observation stance. I examined an advanced art class through a social constructivist lens, with student’s ages from 16-18 years. I implemented several lessons teaching the students how artists display ideas within their artwork, through having the students use the blogging

Nicholas R. Napierala

2011-01-01

25

The effect of pedagogy informed by constructivism: A comparison of student achievement across constructivist and traditional classroom environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit in the call for educational reform in the teaching of science has been the suggestion that pursuing constructivist principles in science teaching will lead to improvement in student achievement. (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 1990; National Research Council, 1995; NSTA, 1992). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of pedagogy; didactic\\/traditional and constructivist-informed pedagogy on

Linda Sue Gatlin

1998-01-01

26

A Comparison of Students' Achievement and Attitudes between Constructivist and Traditional Classroom Environments in Thailand Vocational Electronics Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was (a) to determine if there was a difference in knowledge achievement by Thailand's vocational students instructed using constructivist instruction (with open-end dialogue, problem-based learning, and cooperative learning) and using traditional instruction (with lectures, directed demonstrations, and scripted experiments); and (b) to identify whether Thai vocational students preferred instruction modeled upon constructivist philosophy rather

Kurt H. Becker

27

Constructivist-Based Experiential Learning in Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of constructivist settings for students' academic, affective and social growth have been widely documented, yet raditional teacher-centered classrooms that restrict students' active involvement in the learning process have been far more prevalent than constructivist classrooms. As teaching behavior is frequently shaped by prior educational experiences, it is unrealistic to expect teachers to initiate constructivist settings in schools if

Dorit Kaufman

1996-01-01

28

The effectiveness of using multimedia computer simulations coupled with social constructivist pedagogy in a college introductory physics classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity and Magnetism is legendarily considered a subject incomprehensible to the students in the college introductory level. From a social constructivist perspective, learners are encouraged to assess the quantity and the quality of prior knowledge in a subject domain and to co-construct shared knowledge and understanding by implementing and building on each other's ideas. They become challenged by new data and perspectives thus stimulate a reconceptualization of knowledge and to be actively engaged in discovering new meanings based on experiences grounded in the real-world phenomena they are expected to learn. This process is categorized as a conceptual change learning environment and can facilitate learning of E & M. Computer simulations are an excellent tool to assist the teacher and leaner in achieving these goals and were used in this study. This study examined the effectiveness of computer simulations within a conceptual change learning environment and compared it to more lecture-centered, traditional ways of teaching E & M. An experimental and control group were compared and the following differences were observed. Statistic analyses were done with ANOVA (F-test). The results indicated that the treatment group significantly outperformed the control group on the achievement test, F(1,54) = 12.34, p <.05 and the treatment group had a higher rate of improvement than the control group on two subscales: Isolation of Variables and Abstract Transformation. The results from the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) showed that the treatment students became more field independent and were aware of more fundamental role played by physics concepts in complex problem solving. The protocol analysis of structured interviews revealed that students in the treatment group tended to visualize the problem from different aspects and articulated what they thought in a more scientific approach. Responses to the instructional evaluation questionnaire indicated overwhelming positive ratings of appropriateness and instructional effectiveness of computer simulation instruction. In conclusion, the CSI developed and evaluated in this study provided opportunities for students to refine their preconceptions and practice using new understandings. It suggests substantial promise for the computer simulation in a classroom environment.

Chou, Chiu-Hsiang

29

The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

2014-01-01

30

The effectiveness of using multimedia computer simulations coupled with social constructivist pedagogy in a college introductory physics classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity and Magnetism is legendarily considered a subject incomprehensible to the students in the college introductory level. From a social constructivist perspective, learners are encouraged to assess the quantity and the quality of prior knowledge in a subject domain and to co-construct shared knowledge and understanding by implementing and building on each other's ideas. They become challenged by new data

Chiu-Hsiang Chou

1998-01-01

31

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

32

The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

2014-04-01

33

Engendering Constructivist Learning in Tertiary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In constructivist teaching, it is expected that students are able to apply skills and knowledge acquired from their course of study to the various situations that they encounter over the course of their professional lives. Constructivist classrooms engage learners actively in the learning process. Learners actively take knowledge, connect it to…

Giridharan, Beena

2012-01-01

34

How Constructivist-Based Teaching Influences Students Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide details about the beneficial processes the constructivist pedagogy has in the area of teaching science. No Child Left Behind could possibly cause detrimental effects to the science classroom and the constructivist teacher, so this essay tells how constructivist-based teaching influences students and their…

Seimears, C. Matt; Graves, Emily; Schroyer, M. Gail; Staver, John

2012-01-01

35

How Constructivist-Based Teaching Influences Students Learning Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide details about the beneficial processes the constructivist pedagogy has in the area of teaching science. No Child Left Behind could possibly cause detrimental effects to the science classroom and the constructivist teacher, so this essay tells how constructivist-based teaching influences students and their learning of science.

C. Matt Seimears; Emily Graves; M. Gail Schroyer; John Staver

2012-01-01

36

A Sense of Connection: Toward Social Constructivist Physical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social constructivist educational theory, the classroom is seen as a community of learners. According to social constructivists, learning occurs through peer interactions, student ownership of the curriculum and educational experiences that are authentic for students. The purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers used social constructivist strategies to encourage student construction of knowledge and meanings, and how

Laura Azzarito; Catherine D. Ennis

2003-01-01

37

Constructivist Pedagogy in Strategic Reading Instruction: Exploring Pathways to Learner Development in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored English as a Second Language (ESL) learner development. In particular, it focused on investigating learners' understanding of reading and their willingness to be engaged in strategic reading in participatory classroom activities. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on reading performance. The context was a…

Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2008-01-01

38

The Role of Classroom Norms in Contextualizing the Relations of Children's Social Behaviors to Peer Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study introduces a social context model within which peer acceptances of prosocial-leadership, aggression, and social withdrawal were examined as functions of the contextual norms of these behaviors. The major postulate of the model is that the extent to which a behavior permeates a social context facilitates peer acceptance of the behavior.…

Chang, Lei

2004-01-01

39

Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs.…

Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina

2013-01-01

40

A Constructivist View of Music Education: Perspectives for Deep Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article analyzes a constructivist view of music education. A constructivist music classroom exemplifies deep learning when students formulate questions, acquire new knowledge by developing and implementing plans for investigating these questions, and reflect on the results. A context for deep learning requires that teachers and students work…

Scott, Sheila

2006-01-01

41

A Constructivist Approach for Digital Learning: Malaysian Schools Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs) through the use of laptops supported within 1:1 e-learning education in Malaysian schools. The main objectives of this study were to investigate (a) different possible gaps between constructivist theory and classroom practices in Malaysian…

Sultan, Waleed H.; Woods, Peter Charles; Koo, Ah-Choo

2011-01-01

42

Teaching Mathematical Problem-Solving from an Emergent Constructivist Perspective: The Experiences of Irish Primary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary school mathematics curriculum in Ireland is based upon a constructivist philosophy of learning. As constructivism is a theory of learning and not teaching, implementing a constructivist approach in the classroom requires teachers to identify the implications and applications of constructivist philosophy for teaching. In this research,…

O'Shea, John; Leavy, Aisling M.

2013-01-01

43

CMC as Written Conversation: A Critical Social-Constructivist View of Multiple Identities and Cultural Positioning in the L2/C2 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model for a critical social-constructivist (CS-C) approach to the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language/culture education. CS-C theories emphasize a critical approach to social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication, and the influence that these activities have on learning. I will use the…

Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.

2005-01-01

44

Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

Martell, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

45

Lasting Impact of a Professional Development Program on Constructivist Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the GK-12: Lowcountry Partners for Inquiry program that included an emphasis on constructivist teaching methods for science teachers and science graduate students. The goal was to monitor middle school teachers' use of constructivist practices in their classrooms two years after their last…

Beamer, Tyler; Van Sickle, Meta; Harrison, Gary; Temple, George

2008-01-01

46

Emotional Regulation and Display in Classroom Victims of Bullying: Characteristic Expressions of Affect, Coping Styles and Relevant Contextual Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that victims of bullying may lack skills in emotional regulation, a process which facilitates coping with provocative situations to lessen the stress of negative emotions (Cicchetti, Ackerman, & Izard, 1995). The present study ex- amined the emotional regulation and display patterns of victims during classroom bul- lying episodes. Children in grades one through six were observed during free

Melissa M. Mahady Wilton; Wendy M. Craig; Debra J. Pepler

2000-01-01

47

REALIZING CONSTRUCTIVIST OBJECTIVES THROUGH COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGIES: THREADED DISCUSSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two crucial aspects of implementing instructional technologies effectively in language classrooms are having an understanding of the capabilities of various technologies and evaluating the usefulness of the technologies in realizing curricular goals. This paper presents a situated study -- based on a prominent pedagogical framework -- of the implementation of threaded discussions, a widely used instructional technology, to meet constructivist

Donald Weasenforth

2002-01-01

48

Constructivist strategies in online distance education in nursing.  

PubMed

This article reviews the use of constructivism in traditional brick-and-mortar classrooms, as opposed to the online learning environment. The applicability of constructivism to nursing education is discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for online nursing education programs, offering ways that constructivist methodologies can be applied to online distance education. PMID:19260397

Legg, Timothy J; Adelman, Deborah; Mueller, Dale; Levitt, Cheryle

2009-02-01

49

Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine how these participants were using ICT and if they had any internal and external impediments in the way of the effective integration of ICT in the teaching of science. Results showed that some participants were using ICT creatively in their science teaching. However, despite considerable political pressure to increase ICT use in the classroom, most expressed frustration at the lack of ICT tools, support from the school, from the Ministry of Education, and from the surrounding community. The article proposes possible resolutions to help these participants overcome their impediments. Some of the suggested resolutions for the internal impediments include involving teachers in preparing the school's time-table, equipping the school with more ICT tools and offering more training courses for teachers. However, the suggested resolutions for the external impediments involve (1) The Ministry of Education to rethink the administration of board examinations, (2) The school to sacrifice scoring higher in board examinations for preparing more creative and more versatile students' perspectives.

Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

2009-06-01

50

Interests Contextualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I develop a version of contextualism that I call interests contextualism. Interests contextualism is the view\\u000a that the truth-conditions of knowledge ascribing and denying sentences are partly determined by the ascriber’s interests and\\u000a purposes. It therefore stands in opposition to the usual view on which the truth-conditions are partly determined by the ascriber’s\\u000a conversational context. I give

Robin McKenna

51

Constructivist and Neuroconstructivist Transactional Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of postmodern- ism, constructionism, and constructivism, the author describes constructivist therapies in general and then distinguishes one variety of a transactional analysis societal construc- tionist approach and three varieties of indi- vidual constructivist appr oaches. Neuro- physiological processes, however, subserve ego states, transactions, and scripts. Those transactional analytic theories and practices that include consideration of changes

James R. Allen

2009-01-01

52

ON RELATIVISM IN CONSTRUCTIVIST PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars criticize constructivist approaches to psychology for culminating in a nihilistic relativism. This article reviews the problem of relativism within per- sonal construct psychology and social constructionism. It argues that labeling constructivist approaches to psychology as essentially relativist or nonrelativist simplifies the debate by assigning indisputable characteristics to a family of theories. Both relativ- ist and nonrelativist interpretations of

Jonathan D. Raskin

2001-01-01

53

Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

2010-01-01

54

Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

Mathews, Minu

2007-01-01

55

Using Constructivist Ideas to Teach Science Teachers about Constructivist Ideas, or Teachers are Students Too!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes problems with traditional teacher education, reviews the basic elements of the constructivist learning views, and discusses the advantages of a constructivist approach to science teacher education. (PR)

Shymansky, James A.

1992-01-01

56

Robotic Jewelry: Inventing Locally Contextualized Mathematics  

E-print Network

Robotic Jewelry: Inventing Locally Contextualized Mathematics in a Fourth Grade Classroom Fred of 18 fourth grade students. In this collaboration, the students were part of a joint design activity@anteon.com Abstract. This paper describes a design activity carried out in a 4th grade classroom over an academic year

57

On Contextuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

58

The Paradox of Constructivist Instruction: A Communicative Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of constructivist oriented instruction in learning institutions comes an enormous challenge, that of structuring individual-centered learning within a community of learners. Within this instructional framework, struggles to satisfy both individual and group learning needs can lead to one canceling the other out. Tendencies towards…

Luppicini, Rocci

59

Constructivist Career Counseling. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advance of science and technology, the rise of mass consumerism, the deterioration of families, and other factors have enormous implications for career counseling. This digest outlines a constructivist career counseling perspective. This perspective is based on the following concepts: there are multiple realities and no single "God's eye" view…

Peavy, R. Vance

60

The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective…

Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2014-01-01

61

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A

Michele T. Cook

2007-01-01

62

Children's Temperament and Behavior in Montessori and Constructivist Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed mothers and children at four constructivist and ten Montessori preschool classrooms. Found a near significant trend suggesting that temperamentally active boys were more likely to be perceived as behavior problems in Montessori settings, which are characterized by working quietly for long periods of time. No similar trends were revealed…

Yen, Shu-Chen; Ispa, Jean M.

2000-01-01

63

An Examination of the Relationship between the Integration of Technology into Social Studies and Constructivist Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational technologies, specifically computer and the Internet technologies, have apparently become powerful tools in the classroom as they change the way we teach and learn today. That is why pedagogies of school reform are now highly influenced by and built around the "constructivist" theories of learning, assuming the use of technology in…

Ayas, Cemalettin

2006-01-01

64

The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective science teachers in Turkey readily accept pseudoscientific explanations of the origin of species. Constructivist pedagogy underestimates, if not ignores, the difficulty of holding rational discussions in the presence of pseudoscientific or absolute beliefs. Moreover, it gives a higher priority to learners' exposure to alternative constructions through social negotiation than to furthering their appreciation of science. Under these circumstances, self-confirmation and social pressure to accept existing pseudoscientific beliefs may be unanticipated consequences of social negotiation. Considering the aim of science education to foster an appreciation of science, the implications of constructivist pedagogy are, or should be, of great concern to science educators.

Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2014-04-01

65

Integrated, Constructivist Education: Challenge and Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the desire for an education that emphasizes depth of understanding and meaningful learning has a long and distinguished history, constructivist reforms have not led to a comprehensive and coherent reform of educational practice in our schools. In fact, two previous great reforms based on constructivist principles have failed during this century. In this special issue ofEducational Psychology Review, authors

Karen R. Harris; Patricia A. Alexander

1998-01-01

66

Students' Conceptions of Distinct Constructivist Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present studies were conducted to investigate students' conceptions of distinct constructivist assumptions. To that end, a questionnaire was developed containing statements about four constructivist assumptions: The importance of knowledge construction, cooperative learning, self-regulation, and the use of authentic problems together with…

Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2007-01-01

67

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A problem of contextualizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio?cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and explanations in cognitive frameworks and visual descriptions in cultural

Karin Ehrlén

2008-01-01

68

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

Ehrlen, Karin

2008-01-01

69

The Effects of Contextual and Personal Factors on Young Adolescents' Social Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the proposal that (a) contextual and personal factors affect the endorsement of social goals during early adolescence and (b) contextual factors and social goals may change over time. Self-reports of classroom contextual factors (i.e., promotion of performance goals, social interaction, and mutual respect) and personal…

Kiefer, Sarah M.; Matthews, Yanique T.; Montesino, Mario; Arango, Liza; Preece, Krystle K.

2013-01-01

70

A Contextual Approach to Social Skills Assessment in the Peer Group: Who Is the Best Judge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually

Kyongboon Kwon; Elizabeth Moorman Kim; Susan M. Sheridan

2012-01-01

71

Teachers' Views of Constructivist Theory: A Qualitative Study Illuminating Relationships between Epistemological Understanding and Music Teaching Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While constructivist theory is widely promoted in pre-service music teacher education, there has been a lack of research conducted to reveal the ways in which the theory is individually personalized, then subsumed, translated and adopted into in-service classroom teaching practice. To address this shortfall, this article explores some of the ways…

Cleaver, David; Ballantyne, Julie

2014-01-01

72

What children bring to light: A constructivist perspective on children's learning in science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book is intended to explore the constructivist perspective and to clarify its use in the classroom by presenting learning not only as a cognitive experience, but also as one that derives from the emotional, personal, social, cultural, and preconceptual experiences of the learner. Part l introduces the idea of constructivism and its development as an alternative to traditional views of knowledge and learning, and orders, organizes, and reviews the literature on children's learning in science. Part II presents six case studies of individual students in the same fifth grade classroom setting as they learn about the topic light. Part III summarizes the book's constructivist analysis and suggests how understanding knowledge and learning affects the role of the teacher. Case studies with personal orientation themes and the personal construct theory are also reviewed.

Shapiro, Bonnie

2006-12-07

73

Development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers prepared at the University of Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers was studied during a four year period---student teaching through their first three years of teaching. Constructivist behaviors were examined from four perspectives: actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes; teacher and student perceptions of use of constructivist practices from surveys; and teacher beliefs as gained from open-ended interviews. Data analyses involved constant comparison of data from two or more sources---descriptive statistics, statistical analyses, levels of teacher expertise regarding constructivist behaviors, qualitative descriptions, and direct quotes from videotapes and interview transcripts. The results indicate that the new teachers were largely early constructivist teachers. Constructivist teaching approaches were used during student teaching. Socialization and induction processes had minimal effects. Both observed practices and beliefs about teaching and learning were student-centered; after declines in years one and two, constructivist behaviors improved by the third year of teaching. Students of the new teachers perceived their lessons as being more interesting, more relevant to them, and that they had more autonomy about instruction than reported by students in other programs. Their perceptions better matched those of students taught by more experienced teachers, who were identified as expert constructivists. Although individual teachers were unique with different focuses and strengths, eleven dominant and consistently espoused student-centered beliefs were identified. The new teachers also shared a range of constructivist behaviors that correspond to national standards. These include: (1) Students sharing the responsibility of learning with teachers; (2) Student engagement in activities and experiences; (3) Students with positive attitudes who are motivated to learn; (4) Teaching that focuses on student relevance; (5) Variation in teaching approaches and assessments; (6) Establishing a friendly, non-judgmental learning environment; (7) Teaching that incorporates higher-order thinking skills and the use of scientific knowledge and ideas; (8) Teacher understanding of subject matter and the integration of content and process skills in context; (9) Teacher understanding of science in natural phenomena; (10) Teacher as intellectual, reflective practitioner.

Lew, Lee Yuen

74

Contextual Effects of Bilingual Programs on Beginning Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 1,338 Spanish-speaking 1st graders examined contextual effects of bilingual programs on reading comprehension and the effect of language of instruction within these contexts. The study included 128 classrooms in 32 schools located in border Texas and in urban Texas and California. These classrooms used either English immersion or…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Mehta, Paras D.

2010-01-01

75

Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external influences. Variety was evident from the interview data and included such factors as: design, inquiry, application, various social configurations, and several learning styles.

Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

76

Student Development in Higher Education: A Constructivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.

Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila

77

Do Junior High School Students Perceive Their Learning Environment as Constructivist?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the manner in which the features of a constructivist learning environment, and the mechanisms at its base, are expressed in junior high school students' conceptions. Our research is based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches, deigned to provide a wider ranging and deeper understanding. Eight hundred and forty eighth- and ninth-grade students from over 15 schools participated in the study. Of the 840 students who completed the questionnaire, the explanations of 200 well-written questionnaires were further analyzed qualitatively. The findings of the study are presented in terms of the four scales employed in the CLES, namely the autonomy scale, the prior knowledge scale, the negotiation scale, and the student-centeredness scale. The quantitative results achieved here concur with parallel studies conducted around the world. The findings indicate that a considerable portion of the students perceive their learning environment as a constructivist one and report positive attitudes toward the way they are being taught. In terms of the qualitative results, however, it appears that in some cases, the students' explanations reveal that in fact, and contrary to the bare quantitative results, some students do not perceive their learning environment as being constructivist. This raises the question of whether the fact that students recognize the factors associated with constructivist teaching is indeed an indication that such teaching exists in practice. This finding emphasizes the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods for arriving at a balanced view of classroom occurrences.

Moustafa, Asely; Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim

2013-08-01

78

Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks  

E-print Network

Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning their learning. Keywords: Learning, Participatory Exam, Peer Assessment, e-Learning, Collaborative Learning

Bieber, Michael

79

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

80

Supporting elementary science education for English learners: An evaluation instrument to promote constructivist teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation instrument to be used by elementary school administrators in the promotion of constructivist teaching of elementary science for English Learners using a qualitative and quantitative design that identified effective instructional strategies to be included on the evaluation instrument. This study was conducted in fifth grade classrooms of predominately English Learners whose teachers are CLAD-certified, tenured teachers with at least three years of teaching experience. The classroom observations took place within a multicultural school district with predominantly Hispanic and Filipino students in the Southern San Joaquin Valley of California. The evaluation instrument was used to observe these teachers teach elementary science lessons to classrooms of predominately English Learners. The frequency of the use of the ELD/SDAIE instructional strategies were noted on the evaluation instrument with a check mark, indicating the fact that an instructional technique was employed by the teacher. These observation visits revealed what type of instructional strategies were being utilized in the teaching of science to fifth grade English Learners, whether these CLAD-certified teachers were using ELD strategies, and whether the incidence of ELD/SDAIE constructivist instructional techniques increased with the repeated use of the evaluation instrument. As a result of this study, an evaluation instrument to be utilized by school administrators in the evaluation of elementary science instruction to English Learners was developed. The repeated use of this evaluation instrument coupled with preobservation and postobservation conferences may result in the increase in frequency of ELD/SDAIE methodology and constructivist strategies listed on the evaluation instrument in the elementary science classroom.

Gibbons, Beatrice Lowney

2002-01-01

81

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

Brooks, John

82

Creating constructivist environments and constructing creative mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivism is not reducible to a set of rules to follow or actions to perform. However, we suggest that it is possible to define beliefs that must be held by teachers if they are to create constructivist environments for learning. In the first part of this paper we put forward as critical four tenets of belief and follow this with

Susan Pirie; Thomas Kieren

1992-01-01

83

Can Montessorians and Constructivists Really Be Friends?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates traditional education, progressive education, constructivism, and the Montessori approach. Examines the role of motivation in constructivism and in Montessori's planes of development. Concludes that Montessorians and constructivists are allies in the struggle to liberate children from conventional educational methods, which blunt…

Powell, Mark

2000-01-01

84

Constructivist Learning Approach in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism is not a new concept. It has its roots in philosophy and has been applied to sociology and anthropology, as well as cognitive psychology and education. The aim of this research is to reveal if there is a significant difference between the means of achievement and retention learning scores of constructivist learning approach applied…

Demirci, Cavide

2009-01-01

85

Constructivist Approach: Removing Misconceptions about Chemical Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of instruction based on constructivist approach on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts (n=41). Also, the effects of gender differences were investigated. Control group students were taught by traditional instruction. Experimental group students were instructed by…

Uzuntiryaki, Esen

86

Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

2000-01-01

87

Preparing Teachers for Tomorrow: A Constructivist Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 12-hour curriculum/methods block designed to lead elementary education teacher candidates through a constructivist, integrated model of teaching and learning is outlined. This block is part of a graduate level program that leads to licensure and a master's of Curriculum and Instruction in Curriculum and Instruction called Initial Teacher…

Damon, Linda; And Others

88

Constructivist Design of Graphic Computer Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two graphic computer simulations have been prepared for teaching high school and middle school students about how business organizations and financial systems work: "Parkside," which simulates managing a hotel; and "Guestwear," which simulates managing a clothing manufacturer. Both simulations are based on six principles of constructivist design…

Black, John B.; And Others

89

Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

2010-01-01

90

Using Social Impact Games (SIGS) to Support Constructivist Learning: Creating a Foundation for Effective Use in the Secondary Social Studies Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how Social Impact Games (SIGs) can provide important instructional support in secondary social studies classrooms. When used within the framework of the constructivist teaching philosophy and teaching methods, as recommended by the NCSS (2010), SIGs have the potential to hone critical thinking, collaboration, and problem…

Ray, Beverly; Faure, Caroline; Kelle, Fay

2013-01-01

91

The Motivational and Academic Consequences of Elementary Mathematics Environments: Do Constructivist Innovations and Reforms Make a Difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a videodisc-based mathematical problem-solving series known as The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, as implemented by one school district within a constructivist-inspired reform of its math curricula. The motivational and academic consequences of both the specific innovation and the broader reforms were examined in 19 fifth-grade classrooms in two pairs of closely matched schools. One

Daniel T. Hickey; Allison L. Moore; James W. Pellegrino

2001-01-01

92

“I can change your opinion on that”: Social constructivist whole class discussions and their effect on scientific reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical and empirical work in science education has led to greater consideration of the role of social constructivist\\u000a discussions in science classrooms. This paper advances an intervention model for effective whole class discussions based on\\u000a the Philosophy for Children program, and reports on a year long study of its application, focussing on the development of\\u000a scientific reasoning. The evaluation

Tim Sprod

1998-01-01

93

Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

2011-04-01

94

Developing a constructivist learning environment in online postsecondary science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in research literature surrounding the pedagogical practices that could be successfully applied to future postsecondary online science education. The panel consisted of 30 experts in the area of online postsecondary education. Qualitative data from the initial seed questions were used to create a Likert-type survey to seek consensus of the themes derived from participant responses. Participants reached agreement on six items: apply constructivism to science curricula, identify strengths and challenges of online collegiate students, explicate students' consequences due to lack of participation in discussion forums, ensure that online course content is relevant to students' lives, reinforce academic integrity, and identify qualities face-to-face collegiate science instructors need when transitioning to online science instructors. The majority of participants agreed that gender is not an important factor in determining the success of an online collegiate science student. There was no consensus on the efficacy of virtual labs in an online science classroom. This study contributes to positive social change by providing information to new and struggling postsecondary science teachers to help them successfully align their instruction with students' needs and, as a result, increase students' success.

Hackworth, Sylvester N.

95

The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

Vaca, James L., Jr.

96

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

Cook, Michele T.

97

Truth-Theoretic Contextualism: Dissolving the Minimalism\\/Contextualism Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Truth-Theoretic Contextualism: Dissolving the Minimalism\\/Contextualism Debate Wouter Beek Abstract: The scope of the research field of semantics seems to shrink in the recent debate between the viewpoints of contextualism and (semantic) minimalism. Minimalists hold that semantics is the formal endeavour that derives a minimal proposition from the syntactically structured input string. This semantic content is then fed to the subsequent

Wouter Beek

2009-01-01

98

A Constructivist Revision of the Measure of Epistemological Reflection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Measure of Epistemological Reflection was revised to reflect a constructivist view of epistemological development that emerged from a longitudinal study of young adults' development. This article includes a description of the new constructivist interpretation process, how it is used, and criteria upon which to judge its value. (Contains 44…

Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter

2001-01-01

99

Understanding Teacher Responses to Constructivist Learning Environments: Challenges and Resolutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best…

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2006-01-01

100

Using Simulations to Automatically Generate Authentic Constructivist Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasingly short life-cycles, hand-crafting authentic constructivist environments for learning will become increasingly unfeasible. As the complexity of designed systems and devices increases, however, so does the role of simulations to support design. This paper presents an approach and an example of how naturally occurring simulations in design can be used to automatically generate authentic constructivist learning environments.

Imran A. Zualkernan

2004-01-01

101

Constructivist psychology of child abuse and implications for psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews constructivist and related literature on child abuse and psychotherapy. Constructivist psychology, with its emphasis on the personal, socially embedded construction of meaning, is uniquely situated to contribute to humanistic psychotherapy for child victims and adult survivors. Conversely, work with abused clients deepens our understanding of developmental meaning?making processes and the social ecologies of meaning within which they

Stephanie Lewis Harter

2001-01-01

102

Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose…

Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

2014-01-01

103

Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators may or may not be familiar with the term constructivism, but probably recognize it as something to do with learning. The main tenet of constructivist learning is that people construct their own understanding of the world and in turn, their own knowledge. This ERIC Digest examines the constructivist view of learning and how it…

Ishii, Drew K.

104

ICT and Constructivist Strategies Instruction for Science and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept learning in science and mathematics had often times been taught based on assumptions of alternative concepts or even in some instances based on misconceptions. Some educational researchers favour a constructivist approach in teaching science and mathematics. The constructivist literature existing makes use of alternative conceptions as…

Kong, Ng Wai; Lai, Kong Sow

2005-01-01

105

[Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].  

PubMed

This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702

Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

2013-08-01

106

Contextual behavior and neural circuits  

PubMed Central

Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior. PMID:23675321

Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

2013-01-01

107

Classroom Talk, Conceptual Change and Teacher Reflection in Bilingual Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a science teacher's use of and reflections on classroom talk in teaching a unit on genetics on a bilingual education programme. Constructivist, sociocultural and discursive psychological perspectives on conceptual change and classroom talk are reviewed. Data are drawn from three sources: preactive interview, video-recording…

Morton, Tom

2012-01-01

108

Snakes or Ladders? An Examination of the Experiences of Two Teacher Leaders Returning to Classroom Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who have held leadership roles at the school, district, or provincial level have the potential to contribute to student and school success when they return to classroom teaching. The contrasting experiences of two teacher leaders who returned voluntarily to classroom teaching are analyzed using Owens's (2004) social constructivist

Munroe, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

109

Teaching a Contextual Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to teaching architecture that accommodates external environmental influences called architectural context is described. Contextual issues come under three headings: formal patterns (space, shape, scale, materials, etc.), activity patterns, and climatic patterns. The use of this approach in studio instruction is examined. (MSE)

Gaines, Merrill C.

1980-01-01

110

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

111

The impact of a STS/Constructivist learning approach on the beliefs and attitudes of preservice science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an Science-Technology-Society (STS) course for preservice science teachers. The course was designed to change not only preservice science teachers' attitudes toward science, scientists and science courses, but also the awareness and use of STS/Constructivist approaches in teaching. It also focuses on changes in preservice science teachers regarding the effectiveness of an STS/Constructivist learning environment. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used with and a one-group pretest-posttest design. The instruments were administered to the preservice science teachers at the beginning of the semester as pre-tests and again at the end of the semester as post-tests. Data gathered from pre- and post-administration were analyzed for each of the instruments that provide answers to the research questions. The sample consists of forty-one pre-service science teachers who were enrolled in the Societal & Educational Applications of Biological Concepts course during the spring semester of the 2004 and 2005 academic years at the University of Iowa. The major findings for the study include the following: (1) Preservice science teachers showed significantly growth over the semester in their perceptions concerning STS/Constructivism, beliefs about science teaching and learning, and attitudes toward science and technology, and their implications for society. These significant changes were not affected by gender nor grade (elementary vs secondary) level. (2) Preservice science teachers gain in understanding of how students learn with STS/Constructivist approaches. They also increased their use of STS/Constructivist approaches which were developed and applied to teaching science for all students. (3) Preservice science teachers showed statistically significant growth toward an STS/Constructivist philosophy of science teaching and learning in terms of student actions in the classroom, as well as their increased understanding of science processes and content. (4) An STS/Constructivist approach provides student--centered learning environments that are relevant, motivational, and meaningful for preservice science teachers. Further, it encourages them to interact and to participate more actively in science classrooms.

Akcay, Hakan

112

Using Constructivist Theories to Educate the "Outsiders"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some students are "outsiders" in today's science classroom. What makes an outsider, and how can the teacher break down barriers and reach these students? This article details one teacher's journey as she attempts to understand and connect with an outsider in her science classroom. Written from the first person, it is a poignant tale of…

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette I.

2008-01-01

113

Intercorporeality and Ethical Commitment: An Activity Perspective on Classroom Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a sociocultural alternative to contemporary constructivist conceptions of classroom interaction. Drawing on the work of Vygotsky and Leont'ev, we introduce an approach that offers a new perspective through which to understand the "specifically human" forms of knowing that emerge when people engage in joint activity. To…

Radford, Luis; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2011-01-01

114

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

115

Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also…

Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

116

Creating Authentic Materials and Activities for the Adult Literacy Classroom: A Handbook for Practitioners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing illustrative examples from real classrooms and feedback from teachers, this teacher handbook brings to life ways teachers have modified their adult literacy classroom practice to be more learner contextualized. It provides guidance in moving toward contextualized literacy instruction; teachers must adapt suggestions to most suitably…

Jacobson, Erik; Degener, Sophie; Purcell-Gates, Victoria

117

Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

2012-02-01

118

Designing and Implementing a Constructivist Chemistry Laboratory Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author, an educational program specialist at the University of California, Davis, developed a constructivist chemistry laboratory where students had the opportunity to develop their own experimental procedures. This article describes some of the educa

Blakely, Alan

2000-03-01

119

The Warrant for Constructivist Practice within Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational technology as a form of technical rationality and considers the conflict between practitioners' epistemological position as constructivists and technical rationality. Topics include cybernetics; autonomous systems theory; enactive constructivism; representation versus effective action; mind and memory; enaction in artificial…

Bopry, Jeanette

1999-01-01

120

Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

Sweeney, Heidi

121

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

122

Makiguchian pedagogy in the middle school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an atmosphere of multi-culturism and the increasing need for innovative methods for science teaching, investigating educators from different parts of the world is well regarded. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871--1944) was a prescient thinker who foreshadowed many of the modern social constructivist ideals of teaching before they became formalized in Western thought. He believed in the harmonious balance between an individual and society as the only viable goal of education. With this in mind, he introduced the concepts of "evaluation," "cognition" and "value creation" that embody this balance. "Cognition" is associated with "truth" and "evaluation" is involved with the subject-object relationship. Moreover, Makiguchian pedagogy's concept of "value creation" offers a sociological and philosophical basis for "classroom inclusion." Additionally, Makiguchian pedagogy is compared to John Dewey's philosophy as well as the educational philosophy expressed in The National Science Standards. In this teacher participant study, classroom observational data showed that several dimensions of Makiguchian pedagogical practice occurred conjointly with relatively high frequencies. These included frequent occurrences of interactional conversation between students and teacher merged within a context of expressions of personal and collective values, social contextual references, valuing and personal evaluative statements, and episodic information that the students contributed from personal experiences relevant to the science topics. Additionally, Likert-type questionnaire data collected from the students who experienced the Makiguchian lessons, and observational data from professional colleagues who viewed video taped records of the lessons, provided additional corroborative evidence supporting the researcher's findings. A content analysis of lesson plans containing Makiguchian principles of teaching and learning in relation to the ensuing classroom performance of the teacher showed a close correspondence. Learners were encouraged to produce creative pieces of written or graphic artwork to express their scientific understandings as is consistent with a Makiguchian approach. The students' work contained highly symbolic and metaphorical content while also accurately presenting fundamental scientific information gained from the lessons. These findings suggest that a Makiguchian approach to learning can enhance socially-situated learning while also sustaining adequate mastery of science content.

Pagan, Iris Teresa

123

Contextual Variations in Implicit Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present research, the authors examined contextual variations in automatic attitudes. Using 2 measures of automatic attitudes, the authors demonstrated that evaluative responses differ qualitatively as perceivers focus on different aspects of a target's social group membership (e.g., race or gender). Contextual variations in automatic attitudes were obtained when the manipulation involved overt categorization (Experiments 1–3) as well as

Jason P. Mitchell; Brian A. Nosek; Mahzarin R. Banaji

2003-01-01

124

The Social Status of Aggressive Students across Contexts: The Role of Classroom Status Hierarchy, Academic Achievement, and Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…

Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

125

Linking Radical Constructivism and Semiotics To Design a Constructivist Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the philosophies of radical constructivism and semiotics and discusses the implications of semiotics for radical constructivist learning. Presents the design of a constructivist learning environment using the semiotic perspective of R. Stamper (1993). (SLD)

Uden, Lorna; Liu, Kecheng; Shank, Gary

2001-01-01

126

Learning To Walk the Walk: Teacher Educators' Use of Constructivist Epistemology in Their Own Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the teaching behaviors of 11 teacher educators working with early childhood education student teachers. Participants provided course syllabi and written descriptions of activities and assignments, then completed interviews. Most instructors philosophically aligned with constructivist epistemology, though few discussed constructivist

Brindley, Roger

2000-01-01

127

Mediating Academic Language Learning Through Classroom Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

For school-aged students who are learning ESL, the discourse of the classroom must simultaneously construct curriculum knowledge\\u000a and be a site for second language development. This chapter focuses on academic language learning in the ESL school context,\\u000a in particular on how language learning is mediated through classroom discourse. While linguistic, social, and sociocognitive\\u000a traditions have interpreted the nature of interaction

Pauline Gibbons

128

Development and Validation of a Modified Turkish Version of the Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Constructivist Learning Environment Survey is an instrument used for assessing students' and teachers' perceptions of their learning environments. The Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES) was created to better enable teachers and researchers to determine teachers' perception of their use of constructivist approaches in…

Anagun, Sengul S.; Anilan, Huseyin

2013-01-01

129

Haptic's suitability to constructivist learning environment: aspects of teachers and teacher candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until today many technologies are used in constructivist learning environments. As for this study, it is tried to reveal haptic's suitability to constructivist education environments together with aspects of 6 teachers and 21 teacher candidates. Semi-structured interview and qualitative methods are used for this study. In this study, it is revealed that haptic is suitable to constructivist learning environments by

Hasan Karal; Ilknur Reisoglu

2009-01-01

130

Is In-Class Physical Activity at Risk in Constructivist Physical Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist physical education emphasizes cognitive engagement. This study examined the impact of a constructivist curriculum on in-class physical activity. Caloric expenditure in metabolic equivalents (MET) and vector magnitude count (VM) data from a random sample of 41 constructivist lessons were compared with those from a random sample of 35…

Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Sun, Haichun; Ennis, Catherine D.

2007-01-01

131

Science Fiction Prototyping and Security Education: Cultivating Contextual and Societal Thinking in Computer  

E-print Network

.g., [1]. Outside the classroom there have also emerged undergraduate and graduate cyber-security technical computer security defenses ­ but it could be that the omitted information is exactly whatScience Fiction Prototyping and Security Education: Cultivating Contextual and Societal Thinking

Matsuoka, Yoky

132

Using the Contextual Orientation to Facilitate the Study of Bible with Generation X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the use of the contextual orientation to the Bible--which seeks to understand the Bible as a product of its time, and in the context of historical-critical biblical scholarship--as a deliberate, significant aspect of a teacher's overall approach to reaching Jewish adults in their 20s and 30s. Through classroom observation…

Cousens, Beth; Morrison, Jeremy S.; Fendrick, Susan P.

2008-01-01

133

The Convergence of Supervision and Mentoring via "Contextual Supervision": Promising Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the contextual supervision (CS) model that has been developed and applied in several practicum settings of teacher education programs over the past 12 years. The study synthesizes the research findings on the potential effectiveness of CS in assisting faculty supervisors and classroom cooperating teachers with the task of…

Ralph, Edwin G.

134

Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

2013-01-01

135

The effect of classroom instruction, attitudes towards science and motivation on students' views of uncertainty in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined developmental and gender differences in Grade 5 and 9 students' views of uncertainty in science and the effect of classroom instruction on attitudes towards science, and motivation. Study 1 examined views of uncertainty in science when students were taught science using constructivist pedagogy. A total of 33 Grade 5 (n = 17, 12 boys, 5 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 16, 8 boys, 8 girls) students were interviewed about the ideas they had about uncertainty in their own experiments (i.e., practical science) and in professional science activities (i.e., formal science). Analysis found an interaction between grade and gender in the number of categories of uncertainty identified for both practical and formal science. Additionally, in formal science, there was a developmental shift from dualism (i.e., science is a collection of basic facts that are the result of straightforward procedures) to multiplism (i.e., there is more than one answer or perspective on scientific knowledge) from Grade 5 to Grade 9. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the understanding uncertainty in practical and formal science. Study 2 compared the attitudes and motivation towards science and motivation of students in constructivist and traditional classrooms. Scores on the measures were also compared to students' views of uncertainty for constructivist-taught students. A total of 28 students in Grade 5 (n = 13, 11 boys, 2 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 15, 6 boys, 9 girls), from traditional science classrooms and the 33 constructivist students from Study 1 participated. Regardless of classroom instruction, fifth graders reported more positive attitudes towards science than ninth graders. Students from the constructivist classrooms reported more intrinsic motivation than students from the traditional classrooms. Constructivist students' views of uncertainty in formal and practical science did not correlate with their attitudes towards science and motivation.

Schroeder, Meadow

136

Placing Cybereducation in the UK Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the Internet in the classroom has often been characterized as a practice that disconnects the teacher from traditional forms of externally imposed influence. This paper examines this assertion by mapping the emerging field of cybereducation and considering how endemic knowledge is contextualized by national curricular authorities. The…

Menchik, Daniel A.

2004-01-01

137

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

138

Trauma of Children of the Sudan: A Constructivist Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined from a social constructivist view the trauma experienced by Sudanese refugee children in a Midwestern U.S. city. The study explored how the children, their U.S. foster parents, and social workers from a child welfare agency described their understanding of the migration experience. Findings point to the importance of placing…

Bolea, Patty Stow; Grant, George, Jr.; Burgess, Marcy; Plasa, Olja

2003-01-01

139

Teaching Counselors and Therapists: Constructivist and Developmental Course Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers suggestions for transforming the specific courses in the counselor education curriculum. Each chapter includes an introduction--using anecdotes or student quotes; an overview of the impact of constructivism on the course content; an outline of the course structure, assignments, and activities, with the accompanying constructivist

Eriksen, Karen; McAuliffe, Garrett

140

A Social Constructivist Approach to Computer-Mediated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer-mediated teaching system called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) that incorporates a social constructivist approach, maintaining that learning occurs primarily through a socially interactive process. Discusses use of CAPSI in an undergraduate course at the University of Manitoba that showed students…

Pear, Joseph J.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.

2002-01-01

141

Two Cases of College Instructors' Application of Constructivist Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experience of seven community college instructors was documented as they applied, for the first time, principles and characteristics of constructivist pedagogy to the design of learning activities. The instructors became a community of learners as they collaborated and shared their experiences among themselves. They reported improvements in…

Ferguson, John W.

2005-01-01

142

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2011-01-01

143

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2012-01-01

144

Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

2014-01-01

145

Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

2008-01-01

146

Does Your Elementary Mathematics Methodology Class Correspond to Constructivist Epistemology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether the instruction of an elementary mathematics education methodology course corresponds to constructivist learning. The participants were pre-service teachers in their senior year at a college in the southern part of the U.S. They were 49 students (3 men, 46 women) enrolled in three sections of a teacher certification…

Shirvani, Hosin

2009-01-01

147

A Constructivist Perspective for Integrating Spirituality into Counselor Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant efforts have been made in recent years to integrate training in spirituality and religion into counselor training programs. This article highlights issues that may be encountered by some trainees and suggests that constructivist teaching principles be used to mitigate these concerns. The authors present recommendations and activities…

Shaw, Brian M.; Bayne, Hannah; Lorelle, Sonya

2012-01-01

148

An Ethics of Liberation Emerging from a Radical Constructivist Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actions of the mathematics teacher are bound up in ethical decisions that impact the learner and teacher, both within and external to the formal school curriculum. This paper argues that the principles of a radical constructivist theory of knowing underlie a model for an ethics of liberation. A learner's active construction of their…

Hackenberg, Amy J.; Lawler, Brian R.

149

Experimenting in a Constructivist High School Physics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presents a study involving students (n=46) enrolled in an introductory physics course designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem-solving strategies in a constructivist learning environment. Concludes that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and can develop complex problem-solving skills.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-10-09

150

A Constructivist-Informed Approach to Teaching Swimming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in constructivism has fueled enthusiasm for the development of games and team-sport pedagogy over the past decade, but individual sports have yet to receive the same attention. In this article we redress this oversight by suggesting that constructivist perspectives on learning can be used to develop student-centered, inquiry-based…

Light, Richard; Wallian, Nathalie

2008-01-01

151

Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these…

Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2011-01-01

152

Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed around a practical "practice-what-you-teach" approach to methods instruction, "Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher" is based on current constructivist philosophy, organized around 5E inquiry, and guided by the National Science Education Teaching Standards. Written in a reader-friendly style, the…

Goldston, M. Jenice; Downey, Laura

2012-01-01

153

Understanding Teaching or Teaching for Understanding: Alternative Frameworks for Science Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the findings of a study that involved exploring the classroom practices of an experienced physics teacher to enable researchers to reexamine assumptions about good teaching. Asserts that a broader view of good science teaching is needed than that proposed by the constructivist literature.

Wildy, Helen; Wallace, John

2006-10-11

154

Characterising Individual and Social Concept Development in Collaborative Computer Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within-group similarities and between-group differences are used to illustrate the socio-cultural nature of the concept-building process in highly collaborative computer science classrooms. Simultaneously, a social constructivist perspective is used to describe the individual aspects of this development. The study uses written explanations from…

Holmboe, Christian; Scott, Phil H.

2005-01-01

155

Science in the Multicultural Classroom. A Guide to Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help the teacher become a reflective practitioner in the multicultural science classroom. The ideas presented are grounded in constructivist theory and emphasize a multicultural approach to science education. The first section, "Addressing Diversity," deals with issues germane to the science education needs of culturally…

Barba, Robertta H.

156

Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a variety of pedagogical functions. Students perceived Group-Investigations and Peer Assessments as positive in that they contributed to realizing constructivist features in their classrooms. The students also reported that they gained several learning outcomes through Group-Investigations, including more positive attitudes, new knowledge, greater learning capabilities, and improved self-esteem. However, the Group-Investigation and Peer Assessment methods were perceived as negative and problematic by those who had rarely been exposed to such inquiry-based, student-centered approaches.

Oh, Phil Seok

157

The Contextual Approach to Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the meaning of a "contextual approach" to teaching physics. Advances a model of contextual physics teaching that can also be applied to other science disciplines. (Contains 54 references.) (Author/WRM)

Wilkinson, John W.

1999-01-01

158

Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

159

Contextual Android Education Intuit, Inc.  

E-print Network

Contextual Android Education James Reed Intuit, Inc. Mountain View, CA USA jrreed84@gmail.com David USA djanzen@calpoly.edu Abstract Advances in mobile phone hardware and development platforms have drastically in- creased the demand, interest, and potential of mobile applications. We report on devel- opment

Janzen, David

160

Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2003-01-01

161

Social Constructivist Learning Environment in an Online Professional Practice Course  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the online social constructivist learning environment (SCLE) and student perceptions of the outcomes of the online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice that was designed based on social constructivism theory. Design The online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was carefully designed by organizing various activities, which were intended to encourage social interaction among students. The Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) was applied to assess the SCLE. Course evaluation questionnaires were administered to assess student perceptions of this online module. Assessment The result from the COLLES illustrated the development of SCLE in the course. The students reported positive perceptions of the course. Conclusion An online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was effective in promoting SCLE. PMID:19513147

Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree

2009-01-01

162

The Project Approach: An Appreciation for the Constructivist Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore my appreciation for the 'constructivist theory' for which an epistemological stance is expressed as an educational ideology, or referred to as constructivism; essentially to construct one's own knowledge. Six energetic five-year-old boys from an urban public school, located within a mid-western state became the focus of this theory. The early learning programme

Pamela R. Cook

163

How ActiveMath Supports Moderate Constructivist Mathematics Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

ActiveMath is a Web-based intelligent e-Learning system for mathematics that can support a moderate constructivist teaching: it supports students with an amount of guidance and leaves sufficient space for the learner's own choices, reflection and activities; a student can choose one or several learning goals, a context and a learning scenario and for which ActiveMath generates personalized learning material; at

Erica Melis; Carsten Ullrich; George Goguadze; Paul Libbrecht

164

A critical evaluation of Maturana's constructivist family therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical evaluation of the impact of Maturana's constructivist approach to (systemic) family therapy.\\u000a After an historical introduction and a brief description of the main ideas, a number of criticisms are considered. These concern\\u000a the radical antirealist epistemology, and problems in dealing with the social context of the family, and power relations within\\u000a the family

J. C. Mingers

1997-01-01

165

Web-enhanced learning: engaging students in constructivist learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of a web-based constructivist learning environment, which was developed based on a course given to students in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM) on student learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this paper, a web-based multimedia-mediated project was developed based on an Internet Applications course where students were taught to

Mai Neo

2005-01-01

166

Constructivist Science Teaching: Intellectual and Strategic Teaching Acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to provide some productive starting points for discussion in the context of science teaching. Embedded in the current practice of methodologies such as “messing about,” hands-on, minds-on activities, science-technology-society related approaches, and inquiry-based learning, is often a sense of confusion and frustration. Such current methodologies in elementary science teaching are founded on constructivist learning theory. This paper

Carol Scarff Seatter

2003-01-01

167

Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness  

E-print Network

A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and to what extent, a system is conscious. Thus we believe that a deep understanding of contextuality is vital to the study of consciousness. Methods have been developed for handling contextuality in the microworld of quantum particles. Our goal has been to investigate the extent to which these methods can be used to analyze contextuality in conscious experience. This work is the fledgling efforts of a recently-initiated interdisciplinary collaboration.

Diederik Aerts; Jan Broekaert; Liane Gabora

2013-10-29

168

Impact of Structured Group Activities on Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Classroom Motivation: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-service teachers' beliefs about classroom motivation, and how these beliefs may be developed during initial teacher preparation, is a relatively new aspect of enquiry in the fields of motivation and teacher education. An empirical study, grounded in a social constructivist perspective, was designed to examine the impact of providing…

Mansfield, Caroline F.; Volet, Simone E.

2014-01-01

169

Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

2010-01-01

170

Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children physically and mentally, focusing attention on their children and their interests, and encourage the children to analyze their actions, (2) museum professionals need to be aware of ways they can help parents interact effectively with their children, and (3) museum researchers need to examine how research in science classrooms can inform research in informal environments.

Hill, Martha Anne Leech

2002-04-01

171

Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Motivations for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…

Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

2014-01-01

172

Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists and educators have often conceptualized motivation as an individual difference variable, something that some students simply have more of than other students. This view of motivation can underestimate contextual influences. In this article we consider how characteristics of the school and classroom may influence student motivation, as well as the role of educators in shaping school and classroom climate.

Tim Urdan; Erin Schoenfelder

2006-01-01

173

Absent Peers in Elementary Years: The Negative Classroom Effects of Unexcused Absences on Standardized Testing Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article addresses the classroom contextual effects of absences on student achievement. Previous research on peer effects has predominantly focused on peer socioeconomic status or classroom academic ability and its effects on classmates. However, the field has been limited by not discerning the individual-level academic…

Gottfried, Michael A.

2011-01-01

174

Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

2012-01-01

175

Marketing Education Cooperative Education Manual. Classroom and Training Station Connecting Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative Education is a teaching method which uses real life work experiences to teach and/or reinforce competencies from the Marketing Content Standards. Direct connections are made between classroom instruction and workplace activities. The activities in this manual can be used to reinforce and contextualize content taught in the classroom

Ohio Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

176

Supporting Social Constructivist Learning through the KEEP SLS ePortfolio System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional ePortfolio systems are usually used as an individual learning unit, or an assessment tool in education. However, these systems often lack social constructivist learning features such as sharing, peer review, and group collaboration. This paper describes a new ePortfolio system that supports both personal and social constructivist

Zhang, Xuesong; Olfman, Lorne; Firpo, Daniel

2010-01-01

177

An Ever-Changing Meaning: A Career Constructivist Application to Working with African Refugees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refugees are expected to determine how to integrate past experiences into their lives in a new culture. Constructivist approaches to counseling allow refugees opportunities to determine how to integrate these experiences into their future career choices. Refugee experiences throughout the resettlement process and a constructivist career counseling…

Pierce, L. Marinn; Gibbons, Melinda M.

2012-01-01

178

Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

2011-01-01

179

Is ASEAN powerful? Neo-realist versus constructivist approaches to power in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper asks: ‘is ASEAN powerful?’ The argument is made that there is a divide over this question between two broad groups of scholars who are referred to as ‘neo-realists’ (including realists) and ‘constructivists’. Focusing attention on this question is useful because it helps to bring into view three, not always explicit, points of argument between constructivists and neo-realists in

Sarah Eaton; Richard Stubbs

2006-01-01

180

A Bayesian Network Approach for Modeling the Influence of Contextual Variables on Scientific Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the causal relationships between students' problem-solving effectiveness (i.e. reaching a correct solution) and strategy (i.e. approach) and multiple contextual variables including experience, gender, classroom environment, and task difficulty. Performances of the IMMEX problem set Hazmat (n~33,000) were first modeled by Item Response Theory analysis to provide a measure of effectiveness and then by self-organizing artificial neural networks

Ronald H. Stevens; Vandana Thadani

2006-01-01

181

Twelve-dimensional Pauli group contextuality  

E-print Network

The goal of the paper is to check whether the real eigenstates of the observables in the single qudit Pauli group may lead to quantum contextuality, the property that mutually compatible and independent experiments depend on each other. We find that quantum contextuality crops up at dimension twelve in various configurations with a few rays. We use the Shannon capacity for characterizing the corresponding orthogonality graphs. Some arithmetical properties underlying the qudit contextuality are outlined.

Michel Planat

2012-01-26

182

Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Pan, Alok Kumar [LPTM (CNRS Unite 8089), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Home, Dipankar [CAPSS, Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Salt Lake, Calcutta 700091 (India)

2011-09-23

183

How ActiveMath Supports Moderate Constructivist Mathematics Teaching Erica Melis, Carsten Ullrich, George Goguadze, Paul Libbrecht  

E-print Network

How ActiveMath Supports Moderate Constructivist Mathematics Teaching Erica Melis, Carsten Ullrich-based intelligent e-Learning system for mathematics that can support a moderate constructivist teaching: it supports approach of moderate constructivist teaching (cf. Herzig, 1999) which has a solid empirical basis (Reinmann

Melis, Erica

184

Employing Constructivist Models of Culture Teaching for Enhanced Efficacy in Pre-Departure, Cross-Cultural Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case for adopting a constructivist approach in the teaching of culture to federal, business and civilian personnel. In support of this argument, the author: (1) outlines the history of culture teaching as it progresses from behaviorist through cognitive to constructivist orientations; (2) argues that a constructivist

Ashby, Wendy

2012-01-01

185

Contextual logic for quantum systems  

E-print Network

In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.

Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes

2007-02-02

186

Behavioral versus cognitive classroom friendship networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers of social networks commonly distinguish between “behavioral” and “cognitive” social structure. In a school context,\\u000a for example, a teacher’s perceptions of student friendship ties, not necessarily actual friendship relations, may influence\\u000a teacher behavior. Revisiting early work in the field of sociometry, this study assesses the level of agreement between teacher\\u000a perceptions and student reports of within-classroom friendship ties. Using

Matthew Pittinsky; Brian V. Carolan

2008-01-01

187

A contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group: who is the best judge?  

PubMed

Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment. PMID:22731871

Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M

2012-09-01

188

Contextual medical-image viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

2004-04-01

189

Classroom Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video a mathematics teacher demonstrates how she incorporates accessibility strategies into her physical classroom environment. Several details are shown about the organization and management of a math classroom with a view toward accessibility, expectations, kinesthetic involvement, and a positive environment.

Teacherline

2012-01-01

190

Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices on Students' Achievement Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of classroom assessment practices on students' achievement goals. The study included 1,636 ninth grade students and 83 science teachers from Muscat public schools in Oman. Results from hierarchical linear modeling techniques showed that class contextual features and teachers' teaching experiences and assessment…

Alkharusi, Hussain

2008-01-01

191

An Architecture for Contextual Insider Threat Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown there is a growing concern about the damage possible when trusted organization insiders behave maliciously. In particular, data exfiltration can lead to loss of revenue, damage to an organization's reputation, and disruption of service for critical infrastructure systems. In this work, we introduce the Contextually Adaptive INsider threat architecture (CAIN), which incorporates contextual and risk-based access

Michael Kirkpatrick; Elisa Bertino; Frederick Sheldon

192

Operational and contextual drivers of hospital costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically how operational performance and contextual factors contribute to differences in overall patient care costs across different hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Administrative data are employed from a sample of hospitals in New York State to construct measures of contextual factors, operational performance, and cost per patient. Operational performance and cost variables

Gregory N. Stock; Christopher McDermott

2011-01-01

193

Contextual influences on nurses’ conflict management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflict management research has focused on the personal nature of strategies employed and paid little attention to the contextual influences upon those strategy choices. The present study investigates several contextual influences and reveals that conceptions of professional role and of situational and organizational contexts are good discriminators of the choice of a conflict management strategy. In situations involving conflict inherent

Mary J. Marin; John C. Sherblom; Therese B. Shipps

1994-01-01

194

Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of Making and Writing Words (MWW), a variation of the Making Words word study activity by Cunningham and Cunningham (1992), on second-grade students word learning. MWW was implemented daily with a group of second-grade students' over a five-month period. Results indicated that students who received the MWW treatment…

Rasinski, Timothy; Oswald, Ruth

2005-01-01

195

An Elementary School Teacher's Reflection on Implementing Constructivist Instruction in Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper was to describe how the author, Kuo-Chung Hsu, changed his teaching beliefs and science instruction through participating in a cooperative action research, which is conducted by the author, Jing-Ru Wang. Self-study was adopted to explain and interpret Kuo-Chung Hsu's experience of teaching science in Taiwan island.…

Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Wang, Jing-Ru

2012-01-01

196

Teaching Constructivist Science, K-8: Nurturing Natural Investigators in the Standards-Based Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good teachers know that science is more than just a collection of facts in a textbook and that teaching science goes beyond the mere transmission of information. Actively engaging students in the learning process is critical to building their knowledge base, assessing progress, and meeting science standards. This book shows teachers how to…

Bentley, Michael L.; Ebert, Edward S., II; Ebert, Christine

2007-01-01

197

Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

Maor, Dorit

198

Technology Tools, A Web-Based Learning Environment for the Science and Mathematics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TechTools™ is a professional development program for science and mathematics teachers for purposes of promoting a constructivist pedagogy with modern technologies: probeware, image processing, multimedia, e-mail, and the WWW. We report preliminary results on (1) changes in teachers' use of technology tools, classroom pedagogy and attitude, and (2) systemic ingredients which are catalytic and inhibitors to the technology reformation necessary in the educational system.

Meisner, Gerald W.; Hoffman, Harol

199

Ontological Models, Preparation Contextuality and Nonlocality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ontological model framework for an operational theory has generated much interest in recent years. The debate concerning reality of quantum states has been made more precise in this framework. With the introduction of generalized notion of contextuality in this framework, it has been shown that completely mixed state of a qubit is \\emph{preparation contextual}. Interestingly, this new idea of preparation contextuality has been used to demonstrate nonlocality of some $\\psi$-epistemic models without any use of Bell's inequality. In particular, nonlocality of a non maximally $\\psi$-epistemic model has been demonstrated from preparation contextuality of a maximally mixed qubit and Schr\\"{o}dinger's steerability of the maximally entangled state of two qubits [Phys. Rev. Lett {\\bf 110}, 120401 (2013)]. In this paper, we, show that any mixed state is preparation contextual. We, then, show that nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled state, with Schmidt rank two, follows from preparation contextuality and steerability provided we impose certain condition on the epistemicity of the underlying ontological model. More interestingly, if the pure entangled state is of Schmidt rank greater than two, its nonlocality follows without any further condition on the epistemicity. Thus our result establishes a stronger connection between nonlocality and preparation contextuality by revealing nonlocality of any bipartite pure entangled states without any use of Bell-type inequality.

Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

2014-10-01

200

Classroom Catapults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wow, our plastic load flew 540 centimeters! This is so cool!" An interdisciplinary unit on catapults was responsible for the excitement and enthusiasm generated in the author's classroom. In their social studies class, students learned about the Middle A

Villano, Diane D.

2001-02-01

201

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Alexakos, Konstantinos

2001-03-01

202

Classroom Wildlife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

Fleer, Daryl

1984-01-01

203

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2006-01-01

204

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

Institute Of Navigation And Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

205

Design, implementation, and evaluation of two laboratory course constructivist learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the design, implementation, and evaluation of two student-centered, constructivist undergraduate laboratory courses: the intensive general chemistry laboratory course, a first-year course, and the physical chemistry laboratory course, a fourth-year course for chemistry majors. The courses' activities were divided into training and educating blocks according to their cognitive and epistemological content; i.e., the training block activities consisted of structured experiments based on laboratory manuals, which developed specific curricular skills; the educating block consisted of problem-based-learning contextual episodic experiences in the form of case studies, integrative, and independent projects aimed at broadening the students' perspectives and metacognitive abilities. The main goal of the proposed curricular change was to motivate the first-year students to major in chemistry, and once motivated to sustain the interest of declared majors through the undergraduate experience into the fourth year to build stronger graduate programs in chemistry. The effectiveness of the courses in promoting students' intellectual growth, transfer of domain specific knowledge in the sense of procedural transfer i.e., the application of prior knowledge to new learning situations, and active learning of professional or transferable skills that would improve efficiency and effectiveness in their professional preparation was evaluated quantitatively by analyzing the students' group- and individual-reports at the beginning and end of the courses and qualitatively by analyzing the students' responses to open-ended questionnaires at the beginning and end of the courses. The students performed outstandingly as evidenced by the high grades obtained in the graded activities, and by the appreciation of external evaluators who attended the students' public presentations. Analysis of the students' responses to the open-ended questionnaires using indigenous concepts and case study approaches showed intellectual growth in the sense of Perry's theory, gain of domain specific knowledge, and acquisition of transferable skills. Since the implementation of the pilot phase of the prototypical courses in the fall of 2002 to date, seventy three percent of the declared chemistry majors are either pursuing careers in chemistry or have been admitted to chemistry programs nationwide.

Avila, Luis

206

SYSTEMIC–CONSTRUCTIVIST COUPLE THERAPY (SCCT): DESCRIPTION OF APPROACH, THEORETICAL ADVANCES, AND PUBLISHED LONGITUDINAL EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic–constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic–constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social–environmental context of the couple.

DAVID W. REID; FAYE K. DOELL; E. JANE DALTON; SAUNIA AHMAD

2008-01-01

207

Facilitating Student Learning through Contextualization. CCRC Working Paper No. 29  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a literature review that explores the nature and effectiveness of contextualization as a way to improve outcomes for academically underprepared college students. Two forms of contextualization have been studied: "contextualized" and "integrated" instruction. There is more descriptive work on the contextualization of basic skills than…

Perin, Dolores

2011-01-01

208

The flipped classroom: now or never?  

PubMed

Pedagogical changes and new models of delivering educational content should be considered in the effort to address the recommendations of the 2007 Institute of Medicine report and Benner's recommendations on the radical transformation of nursing. Transition to the nurse anesthesia practice doctorate addresses the importance of these recommendations, but educational models and specific strategies on how to implement changes in educational models and systems are still emerging. The flipped classroom (FC) is generating a considerable amount of buzz in academic circles. The FC is a pedagogical model that employs asynchronous video lectures, reading assignments, practice problems, and other digital, technology-based resources outside the classroom, and interactive, group-based, problem-solving activities in the classroom. This FC represents a unique combination of constructivist ideology and behaviorist principles, which can be used to address the gap between didactic education and clinical practice performance. This article reviews recent evidence supporting use of the FC in health profession education and suggests ways to implement the FC in nurse anesthesia educational programs. PMID:25167605

Hawks, Sharon J

2014-08-01

209

The perils, privileges and pleasures of seeking right from wrong: reflecting upon student perspectives of social processes, value systems, agency and the becoming of identity in the dance technique classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reflects a pedagogical qualitative action research study conducted in my university contemporary technique courses that explored constructivist, emancipatory, and transformative learning perspectives. The study offered me the opportunity to critically reflect upon my teaching practices and values in light of student perceptions of social processes at play within my classroom and how these related to understandings gained, values

Becky Dyer

2010-01-01

210

A comparison of the effects of social constructivist and traditional approaches to teaching on students' attitude and achievement in high school chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current views of the nature of knowledge and of learning suggest that instructional approaches in science education pay closer attention to how students learn rather than on teaching. This study examined the use of approaches to teaching science based on two contrasting perspectives in learning, social constructivist and traditional, and the effects they have on students' attitudes and achievement. Four categories of attitudes were measured using the Upper Secondary Attitude Questionnaire: Attitude towards school, towards the importance of science, towards science as a career, and towards science as a subject in school. Achievement was measured by average class grades and also with a researcher/teacher constructed 30-item test that involved three sub-scales of items based on knowledge, and applications involving near-transfer and far-transfer of concepts. The sample consisted of 202 students in nine intact classrooms in chemistry at a large high school in Miami, Florida, and involved two teachers. Results were analyzed using a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with a pretest in attitude as the covariate for attitudes and prior achievement as the covariate for achievement. A comparison of the adjusted mean scores was made between the two groups and between females and males. With constructivist-based teaching, students showed more favorable attitude towards science as a subject, obtained significantly higher scores in class achievement, total achievement and achievement on the knowledge sub-scale of the knowledge and application test. Students in the traditional group showed more favorable attitude towards school. Females showed significantly more positive attitude towards the importance of science and obtained significantly higher scores in class achievement. No significant interaction effects were obtained for method of instruction by gender. This study lends some support to the view that constructivist-based approaches to teaching science is a viable alternative to traditional modes of teaching. It is suggested that in science education, more consideration be given to those aspects of classroom teaching that foster closer coordination between social influences and individual learning.

Latchman, Pooran

2000-10-01

211

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

212

Caring Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for creating caring, positive classroom environments from the start include hanging pictures of people from around the world with mirrors to promote reflection, making signs that present concepts about rights, and creating name cards for saving work in progress. Questions for teachers to ask before school begins are included. (SM)

Kreidler, William J.

1996-01-01

213

Classroom Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films can be an effective method of teaching English, the humanities, and social studies to students from the junior high school through the community college level. This book in part a guide and in part a teacher's memoir, sets forth a rationale for using films in the classroom to encourage reading, writing, thoughtful discussion, and an…

Maynard, Richard A.

214

Classroom Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

Segal, Carmit

2008-01-01

215

Classroom aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complicated interaction between individual pupils and class groups is highlighted in cases of classroom agression. The author's diagnostic-treatment model aims at examining individual aggressors partly through the use of teachers' assessments of them as members of the class group, at assessing the group's emotional climate, and at identifying the triggering-off stimuli within the group which provoke aggression. The aggressive

Brede Foy

1977-01-01

216

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Aronson, Elliot; Network, Social P.

217

Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

Klassen, Stephen

2006-09-01

218

Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming  

PubMed Central

This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

2006-01-01

219

Semantic contextual cuing and visual attention.  

PubMed

Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the context can be learned implicitly and whether that learning depends on attention. The contextual cuing paradigm was used with lexical displays in which the semantic category of the contextual words either did or did not predict the target location. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that implicit contextual cuing effects can be extended to semantic category regularities. Experiments 3 and 4 indicated an implicit contextual cuing effect when the predictive context appeared in an attended color but not when the predictive context appeared in an ignored color. However, when the previously ignored context suddenly became attended, it immediately facilitated performance. In contrast, when the previously attended context suddenly became ignored, no benefit was observed. Results suggest that the expression of implicit semantic knowledge depends on attention but that latent learning can nevertheless take place outside the attentional field. PMID:19170470

Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, André; Marmèche, Evelyne

2009-02-01

220

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

221

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

222

Influences of Constructivist-Oriented Nutrition Education on Urban Middle School Students' Nutrition Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…

McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo

2011-01-01

223

The Effects of a Constructivist Teaching Approach on Student Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a constructivist approach on academic achievement, self-concept and learning strategies, and student preference were investigated. The 76 six graders were divided into two groups. The experimental group was taught using the constructivist approach while the control group was taught using the traditional approach. A total of 40 hours…

Kim, Jong Suk

2005-01-01

224

The Correlation of Students' Views on Constructivist Teaching Environment and Teachers' Student Control Ideologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between elementary teachers' student control ideology and students' views on constructivist learning environment. In this study, the correlation between the views of teachers working in elementary schools on student control ideology and students' views on constructivist

Beyhan, Omer

2013-01-01

225

Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

2013-01-01

226

Literalism and Contextualism: Some Varieties FRANOIS RECANATI  

E-print Network

in the philosophy of language, we may legitimately ascribe truth-conditional content to sentences, independently with another view, reminiscent of that held by ordinary language philosophers half a century ago. That other positions. My aim is to convince the reader that the Literalism/Contextualism controversy is far from being

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Contextualized Science for Teaching Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses science education in India, arguing that a contextualized curriculum is a powerful means of improvement. The paper presents results from an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in current Indian textbooks and uses India's controversial Sadar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project as a case example. (SM)

Koul, Ravinder; Dana, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

228

Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: From Algorithm to Curriculum  

E-print Network

's "internalization" of the text. We discuss unwarranted assumptions behind some classic objections to CVA designed to help students use CVA to improve their reading comprehension. Running head: Contextual for ESL readers, dictionaries are often difficult to use and their definitions difficult to interpret

Rapaport, William J.

229

Does contextual information bias bitemark comparisons?  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that the interpretation of fingerprint evidence is open to contextual bias. While there has been suggestion in the literature that the same might apply to bitemarks - a form of identification evidence in which a degree of contextual information during the comparison phase is generally unavoidable - there have so far been no empirical studies to test this assertion. We explored dental and non-dental students' ability to state whether two bitemarks matched, while manipulating task ambiguity and the presence and emotional intensity of additional contextual information. Provision of the contextual information influenced participants' decisions on the ambiguous bitemarks. Interestingly, when participants were presented with highly emotional images and subliminally primed with the words 'same' and 'guilty', they made fewer matches relative to our control condition. Dental experience also played a role in decision-making, with dental students making more matches as the experiment progressed, regardless of context or task ambiguity. We discuss ways that this exploratory research can be extended in future studies. PMID:25002044

Osborne, Nikola K P; Woods, Sally; Kieser, Jules; Zajac, Rachel

2014-07-01

230

A recommendation mechanism for contextualized mobile advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile advertising complements the Internet and interactive television advertising and makes it possible for advertisers to create tailor-made campaigns targeting users according to where they are, their needs of the moment and the devices they are using (i.e. contextualized mobile advertising). Therefore, it is necessary that a fully personalized mobile advertising infrastructure be made. In this paper, we present such

Soe-tsyr Yuan; Y. W. Tsao

2003-01-01

231

Contextual restoration of severely degraded document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to restore severely degraded document images using a probabilistic context model. Unlike traditional approaches that use previously learned prior models to restore an image, we are able to learn the text model from the degraded document itself, making the approach independent of script, font, style, etc. We model the contextual relationship using an MRF. The ability

Jyotirmoy Banerjee; Anoop M. Namboodiri; C. V. Jawahar

2009-01-01

232

Contextual restoration of severely degraded document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to restore severely degraded document images using a probabilistic context model. Un- like traditional approaches that use previously learned prior models to restore an image, we are able to learn the text model from the degraded document itself, making the approach independent of script, font, style, etc. We model the contextual relationship using an MRF. The

Jyotirmoy Banerjee; Anoop M. Namboodiri; C. V. Jawahar

2009-01-01

233

A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contextual approach to teaching is generally recognized as a reasonable and desirable strategy to enhance student learning in science. Using several cognitive and learning theories together with various philosophical considerations, I identify five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social,…

Klassen, Stephen

2006-01-01

234

A Contextual-Logic Extension of TOSCANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to indicate how TOSCANA maybe extended to allow graphical representations not only of concept latticesbut also of concept graphs in the sense of Contextual Logic. Thecontextual-logic extension of TOSCANA requires the logical scaling ofconceptual and relational scales for which we propose the Peircean AlgebraicLogic as reconstructed by R. W. Burch. As graphical representationswe recommend,

Peter W. Eklund; Bernd Groh; Gerd Stumme; Rudolf Wille

2000-01-01

235

Specialist Review 99. Contextual inference of protein  

E-print Network

FIR ST PAG E PR O O FS Specialist Review 99. Contextual inference of protein function Aswin Sai is by identifying the function of proteins and RNAs encoded in its genome. Traditionally, computational methods used to assign protein function are based on the simple assumption that proteins with similar sequences (homologs

Babu, M. Madan

236

Contextual queries express mobile information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The users of mobile devices increasingly use networked services to address their information needs. Questions asked by mobile users are strongly influenced by contextual factors such as location, conversation and activity. We report on a diary study performed to better understand mobile information needs. We find that the type of questions recorded by participants varies across their locations, with differences

Annika M. Hinze; Carole Chang; David M. Nichols

2010-01-01

237

Teaching the Skill of Contextualizing in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Contextualization", the act of placing events in a proper context, allows teachers to weave a rich, dynamic portrait of a historical period for their students. As teachers strive to identify enduring themes and patterns, they must teach students to appreciate the particular policies, institutions, worldviews, and circumstances that shape a given…

Reisman, Avishag; Wineburg, Sam

2008-01-01

238

The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

2007-01-01

239

Quantifying Ecosystem Controls and Their Contextual Interactions  

E-print Network

Quantifying Ecosystem Controls and Their Contextual Interactions on Nutrient Export from Developing The complexity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to compare the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors and to assess the effects of their interactions on ecosystem development. To improve our

Wang, Deane

240

Contextual Spelling Correction Using Latent Semantic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual spelling errors are defined as the use of an incorrect, though valid, word in a particular sentence or context. Tra- ditional spelling checkers flag misspelled words, but they do not typically attempt to identify words that are used incorrectly in a sentence. We explore the use of Latent Se- mantic Analysis for correcting these incor- rectly used words and

Michael P. Jones; James H. Martin

1997-01-01

241

ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF CONTEXTUAL ROLE KNOWLEDGE  

E-print Network

ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF CONTEXTUAL ROLE KNOWLEDGE FOR COREFERENCE RESOLUTION by David L of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science School of Computing The University by recognizing word similarity, proximity, and agreement in number, gender, and semantic class. This work

Riloff, Ellen

242

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF MOBILE COLLABORATIVE APPLICATIONS USING CONTEXTUAL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative mobile applications support users on the move in order to perform a collaborative task. One of the challenges when designing such applications is to consider the context where they will execute. Contextualized applications are easy to adopt by the users; unfortunately the design of contextualized tools is not evident. This paper presents a framework of contextual elements to be

Rosa Alarcon

2006-01-01

243

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

244

Thursday's Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every Thursday, this NASA-created learning resource presents a new topic with the aim of providing "a lasting connection between NASA's latest research and the classroom environment." Prior lesson topics have included the recent solar eclipse, the Mars Polar Lander, and organisms that survive in extreme conditions and their implications for the possibility of extraterrestrial life. For each lesson, there are links to news reports and a range of lesson plans and activity sheets designed for different age groups. The site also contains an archive/ schedule of prior and future lessons.

245

The Documentation of Kindergarten Children's Interactional Competency in an Informal Context of the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interactional competence of 12 kindergarten children was studied through naturalistic research of their sociodramatic play in a classroom context. Data were collected by both videotape and trained observers. Contextual and interactional information was analyzed according to an Interactional Competency Checklist (ICC) designed by the author.…

Black, Janet K.

246

Learning in basic electricity: how do motivation, cognitive and classroom climate factors influence achievement in physics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of school learning cannot be reduced to cognitive aspects alone, because motivational factors, teaching methodology and other classroom?contextual factors exercise a significant influence. In this study we describe a school experiment in which the learning history of students is followed by the use of tests, and, at the same time, the psychological context of their learning is monitored

Christoph von Rhöneck; Karl Grob; Gerhard W. Schnaitmann; Bruno Völker

1998-01-01

247

A Tale of Two Cultures: The Omani-Indian Encounter in the Literature Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of cultural and contextual approaches in the study of literature has long been accepted as imperative in the literature classroom, fostering, as it does, the sensitization of students to diverse worldviews. This article aims to explore the way in which literature could affect students' preconceived notions of communities and…

Heble, Ayesha; Mehta, Sandhya Rao

2013-01-01

248

Sex differences in student dominance behavior in female and male professors' classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of verbal participation and interaction among graduate students provided a comparison of male and female dominance behavior in the classroom, and measures of the contextual effect of sex of professor provided further data on the interrelatedness of sex, status, and dominance behavior. Male students were found to exhibit significantly more aggressiveness (interruptive behavior) than female students in both male

Virginia R. Brooks

1982-01-01

249

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

2012-01-01

250

It Was Written All Over Him: Classroom Teachers' Referral Criteria for Special Education Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contextual understanding of general education classroom teachers' reasons for a student's referral for special education services provides insight into this initial step in the identification process. The philosophy of social constructivism (Bruner, 1987; Freedman & Combs, 1996; Vygotsky, 1978) provides a backdrop for the underlying practices…

Dunn, Michael W.

2006-01-01

251

Teaching Intercultural English Learning/Teaching in World Englishes: Some Classroom Activities in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…

Lee, Kang-Young

2012-01-01

252

Classroom Effects on Student Motivation: Goal Structures, Social Relationships, and Competence Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists and educators have often conceptualized motivation as an individual difference variable, something that some students simply have more of than other students. This view of motivation can underestimate contextual influences. In this article we consider how characteristics of the school and classroom may influence student motivation,…

Urdan, Tim; Schoenfelder, Erin

2006-01-01

253

Methods in Second Language Classroom-Oriented Research: A Critical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 50 empirical classroom-oriented investigations of second-language learning concludes that there is a need for more contextualized research; extended theoretical bases of research; an extended range of research tools, techniques, and methods; reevaluation of the distinctions between process- and product-oriented research; and more…

Nunan, David

1991-01-01

254

The Electronic Classroom. New Classrooms without Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how teachers can take advantage of the Internet to create classroom projects. The process involves locating collaborating partners via the World Wide Web, then determining which projects would be worthwhile to students. Presents guidelines for organizing a classroom project, discusses classroom considerations, examines teacher…

Barron, Ann E.; Ivers, Karen S.

1998-01-01

255

Does Constructivist Teaching Help Students Move Their Epistemological Beliefs in Physics through Uppers Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of the development of students' epistemological beliefs is important. There is little empirical evidence for precisely how epistemological beliefs are altered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of constructivist teaching on students' epistemological beliefs in physics. One-group pretest-posttest…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

2008-01-01

256

Preservice Teachers' Reaction to Their Final Constructivist Mathematics Class: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teacher educators model constructivist pedagogy to preservice teachers in the mathematics classes they take. Preservice teachers however, are not necessarily comfortable being a part of such a class. The following qualitative case study examined the expectations and reactions of a group of preservice teachers who were taking their final…

Andrew, Lane

2006-01-01

257

Innovation in low tech SMBs: evidence of a necessary constructivist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey demonstrates a necessary constructivist approach in SMB innovation management. Authors base their study on an anthropological type approach. More precisely, they analyse innovative project evolution within a firm panel of ten. They point out that various strategies are applied by top management during the project. They demonstrate the non-existence of a single ideal new product development process. Consequently

Vincent Boly; Laure Morel; Jean Renaud; Claudine Guidat

2000-01-01

258

Experimentation with a Socio-Constructivist Process for Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A socio-constructivist and experiential process for climate change education was experimented within two coastal communities of Eastern Canada with 39 students 13 and 14 years of age. The pedagogical process, based on local observation of climate change, Duit's conceptual change theory (1999) and experiential learning, aimed for the improvement of…

Pruneau, Diane; Gravel, Helene; Bourque, Wendy; Langis, Joanne

2003-01-01

259

Bridging the rationalist–constructivist divide: re-engineering the culture of the World Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to explain reform patterns at the World Bank. Traditional realist and institutionalist theories say little about the process of change within international organizations ('IOs'). Drawing upon the insights of relatively new rationalist and constructivist approaches, we develop and test a model of IO change that combines insights from rationalism and constructivism. Our explanation integrates the

Daniel L. Nielson; Michael J. Tierney; Catherine E. Weaver

2006-01-01

260

Ignoring the Obvious: A Constructivist Critique of a Traditional Teacher Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present the conclusions of a Deweyan-oriented constructivist educator concerning what I believe to be a number of crucial dysfunctional elements embedded in the very structure of the traditional teacher education program. My experience as a teacher educator has led me to conclude that certain time-honored aspects…

Chicoine, David

2004-01-01

261

Constructivist-Centered Professional Development in Vocabulary Instruction for Upper Grade Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study was designed to investigate the impact of constructivist-centered professional development in vocabulary instruction for 14 upper-grade elementary school teachers. The researcher facilitated 10 training sessions held in small groups, during grade level meetings at an urban public school, to develop individual and collective…

Samson, Beatrice

2012-01-01

262

Do Junior High School Students Perceive Their Learning Environment as Constructivist?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the manner in which the features of a constructivist learning environment, and the mechanisms at its base, are expressed in junior high school students' conceptions. Our research is based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches, deigned to provide a wider ranging and deeper…

Moustafa, Asely; Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim

2013-01-01

263

Some Interrelationships between Constructivist Models of Learning and Current Neurobiological Theory, with Implications for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge and provides additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. The implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science…

Anderson, O. Roger

1992-01-01

264

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

265

An operational approach for analyzing ICT-based constructivist and adaptive learning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivism is a learning theory that states that people learn best when they actively construct their own knowledge. Adaptability is the ability to adapt learning ex- periences to different kinds of learners. A significant number of ICT-based constructivist learning systems and ICT-based adaptive learning systems have been proposed in recent years. A critical problem related to the design and use

Vu Minh Chieu; Dao Thi Viet Anh; Pham Khac Hung

2006-01-01

266

Collaborative Group Action Research: A Constructivist Approach to Developing an Integrated Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary teachers collaborated on a research project that investigated how a constructivist approach to gifted and talented integrated curriculum strategies and techniques could be developed and implemented. The collaborative group action research cycle involved planning, collecting baseline data, intervening strategies/modifying interventions,…

Saurino, Penny L.; Saurino, Dan R.

267

An Interpretation of the "Self" From the Dynamical Systems Perspective: A Constructivist Approach  

E-print Network

them with artificial systems ­i.e. building computer simulators, robot systems etc. Although the constructivist approach in the field of artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks and machine learning Jun Tani Sony Computer Science Laboratory Inc. 3-14-13 Higashi-gotanda, Tokyo, 141 JAPAN. tani

Tani, Jun

268

Involving older people in research: practical considerations when using the authenticity criteria in constructivist inquiry  

PubMed Central

Aim The purpose of this paper is to identify practical suggestions that could enable other researchers to consider how quality may be evidenced using constructivist principles including the perspectives of older people and their caregivers. Background Constructivism suggests that reality is part of a social construction, which holds different meanings for each person, in which people are active agents, making autonomous decisions. This approach to research has been identified as suitable for health and social care professionals because these underpinning principles reflect the values of these professions, facilitating the involvement of users and carers. The authenticity criteria have been developed to reflect these philosophical principles but have been criticized for their inaccessible language. To incorporate user and carer perspectives, the criteria have been revised into a more accessible model matrix known as the AldreVast Sjuharad criteria. Discussion This paper reports on two constructivist studies that explored relationships between older people, families and staff in different settings – the community and care homes. Examples from both settings demonstrate how the perspectives of users and carers were incorporated throughout the research process. Following the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix, practical guidance is provided on how the quality of constructivist research may be implemented in nursing research. Conclusions The different settings in this paper influenced how the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix was applied. Further work is needed in exploring how the perspective of users and carers may be incorporated into the quality process of constructivist research. PMID:21073505

Wilson, Christine Brown; Clissett, Philip

2011-01-01

269

Constructivist Teaching Practices Used by Five Teacher Leaders for the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a wealth of research examining learning environments as one of the variables that contributes to academic success for students studying science. A constructivist learning environment has been explored as one way to assist students in achieving greater success with science learning. There is a lack of research concerning how and if…

Singh, Abha; Yager, Stuart O.; Yutakom, Naruemon; Yager, Robert E.; Ali, Mohmaed Moustafa

2012-01-01

270

Millennial Expectations, Constructivist Theory, and Changes in a Teacher Preparation Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennial Generation (born [asymptotically equivalent to]1982-2002) is now well represented in the university setting. This cohort has its own unique expectations that are in many ways aligned with constructivist propositions of learning. These Millennial expectations will likely necessitate changes in instructional approaches used in the…

Carter, Timothy L.

2009-01-01

271

Enhancing Teachers' Application of Inquiry-Based Strategies Using a Constructivist Sociocultural Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-year school-wide initiative to improve teachers' pedagogical skills in inquiry-based science instruction using a constructivist sociocultural professional development model involved 30 elementary teachers from one school, three university faculty, and two central office content supervisors. Research was conducted for investigating the…

Brand, Brenda R.; Moore, Sandra J.

2011-01-01

272

Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Vision in the Constructivist Conception of Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…

Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.

2012-01-01

273

A Constructivist Stretch: Preservice Teachers Meet Preteens in a Technology-Based Literacy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study conducted within a constructivist framework to examine pre-service teachers' development and implementation of a collaborative, technology-based literacy project with 11- and 12-year-old learners. Concludes that the pre-service teachers learned the value of Internet technology, e-mail, and hypermedia applications, but problems…

Bauer, John F.; Anderson, Rebecca S.

2002-01-01

274

Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

2013-01-01

275

A Constructivist Computational Tool to Assist in Learning Primary School Mathematical Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In constructivist principles, learning is a process in which individuals construct knowledge. Research in Mathematics Education looks for ways to make mathematics education less dry and more attractive. When solving polynomial equations of the first degree, it is very common for teachers to work with the mistaken idea of "changing the sign" when…

Figueira-Sampaio, Aleandra da Silva; dos Santos, Eliane Elias Ferreira; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes

2009-01-01

276

An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

2009-01-01

277

Integrating Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in Distance Education: A Constructivist Framework for Social Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New communication technologies and constructivist pedagogy have the great potential to build very powerful paradigm shifts that enhance Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in distance education. Therefore, the main purpose of this chapter is to explore the new concerns, issues and potentials for the IPTV delivery of distance education to…

Yuzer, T. Volkan; Kurubacak, Gulsun

2011-01-01

278

Effects of Constructivist-Oriented Instruction on Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was primarily to explore the effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on fifth graders' cognitive structures about biological reproduction. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 eleven year olds in Taiwan, who were assigned to either a…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

279

THE ZHENGHUA PE EXPERIENCE: A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PHYSICAL EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1966) of learning, Zhenghua Secondary School's 'Zhenghua PE Experience' provides students, including the less-skilled or active ones, the opportunity to build authentic personal sense through the experience of being part of a team, working towards common goals. Through the lower secondary Sport Education (Siedentop, 1994) modules, students learn games skills and adopt sporting roles, thus

Hanif Abdul Rahman

280

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main…

Okland, Gunnar Magne

2012-01-01

281

The "Good Enough" Drama: Reinterpreting Constructivist Aesthetics and Epistemology in Drama Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When we speak of quality in drama education, we apply different educational and aesthetic criteria. For example, improvised drama practices such as process drama, are closely associated to John Dewey's constructivist philosophy. What makes a drama qualitatively "good" within such a framework differs radically from criteria that are familiar in…

Rasmussen, Bjorn

2010-01-01

282

Teacher Views about Constructivist Instruction and Personal Epistemology: A National Study in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the views about constructivist instruction and personal epistemology of the secondary earth science teachers in Taiwan. Participants were assessed through a paper-and-pencil survey and a "Learning environment preference questionnaire" (LEP) designed to explore personal epistemology. On a five-point Likert scale, teachers,…

Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Ying-Shou

2008-01-01

283

The Student as Knowledge Engineer: A Constructivist Model for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment applied the theories of knowledge engineering and expert systems to science instruction for junior high school students. The model encourages a more creative, constructivist approach to teaching certain science concepts and skills while fostering improvement of logical thinking, communication, and independent learning skills. Results…

Morelli, Ralph

1990-01-01

284

Experimentation with a socio-constructivist process for climate change education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A socio-constructivist and experiential process for climate change education was experimented within two coastal communities of Eastern Canada with 39 students 13 and 14 years of age. The pedagogical process, based on local observation of climate change, Duit's conceptual change theory (1999) and experiential learning, aimed for the improvement of students' conceptions of climate change: the nature of the phenomenon,

Diane Pruneau; Helene Gravel; Wendy Bourque; Joanne Langis

2003-01-01

285

A Constructivist-Based Model for the Teaching of Dissolution of Gas in a Liquid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we present details of a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which helps students understand the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. The model derived from Ayas (1995) involves elicitation of pre-existing ideas, focusing on the target concept, challenging students' ideas, and applying newly constructed ideas to similar…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2006-01-01

286

Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

2003-01-01

287

APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research  

E-print Network

1 APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research Ed, we describe one such perspective, APOS Theory, in the context of undergraduate mathematics education for building a community of researchers in undergraduate mathematics education, and indicate the use of APOS

Dubinsky, Ed

288

Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

289

Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

Jena, Ananta Kumar

2012-01-01

290

Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

Brendel, Michelle

2014-05-01

291

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2012-01-01

292

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2010-01-01

293

A constructivist approach to the help-seeking process of clients: A response to cultural diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of cultural diversity presents clinicians with both delemmas and opportunities. To deal with such a challenge, I have proposed a constructivist approach to the help-seeking process of clients from diverse ethnoracial backgrounds. A model of clients' help-seeking processes provides a useful and systematic frame for clinicians to understand clients' construction of their problem situations and possible solutions. It

Mo-Yee Lee

1996-01-01

294

Mathematics Tutoring through a Constructivist Lens: The Challenges of Sense-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses dilemmas teachers may face when shifting their concept of teaching or tutoring from explaining or telling to a constructivist perspective of facilitating the development of students' knowledge structures. Examines teachers' decisions during a 20-minute segment of dialogue between a student and teacher while studying linear functions. (14…

Arcavi, Abraham; Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1992-01-01

295

Perceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers Concerning Constructivist Perspectives to Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify how a four-semester sequence teacher education program helps change pre-service teachers' perceptions about constructivist teaching and learning as they progress through the program. The participants of the study included a total of 194 science pre-service teachers in four different semesters of their…

Taskin-Can, Bilge

2013-01-01

296

Using Interactive Whiteboard Technology-Rich Constructivist Learning Environment to Minimize Gender Differences in Chemistry Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brunei, more girls are enrolled at the institutions of higher education than boys. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a constructivist teaching approach, enriched with interactive whiteboard technology could empower males to minimize gender differences in achievement in Chemistry. Two groups of students were taught for six weeks: one…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Shahrizal-Emran

2011-01-01

297

Engaging Students in Multimedia-Mediated Constructivist Learning--Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia and investigated students' perceptions while working on a multimedia project that was embedded within a constructivist-based learning environment. We studied the impact of using multimedia on students who have little experience with working in a…

Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

2009-01-01

298

Development of materials in instruction of decimals according to constructivist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimals are among the difficult subjects for the students because of its abstract nature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop instructional materials for students based on one of the four-stage models of constructivist approach related to the unit of “decimals”. With this aim, a worksheet, analogy map and conceptual change text on the unit of decimals were

Cemalettin Y?ld?z; Adnan Baki; Mehmet Ayd?n; Davut Kö?ce

2010-01-01

299

Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

Bielefeldt, Talbot

1989-01-01

300

Learned contextual cue potentiates eating in rats.  

PubMed

Explicit cues associated with food consumption when hunger prevails will enhance eating when they are subsequently presented under conditions of satiety. Here we examined whether contextual conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with consumption of food pellets while rats were food-deprived would enhance consumption of this food in rats that were not food-deprived. The conditioning context enhanced rats' consumption of the training food, but it did not change their consumption of the familiar, lab chow. These results show that the contextual CSs, like discrete cues, could modulate food consumption in a CS-potentiated eating paradigm. Furthermore, the data suggest that CS-potentiation of eating does not induce a general motivation to eat, akin to hunger, but instead more likely produces a more specific motivational state, akin to craving. PMID:17078980

Petrovich, Gorica D; Ross, Cali A; Gallagher, Michela; Holland, Peter C

2007-02-28

301

Contextual service loading by dependency graph colouring  

Microsoft Academic Search

While installing applications on mobiles devices, we may face issues due to the limit of the device resources. In this paper, we propose AxSeL: A conteXtual Service Loader that considers services-oriented applications and loads them from a distant repository. Services dependencies are represented in a graph that is coloured considering the devices and services constraints. The graph colouring aims to

Amira Ben Hamida; Frédéric Le Mouël; Stéphane Frénot; Mohamed Ben Ahmed

2008-01-01

302

A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Science Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contextual approach to teaching is generally recognized as a reasonable and desirable strategy to enhance student learning\\u000a in science. Using several cognitive and learning theories together with various philosophical considerations, I identify five\\u000a distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective.\\u000a Based on these five contexts, I construct a model for teaching

Stephen Klassen

2006-01-01

303

A contextual algorithm for AVHRR fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contextual algorithm for fire detection with NOAA-AVHRR-LAC data was developed. Unlike ‘traditional’ fire detection algorithms (e.g., multichannel thresholds), the decision to record a fire is made by comparing a fire pixel with the pixels in its immediate neighbourhood. The algorithm is self-adaptive and therefore very consistent over large areas as well as through seasons. The algorithm appears to operate

S. P. Flasse; P. Ceccato

1996-01-01

304

Parallel Contextual Hexagonal Array Grammars and Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal patterns are known to occur in the literature on picture processing and image analysis. Siromoney et al. constructed hexagonal array grammars for generating hexagonal arrays and hexagonal patterns. On the other hand, Marcus introduced a class of grammars called contextual grammars in contrast to Chomskian grammars that generate words by starting with an initial word and adding iteratively pairs of words called contexts associated to a set of words called selector to the words already obtained.

Thomas, D. G.; Begam, M. H.; David, N. G.

305

Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

Klopfenstein, Marie

2005-09-01

306

Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics  

E-print Network

Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluctuations in the interaction between entities and contexts. Within the hidden measurement approach we propose a 'sphere model' as a mathematical tool for situations in which contextual risk occurs. We show that a probabilistic model of this kind is necessarily non-Kolmogorovian, hence it requires either the formalism of quantum mechanics or a generalization of it. This insight is relevant, for it explains the presence of quantum or, better, quantum-like, structures in economics, as suggested by some authors, and can serve to solve the aforementioned paradoxes.

Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

2011-05-09

307

Contextuality supplies the magic for quantum computation  

E-print Network

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the answer to the most basic question "What is the source of the power in quantum computing?" has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via magic state distillation. This is a conceptually satisfying link because contextuality provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena and, moreover, magic state distillation is the leading model for experimentally realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the nonlocality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality and nonlocality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation and bounding the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Mark Howard; Joel J. Wallman; Victor Veitch; Joseph Emerson

2014-01-16

308

Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to investigate the underlying issues that contributed to his classroom practice. Data sources included preliminary and follow-up interviews and classroom observations. Data analysis indicated that factors that prevented the epistemological conflict from reaching a resolution included Mr. Hobbs' beliefs about learning, contextual teaching factors, personal experiences as a student, and views of the nature of science. The findings from this case indicate that science teachers possess complex belief systems that are not immediately obvious to either the teacher or science teacher educators, and science teacher educators need to address teacher beliefs when they encourage teachers to implement reformed teaching practices.

Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

2011-02-01

309

The function of questions in Omani fourth grade inquiry-based science classrooms: A sociocultural perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that science education reforms are globally converging. Many countries are adopting the globally advocated science education reforms for the purpose of obtaining the competitive edge in science education and technology that are viewed as the driving forces of modern economies. Globally, science education reforms are emphasizing paradigm shifts in which constructivist instructional are foregrounded. Many science education curricular documents advocate teaching science through engaging students in scientific inquiry. As a result, science classrooms are becoming more student-centered where students are typically actively engaged in inquiry learning. Even though inquiry instruction has become the common approach in teaching science, the actual implementation of inquiry in classrooms indicates that there is a big gap between the intended inquiry advocated in curricula documents and the actual practices in classroom settings. One of the main features of inquiry instruction is student questions. Authentic student questions are essential for the initiating and main scientific inquiry. However, studies have also illustrated the rarity of student questions in classrooms. This dearth in student questions has been attributed to the discursive practices in classrooms. Classrooms that implement the traditional IRE discourse structure tend to have less student questions. On the other hand, reflective questioning is considered a more appropriate classroom discourse structure because it intentionally invites student questions and engages students in classroom discussions. This qualitative study addresses the issue of questioning in fourth grade inquiry-based science classrooms of the Omani Basic Education system. Methods employed in this study included: participant observation, individual interviews, focus group interviews and the collection of artifacts. Findings of this study illustrated the rarity of student questions in the classrooms. However this investigation also revealed the connection between teacher beliefs and implementation of reforms. Teachers whose beliefs were aligned with reforms came closer to implementing reform initiatives as opposed to teachers whose beliefs were not aligned with reform initiatives. The findings of this study were inconclusive when it came to linking teachers' questioning practices to teachers' understanding of inquiry methods.

Al-Shaibani, Madiha Ahmed

310

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors Among African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective\\u000a factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural\\u000a equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder,\\u000a and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was

Nikeea Copeland-Linder; Sharon F. Lambert; Yi-Fu Chen; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

311

Y!Q: contextual search at the point of inspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual search tries to better capture a user's information need by augmenting the user's query with contextual information extracted from the search context (for example, terms from the web page the user is currently reading or a file the user is currently editing).This paper presents Y!Q---a first of its kind large-scale contextual search system---and provides an overview of its system

Reiner Kraft; Farzin Maghoul; Chi-Chao Chang

2005-01-01

312

Y!Q: Contextual Search at the Point of Inspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual search tries to better capture a user's informa- tion need by augmenting the user's query with contextual information extracted from the search context (for example, terms from the web page the user is currently reading or a file the user is currently editing). This paper presents Y!Q—a first of its kind large-scale contextual search system—and provides an overview of

Reiner Kraft; Farzin Maghoul; Chi Chao Chang

1999-01-01

313

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

314

The effect of contextual sound cues on visual fidelity perception.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that sound can affect the perception of visual fidelity. Here we build upon this previous work by examining the effect of contextual sound cues (i.e., sounds that are related to the visuals) on visual fidelity perception. Results suggest that contextual sound cues do influence visual fidelity perception and, more specifically, our perception of visual fidelity increases with contextual sound cues. These results have implications for designers of multimodal virtual worlds and serious games that, with the appropriate use of contextual sounds, can reduce visual rendering requirements without a corresponding decrease in the perception of visual fidelity. PMID:24732534

Rojas, David; Cowan, Brent; Kapralos, Bill; Collins, Karen; Dubrowski, Adam

2014-01-01

315

Contextual view along Davis Avenue; camera facing east. Naval ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view along Davis Avenue; camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Drainage Canals, Along Davis Avenue & at intersection of Humphreys & Cromwell Avenues, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

316

Contextual view along Davis Avenue; camera facing west. Naval ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view along Davis Avenue; camera facing west. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Drainage Canals, Along Davis Avenue & at intersection of Humphreys & Cromwell Avenues, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

317

Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. Mare ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 733; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

318

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

319

Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT): Description of approach, theoretical advances, and published longitudinal evidence.  

PubMed

The systemic-constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social-environmental context of the couple. The theory that underlies SCCT is explained, including concepts such as we-ness and interpersonal processing. The primary components of the therapy are described. Findings described previously in an inaugural monograph containing extensive research demonstrating the long-term utility of SCCT are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122535

Reid, David W; Doell, Faye K; Dalton, E Jane; Ahmad, Saunia

2008-12-01

320

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed `solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa?a; Coll, Richard K.

2010-02-01

321

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-10-01

322

Interpersonal Relations in Four?Year?Old Dyads from Constructivist and Montessori Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

40 4?year?old children from Constructivist and Montessori preschool programs were compared on social?cognitive competence. The Experimenter (E) taught children in pairs to play a board game in Session I, and in Session II asked them to play the game by themselves. Analysis of video and transcripts of 2208 behavioral units using Selman's coding of interpersonal negotiation strategies showed that Montessori

Rheta DeVries; Artin Goncu

1988-01-01

323

Constructivist values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new mindset  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the implications of constructivism for instructional systems design (ISD) are summarized as five principles\\u000a that integrate the affective and cognitive domains of learning. In contrast to current views, it is suggested that constructivist\\u000a philosophy offers instructional designers an alternative set of values that may significantly influence the emphasis of ISD\\u000a methods without undermining the coherence and consistency

David Lebow

1993-01-01

324

Photovoice as a pedagogical tool in the community psychology classroom.  

PubMed

Constructivist perspectives contend that individuals actively extract and make meaning from the world around them. In the classroom this means that students are not passive recipients or repositories for our theories and empirical findings; instead, they actively redefine and relate to (or not) the concepts presented. To simultaneously stimulate and build on this process, I adopted Photovoice as a pedagogical tool to situate students as observers of their own community and create space for them to engage in participatory, community-focused meaning making activities. By employing strategically crafted framing questions, students generated Photovoice data that served as a powerful jumping off point for discussing key community psychology concepts. In addition, the Photovoice process provided students the opportunity to directly experience a participatory research process as well as engage in basic qualitative data analysis. This article presents the general process my class undertook as well as qualitative feedback from students. PMID:23480285

Lichty, Lauren F

2013-01-01

325

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six classroom tips for language teachers focus on creating a congenial classroom environment, integrating listening and reading skills, teaching idioms from tabloid newspapers, cooperative learning in honors courses, grammar games, and teaching culture through personalized automobile license plate messages. (MDM)

Hess, Natalie; And Others

1995-01-01

326

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

327

Virtual Classroom Discussions versus Traditional Classroom Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author of this paper designs, develops, and teaches online courses. This paper examines the students' constructive sociocultural interaction in which learning occurs. This paper compares the classroom discussions in virtual and traditional classrooms and analyses the virtual communication in greater detail according to their content.

Beate Baltes

2002-01-01

328

Evidence for Social and Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Urban Preschoolers: Effects of Site, Classroom, and Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher ratings of 336 preschool children (mean age = 48 months) attending two urban Head Start programs were collected to examine the influence of contextual variables of teacher training, classroom, and site on the prevalence of significant problems. The prevalence of externalizing behaviors in the “problem range” was higher than expected and fewer children were rated in the “well-adjusted range”

Bruno J. Anthony; Laura G. Anthony; Tanya M. Morrel; Michelle Acosta

2005-01-01

329

ELT Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards Environmental Education and Their Tendency to Use It in the Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…

Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.

2011-01-01

330

Competition in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

Jameson, Daphne

2007-01-01

331

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of  

E-print Network

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach

Meagher, Mary

332

Gendered contextual effects on problem drinking and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that the place where people live influences their mental health. However, not all inhabitants experience these contextual effects in a similar way. The present study aims to explore the gender differential effects of work and income related contextual features. Previous research showed that gender differences in mental health result from a differential vulnerability and exposure to stressors.

Bracke Piet; Christiaens Wendy; Levecque Katia

333

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism  

E-print Network

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Two of the main forms of anti-scepticism in the contemporary literature--namely, neo beliefs. Whilst it is ar- gued that neo-Mooreanism has a slight edge over attributer contextualism when

Edinburgh, University of

334

Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

2006-01-01

335

Automatically Optimizing Context Management in Contextual Composition Frameworks ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose an automatic solution for optimizing contextual composition frameworks by removing redundant context checks. By ap- plying the results of my research, it is possible to build contextual compo- sition platforms where modular applications do not incur runtime penal- ties due to the redundant execution of services at components' bound- aries.

Mircea Trofin

336

Contextual Organization and Intentionality in Adults' Spatial Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the notion that spatial memory is automatic, by examining the effects of intentionality and attention to contextual organization in spatial memory. Middle-aged and older women were asked either to study the placement of objects in a contextually organized panorama or to engage in incidental orienting activities, which gave them exposure to the array without awareness that subsequent

Kathryn J. Waddell; Barbara Rogoff

1987-01-01

337

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

338

Neural Correlates of Contextual Cueing Are Modulated by Explicit Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be…

Westerberg, Carmen E.; Miller, Brennan B.; Reber, Paul J.; Cohen, Neal J.; Paller, Ken A.

2011-01-01

339

Is the hippocampus necessary for contextual fear conditioning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hippocampus is widely believed to be essential for learning about the context in which conditioning occurs. This view is based primarily on evidence that lesions of the dorsal hippocampus disrupt freezing to contextual cues after fear conditioning. However, lesions that disrupt freezing produce no effect on fear-potentiated startle, a second measure of contextual fear. Moreover, hippocampal lesions also do

Jonathan C. Gewirtz; Kenneth A. McNish; Michael Davis

2000-01-01

340

Extending Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples to the Contextual Realm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the assumptions, goals, and processes of emotionally focused therapy for couples (EFT) and contextual family therapy, with the purpose of extending the EFT model into the contextual realm. Each model is based on Buber's notion of Dialogue and on Attachment Theory and each focuses on issues of trust in relationships. In this article, the assumptions of each

Kevin P. Lyness

2003-01-01

341

Information Integration Using Contextual Knowledge and Ontology Merging  

E-print Network

Information Integration Using Contextual Knowledge and Ontology Merging by Aykut Firat M.S. Systems Analysis (1998) Miami University, OH B.S. Industrial Engineering (1996) Bo aziçi University Submitted;2 #12;Information Integration Using Contextual Knowledge and Ontology Merging by Aykut Firat Submitted

Polz, Martin

342

Science Teaching/Science Learning: Constructivist Learning in Urban Classrooms. Ways of Knowing in Science and Mathematics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the professional development program Model Science Lab Project which provides a new perspective of science teaching and learning to both teachers and students. During the project, participants benefited from additional time during the study year, science content training, pedagogy training, curriculum resources, reduced…

Harcombe, Elnora S.

343

Gaps in college biology students' understanding of photosynthesis: Implications for human constructivist learning theory and college classroom practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main research question of this study was: What gaps in biochemical understanding are revealed by a range of university introductory biology students as they work through a critically acclaimed multimedia program on photosynthesis, and what are the corresponding implications for elaboration of the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin Learning Theory (ANG, now Human Constructivism)? Twelve students, mixed for ability, gender and ethnicity, were recruited from two sections of "Bio 101." Before and after instruction in photosynthesis, in-depth clinical interviews were conducted during which participants completed a range of cognitive tasks such as sorting, concept mapping, explaining and predicting. Some tasks involved interacting with a computer simulation of photosynthesis. This study primarily employed qualitative case study and verbal analysis methods. Verbal analysis of the clinical interviews revealed numerous gaps that were categorized into typologies. The two major categories were propositional gaps and processing gaps. Propositional gaps were evident in development of participants' concepts, links and constructs. Significant among these were conceptual distance gaps and continuity of matter gaps. Gaps such as convention gaps and relative significance gaps seem to be due to naivete in the discipline. Processing gaps included gaps in graphic decoding skills and relevant cognitive habits such as self-monitoring and consulting prior knowledge. Although the gaps were easier to detect and isolate with the above-average participants, all participants showed evidence of at least some of these gaps. Since some gaps are not unexpected at all but the highest literacy levels, not all the gaps identified are to be considered deficiencies. The gaps identified support the attention given by ANG theorists to the role of prior knowledge and metacognition as well as the value of graphic organizers in knowledge construction. In addition, this study revealed numerous gaps in graphic decoding, indicating that both direct experience and explicit instruction are needed if students are to "learn how to learn with graphics," especially those graphics central to understanding a computer simulation's representations of structures, inputs, processes and outputs. It is hypothesized that gaps similar to those revealed in this study may be at the root of some alternative conceptions documented in the literature.

Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin

1999-11-01

344

Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict--Observe--Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict--observe--explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a…

Kearney, Matthew

2004-01-01

345

Perpetration of aggressive behaviors against peers and teachers as predicted by student and contextual factors.  

PubMed

This study uses an ecological/contextual theory to explore how students' perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors is associated with individual factors such as gender, age, and perception of school climate, and contextual factors such as cultural affiliation, school climate, and teacher characteristics among 4th- through 6th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel. A questionnaire testing the use of aggressive behavior in school was completed by 120 homeroom teachers and 3,375 students. The results of the study show that levels of perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors vary between classes (15.20% directed against students and 7.33% directed against teachers). At the teacher-classroom level, higher levels of perpetration were found in classes with a lower percentage of girls and in classes with fewer or less clear and consistent policies to deal with aggressive behaviors. At the individual level, gender and perception of school climate were found to be associated with levels of perpetration of aggression. The "Discussion" section highlights the importance of improving school climate in order to deal more effectively with violence and aggressive behaviors in schools. Aggr. Behav. 38:253-262, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25363695

Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

2012-07-01

346

The social construction of ability and disability: II. Optimal and at-risk lessons in a bilingual special education classroom.  

PubMed

Bilingual students' language and literacy skills were compared across three classroom events in a special day classroom for students with language learning disabilities. Events ranged from the teacher-structured, formal class openings to the informal, peer-structured socio-dramatic play. Results showed that certain contextual features were associated with enhanced student performance, whereas others were associated with communicative breakdowns and problems with literacy tasks. This ethnographic study, in conjunction with other naturalistic research on bilingual special education classrooms, undergirds the Optimal Learning Environment (OLE) Project by identifying effective instructional contexts for bilingual students identified as having language learning disabilities. PMID:7595040

Ruiz, N T

1995-10-01

347

Anomalous weak values are proofs of contextuality  

E-print Network

The average result of a weak measurement of some observable $A$ can, under post-selection of the measured quantum system, exceed the largest eigenvalue of $A$. The nature of weak measurements, as well as the presence of post-selection and hence possible contribution of measurement-disturbance, has led to a long-running debate about whether or not this is surprising. Here, it is shown that such "anomalous weak values" are non-classical in a precise sense: a sufficiently weak measurement of one constitutes a proof of contextuality. This clarifies, for example, which features must be present (and in an experiment, verified) to demonstrate an effect with no satisfying classical explanation.

Matthew F. Pusey

2014-09-04

348

Quantum pigeonhole effect, Cheshire cat and contextuality  

E-print Network

A kind of paradoxical effects has been demonstrated that the pigeonhole principle, i.e., if three pigeons are put in two pigeonholes then at least two pigeons must stay in the same hole, fails in certain quantum mechanical scenario. Here we shall show how to associate a proof of Kochen-Specker theorem with a quantum pigeonhole effect and vise versa, e.g., from state-independent proofs of Kochen-Specker theorem some kind of state-independent quantum pigeonhole effects can be demonstrated. In particular, a state-independent version of the quantum Cheshire cat, which can be rendered as a kind of quantum pigeonhole effect about the trouble of putting two pigeons in two or more pigeonholes, arises from Peres-Mermin's magic square proof of contextuality.

Sixia Yu; C. H. Oh

2014-08-11

349

Contextual reasoning is NP-complete  

SciTech Connect

The logic of context with the ist (c, p) modality has been proposed by McCarthy as a foundation for contextual reasoning. This paper shows that propositional logic of context is NP-complete and therefore more tractable than multimodal logics or Multi Language hierarchical logics which are PSPACE-complete. This result is given in a proof-theoretical way by providing a tableau calculus, which can be used as a decision procedure for automated reasoning. The computational gap between logic of context and modal logics is analyzed and some indications for the use of either formalisms are drawn on the basis of the tradeoff between compactness of representation and tractability of reasoning.

Massacci, F. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza via Salaria, Roma (Italy)

1996-12-31

350

Implications of quantum automata for contextuality  

E-print Network

We construct zero-error quantum finite automata (QFAs) for promise problems which cannot be solved by bounded-error probabilistic finite automata (PFAs). Here is a summary of our results: - There is a promise problem solvable by an exact two-way QFA in exponential expected time, but not by any bounded-error sublogarithmic space probabilistic Turing machine (PTM). - There is a promise problem solvable by an exact two-way QFA in quadratic expected time, but not by any bounded-error $ o(\\log \\log n) $-space PTMs in polynomial expected time. The same problem can be solvable by a one-way Las Vegas (or exact two-way) QFA with quantum head in linear (expected) time. - There is a promise problem solvable by a Las Vegas realtime QFA, but not by any bounded-error realtime PFA. The same problem can be solvable by an exact two-way QFA in linear expected time but not by any exact two-way PFA. - There is a family of promise problems such that each promise problem can be solvable by a two-state exact realtime QFAs, but, there is no such bound on the number of states of realtime bounded-error PFAs solving the members this family. Our results imply that there exist zero-error quantum computational devices with a \\emph{single qubit} of memory that cannot be simulated by any finite memory classical computational model. This provides a computational perspective on results regarding ontological theories of quantum mechanics \\cite{Hardy04}, \\cite{Montina08}. As a consequence we find that classical automata based simulation models \\cite{Kleinmann11}, \\cite{Blasiak13} are not sufficiently powerful to simulate quantum contextuality. We conclude by highlighting the interplay between results from automata models and their application to developing a general framework for quantum contextuality.

Jibran Rashid; Abuzer Yakaryilmaz

2014-04-10

351

Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

Conway, Kathryn

352

Development of a responsive and constructivist portfolio-based assessment of a writing-to-learn curriculum in introductory astronomy: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary evaluator of a National Science Foundation grant-supported project to develop an introductory, writing-to-learn-based astronomy curriculum, my goal was to help design and test materials that would meet the learning needs of non-science majors, especially women and minorities, and promote their science literacy. My immediate problem was to create a context-sensitive assessment that engages teachers' goals and objectives while reconciling these with the diverse needs, interests, and abilities of students. To that end, I developed a responsive or stakeholder-focused constructivist assessment based upon Guba and Lincoln's fourth generation evaluation. Both responsive and constructivist, my-approach reflects recent developments in sociocognitive theories of writing and learning, especially those by Linda Flower. Flower focuses on the literate act or learning task, such as writing a summary, as the basic unit of analysis. Not the act itself but the "site" at which it occurs is of main interest. This is where the tension between the private "self" and the public "other" provides an opportunity for meaning to evolve as students explore alternate writing and learning strategies through inner acts of negotiation. Because the new astronomy curriculum centered around students keeping a learning log or process portfolio, portfolios afforded the ideal documentary evidence of the site at which students negotiate meanings and strategies. The portfolio-based assessment, therefore, centers upon having evaluators or teacher-researchers identify and interpret how students represent learning tasks to themselves and develop strategies to complete these tasks. Researchers next compare and judge their own interpretations of these behaviors according to the pre-ordinate objectives of the curriculum. Then the key stakeholders (i.e., evaluators, students, and teachers), through hermeneutic and dialectic interchanges, reconstruct or recondition these pre-ordmate evaluation criteria, transforming them from external "top-down" criteria to context-sensitive "bottom-up" ones. This reconditioning of the external criteria to a specific classroom context results in triadic consilience---a coherent, synergistic unity among the curriculum's theory, pedagogy, and assessment. With each assessment cycle, therefore, the pedagogy becomes more responsive to all the stakeholders and more grounded in its context.

French, Mary

353

Content-Based VLE Designs Improve Learning Efficiency in Constructivist Statistics Education  

PubMed Central

Background We introduced a series of computer-supported workshops in our undergraduate statistics courses, in the hope that it would help students to gain a deeper understanding of statistical concepts. This raised questions about the appropriate design of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in which such an approach had to be implemented. Therefore, we investigated two competing software design models for VLEs. In the first system, all learning features were a function of the classical VLE. The second system was designed from the perspective that learning features should be a function of the course's core content (statistical analyses), which required us to develop a specific–purpose Statistical Learning Environment (SLE) based on Reproducible Computing and newly developed Peer Review (PR) technology. Objectives The main research question is whether the second VLE design improved learning efficiency as compared to the standard type of VLE design that is commonly used in education. As a secondary objective we provide empirical evidence about the usefulness of PR as a constructivist learning activity which supports non-rote learning. Finally, this paper illustrates that it is possible to introduce a constructivist learning approach in large student populations, based on adequately designed educational technology, without subsuming educational content to technological convenience. Methods Both VLE systems were tested within a two-year quasi-experiment based on a Reliable Nonequivalent Group Design. This approach allowed us to draw valid conclusions about the treatment effect of the changed VLE design, even though the systems were implemented in successive years. The methodological aspects about the experiment's internal validity are explained extensively. Results The effect of the design change is shown to have substantially increased the efficiency of constructivist, computer-assisted learning activities for all cohorts of the student population under investigation. The findings demonstrate that a content–based design outperforms the traditional VLE–based design. PMID:21998652

Wessa, Patrick; De Rycker, Antoon; Holliday, Ian Edward

2011-01-01

354

Quantum contextuality in a Young-type interference experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that correlations between the detector positions at the two-photon Young interference plane exhibit contextual behavior. Contextuality is demonstrated by showing the violation of the n-cycle noncontextuality inequalities [M. Araújo et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 022118 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.022118] for any even number n of observables ranging from 4 to 14. These violations exclude noncontextual hidden-variable theories as an explanation of the conditional two-photon Young pattern. Unlike recent contextuality experiments, ours is free of the compatibility loophole.

Borges, Gilberto; Carvalho, Marcos; de Assis, Pierre-Louis; Ferraz, José; Araújo, Mateus; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Pádua, Sebastião

2014-05-01

355

Research and Teaching: Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Techniques--Comparing Two Groups of Undergraduate Nonscience Majors in a Biology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Constructivist teaching techniques work well in various instructional settings, but many teachers remain skeptical because there is a lack of quantitative data supporting this model. This study compared an undergraduate nonmajors biology lab section taught in a traditional teacher-centered style to a similar section taught as a constructivist class. Weekly lab quiz scores, attendance, a science attitude inventory, and an analysis of videotapes were used to determine whether student interest and performance were affected by the teaching style used. Evaluative tests showed many significant differences between the groups and demonstrated that the constructivist class had higher quiz scores, more appreciation of science, better attendance, and increased participation in the lab activities than the traditional group.

Travis, Holly; Lord, Thomas

2004-11-01

356

A constructivist approach to change in elementary science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructivism is a set of beliefs that can be used by teachers to think about learning and teaching and to plan and enact a science curriculum. This paper is a fictional account of an elementary science teacher and her use of constructivism as a referent for her various roles as a science teacher. The paper also describes how the teacher came to teach in this manner, describing her involvement in staff development activities and an evolution in her thinking from an ojectivist to a constructivist system of semantics. Implications are presented for the reform of science education.

Tippins, Deborah; Tobin, Kenneth; Nichols, Sharon

1995-06-01

357

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

358

Considering the Chalkless Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

2010-01-01

359

Practical Linguistic Steganography using Contextual Synonym Substitution and a  

E-print Network

Practical Linguistic Steganography using Contextual Synonym Substitution and a Novel Vertex Coding steganography is concerned with hiding information in natural language text. One of the major transformations used in linguistic steganography is synonym substitution. However, few existing studies have studied

360

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view to southwest along Port Kenyon Road. South end of bridge at left. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

361

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

362

Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) is shown in foreground. Camera facing northwest. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

363

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 (RIGHT) WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

364

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH FEATURES 7, 6, 8, AND 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

365

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

366

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, 5, 4, AND 3 WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

367

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF TAN 629 HANGAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM OUTSIDE FENCE, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

368

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF TAN 629 HANGAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM OUTSIDE FENCE, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

369

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM IRRIGATED PASTURE BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM IRRIGATED PASTURE BETWEEN THE KLAMATH RIVER AND WALKER ROAD; FACING WEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

370

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE WITH APPROACHES, OVERLOOKING HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE WITH APPROACHES, OVERLOOKING HIGHWAY 96 (IN FOREGROUND); FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

371

Contextual view to southwest of Our Corner Saloon building. Scandia ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to southwest of Our Corner Saloon building. Scandia Hotel (HABS-CA-) at center, H.H. Buhne Warehouse at right (90mm lens) - Our Corner Saloon, 301 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

372

5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting, with Jacob Meyer Park at right. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

373

4. Contextual oblique view to southsouthwest from near north abutment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual oblique view to south-southwest from near north abutment in Jacob Meyer Park, showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

374

2. Contextual view looking east, northeast, showing west elevation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view looking east, northeast, showing west elevation of Packing House and Union Ice building. - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

375

Implicit, Long-Term Spatial Contextual Memory Marvin M. Chun  

E-print Network

to nonhippocampal brain structures (e.g., occipital cortex) may reveal impaired implicit memory (as indicated recently developed a new paradigm called contextual cuing to study implicit learning and memory using

Jiang, Yuhong

376

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

377

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

378

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

379

Abstract versus exemplar memory representations: the role of contextual interference  

E-print Network

to near and far movements. A typical contextual interference effect was found during retention and transfer, as random participants outperformed blocked in Experiment 1 and in Experiment 2. These overall findings of the two experiments give support...

Johnson, Jennifer Linnea

2012-06-07

380

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end of bridge, view to north along Dillon Road. Former Valley Flower Creamery at right center. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

381

Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

382

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST END OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE. LOOKING WEST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

383

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

384

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

385

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

386

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

387

Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements visible, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

388

Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side of knoll with eucalyptus windbreak. Camera facing 278" southwest. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

389

Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and north sides, taken from Facility 47 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

390

Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 733 along Cedar Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

391

Contextual view from First Street Bridge, showing Los Angeles River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view from First Street Bridge, showing Los Angeles River and context of Fourth Street Bridge, facing south - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

392

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

393

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

394

3. East portal of Tunnel 24, contextual view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East portal of Tunnel 24, contextual view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note also Harriman Common Standard drain structure at right. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 24, Milepost 132.9, Applegate, Placer County, CA

395

1. West portal of Tunnel 25, contextual view to northeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 25, contextual view to northeast from Tunnel 24 (HAER CA-200), 135mm lens. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 25, Milepost 133.09, Applegate, Placer County, CA

396

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

397

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

398

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

399

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

400

Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

401

AMPK: a contextual oncogene or tumor suppressor?  

PubMed Central

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions to monitor and maintain energy homeostasis at the cellular and organismal level. AMPK was perceived historically primarily as a component of the LKB1/STK11 tumor suppressor (LKB1 mutations cause the Peutz Jegher’s cancer predisposition syndrome, PJS) cascade upstream of the TSC1/2/mTOR pathway and thus likely to be a tumor suppressor. However, AMPK has recently been demonstrated to promote cancer cell survival in the face of extrinsic and intrinsic stressors including bioenergetic, growth factor and oncogene stress(1-3), compatible with studies showing that AMPK is required for oncogenic transformation(4). Thus whether AMPK acts as a bona fide tumor suppressor or a contextual oncogene and, of particular importance, whether AMPK should be targeted for activation or inhibition during cancer therapy is controversial and requires clarification. We aim to initiate discussions of these critical questions by reviewing the role of AMPK with an emphasis on cancer cell adaptation to microenvironment stress and therapeutic intervention. Overall AMPK function is the topic of several comprehensive reviews(5-7). PMID:23644529

Liang, Jiyong; Mills, Gordon B.

2013-01-01

402

Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

2014-08-01

403

Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behaviour in Central Asia.  

PubMed

Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

Smolak, Alex

2010-06-01

404

Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual, and child characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and physical punishment. In general, results indicate that the effects of parental, contextual, and

M. Verhoeven; M. Junger; Aken van C; M. Dekovi?; Aken van M. A. G

2007-01-01

405

Contextual and ideological dimensions of attitudes toward discretionary abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the contextual and ideological dimensions of attitudes toward discretionary abortion using two national\\u000a surveys. The abortion attitudes are dichotomized in terms of consistent opposition versus consistent support. Discriminant\\u000a analysis, partial correlations, and stepwise regression procedures are used in the analysis. Findings indicate that education\\u000a and attendance at religious services are the two most significant contextual dimensions and

B. Krishna Singh; Peter J. Leahy

1978-01-01

406

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

407

Managing Classroom Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

Long, James D.

408

The Caring Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a safe place in which to learn is vital to providing all students with equal opportunity. The Caring Classroom is a model for using adventure techniques to create a classroom community. It begins at the formation stage of group development by addressing cooperation issues such as using put-ups instead of put-downs, using active listening,…

Frank, Laurie S.

409

Effective Learning in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses an important and seldom addressed issue: learning. Not teaching, not performance, not "work": this book really is about learning, what makes learning effective and how it may be promoted in classrooms. The authors take the context of the classroom seriously, not only because of its effects on teachers and pupils, but because…

Watkins, Chris; Carnell, Eileen; Lodge, Caroline M.

2007-01-01

410

Promoting Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: (1) that participation in a course providing theory and practice in the classroom use of technology promotes its use and results in gained competence in technology use; and (2) that functional relations exist among the availability of technology in the classroom, technology utilization, and…

Rosenfeld, Barbara; Martinez-Pons, Manuel

2005-01-01

411

Evangelism in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently said that evangelism or proselytizing has no place in the classroom. The purpose of this essay is to counter this generalization and to explore the nature of legitimate religious influence in the classroom. In doing so I will offer some criteria to help us determine what is and what is not acceptable by way of religious persuasion…

Thiessen, Elmer John

2013-01-01

412

The virtual classroom experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern technology creates an imperative for increasingly diverse classroom experiences. Both students and faculty can benefit from the constant technological advances occurring today. Students expect their educational experience to include the use of current technology, multimedia presentations of subject content, and engaging learning interactivity. A dramatic benefit can be achieved by the use of diverse tools, such as a classroom

Barbara Bernal Thomas

2003-01-01

413

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

414

Creating Better Classroom Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the perspective that the quality of teacher-made, small classroom tests has not improved, and may have declined in recent years. This decline may be due to the fact that teachers have come to believe that the kinds of objective items used in national standardized tests are the only item types appropriate for classroom use.…

Gulliksen, Harold

415

Competition in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that teacher use of competition in the classroom may lead to anxiety, aggression, or a decrease in self-concept among students and that learning to compete is not so important in a postindustrial society. Advocates cooperative classroom activities. (SJL)

Napier, Erv

1981-01-01

416

Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

417

How Does Bilingual Instruction Enhance English Achievement? A Mixed-Methods Study of Cantonese-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When literacy instruction is integrated and contextualized in a child's background knowledge and daily experiences, learning is increased. This mixed-methods study describes effective bilingual instruction in second-grade classrooms in the United States where teachers utilize students' linguistic capital and foster home-school connections, two…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Maniates, Helen

2010-01-01

418

Classroom Management and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of classroom management and the impact of classroom climate on student academic achievement has been independently documented by scholars. Less is currently know regarding the relationship linking classroom management and climate. Therefore, the purpose of this quasi experimental study was to explore the influence of classroom

Ratzburg, Susan A.

2010-01-01

419

Teachers’ practical knowledge about classroom management in multicultural classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in creating a positive working atmosphere in their multicultural classrooms. Twelve teachers were selected

Jan van Tartwijk; Perry den Brok; Ietje Veldman; Theo Wubbels

2009-01-01

420

Enhancing a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Application through Constructivist Approach: The Case of Spatial Training of Middle Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to develop and to test a low-cost virtual reality spatial trainer in terms of its effectiveness in spatial training. The researchers adopted three features deriving from the constructivist perspective to guide the design of the trainer, namely interaction, instruction, and support. The no control pre test post test…

Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri; Abd. Rashid, Nazre

2014-01-01

421

Commentary on "Who Conceives of Society?" by Ernst von Glasersfeld to appear in Constructivist Foundations, March, 2008.  

E-print Network

intervention of "higher order" elements (e.g., social norms and institutions, language, etc) in the veryCommentary on "Who Conceives of Society?" by Ernst von Glasersfeld to appear in Constructivist our knowledge of society than to "examine how patterns arise from the perception of disconnected

422

Discovering Constructivism: How a Project-Oriented Activity-Based Media Production Course Effectively Employed Constructivist Teaching Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author uses his experience leading a project-oriented special-topics course as a case study in constructivist teaching methods. Citing relevant literature from the education field, this paper considers why students chosen to work for course credit on a promotional video for a university program considered the project their greatest academic…

Hubbard, Glenn T.

2012-01-01

423

Constructivist Learning Environments and the (Im)possibility to Change Students' Perceptions of Assessment Demands and Approaches to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research shows that, as students interpret the demands of the assessment tasks, they vary their approaches to learning in order to cope with the assessment tasks. Three research questions are central in the present paper: (1) Do students who participate in a constructivist learning environment change their perception of assessment demands…

Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Struyf, Elke

2008-01-01

424

Social Constructivist Teaching Methods in Australian Universities-- Reported Uptake and Perceived Learning Effects: A Survey of Lecturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pragmatic social constructivist teaching methods require students to construct knowledge by engaging collaboratively with realistic problems, cases or projects. It is hypothesized that they are more effective than traditional didactic teaching methods in developing undergraduate students': (1) theoretical knowledge; (2) profession-specific skills;…

Hanson, James M.; Sinclair, Kenneth E.

2008-01-01

425

What’s Under Construction Here? Social Action, Materiality, and Power in Constructivist Studies of Technology and Organizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, organizational scholars have increasingly argued that technology’s affects on organizations are socially constructed. Constructivists who study implementation generally hold that organizational change emerges from an ongoing stream of social action in which people respond to a technology’s constraints and affordances, as well as to each other. Although most students of technology and organizing generally agree

Paul M. Leonardi; Stephen R. Barley

2010-01-01

426

Development of Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures and Information Processing Strategies under Long-Term Constructivist-Oriented Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

427

Miami and North Wales, So Far and Yet So Near: A Constructivist Account of Morphosyntactic Development in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a constructivist account of the development of morphosyntax in bilinguals, based on an examination of two populations--English-Spanish bilinguals in Miami and English-Welsh bilinguals in North Wales. Despite sociocultural and sociolinguistic differences across these groups, the development of bilinguals in the two groups…

Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.

2007-01-01

428

Understanding the Cultural Meaning of Selected African Ndop Statues: The Use of Art History Constructivist Inquiry Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a case study in which third-grade children (n=19) examined a series of images of Ndop statues and visual information from the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo using art history constructivist inquiry methods. Presents the results in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

Chanda, Jacqueline; Basinger, Ashlee M.

2000-01-01

429

How Constructivist Are We? Representations of Transmission and Participatory Models of Instruction in the "Journal of College Science Teaching"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism has become a widely understood and broadly accepted learning theory. Constructivism contends that each of us makes sense of our world by connecting new experiences to our existing understandings. Learners, as they encounter new situations, attempt to meld incoming information with their existing understandings. Constructivist

Straits, William; Wilke, Russell

2007-01-01

430

Constructivist Learning with Participatory Examinations Dezhi Wu *, dxw1777@njit.edu, http://web.njit.edu/~dxw1777  

E-print Network

Constructivist Learning with Participatory Examinations Dezhi Wu *, dxw1777@njit.edu, http? The participatory exam process provides opportunities for students to learn from creating, reading, answering of students preferred the participatory exam and believed that it increased their learning. Keywords: exam

Bieber, Michael

431

Investigating the Effectiveness of a Constructivist-Based Teaching Model on Student Understanding of the Dissolution of Gases in Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented in this paper consisted of an investigation of the effectiveness of a four-step constructivist-based teaching activity on student understanding of how pressure and temperature influence the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. Some 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) selected purposively from two school classes in the…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.; Unal, Suat; Costu, Bayram

2007-01-01

432

The Effects of Representations, Constructivist Approaches, and Engagement on Middle School Students' Algebraic Procedure and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of types of representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and student engagement on middle school algebra students' procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding. Data gathered from 16 video lessons and algebra pretest/posttests were used to run three multilevel structural equation models. Symbolic…

Ross, Amanda; Willson, Victor

2012-01-01

433

A Constructivist Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning: A TUNEL Assay for the Detection of Apoptosis in Cheek Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory exercise is presented that incorporates constructivist principles into a learning experience designed for upper-level university biology courses. The specific objectives for this exercise are as follows: (1) To introduce students to cancer biology and to the regulation of programmed cell death as part of the cell cycle; (2) To engage…

Correiro, Elizabeth E.; Griffin, Leanne R.; Hart, Peter E.

2008-01-01

434

Content Analysis of Suicide Notes as a Test of the Motivational Component of the Existential-Constructivist Model of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 40 suicide notes were analyzed for motivational content in relation to an existential-constructivist theory of suicide. Results generally supported the 4 theoretical categories of somatic, relational, spiritual, and psychological motivations, with 39 notes having content that could be classified according to the aforementioned…

Rogers, James R.; Bromley, Jamie L.; McNally, Christopher J.; Lester, David

2007-01-01

435

Opinions of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers on the Curriculum of Turkish Literature Course Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

Epcacan, Cahit

2013-01-01

436

A constructivist approach of advanced physics concepts: using a cognitive map for the study of magnetoresistive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivist paradigm is one of the most favorite theory nowadays when is needed to change the perception of science teaching. It is well known that advanced physics concepts used in everyday life may not be developed during science classes when students needs an explanation, so the teacher has to be creative and improve some useful tools destined to enlarge their

Florentina Iofciu; Cristina Miron; Stefan Antohe

2011-01-01

437

Student-Centered, Technology-Rich Learning Environments (SCenTRLE): Operationalizing Constructivist Approaches to Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for designing student-centered, technology-rich learning environments (SCenTRLE) to help educators operationalize constructivist and student-centered approaches to teaching and learning. Highlights include facilitating knowledge construction and lifelong learning; technology use; student attitudes; levels of implementation;…

Hirumi, Atsusi

2002-01-01

438

East Coast/West Coast Art Project: A Constructivist and Technological Approach to Middle Level and Higher Education Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors report on usage of 21st-century technology, and a collaborative project that allowed middle school art students and preservice teachers to share their artwork and receive feedback in a constructivist learning environment. Middle school students often deal with issues such as bullying, divorce, and depression; they can…

Johnson, Margaret H.; Kieling, Linda W.; Cooper, Susan L.

2014-01-01

439

Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching placements---in particular, the extent to which their cooperating teachers gave them the autonomy and planning time to design and implement their own activities and lessons. While the "integrated approach" to diversity and equity in science teacher education was, overall, successful in helping preservice teachers' move closer toward developing the beliefs, knowledge, and practices necessary for effective instruction in underserved classrooms, suggestions are given for increasing the effectiveness of the "integrated approach," particularly in the context of a one-year credentialing program.

Tolbert, Sara E.

440

Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

Looser, Theresa A.

441

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

442

Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

2008-01-01

443

A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3, 7, and 10, and 6 college students. Data were collected by means of interviews and card sorts. A constructivist theoretical framework formed the groundwork for presenting the focus of this study and for interpreting the results of the interview data. Results were analyzed on the basis of identifying student responses to interview questions as either everyday concepts or as scientific concepts, along with transition through the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by mediation, as developed by Vygotsky. Results revealed that children across grade levels vary in their everyday and scientific understanding of the three interdependency concepts. Results for seed dispersal showed little evidence of understanding for grade 3, that is, seed dispersal was not within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) for grade 3 students. Students in grades 7 and 10 showed a developing transition within the zone of proximal development from everyday to scientific understanding, and college students demonstrated scientific understanding of seed dispersal. For pollination and food chains, results showed that grades 3, 7, and 10 were in transition from everyday to scientific understanding, and all college students demonstrated scientific understanding. The seed dispersal concept proved more complex than pollination and food chains. The findings of this study have implications for classroom teachers. By understanding the dynamic nature of the ZPD continuum for students, teachers can plan instruction to meet the needs of each student.

Smith, Shirley Mccraw

2003-06-01

444

Flipping the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent trend in education is the "flipped" or "reversed" classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

2012-11-01

445

Flipping the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent trend in education is the ``flipped'' or ``reversed'' classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

Riendeau, Diane

2012-11-01

446

Contextual Knowledge Reduces Demands on Working Memory during Reading  

PubMed Central

An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title which supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs) along with knowledge, working memory span, and age are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors. PMID:17225514

Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jason A.; Wingfield, Arthur

2009-01-01

447

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

448

Expanding a learner-centered environment using group reports and constructivist portfolios.  

PubMed

A study was performed in the Microbial Physiology course to increase students' self-awareness of their misconceptions, promote sound research techniques, develop written and oral communication skills, stimulate metacognition, and improve teamwork and interpersonal relationship skills. The transformation in the teaching methodology included using cooperative learning, field trips, and portfolios that targeted diverse learning styles to challenge students in creative ways and to help prepare them for future careers. The entire structure of the class was modified by introducing in-class portfolios to form a constructivist environment in which the discussion and lecture topic of the day were built on prior student knowledge. Based on evaluations, students were very pleased with the new teaching and learning process and learned more content than in the more traditional class. They also felt better able to reflect on their learning. PMID:23653539

Buxeda, R J; Moore, D A

2001-05-01

449

Long term effectiveness of a team-taught, constructivist, experiential secondary science methods course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of a secondary science methods course that was moved to an on-site setting in a local high school. The methods course was team taught by the university science methods instructor and two teachers---one biology and one chemistry---from the school in which the class was located. During the sequence of the course, the instructors often traded classes based on topic expertise. As a result of the experiential situation, the preservice teachers were able to participate in constructivist-based lessons, observe the teacher---administered lessons and ultimately have day-to-day interactions with high school students while teaching their own lessons. The theoretical background of this research is based on a constructivist teaching and learning model. In order for the preservice science teachers to build knowledge of popular pedagogical practices, they had to be given the opportunity to experience the ideas and try them out for themselves. They had to experience and judge for themselves the methods for which current reform documents in science education propose. This study utilized an exploratory mixed-methods approach with observations, semi-structured interviews, surveys and Rasch analysis techniques to investigate the practices and beliefs of several former students---now practicing teachers---that participated in the teacher preparation program both before and after the major changes were made. Findings suggest that participants from the experiential methods course were more likely to both identify elaborate upon the methods course as being a major philosophical and pedagogical influence than those who had the university-based methods course. The findings did not, however, find a difference between the groups regarding pedagogical practices or teacher and student beliefs about the learning environment.

Townsend, Jeffery Scott

450

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

451

Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

Staver, John R.

2010-03-01

452

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

453

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

454

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

455

View from My Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the philosophy of a high school chemistry teacher, providing examples through classroom experiences, with emphasis on the use of demonstrations as instructional aids. Specific stoichiometry and conductometric titration demonstrations are discussed. (CS)

Harris, Sidney P.

1980-01-01

456

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

457

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

458

Frontloading Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-07-01

459

The Classroom Space Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

Verbickas, Sarah

2002-01-01

460

Frontiers in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples of ways to use the television show "Scientific American Frontiers" in the classroom. Outlines a range of approaches and discusses some motivational techniques to engage students. (DDR)

Coyne, Janet Smith

1998-01-01

461

Connections between the constructivist-based models for teaching science and music  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of education, there are a number of models of teaching based on constructivism reported in the literature. Three-stage model, 4E model, 5E model and 7E model are only four of the application types of constructivism into classrooms. ‘Orff approach’ and its learning stages is also very common model used in education especially in music classrooms. In this

Sezen Özeke

2009-01-01

462

Floor Plan Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guides the learner, step-by-step, in creating a scale floor plan of a classroom. The instructions include sample drawings of student work. The activity includes: sketching a map of the classroom; measuring the room and calculating the area and perimeter; creating a scale drawing; and drafting a CAD (computer-aided design) floor plan. The lesson provides students with hands-on, real world practice solving problems of measurement, ratio, and scale.

2003-01-01

463

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

464

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

465

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13

466

Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.  

PubMed

The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task. PMID:25195163

Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

2014-10-01

467

Critical Classroom Structures for Empowering Students to Participate in Science Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We compared contextual characteristics that impacted the nature and substance of âsummarizing discussionsâ in a physics and a chemistry classroom in an Hispanic-serving urban high school. Specifically, we evaluated structural components of curricula and classrooms necessary to develop a culture of critical inquiry. Using the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum in the physics course, we found that students demonstrated critical thinking, critical evaluation, and used laboratory evidence to support ideas in whole-class summarizing discussions. We then implemented a model similar to PET in the chemistry course. However, chemistry studentsâ statements lacked evidence, opposition and critical evaluation, and required greater teacher facilitation. We hypothesize that the designed laboratories and the research basis of PET influenced the extent to which physics students verbalized substantive scientific thought, authentic appeals to evidence, and a sense of empowerment to participate in the classroom scientific community.

Belleau, Shelly N.; Otero, Valerie K.

2013-08-04

468

Obscuring Power Structures in the Physics Classroom: Implications for Student Engagement and Physics Identity Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students are disempowered in physics classes finding them to be more difficult, unpleasant, narrow, and masculine when compared to other subjects. Such disempowerment can lead students to limit their engagement. This study explores how physics teachers can help students engage with the material and develop their physics identities by obscuring traditional classroom hierarchies. Employing a positionality lens on case studies of four high school physics teachers, we coded teachersâ behavioral cues that contributed to the relational structure in the classroom. Our findings suggest that teachersâ physical cues (space and hierarchical stance occupied), structural cues (dynamic nature of the classroom allowing alternating roles), contextual cues (including studentsâ thoughts and experiences), and social cues (obscuring traditional boundaries between teacher and student) affect the social distance between the teacher, students, and content. This social distance can moderate studentsâ level of engagement and ultimately their physics identity development.

Hazari, Zahra; Lock, Robynne M.; Cass, Cheryl A.; Beattie, Carrie

2013-12-18

469

The Zero Touch Experience : intent based contextual morphing on mobile devices using localized keyword distributions  

E-print Network

With the rise of smart phones integrated with GPS devices, we have seen the advent of location-based contextual services. "Contextual" in this sense, refers to a simple query of nearby points of interest based on the current ...

Kim, Jong-Moon, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

470

Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of 221 employees, perceptions of organizational culture and discrepancy between ideal and actual culture predicted both task performance and contextual (altruism, conscientiousness, organizational citizenship) performance. Organizational warmth, organizational competence, and reward were significant predictors of contextual performance.…

Goodman, Scott A.; Svyantek, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

471

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TAN 629 HANGAR COMPLEX TAKEN FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TAN 629 HANGAR COMPLEX TAKEN FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD, FACING NORTH. LOFT (LOSS-OF-FLUID TEST) REACTOR CONTAINMENT BUILDING (DOME) AT RIGHT OF PICTURE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

472

Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

2009-01-01

473

Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance  

PubMed Central

Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals' language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and comparisons in a matching procedure. Differential conditioning was implemented in the presence two types of contextual stimuli. After three sets of relations were established, the physical configuration of the contextual stimuli was changed to more subtle appearances, and the number of variations in the contextual stimuli was increased. Measures of percent correct and response latency were used to show the negative influence on second language performance. Percent correct responses decreased with the subtle contextual stimuli for 11 out of 14 participants, and average response latency increased with the increased number of variations in the last phase. These findings indicate that the change in environmental stimuli will be a significant participatory factor in training of second languages. PMID:22477380

Washio, Yukiko; Houmanfar, Ramona

2007-01-01

474

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, HIGHWAY 50'S OVERPASS FOR THE R/R & OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD ON LEFT. EAST BIDWELL STREET APPROACHES TO HIGHWAY 50 ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

475

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ELEVATED GRADE OF EUREKA SOUTHERN RAILROAD. EUREKA SOUTHERN TRUSS BRIDGE AT EXTREME LEFT, 1924 HIGHWAY BRIDGE IN CENTER, 1952 HIGHWAY BRIDGE AT RIGHT - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

476

Inferential language modeling for selective Web search personalization and contextualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalized Web search systems have been explored to alleviate the problem of information overload by keeping track of a user's specific information retrieval (IR) preferences, and then pushing information to the user according to their preferences maintained in a user profile. Nevertheless, personalization and contextualization is always associated with a computational cost. Therefore, it is more advantageous for a personalized

Raymond Y. K. Lau

2010-01-01

477

Exploiting Enclosing Membranes and Contextual Cues for Mitochondria Segmentation  

E-print Network

Exploiting Enclosing Membranes and Contextual Cues for Mitochondria Segmentation Aur´elien Lucchi2 upon earlier approaches to seg- menting mitochondria in Electron Microscopy images by explicitly mod- eling the double membrane that encloses mitochondria, as well as us- ing features that capture context

Bey, Isabelle

478

Parenting during Toddlerhood: Contributions of Parental, Contextual, and Child Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and…

Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.

2007-01-01

479

Aligning Mentorship Style with Beginning Teachers' Development: Contextual Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 70 pairs of supervisory teachers and teacher interns at the University of Saskatchewan examined contextual supervision in the mentorship of student teachers' oral questioning skills. Findings indicate that supervisory skills improved, especially when supervisors adjusted their leadership styles to match protege development levels, and…

Ralph, Edwin G.

2000-01-01

480

Variation in the contextuality of language: an empirical measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of formality\\/con textuality is proposed as the most important dimension of variation between linguistic expressions. Formal communication conveys information explicitly, through the linguistic expression itself, whereas contextual communication conveys information implicitly, through the context of the expression. An empirical measure of formality, the F-score, is proposed, based on the frequencies of different word classes. Nouns, adjectives, articles and

FRANCIS HEYLIGHEN; JEAN-MARC DEWAELE

1998-01-01

481

Strategic Word Attack: Acquired Contextual Strategies in Young Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study demonstrated that young children who have difficulty with phonics can be taught to read through other methods, that phonics is only one of the many useful strategies that a child can employ, and that many contextual strategies are easier to learn and more reliable than phonics. A case study was conducted during an intervention with a young…

Matz, Karl A.

482

Contextual Service Loading by Dependency Graph Amira Ben Hamida  

E-print Network

Contextual Service Loading by Dependency Graph Colouring Amira Ben Hamida ARES INRIA / CITI, INSA, France stephane.frenot@insa- lyon.fr Mohamed Ben Ahmed RIADI GDL / ENSI Manouba, 2010,Tunisie mohamed.benAhmed@riadi.rnu.tn ABSTRACT While installing applications on mobiles devices, we may face issues due to the limit

Boyer, Edmond

483

A contextual perspective on the etiology of children's unintentional injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in American children aged 1–18. The subject of considerable epidemiological inquiry, study of children's injuries from a psychological perspective remains somewhat novel and rather atheoretical. In this paper, we explore a contextual perspective on the understanding of the psychological aspects of the etiology of children's unintentional injuries. Injury is viewed as embedded

Benjamin K. Barton; David C. Schwebel

2007-01-01

484

Adaptive Contextual Energy Parameterization for Automated Image Segmentation  

E-print Network

Adaptive Contextual Energy Parameterization for Automated Image Segmentation Josna Rao1 , Ghassan and contour regularization. In this paper, we propose a novel ap- proach for automatic adaptive energy parameterization. In particular, our contributions are three-fold; 1) We spatially adapt fidelity and regulariza

Hamarneh, Ghassan

485

Contextualizing Normative Open Multi-Agent Systems Carolina Felicssimo  

E-print Network

due to heterogeneous agents that migrate among them to obtain resources or services not found locally mechanisms. However, it is not reasonable to expect that foreign agents know in advance all the norms for enforcing contextual norms. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.11 [Distributed Artificial Intelligence

486

Functional Contextualism in Context: A Reply to Fox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents Fox (2005) argument on functional contextualism and his assessment of the current conceptual frameworks in the field of instructional design and technology. The often unquestioning espousal of constructivism in the field of instructional design and technology has caused problems for a number of reasons. Fox…

Winn, William

2006-01-01

487

Contextualizing Critical Action Research: Lessons from Urban Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we argue that teacher-researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in…

Esposito, Jennifer; Evans-Winters, Venus

2007-01-01

488

Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

2012-01-01

489

Stimulus equivalence, generalization, and contextual stimulus control in verbal classes.  

PubMed

Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented in tests for all matching performances. All participants demonstrated virtually errorless performances. In Experiment 2, classifications of the nouns used in Experiment 1 were brought under contextual control. Three nouns were feminine and three were masculine. The match-to-sample training taught participants to select a comparison of the same number as the sample (i.e., singular or plural) in the presence of contextual stimulus A regardless of noun gender. Concurrently, in the presence of contextual stimulus B, participants were taught to select a comparison of the same gender as the sample (i.e., feminine or masculine), regardless of number. Generalization was assessed using a card-sorting test. All participants eventually sorted the cards correctly into gender and number stimulus classes. When printed words used in training were replaced by their picture equivalents, participants demonstrated almost errorless performances. PMID:22754102

Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A; Green, Gina

2012-01-01

490

Contextual Control by Function and Form of Transfer of Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures,…

Perkins, David R.; Dougher, Michael J.; Greenway, David E.

2007-01-01

491

77. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF SUSPENSION BRIDGE FROM TOWER W-6 TO YERBA BUENA ISLAND WITH CANTILEVER BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

492

Contextual view of building 46 showing north and south wings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 46 showing north and south wings of building 46 with new wing at center, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

493

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

494

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing southwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

495

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Third of three sequential views ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Third of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Note approximate location of Overland Trail crossing left to right. Camera facing northeast - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

496

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Second of three sequential views ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Second of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Ranch house and trading post/barn on left. Note approximate location of Overland Trail crossing left to right. Camera facing north. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

497

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. First of three sequential views ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. First of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Ranch House on right. Note approximate locations of Overland Trail on right and San Diego cutoff branching off to left. Camera facing northwest. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

498

Contextual view of Johnson Ranch (Nunes Dairy) showing workers residence ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Johnson Ranch (Nunes Dairy) showing workers residence 2 (extreme left) residence 1, calf barn (in front of brick silo), barn 1 and pole barn (extreme right); view to southwest. - Nunes Dairy, 9854 Bruceville Road, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

499

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST FROM PIONEER BRIDGE (BUSINESS ROUTE 80). CAPITOL BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING IS AT EXTREME RIGHT. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

500

Contextual neural gas for spatial clustering and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to introduce contextual Neural Gas (CNG), a variant of the Neural Gas algorithm, which explicitly accounts for spatial dependencies within spatial data. The main idea of the CNG is to map spatially close observations to neurons, which are close with respect to their rank distance. Thus, spatial dependency is incorporated independently from the attribute values of the

Julian Hagenauer; Marco Helbich

2012-01-01