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Sample records for constructivist classroom contextual

  1. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

  2. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

  3. The effects of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Andrea Rae

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a differential effect of two different learning environments determined by constructivist classroom contextual factors on elementary science students' motivation and learning strategies. Teaching and learning practices in the regular classroom vs. teaching and learning practices in a life [biodiversity] laboratory were investigated for this study. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory (modified) was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (modified) was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Also, some individual teachers had lower constructivist teaching practices in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom, indicating that classroom contextual factors can be teacher controlled and thus, not simply location dependent. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1, which, although the life laboratory score was higher, did not show a statistically significant difference. A 2 x 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of a teacher-selected convenience sample of students were conducted at the end of the semester and focused on patterns of instruction and student learning. Theme analysis revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study enabling advanced knowledge acquisition; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides; especially when it comes to learning new science concepts.

  4. The Constructivist Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karrie; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    By examining how people learn, the educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner can be synthesized to give this set of core Constructivist principles. Principles of effective mathematics teaching: (1) allows learning that is "active" and "reflective". Students are required to transfer key concepts to new situations; (2) allows…

  5. A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for

  6. Personal and contextual factors influencing the use of constructivist practices in the secondary science internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles Joseph

    This dissertation reports a study that focused on the personal and contextual factors that influenced twelve student teachers' use of constructivist practices during their internship. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of twelve practicing secondary science interns during 1998 and 1999. Data came from researcher's direct observation of intern teaching practice. Data also came from the words of the participants through interviews, reflective pieces, and the documents of the internship. Results from this study revealed three major factors consistently influencing intern use of constructivist practices: (a) personal history informing beliefs and practices, (b) content and pedagogical understanding, and (c) cooperating teacher interpretation of the curriculum and associated pacing regime. How interns learned and liked science best as students formed early beliefs about how to best learn and teach science. With adequate content and pedagogical understanding, interns were able to explore more constructivist ways of teaching their curriculum. Interns had the most freedom in implementing constructivist practices under cooperating teachers who viewed the curriculum conceptually and taught at a slower pace. Principals and state mandated testing influenced this view. The minor or negligible influences on intern use of constructivist practices in most cases in this study included: (a) classroom management and student behavior, (b) interns' view of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, and (c) availability of resources. Results were used to construct a model explaining intern use of constructivist practices in this study. Interns with beliefs about teaching and learning science that included constructivist practices were able to fulfill their personal role identities as teachers under two main conditions: (a) adequate content and pedagogical understanding and (b) conceptual based curriculum with less restrictive pacing regimes. Limitations of the model and areas where further research is needed are discussed.

  7. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  8. Seven Posers in the Constructivist Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In education, "constructivism" constitutes the "grand unified theory" of the moment. In this article, I maintain that constructivism as a theory of knowledge and constructivism as pedagogy are distinct and that the question of what constructivism about knowledge implies for teaching is under-theorised. Seven classroom scenarios are sketched that…

  9. The Effect of Classroom Teachers' Attitudes toward Constructivist Approach on Their Level of Establishing a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Case of Mersin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uredi, Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the attitudes of classroom teachers towards constructivist approach and to analyze the effect of their attitudes towards constructivist approach on their level of creating a constructivist learning environment. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. The research sample included 504…

  10. Comparison of Student Learning about Diffusion and Osmosis in Constructivist and Traditional Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Roger G.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the effects of constructivist versus traditional teaching approaches on university students' learning about osmosis and diffusion. Students understood diffusion and osmosis more deeply in the constructivist-informed classroom, which used small discussion groups rather than traditional large lecture groups. Suggests ways to improve

  11. Comparison of Student Learning about Diffusion and Osmosis in Constructivist and Traditional Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Roger G.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the effects of constructivist versus traditional teaching approaches on university students' learning about osmosis and diffusion. Students understood diffusion and osmosis more deeply in the constructivist-informed classroom, which used small discussion groups rather than traditional large lecture groups. Suggests ways to improve…

  12. Teacher Questioning and Interaction Patterns in Classrooms Facilitated with Differing Levels of Constructivist Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the impact of teacher questions, question types, and interaction patterns that coincide with high and low levels of constructivist teaching practices. Through both quantitative and qualitative methods the findings revealed that teachers facilitating classrooms with high levels of constructivist teaching practices (HLCTP)…

  13. Change in Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in a constructivist learning environment in a classroom management course. Within a qualitative case study design, teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained through document analysis before and after they were…

  14. Students' beliefs, attitudes, and conceptual change in a traditional and a constructivistic high school physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, April Dean

    In this study, the relationships between student beliefs about the nature of science, student attitudes, and conceptual change about the nature of forces were investigated within a traditional and within a constructivistic high school physics classroom. Students in both classrooms were honors students taking a first year high school physics course and were primarily white and middle to upper SES. Students in the traditional classroom were all high ability juniors, and physics instruction was integrated with pre-calculus. Students in the constructivistic classroom were a mixture of juniors and seniors. Due to the interrelated nature of these factors and the complexity of their interactions, a naturalistic inquiry design was chosen. The data sources included videotape of 7-9 weeks of instruction; analysis of the videotapes using the Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix (Gallagher & Parker, 1995); field notes; pretest/posttest assessment with the Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhammer, 1992); student responses from the Views on Science-Technology-Society questionnaire (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992), the Questionnaire for the Assessment of a Science Course (Chiappetta, 1995), and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor, Fraser, & White, 1994); student interviews; and teacher interviews. In the traditional classroom, (a) students did not think that physics was relevant to everyday experiences; (b) high conceptual change students were more likely to have an angular world view (Cobern, 1993) and have views more similar to the teacher's about the nature of science; and (c) high conceptual change students were able to develop an internally consistent understanding of the content; however, that content appeared to be isolated knowledge in some students. In the constructivistic classroom, (a) students saw physics as relevant and useful; (b) there was no difference in world view or agreement with the teacher's views on the nature of science between high and low conceptual change students; (c) students appreciated the importance of empirical evidence; and (d) low conceptual change students had low classroom engagement. Mean gains in conceptual change were larger for the traditional classroom.

  15. A Study of Secondary Science Teacher Efficacy and Level of Constructivist Instructional Practice Implementation in West Virginia Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Amanda Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of use of selected constructivist instructional practices and level of teacher efficacy in West Virginia secondary science classrooms. The study next sought to determine if a relationship existed between level of use of the constructivist practices and teacher efficacy. In addition the study…

  16. Student Appropriation of Thinking Strategies in a Constructivist Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Beatrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the oral contributions and personal journal writing of 8 focal students in an eleventh-grade integrated history/English classroom to ascertain whether and to what extent the students had appropriated three types of cognitive strategies desired and modeled by their teachers. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of…

  17. Analyzing the Classroom Teachers' Levels of Creating a Constructivist Learning Environments in Terms of Various Variables: A Mersin Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üredi, Lütfi

    2014-01-01

    In this research, it was aimed to analyze the classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment in terms of various variables. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. Classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment was determined using the…

  18. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Technology as a Catalyst for Constructivist Practices in the Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lynne Brown

    2010-01-01

    This research described and analyzed teachers' perceptions of technology as a catalyst for stimulating classroom constructivist practices. The teachers were located at multiple schools in one Florida county. The teachers were selected based on participation in the Education through Dynamic Global Experiences (EDGE) program. This One-to-One program…

  19. The effect of pedagogy informed by constructivism: A comparison of student achievement across constructivist and traditional classroom environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatlin, Linda Sue

    Implicit in the call for educational reform in the teaching of science has been the suggestion that pursuing constructivist principles in science teaching will lead to improvement in student achievement. (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 1990; National Research Council, 1995; NSTA, 1992). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of pedagogy; didactic/traditional and constructivist-informed pedagogy on student achievement. Secondly, this study examined the relationship between students' and teachers' perception of constructivism in classroom environments. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest and delayed posttest quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Subjects involved in this study included two teachers and their respective students from a suburban public school district in the South. The sample consisted of two groups, one taught by traditional/didactic instruction (n = 25) and the other taught by constructivist informed pedagogy (n = 26). Data for this study was collected using the Constructivist Learning Environmental Survey, The Science Classroom Observation Rubric, the Teaching Practices Assessment, and a demographic survey. Ancillary data was collected with the Student Outcome Assessment and interpretive methodologies. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (p < .05; pretest as covariate) was used to measure the effects of constructivist informed and traditional pedagogy on student achievement. Student achievement was measured with a researcher-designed pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. A significance difference was found on the science achievement posttest where the students receiving the traditional pedagogy scored higher than the students taught by the constructivist pedagogy. However, the scores of students receiving constructivist-informed pedagogy showed a slight increase on the delayed posttest, while the traditionally taught students' scores decreased, thus the difference in the achievement of the two groups was diminished over time. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the ancillary data from the Student Outcome Assessment. (p < .05) Among 51 students tested, those who received the constructivist informed pedagogy had higher retention, approaching significance of the biology concepts tested over time. Ancillary data was used to assist the interpretation of the assessment measurements. Using ratios of students' and teachers' scores of perceived constructivist attributes in their classroom appeared to be an effective way for teachers to compare student perceptions with their own.

  20. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

  1. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form

  2. Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict Observe Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-08-01

    This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.

  3. Confronting the realities of implementing contextual learning ideas in a biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Julia B.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of contextual learning practices in a biology class. Research contends that contextual learning classrooms are active learning environments where students are involved in "hands-on" team projects and the teacher assumes a facilitator role. In this student-centered classroom, students take ownership and responsibility for their own learning. This study examined these assertions and other factors that emerged as the study developed. The research methods used were qualitative. The subject for this study was a biology teacher with twenty-six years of experience who implemented contextual learning practices in two of her biology classes in the 1997--98 school year. As the teacher confronted contextual learning, we engaged in collaborative research that included fourteen interviews transcribed verbatim for analysis, classroom observations and the teacher's written reports. Throughout the study, factors developed that adversely affected contextual learning practices. These factors were discipline, curriculum, and administrative decisions over which the teacher had no control. These are examined along with their consequences for implementing a contextual classroom. Successful practices that worked in the teacher's classroom were also determined and included the teacher's "failure is not an option" policy, mandatory tutoring, behavior contracts, high expectations and teamed projects. Besides contextual learning, a key component of the study was the collaborative research process and its meaning to the subject, the researcher and future researchers who attempt this collaborative approach. The study's conclusion indicate that scheduling, multiple repeaters, discipline and the state Standards of Learning moved the teacher away from contextual learning practices to a more teacher-directed classroom. Two recommendations of this study are that further research is needed to study how the state Standards of Learning have affected instructional practices and the effect of administrative decisions that influence the level of teacher success in the classroom.

  4. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  5. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of

  6. A Constructivist Approach for Introducing Pre-Service Teachers to Educational Technology: Online and Classroom Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Anne K.; Charles, Michael T.

    The goals at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) for preparation of pre-service teacher educators in educational media and technology include the development of pedagogical ability as well as technical knowledge and skills. Pedagogically, EMU faculty adopted the goal of teaching the students to use technology to facilitate a constructivist approach…

  7. Comparative Analysis of Classroom Speech in Upper Level Spanish College Courses: A Social Constructivist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    This study reflects a social constructivist theoretical framework in which the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a central element, as two teaching approaches, communicative language teaching (CLT) and explicit focus on form (FonF) are examined. Research questions include: Are CLT and explicit FonF conducive to reaching the ZPD? Is there a…

  8. The Regression Level of Constructivist Learning Environment Characteristics on Classroom Environment Characteristics Supporting Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunca, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the main aims of constructivism is to improve critical thinking skills/tendencies via experiences. In this sense, it is believed that the more the constructivist-learning environment is improved, the more the appropriateness of supporting critical thinking is improved. However, no study has yet statistically tested this…

  9. Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using

  10. Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

  11. Formats of Classroom Talk for Integrating Everyday and Scientific Discourse: Replacement, Interweaving, Contextual Privileging and Pastiche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshawa, Peter; Brown, Raymond A. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we identify four formats of classroom talk for integrating everyday and scientific discourse--replacement, interweaving, contextual privileging and pastiche. In the replacement format, progress in understanding is gauged by the extent to which scientific representations replace the more concrete and everyday representations in…

  12. Galileo's 'Jumping-Hill' Experiment in the Classroom--A Constructivist's Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubli, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    Uses Galileo's 'jumping-hill' experiment as an historical element to improve science teaching in the classroom. Illustrates that the experiment can stimulate an animated discussion in the classroom, even if precise historic circumstances are not mentioned. The historical dimensions bring some color into the lesson, which increases attention. (SAH)

  13. Classroom Climate and Contextual Effects: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Evaluation of Group-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;

  14. Classroom Climate and Contextual Effects: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Evaluation of Group-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;…

  15. Radical Conversations: Part Two--Cultivating Social-Constructivist Learning Methods in ABE Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Bill; Kiser, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    In many U.S. prisons an overuse of individualized instruction silences literacy learners and reinforces oppressive notions about what knowledge is and whose knowledge counts. In these classrooms, methods that invite learners to tap their background knowledge, reflect on their worlds, and dialogue with others to construct meaning--commonplace in…

  16. Confronting the Baby Blues: A Social Constructivist Reflects on Time Spent in a Behaviorist Infant Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Mary Benson

    2010-01-01

    This reflective essay describes the author's experiences as an observer in a behaviorist infant classroom. The author developed four categories of practice to describe what happened in the behaviorist infant room: (1) curricular focus on training typically developing infants to meet typical developmental milestones, (2) the use of highly…

  17. Expanding the Disciplinary Expertise of a Middle School Mathematics Classroom: Re-Contextualizing Student Models in Conversations with Visiting Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan; Hall, Rogers; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how conversations during design reviews in which 8th-grade mathematics students shared population models with visiting specialists expanded the disciplinary expertise of the classroom. "Re-contextualizing" is a conversational exchange that visiting specialists initiated to invite groups to consider their models in novel…

  18. The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by

  19. A Comparison of Students' Achievement and Attitudes between Constructivist and Traditional Classroom Environments in Thailand Vocational Electronics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kurt H.; Maunsaiyat, Somchai

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was (a) to determine if there was a difference in knowledge achievement by Thailand's vocational students instructed using constructivist instruction (with open-end dialogue, problem-based learning, and cooperative learning) and using traditional instruction (with lectures, directed demonstrations, and…

  20. The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

  1. The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

  2. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  3. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have

  4. "Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

  5. Validation and Application of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey in English Language Teacher Education Classrooms in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the…

  6. Validation and Application of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey in English Language Teacher Education Classrooms in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the

  7. Engendering Constructivist Learning in Tertiary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giridharan, Beena

    2012-01-01

    In constructivist teaching, it is expected that students are able to apply skills and knowledge acquired from their course of study to the various situations that they encounter over the course of their professional lives. Constructivist classrooms engage learners actively in the learning process. Learners actively take knowledge, connect it to…

  8. How Constructivist-Based Teaching Influences Students Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seimears, C. Matt; Graves, Emily; Schroyer, M. Gail; Staver, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide details about the beneficial processes the constructivist pedagogy has in the area of teaching science. No Child Left Behind could possibly cause detrimental effects to the science classroom and the constructivist teacher, so this essay tells how constructivist-based teaching influences students and their…

  9. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  10. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

  11. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science using the results for chapters two and three to identify aspects of engagement and learning in science. These findings motivate a set of variables and analytic approach that is undertaken in chapter four. Specifically, the questions how engagement influences experiences in ninth grade science and students' interest in pursuing a career in STEM using the HSLS:09 data. This multifaceted study contributes to the conceptualization of student engagement, and will help bring clarity to the relationship among engagement, context, and long-term outcomes in science. Engagement is more than being on-task or paying attention, but is a condition influenced by many factors including student background, the learning context of the classroom, teacher characteristics, and the features of instruction. Understanding this relationship between engagement and contextual factors is helpful in uncovering teacher actions and instructional activities that may elicit higher engagement in science classes. These findings highlight the importance of science instruction using more cognitively-demanding activities, such as problem-based learning.

  12. Interpretive case studies on the influence of a pre-service contextual science research course on novice science and mathematics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Lori Livingston

    I conducted a follow-up, qualitative evaluation to help me understand how participation in a contextual science research course influenced two pre-service science and/or mathematics teacher participants as they begin to teach in their own classrooms as novice teachers. My specific questions for this dissertation were: (1) What are the beliefs towards the culture of science and the culture of science in the classroom of a novice science and a novice mathematics teacher after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course? (2) What are the classroom practices of these novice teachers after completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course with respect to: (a) implementing constructivist-based, contextual science methodology in their own classrooms? (b) forming collaborations with scientists and the science community? (c) integrating science and mathematics in the classroom? (d) implementing inquiry-based, hands-on science activities? (3) After completing a constructivist-based, contextual science research course, what are the influences on the novice teachers' constructions of (a) science content knowledge and/or (b) pedagogical content knowledge? The theoretical framework for this study is that of a constructivist epistemology, using the genre of interpretive case study. I utilized cultural-historical activity theory to look at the contradictions and coherences, to see how these influenced the participants' ability to transfer their experiences from the contextual science research to their own classrooms. To insure fairness and trustworthiness criteria of this study, I utilized fourth generation evaluation and the QSR NVivo software program to categorize and analyze the qualitative data. Findings show that participants learned science content, enhanced their beliefs about the culture of science and the image of the scientist, increased their pedagogical content knowledge with respect to understanding constructivist-based teaching, and integrated science and mathematics. Their practices, however, did not always match their beliefs. While participants were enthusiastic about the idea of forming collaborations with scientists, implementing contextual learning, and implementing the use of inquiry-based, hands-on, instruction, these practices were limited. Reliance on the use of the textbook and lecture were still very apparent. Pressures faced by novice teachers during their induction years could help explain these contradictions. I make suggestions for how to improve the program.

  13. Using Photographs of Contrasting Contextual Complexity to Support Classroom Transitions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Ellin B.; Lien, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    A single-subject, alternating treatment study compared the impact of two types of photograph displays of contrasting contextual complexity. The study examined the impact of high-context and no-context photographs, displayed on an iPad, on the ability of three preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to transition to play activities.…

  14. Designing an Online Class Using a Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sang

    2010-01-01

    Students have more opportunities to take control of their learning in a constructivist classroom. Learning in this problem-based environment, the students can make sense and apply the learning in the daily life. Brooks and Brooks (1999) recommend five constructivist principles to help educators design a course that helps the students construct…

  15. A Constructivist Approach for Digital Learning: Malaysian Schools Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Waleed H.; Woods, Peter Charles; Koo, Ah-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs) through the use of laptops supported within 1:1 e-learning education in Malaysian schools. The main objectives of this study were to investigate (a) different possible gaps between constructivist theory and classroom practices in Malaysian…

  16. A Constructivist View of Music Education: Perspectives for Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes a constructivist view of music education. A constructivist music classroom exemplifies deep learning when students formulate questions, acquire new knowledge by developing and implementing plans for investigating these questions, and reflect on the results. A context for deep learning requires that teachers and students work…

  17. Teaching Mathematical Problem-Solving from an Emergent Constructivist Perspective: The Experiences of Irish Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, John; Leavy, Aisling M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary school mathematics curriculum in Ireland is based upon a constructivist philosophy of learning. As constructivism is a theory of learning and not teaching, implementing a constructivist approach in the classroom requires teachers to identify the implications and applications of constructivist philosophy for teaching. In this research,…

  18. The relationship between the quality of cooperative learning, students' goal preferences, and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Hijzen, Daphne; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This study examined relationships between the quality of cooperative learning (CL) and students' goal preferences and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom. Subjects were 1,920 students in secondary vocational schools. The study focused on four different types of goals: social support, belongingness, mastery, and superiority goals. It was found that social support goals had the strongest relation with the quality of CL. Further we found that the quality of CL was best predicted by a combination of social support goals, evaluations of the extent that students were taught cooperation skills, perception of teacher monitoring behavior, and the availability of academic and emotional peer support. Female students' preferences for mastery and social goals were stronger than those of male students, whereas male students had a stronger preference for superiority goals. Program type functioned as a moderator variable within the relation of students' superiority/ individuality goals and the quality of CL. PMID:16433658

  19. Teaching Probability: A Socio-Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sashi

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable and rich literature on students' misconceptions in probability. However, less attention has been paid to the development of students' probabilistic thinking in the classroom. This paper offers a sequence, grounded in socio-constructivist perspective for teaching probability.

  20. Constructivist Teaching Strategies: Projects in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessie C., Ed.; Adams, Arlene, Ed.

    This book provides information from experienced teachers on constructivist teaching, offering examples of preservice teachers' projects, lesson plans, and real-life advice. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Writing Case Studies: Constructing an Understanding of Student and Classroom" (Bettejim Cates); (2) "Educating Children Who are Racial and Ethnic…

  1. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  2. Constructivist Teaching Strategies: Projects in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessie C., Ed.; Adams, Arlene, Ed.

    This book provides information from experienced teachers on constructivist teaching, offering examples of preservice teachers' projects, lesson plans, and real-life advice. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Writing Case Studies: Constructing an Understanding of Student and Classroom" (Bettejim Cates); (2) "Educating Children Who are Racial and Ethnic

  3. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through

  4. Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs.

  5. Contextual Complexity: The Professional Learning Experiences of Seven Classroom Teachers When Engaged in "Quality Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Ken; Reynolds, Ruth; O'Toole, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    This research study interrogates the self-reported perceptions of seven experienced Human Society and Its Environment (HSIE) teachers about the professional learning influencing their classroom teaching after being involved in a number of initiatives to improve their teaching in New South Wales (Australia). The results indicated that the teachers'…

  6. Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs.…

  7. Understanding Student Behavior in One Fifth-Grade Classroom as Contextually Defined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Andrews, Abbie M.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relationships of emotion, cognition, and inner speech to each other and to context in a classroom of 24 fifth-grade students. Results of interviews and observations suggest the necessity of understanding adaptive behavior in context, understanding the role of context in determining cognitive and emotional responses, and understanding…

  8. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through…

  9. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  10. CMC as Written Conversation: A Critical Social-Constructivist View of Multiple Identities and Cultural Positioning in the L2/C2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a model for a critical social-constructivist (CS-C) approach to the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language/culture education. CS-C theories emphasize a critical approach to social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication, and the influence that these activities have on learning. I will use the

  11. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection.…

  12. Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Use of Digital Media in Classrooms: Sharpening the Focus of the "Will, Skill, Tool" Model and Integrating Teachers' Constructivist Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petko, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    The "will, skill, tool" model is a well-established theoretical framework that elucidates the conditions under which teachers are most likely to employ information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. Past studies have shown that these three factors explain a very high degree of variance in the frequency of classroom ICT use. The…

  13. Why the Child's Construction of Relationships Is Fundamentally Important to Constructivist Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta

    2004-01-01

    This paper has two purposes: (1) to explain briefly in terms of Piaget's theory why relationships are fundamental for constructivist teachers; and (2) to show how constructivist teachers can think about relationships in classroom activities. In a nutshell, the message is that the process by which children are constructing their intelligence,…

  14. An Appraisal of Constructivist Psychotherapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines potential contributions of four clinical lineages sharing constructivist philosophy: personal construct theory, structural-developmental cognitive therapy, narrative reconstruction, and constructivist family therapy. Briefly reviews emerging trends in psychotherapy research compatible with this perspective. Asserts that current…

  15. The Constructivist Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda; And Others

    This book introduces the concept of leadership as the facilitation of constructivist reciprocal processes among participants in an educational community. Chapter 1, "Learning and Leading Theory: A Century in the Making," (Deborah Walker and Linda Lambert) traces the dynamic history of learning and leading during this century, concluding with an…

  16. Teaching and Learning Cycles in a Constructivist Approach to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Florence Mihaela; Moscovici, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze and synthesize the knowledge collected in the area of conceptual models used in teaching and learning during inquiry-based projects, and to propose a new frame for organizing the classroom interactions within a constructivist approach. The IMSTRA model consists in three general phases: Immersion, Structuring,…

  17. Teaching against the Grain: Enacting Constructivist Beliefs within Institutional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Marjorie; Leftwich, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    This study purports to document, analyze, and interpret the learning that occurred across two university literacy courses in which faculty implemented a constructivist, critical literacy pedagogy. Findings explore what it means to share power in the classroom and the relationships between critical teaching and developing a literacy theory of…

  18. Impact of constructivist pedagogy on science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrishon-Ford, Grace E.

    This study focused on how constructivist pedagogy impacts science achievement of the fourth grade students in an elementary Department of Defense School. Constructivism is a learning or meaning-making theory that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn. The population of this study was two fourth grade classes in an elementary Department of Defense District School. Data collection was accomplished in four ways: (1) focus group interviews of students, (2) individual interviews of students selected from the focus groups, (3) interviews of teachers, and (4) unobtrusive observations of science instruction. A six-step process was followed to gain entry for this study. The steps were my university dissertation committee, Department of Defense Education Activity Research Study Request, Endorsement and Agreement form to the Headquarters Office, school superintendent, school principal, teacher participants, and the final step was to seek parental approval of the fourth graders involved in the study. The findings from this study were an increase of 47% test scores; 57% revealed experiments/projects and 64% working on the computers in groups were the fun things; 100% student interaction; 100% student attentativeness; and 70% using other resources. Implications have demonstrated that the traditional classroom can be converted if the teachers and administrators would buy into the approach that this project demonstrated. As an advocate of the constructivist model the case study demonstrated students do indeed respond to the constructivist theory. If approached in a positive manner, it could be done in any kind of school setting.

  19. The Use of Contextual Problems to Support Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of contextual problems to support mathematical learning based on current classroom practice. The use of contextual problems offers some potentials to engage and motivate students in learning mathematics but it also presents some challenges for students in classrooms. Examples of the use of contextual problems from…

  20. Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

    2009-01-01

    A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine…

  1. Constructivist Assessment in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2004-01-01

    A constructivist approach to assessment in career counseling presents an opportunity for counselors to gain insight into clients' stories, amplify clients' self-awareness, and develop with clients a future orientation through action steps. The author presents four strategies for constructivist assessment using "The Storied Approach" (Brott, 2001)…

  2. Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

  3. Sociomoral Atmosphere in Direct-Instruction, Eclectic, and Constructivist Kindergartens: A Study of Teachers' Enacted Interpersonal Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A microanalytic description of teachers' interactions with children suggests that the sociomoral atmospheres of three types of classrooms differ considerably. Children in the direct-instruction classroom experience an almost totally unilateral relationship with the teacher; in the constructivist classroom, there is more reciprocity and intimacy;…

  4. Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

    2009-06-01

    A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine how these participants were using ICT and if they had any internal and external impediments in the way of the effective integration of ICT in the teaching of science. Results showed that some participants were using ICT creatively in their science teaching. However, despite considerable political pressure to increase ICT use in the classroom, most expressed frustration at the lack of ICT tools, support from the school, from the Ministry of Education, and from the surrounding community. The article proposes possible resolutions to help these participants overcome their impediments. Some of the suggested resolutions for the internal impediments include involving teachers in preparing the school's time-table, equipping the school with more ICT tools and offering more training courses for teachers. However, the suggested resolutions for the external impediments involve (1) The Ministry of Education to rethink the administration of board examinations, (2) The school to sacrifice scoring higher in board examinations for preparing more creative and more versatile students' perspectives.

  5. Quantifying Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; Kłobus, W.; Wójcik, A.

    2014-03-01

    Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

  6. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  7. Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Minu

    2007-01-01

    Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

  8. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

  9. The Paradox of Constructivist Instruction: A Communicative Constructivist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppicini, Rocci

    With the advent of constructivist oriented instruction in learning institutions comes an enormous challenge, that of structuring individual-centered learning within a community of learners. Within this instructional framework, struggles to satisfy both individual and group learning needs can lead to one canceling the other out. Tendencies towards…

  10. A Constructivist Approach to Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Brant R.

    2011-01-01

    This article develops a constructivist perspective on listening skill. Listening is conceptualized as "a process that involves the interpretation of messages that others have intentionally transmitted in the effort to understand those messages and respond to them appropriately." This definition allows listening to be understood both as a mindful…

  11. Aesthetic Experience in Constructivist Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankford, E. Louis

    2002-01-01

    Constructivist theories of learning and recent research into aesthetic experience suggest that most people actually benefit by instruction in various means of engagement with art, and that engagement is most fulfilling when it actively challenges, builds on, and extends the knowledge, aptitudes, and abilities of the museum visitor. This in turn…

  12. On Contextuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  13. Effects of Constructivist and Computer-Facilitated Strategies on Achievement in Heterogeneous Secondary Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maryellen; Barowy, William

    This paper describes the effects of the implementation of constructivist techniques with interactive computer simulations on conceptual understanding of plant nutrition and critical thinking skills in heterogeneously grouped secondary biology classrooms. The study focused on three strategies for teaching plant nutrition: (1) traditional; (2)

  14. An Action Research on Employing Constructivist Multi-Assessment Strategy in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündogdu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of utilizing the multi-assessment strategy through a constructivist learning atmosphere with regard to perceptions of the pre-service teachers. The participants were 98 third year (junior) pre-service teachers attending to classroom management course in a public university in Turkey.…

  15. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a

  16. An Examination of the Relationship between the Integration of Technology into Social Studies and Constructivist Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayas, Cemalettin

    2006-01-01

    Educational technologies, specifically computer and the Internet technologies, have apparently become powerful tools in the classroom as they change the way we teach and learn today. That is why pedagogies of school reform are now highly influenced by and built around the "constructivist" theories of learning, assuming the use of technology in…

  17. The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

    2014-01-01

    The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective…

  18. Interactive Whiteboards in State School Settings: Teacher Responses to Socio-Constructivist Hegemonies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Euline Cutrim; Whyte, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Recent CALL research suggests that the arrival of new technologies in the language classroom has led to an increased dominance of the socio-constructivist paradigm (Felix, 2006). Borg (2006) suggests, however, that the hegemony of this paradigm may not extend beyond well-researched university and private ESL contexts. The present study tests this…

  19. Effects of Constructivist and Computer-Facilitated Strategies on Achievement in Heterogeneous Secondary Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maryellen; Barowy, William

    This paper describes the effects of the implementation of constructivist techniques with interactive computer simulations on conceptual understanding of plant nutrition and critical thinking skills in heterogeneously grouped secondary biology classrooms. The study focused on three strategies for teaching plant nutrition: (1) traditional; (2)…

  20. Using Social Constructivist Pedagogy to Implement Liberal Learning in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jennifer D.; Teckchandani, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines how decision sciences instructors, by pairing Liberal Learning (LL) philosophy with Social Constructivist Pedagogy (SCP), can lead the way in transforming business education. It outlines how these educators can cultivate more critical thinking and creativity in their classrooms in order to prepare students for the "real

  1. Validity and Reliability of a Shortened, Revised Version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce; McClure, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of an existing instrument, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)(Taylor, Dawson & Fraser, 1995; Taylor, Fraser & Fisher, 1993, 1997), for providing insights into the classroom learning environments of beginning science teachers. In the first year of the study, the CLES was used…

  2. Seeking Construct Validity Grounded in Constructivist Epistemology: Development of the Survey of Contemporary Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of a new classroom environment instrument for late-elementary students. The development of the survey of contemporary learning environments (SoCLE) followed a content analysis of three similar instruments on constructivist learning environments and the literature on characteristics of contemporary learning

  3. A Constructivist Approach in the Interdisciplinary Instruction of Science and Language Arts Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michael; McHenry, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    The use of constructivism and its various manifestations in education has been a topic of much interest in recent years. Inquiry into this theoretical framework has resulted in teacher educators' attempts to help their teacher candidates apply constructivist pedagogy in university classrooms, field experiences and student teaching at two US…

  4. Using Social Constructivist Pedagogy to Implement Liberal Learning in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jennifer D.; Teckchandani, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines how decision sciences instructors, by pairing Liberal Learning (LL) philosophy with Social Constructivist Pedagogy (SCP), can lead the way in transforming business education. It outlines how these educators can cultivate more critical thinking and creativity in their classrooms in order to prepare students for the "real…

  5. Seeking Construct Validity Grounded in Constructivist Epistemology: Development of the Survey of Contemporary Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of a new classroom environment instrument for late-elementary students. The development of the survey of contemporary learning environments (SoCLE) followed a content analysis of three similar instruments on constructivist learning environments and the literature on characteristics of contemporary learning…

  6. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  7. Using Writing as a Constructivist Instructional Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers in the area of cognitive science and educational psychology have shown that instructors who encourage student writing are actually helping in motivating a reluctant pupil. It has also been reported that writing indirectly rewards an individual with dynamic interest. Furthermore, it is believed that writing strengthens the self-confidence of a lethargic learner. (Kosakowski, 1998). All in all, promoting writing helps and supports learners cultivate a positive attitude toward the subject matter in question. The constructivist approach promotes a learning paradigm and helps individuals learn and understand by "constructing" knowledge. Learners are effectively encouraged to generate and build their own knowledge base. Learners document progress by constructing new concepts based on previously gained knowledge. The role of the teacher is actually to facilitate the creation of a learning environment. The constructivist approach when used in the classroom enables the students to become more active, independent thinkers of knowledge. Education World writer Gloria Chaika (Chaika, 2000) states that "Talent is important, but practice creates the solid base that allows that unique talent to soar. Like athletes, writers learn by doing. Good writing requires the same kind of dedicated practice that athletes put in. Young writers often lack the support they need to practice writing and develop their talent to the fullest, though." The author has successfully utilized some of these principles and techniques in a senior level course he teaches. He has encouraged students to try to solve problems their own way and has asked them to observe, document, assess and evaluate the results. In the classroom, the author takes the role of a coach and helps the students approach the problem with a different viewpoint. Eventually the students document their conclusions in a page-long essay. This type of writing assignment not only builds critical thinking abilities but also generates improved written communication skills among learners. References: Kosakowski, John, (1998). The Benefits of Information Technology. ERIC Digests; Technology Integration; Technology Role, ED0-IR-98-04 Chaika, Gloria (2000),Encourage Student Writing: Published on the Web, Education World http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/tech042.shtml

  8. Fostering Intercultural Communicative Competence through Reading Authentic Literary Texts in an Advanced Colombian EFL Classroom: A Constructivist Perspective (Desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa intercultural mediante la lectura de textos literarios auténticos: una perspectiva constructivista)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Luis Fernando R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an action research experience carried out in an advanced English as a foreign language classroom of the language program at a university in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2010. The study proposes the inclusion of authentic literary texts in the English as a foreign language classroom through the implementation of four constructivist…

  9. Constructivist Metaphors of Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogborn, Jon

    Based on an analysis of a fundamental distinction between metaphors of finding versus making for the obtaining of new knowledge, a number of constructivist positions in education are discussed and criticised, taking account of earlier criticism particularly by Suchting and by Matthews. Constructivist claims which are denied include the claim that we have no direct access to the world, and the claim that communication is inherently meaningless. What is valuable in constructivism, namely the insistence on active learning, on respect for the pupils own thinking, and on the high priority needed for ideas taught to make sense to pupils, together with the reminder that science is a human product, is important to retain without its additional and ill-founded philosophical baggage.

  10. Leadership Talent Identification and Development: Perceptions of Heads, Middle Leaders and Classroom Teachers in 70 Contextually Different Primary and Secondary Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark; Nevill, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to secure perceptions of heads, middle…

  11. The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

    2014-04-01

    The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective science teachers in Turkey readily accept pseudoscientific explanations of the origin of species. Constructivist pedagogy underestimates, if not ignores, the difficulty of holding rational discussions in the presence of pseudoscientific or absolute beliefs. Moreover, it gives a higher priority to learners' exposure to alternative constructions through social negotiation than to furthering their appreciation of science. Under these circumstances, self-confirmation and social pressure to accept existing pseudoscientific beliefs may be unanticipated consequences of social negotiation. Considering the aim of science education to foster an appreciation of science, the implications of constructivist pedagogy are, or should be, of great concern to science educators.

  12. Constructivist Learning Environment among Palestinian Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidan, Afif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the constructivist learning environment among Palestinian science students. The study also aimed to investigate the effects of gender and learning level of these students on their perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Data were collected from 125 male and 101 female students from the…

  13. Technology Integration and the Classroom Learning Environment: Research for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Sharon H.; Gunter, Shannon; Montgomery, Sandra; Shelton, Cheryl; West, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Describes initial results of a collaborative action research endeavor between a university and a magnet school (grade 6 level) using learning environments research to monitor alignment of classroom learning activities with a constructivist viewpoint while integrating technology into the curriculum. Discusses use of the Constructivist Learning

  14. Constructive Classroom: A Cognitive Instructional Strategy in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suneetha, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study, the extent of constructivist classroom characteristics that exist in ELT (English Language Teaching) Methodology. It is an attempt to explore the constructivist learning activities and evaluation strategies, whether they are useful to the students and the instructors. This paper elevates the contrast of…

  15. Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and

  16. Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

  17. Speaking to the Heart of Oral Contextualization: The Resounding Call for Critical Discussions on Civil Participation and Disobedience, from Black Radio to the Global Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis

    2006-01-01

    Long overdue in the classroom is a critical examination of media coverage when seen and told through the unique vantage point of the audience and storyteller. This discussion is intended to demonstrate how to prepare students to critically examine and evaluate the social role of media within a diverse global society. The author elaborates on the…

  18. Transporting an Evidence-Based Classroom Management Program for Preschoolers with Disruptive Behavior Problems to a School: An Analysis of Implementation, Outcomes, and Contextual Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Elisa Steele; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The transportability of an evidence-based teacher professional development program, the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program, was evaluated. This study compared the impact of two training methods: self-administered videotape modeling (VM) and self-administered videotape modeling plus consultation (VMC) on teachers' use of classroom…

  19. School Mathematics Reform, Constructivism, and Literacy: A Case for Literacy Instruction in the Reform-Oriented Math Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo

    2002-01-01

    Describes the goals and nature of school mathematics reform and the philosophy and nature of the constructivist classroom. Suggests that math teachers who are interested in creating reformed classrooms can look to constructivist theories of learning and content-area literacy theories and methods to provide the structure needed to make reform…

  20. The Effects of Contextual and Personal Factors on Young Adolescents' Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Matthews, Yanique T.; Montesino, Mario; Arango, Liza; Preece, Krystle K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the proposal that (a) contextual and personal factors affect the endorsement of social goals during early adolescence and (b) contextual factors and social goals may change over time. Self-reports of classroom contextual factors (i.e., promotion of performance goals, social interaction, and mutual respect) and personal…

  1. Development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers prepared at the University of Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Lee Yuen

    The development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers was studied during a four year period---student teaching through their first three years of teaching. Constructivist behaviors were examined from four perspectives: actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes; teacher and student perceptions of use of constructivist practices from surveys; and teacher beliefs as gained from open-ended interviews. Data analyses involved constant comparison of data from two or more sources---descriptive statistics, statistical analyses, levels of teacher expertise regarding constructivist behaviors, qualitative descriptions, and direct quotes from videotapes and interview transcripts. The results indicate that the new teachers were largely early constructivist teachers. Constructivist teaching approaches were used during student teaching. Socialization and induction processes had minimal effects. Both observed practices and beliefs about teaching and learning were student-centered; after declines in years one and two, constructivist behaviors improved by the third year of teaching. Students of the new teachers perceived their lessons as being more interesting, more relevant to them, and that they had more autonomy about instruction than reported by students in other programs. Their perceptions better matched those of students taught by more experienced teachers, who were identified as expert constructivists. Although individual teachers were unique with different focuses and strengths, eleven dominant and consistently espoused student-centered beliefs were identified. The new teachers also shared a range of constructivist behaviors that correspond to national standards. These include: (1) Students sharing the responsibility of learning with teachers; (2) Student engagement in activities and experiences; (3) Students with positive attitudes who are motivated to learn; (4) Teaching that focuses on student relevance; (5) Variation in teaching approaches and assessments; (6) Establishing a friendly, non-judgmental learning environment; (7) Teaching that incorporates higher-order thinking skills and the use of scientific knowledge and ideas; (8) Teacher understanding of subject matter and the integration of content and process skills in context; (9) Teacher understanding of science in natural phenomena; (10) Teacher as intellectual, reflective practitioner.

  2. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external influences. Variety was evident from the interview data and included such factors as: design, inquiry, application, various social configurations, and several learning styles.

  3. Contextual Effects of Bilingual Programs on Beginning Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Mehta, Paras D.

    2010-01-01

    This study of 1,338 Spanish-speaking 1st graders examined contextual effects of bilingual programs on reading comprehension and the effect of language of instruction within these contexts. The study included 128 classrooms in 32 schools located in border Texas and in urban Texas and California. These classrooms used either English immersion or…

  4. Student Development in Higher Education: A Constructivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila

    Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.

  5. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of understanding between the two groups favoring the constructivist group, however, since only two teachers and their students participated in the study, the significance of this result is limited. There was a significant gender difference in depth of understanding favoring females. Students in the constructivist group perceived their learning environment to be more constructivist than students in the objectivist group.

  6. A study of the constructivist teaching behaviors within a population of elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, Thomas John

    Much has been written about how constructivism can serve as a referent for teaching and learning science. However, not much is known about the practical application of constructivist-based science in the classroom especially at the elementary level. The purpose of this project was to modify the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) by adding an Individual Reflection Scale (Learning to think) and to use this instrument to measure the teaching behaviors of elementary science teachers. Also, this study attempted to discover which educationally related factors best explain these constructivist-based teaching behaviors. Support for the validity and reliability of the instruments used in this project was obtained through the use of exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha test. To compare the mean scores obtained from the six CLES scales a repeated measures ANOVA was executed. The procedure used to discover which educationally related factors best explain the constructivist-based teaching behaviors was simultaneous multiple regression. Overall, the factor structure of the modified CLES was well defined and reasonably clear. The factor loadings for the six a priori scales were .57 or greater, well above the minimum criterion established for this project. All six of the scales for the modified CLES had reliability scores above Fraser's (1986) learning environment standard of .70. The corrected item-total correlations for all 34 items were well above .30. This study demonstrated that the modified CLES from the teacher's perspective is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure the constructivist-based teaching behaviors of elementary science teachers. The RANOVA indicated that the mean scores for the Uncertainty Scale and the Shared Control Scale were significantly lower than the other four scales. The results from the multiple regression procedures implied that teachers who understand constructivist-based science scored significantly higher on most of the CLES scales. This study allows one to predict that a teacher who understands constructivist-based science may practice this form of pedagogy more often than a teacher who does not. According to this research, elementary teachers may avoid constructivist-based science teaching due to a lack of understanding rather than limited time or support from principal, staff, or peers.

  7. Do Junior High School Students Perceive Their Learning Environment as Constructivist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Asely; Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the manner in which the features of a constructivist learning environment, and the mechanisms at its base, are expressed in junior high school students' conceptions. Our research is based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches, deigned to provide a wider ranging and deeper understanding. Eight hundred and forty eighth- and ninth-grade students from over 15 schools participated in the study. Of the 840 students who completed the questionnaire, the explanations of 200 well-written questionnaires were further analyzed qualitatively. The findings of the study are presented in terms of the four scales employed in the CLES, namely the autonomy scale, the prior knowledge scale, the negotiation scale, and the student-centeredness scale. The quantitative results achieved here concur with parallel studies conducted around the world. The findings indicate that a considerable portion of the students perceive their learning environment as a constructivist one and report positive attitudes toward the way they are being taught. In terms of the qualitative results, however, it appears that in some cases, the students' explanations reveal that in fact, and contrary to the bare quantitative results, some students do not perceive their learning environment as being constructivist. This raises the question of whether the fact that students recognize the factors associated with constructivist teaching is indeed an indication that such teaching exists in practice. This finding emphasizes the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods for arriving at a balanced view of classroom occurrences.

  8. Using a metaphor for learning to improve students' metacognition in the chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2001-02-01

    A constructivist framework was used in conjunction with an interpretive methodology to investigate the effect of an intervention using the metaphor learning is constructing on students' metacognition and learning processes. The metaphor was used to communicate with students regarding learning processes consistent with constructivism. Students were initially found to be generally non-metacognitive regarding their learning processes. Despite some students possessing metacognitive knowledge consistent with a constructivist learning orientation, their pre-intervention views and preferences in relation to teaching and learning were predominantly consistent with transmission models. The effect of the intervention on students' metacognition was variable. Some students became increasingly metacognitive and reported evidence of revision of their learning processes. Others reported little or no effect. The effects of the intervention can be partially explained by considering changes to students' metacognition as conceptual change. However, this study also shows that contextual factors are key determinants of students' propensity to enhance their metacognition and learning processes. This study highlights the potential of using metaphor as a means to assist teachers and students develop a shared language of learning in classroom settings.

  9. Towards a Cyber-Constructivist Perspective (CCP) of Educational Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppicini, Rocci

    2003-01-01

    This theoretical paper uses cybernetic-based approaches and communications theory to advance knowledge of constructivist learning. Explores a cyber-constructivist perspective (CCP) as a tool for increasing awareness of factors that may contribute to effective constructivist educational design within learning communities, and discusses advantages…

  10. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, John

    A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

  11. Student Motivation in Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between constructivist learning environment and students'motivation to learn science by testing whether students' self-efficacy in learning science, intrinsically and extrinsically motivated science learning increase and students' anxiety about science assessment decreases when more…

  12. A Constructivist Approach to Online College Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.

    2004-01-01

    The key elements of online course design and pedagogy suggested by research as promoting effective learning are discussed through the lens of constructivist epistemology. Presentation of content, instructor-student and student-student interactions, individual and group activities, and student assessment are each addressed, in turn. The focus is on…

  13. Constructivist Design of Graphic Computer Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John B.; And Others

    Two graphic computer simulations have been prepared for teaching high school and middle school students about how business organizations and financial systems work: "Parkside," which simulates managing a hotel; and "Guestwear," which simulates managing a clothing manufacturer. Both simulations are based on six principles of constructivist design…

  14. Constructivist Learning Approach in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Cavide

    2009-01-01

    Constructivism is not a new concept. It has its roots in philosophy and has been applied to sociology and anthropology, as well as cognitive psychology and education. The aim of this research is to reveal if there is a significant difference between the means of achievement and retention learning scores of constructivist learning approach applied

  15. Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

  16. Constructivist Approach: Removing Misconceptions about Chemical Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of instruction based on constructivist approach on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts (n=41). Also, the effects of gender differences were investigated. Control group students were taught by traditional instruction. Experimental group students were instructed by…

  17. Incremental Inductive Learning in a Constructivist Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotto, Filipo Studzinski; Älvares, Luís Otávio

    The constructivist paradigm in Artificial Intelligence has been definitively inaugurated in the earlier 1990's by Drescher's pioneer work [10]. He faces the challenge of design an alternative model for machine learning, founded in the human cognitive developmental process described by Piaget [x]. His effort has inspired many other researchers.

  18. Investigations in Pure Mathematics: A Constructivist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Keith; Shiu, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an investigative, constructivist approach in the context of undergraduate mathematics, with particular reference to pure mathematics, general aims and objectives, assessment strategies, and problems of supervision that affect tutors and lecturers using this approach. Gives students' views on their experiences in this mode of working. (19…

  19. Student Motivation in Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between constructivist learning environment and students'motivation to learn science by testing whether students' self-efficacy in learning science, intrinsically and extrinsically motivated science learning increase and students' anxiety about science assessment decreases when more

  20. Creating a Constructivist Online Instructional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jill; Bates, Alisa J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the ways in which social constructivist learning was fostered in an online teacher education program. In fall, 2010 we launched an online Masters of Education (M.Ed) and in spring, 2011 and began an online version of the on-campus Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) at a small liberal arts university. The development and…

  1. Constructivist Learning Approach in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Cavide

    2009-01-01

    Constructivism is not a new concept. It has its roots in philosophy and has been applied to sociology and anthropology, as well as cognitive psychology and education. The aim of this research is to reveal if there is a significant difference between the means of achievement and retention learning scores of constructivist learning approach applied…

  2. Technology Teacher Education through a Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Snape, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on constructivist learning theories relevant to and evident in teacher education in a New Zealand university. These theories are illustrated within an authentic technology education context which involves students from a primary teacher-education degree programme. It investigates how a practical activity, based on…

  3. Using Social Impact Games (SIGS) to Support Constructivist Learning: Creating a Foundation for Effective Use in the Secondary Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Beverly; Faure, Caroline; Kelle, Fay

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how Social Impact Games (SIGs) can provide important instructional support in secondary social studies classrooms. When used within the framework of the constructivist teaching philosophy and teaching methods, as recommended by the NCSS (2010), SIGs have the potential to hone critical thinking, collaboration, and problem…

  4. Effective Learning Outcomes of ESL Elementary and Secondary School Students Utilizing Educational Technology Infused with Constructivist Pedagogy (English as a Second Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of educational technology infused with constructivist pedagogy in ESL (English as a Second Language) classrooms and to explore alternatives for schools that lack advanced technological learning tools. In this article, the author discusses the alternatives, such as: (1) CELA Research Study:…

  5. Using an Animated Case Scenario Based on Constructivist 5E Model to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Electrical Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirca, Necati

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to get pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of first aid knowledge and skills related to electrical shocking and safety within a scenario based animation based on a Constructivist 5E model. The sample of the study was composed of 78 (46 girls and 32 boys) pre-service classroom teachers from two faculties of…

  6. Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

    2009-01-01

    An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

  7. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

  8. Constructivist Practices to Increase Student Engagement in the Orchestra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Rehearsal engagement is an important concept sometimes neglected by conductors. For students, to be engaged means that they are actively involved with the music during the rehearsal. Even if the director leads a perfect rehearsal, he or she has not necessarily engaged students in a meaningful musical experience. This may be because conductors…

  9. Contextualizing Instruction: Leveraging Students' Prior Knowledge and Experiences to Foster Understanding of Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Contextualizing science instruction involves utilizing students' prior knowledge and everyday experiences as a catalyst for understanding challenging science concepts. This study of two middle school science classrooms examined how students utilized the contextualizing aspects of project-based instruction and its relationship to their science

  10. From Research to Practice: A Framework for Contextualizing Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Valerie K.; Davis, C. Amelia; Ziegler, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental reading instructors are increasingly pressured to include real-world content in their curriculum to bring contextualized teaching and learning to life. The purpose of this practitioner-focused article is to tie knowledge about contextualized teaching and learning with classroom application techniques. We present a framework that…

  11. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  12. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  13. The Historical Imagination: Collingwood in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemisko, Lynn Speer

    2004-01-01

    Philosopher and historian R. G. Collingwood developed and elaborated a theory and approach to reconstructing knowledge about the past that relies on the historical imagination. This paper argues that Collingwood's theory offers teachers sound reasons for using constructivist approaches in their classrooms and that his methodological approach can

  14. Developing a constructivist learning environment in online postsecondary science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackworth, Sylvester N.

    This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in research literature surrounding the pedagogical practices that could be successfully applied to future postsecondary online science education. The panel consisted of 30 experts in the area of online postsecondary education. Qualitative data from the initial seed questions were used to create a Likert-type survey to seek consensus of the themes derived from participant responses. Participants reached agreement on six items: apply constructivism to science curricula, identify strengths and challenges of online collegiate students, explicate students' consequences due to lack of participation in discussion forums, ensure that online course content is relevant to students' lives, reinforce academic integrity, and identify qualities face-to-face collegiate science instructors need when transitioning to online science instructors. The majority of participants agreed that gender is not an important factor in determining the success of an online collegiate science student. There was no consensus on the efficacy of virtual labs in an online science classroom. This study contributes to positive social change by providing information to new and struggling postsecondary science teachers to help them successfully align their instruction with students' needs and, as a result, increase students' success.

  15. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  16. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michele T.

    2007-12-01

    A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

  17. ICT and Constructivist Strategies Instruction for Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Ng Wai; Lai, Kong Sow

    2005-01-01

    Concept learning in science and mathematics had often times been taught based on assumptions of alternative concepts or even in some instances based on misconceptions. Some educational researchers favour a constructivist approach in teaching science and mathematics. The constructivist literature existing makes use of alternative conceptions as…

  18. Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose

  19. Indicators of Constructivist Principles in Internet-Based Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Karen M.; Gibbs, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A panel of experts proposed and rated categories and indicators of constructivist-compatible principles for Internet-based courses. The categories and associated indicators provide an initial framework that may help educators apply constructivist principles to the development of Internet-based courses. (EV)

  20. Towards a Cyber-Constructivist Perspective (CCP) of Educational Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppicini, Rocci

    2003-01-01

    This theoretical paper utilizes cybernetic-­based approaches (Bopry, 1999; Wiener, 1954) and communications theory (Habermas, 1984, 1990; Krippendorff, 1994) to advance knowledge of constructivist learning. I argue that past educational research literature on constructivist learning is partly responsible for limiting how educational designers…

  1. Transforming Constructivist Learning into Action: Design Thinking in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…

  2. Millennial Expectations and Constructivist Methodologies: Their Corresponding Characteristics and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, much emphasis has been placed on constructivist methodologies and their potential benefit for learners of various ages (Brandt & Perkins, 2000; Brooks, 1990). Although certain aspects of the constructivist paradigm have replaced several aspects of the behaviorist paradigm for a large contingency of stakeholders (particularly,…

  3. Developing a Scale for Constructivist Learning Environment Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The success of creating a constructivist learning environment is directly related to teachers' management abilities and therefore scales that evaluate those skills are essential to the process. Given the importance of this subject, the development of scales that address all aspects of the constructivist learning environment…

  4. Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose…

  5. Model Building: Toward a Constructivist Theory of Learning Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Thomas R.; And Others

    This paper outlines a constructivist theory of learning with a more concrete and specific approach to the types of problems addressed in Piaget's equilibration theory. Knowledge, in this constructivist view, results from the subject's transformational activity on the world and his/her real efforts to organize that activity. The first section…

  6. Teaching-to-Learn: A Constructivist Approach to Shared Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrandt, Melody K.; Felts, Janet; Richards, Brooke; Abghari, Neda

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, three Atlanta area high school art teachers implemented constructivist lessons to see how students would accept responsibility for their own learning and peer-teaching situations. Each teacher selected at least one class in which to implement a variety of constructivist strategies. The teachers then selected a goal in their…

  7. [Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].

    PubMed

    Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

    2013-08-01

    This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702

  8. What Makes My School a Good Training Ground for Leadership Development?: The Perceptions of Heads, Middle Leaders and Classroom Teachers from 70 Contextually Different Primary and Secondary Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. It draws upon this larger project and offers evidence not seen before elsewhere. It deals…

  9. The relationship between constructivist supervisory practices, school climate, and student proficiency in reading, mathematics, and science: Evidence from NELS:88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, John Alexander

    In an effort to improve instruction and student learning, school reform efforts have become prevalent. School reformers have examined many aspects of the school experience, including learning theories such as behaviorism and constructivism, the changing roles of teachers and supervisors, and even the concept of the school itself. The theoretical framework for this study centered around constructivist learning theory. The study itself focused on the application of constructivist learning theory to the supervisory process. The study examined five areas of interest: (a) teachers' perceptions of constructivist supervisory behavior; (b) teachers' perceptions of efficacy and control in the classroom; (c) teachers' perceptions of school climate; (d) teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction, and (e) the influences of each of the aforementioned on student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Data for the study was drawn from the first follow-up survey of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). NELS: 88 investigated a wide variety of factors that influence the educational process. The first follow-up focuses on environmental factors that affect teachers and students. Variables were selected from the NELS:88 data set that represented the areas to be examined. Factor analysis and correlational analysis were applied to ensure that the variables were measuring distinct constructs and to determine ways they could be grouped for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine relationships among the individual and composite variables, controlling for student and teacher demographic factors. The results of the study suggest that varying relationships do exist between constructivist supervisory practices and the constructs measuring school climate and job satisfaction. The results also suggest that varying relationships exist between each of these factors and student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Specifically, school climate, job satisfaction, and student proficiency were influenced by constructivist supervisory practices that included teachers' freedom to experiment with teaching and teachers' control over texts and materials.

  10. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation

  11. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  12. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris Baskett)…

  13. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the

  14. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on contextual learning issues. "Learning to Learn Strategies of Successful Real Estate Professionals: Implications for Learning in the Workplace" (Margot B. Weinstein) describes a multicase study in which a model called the Individual Learning System was used to identify the strategies and resources…

  15. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  16. Preview Search and Contextual Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsoll, John P.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998) within the preview paradigm (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Contextual cuing was shown with a 10-item letter search but not with more crowded 20-item displays. However, contextual learning did occur in a preview procedure in which 10 preview items were followed by…

  17. Classroom Talk, Conceptual Change and Teacher Reflection in Bilingual Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a science teacher's use of and reflections on classroom talk in teaching a unit on genetics on a bilingual education programme. Constructivist, sociocultural and discursive psychological perspectives on conceptual change and classroom talk are reviewed. Data are drawn from three sources: preactive interview, video-recording…

  18. Evaluation of an Innovative Mathematics Program in Terms of Classroom Environment, Student Attitudes, and Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Howard; Fraser, Barry J.

    2005-01-01

    Dull classroom environments, poor students' attitudes and inhibited conceptual development led to the creation of an innovative mathematics program, the Class Banking System (CBS), which enables teachers to use constructivist ideas and approaches. To assess the effectiveness of the CBS, the Individualised Classroom Environment Questionnaire…

  19. Introductory Geology for Elementary Education Majors Utilizing a Constructivist Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lewis M.; Kelso, Paul R.; Rexroad, Carl B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of several teaching techniques based on constructivist educational theory. The teaching techniques are used with preservice teachers to enable them to experience active learning strategies in the context in which science is practiced. (Contains 19 references.) (DDR)

  20. The Warrant for Constructivist Practice within Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopry, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Discusses educational technology as a form of technical rationality and considers the conflict between practitioners' epistemological position as constructivists and technical rationality. Topics include cybernetics; autonomous systems theory; enactive constructivism; representation versus effective action; mind and memory; enaction in artificial…

  1. Galactic Structure: A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Antonio; Casasus, Elena

    1991-01-01

    An astrophysics course based on the constructivist approach to science teaching is described. The study of galactic structure is given as an example. Direct experiences and observations, representative-symbolic language, organized knowledge, and formal strategies are emphasized. (KR)

  2. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and…

  3. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Constructivist Curriculum Change as a Predictor of Their Perceptions of the Implementation of Constructivist Teaching-Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ali; Kasapoglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the implementation of constructivist teaching-learning activities and of constructivist curriculum change. Data were collected from 236 primary school teachers through a questionnaire measuring the perceptions of constructivist curriculum change and of the implementation of

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Constructivist Curriculum Change as a Predictor of Their Perceptions of the Implementation of Constructivist Teaching-Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ali; Kasapoglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the implementation of constructivist teaching-learning activities and of constructivist curriculum change. Data were collected from 236 primary school teachers through a questionnaire measuring the perceptions of constructivist curriculum change and of the implementation of…

  6. Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Heidi

    Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

  7. Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also

  8. Modeling Pedagogy for Teachers Transitioning to the Virtual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuel, Michael J.; White, Beverley J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a review of the creation and evolution of a professional development program modeled on social constructivist principles and designed for online educators in a virtual high school who transitioned from the conventional classroom to the virtual educational environment. The narrative inquiry focuses on the critical events within the…

  9. Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also…

  10. Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

  11. Joining Theory and Best Practice To Drive Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhler, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes three theories supporting reading instruction--schema theory, the constructivist approach, and literary response theory--and offers best classroom practices that support these theories. Provides a sample lesson illustrating possible cross-curricular interactions, also considered a best practice. (EV)

  12. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

  13. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that the initiative was of much value, the teachers also felt that they needed to meet more frequently and for a longer period of time. As the study group was a relatively intensive effort compared to one-time workshops, it illustrated the need for ongoing professional development and district support responsive to teachers' needs. The teachers also valued the study group for the support and collegiality it provided them. It became a means of breaking through the isolation that the teachers felt as they went about their day-to-day business as the only adult within the four walls of their classrooms. The study group created a non-threatening forum for reflection, support, and sharing as each teacher learned she not alone in the struggles and challenges they experienced in negotiating constructivism and the new science curriculum.

  14. Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

  15. On contextuality in behavioural data.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V; Cervantes, Víctor H; Zhang, Ru; Jones, Matt

    2016-05-28

    Dzhafarovet al.(Dzhafarovet al.2016Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A374, 20150099. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0099)) reviewed several behavioural datasets imitating the formal design of the quantum-mechanical contextuality experiments. The conclusion was that none of these datasets exhibited contextuality if understood in the generalized sense proposed by Dzhafarovet al.(2015Found. Phys.7, 762-782. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9882-9)), while the traditional definition of contextuality does not apply to these data because they violate the condition of consistent connectedness (also known as marginal selectivity, no-signalling condition, no-disturbance principle, etc.). In this paper, we clarify the relationship between (in)consistent connectedness and (non)contextuality, as well as between the traditional and extended definitions of (non)contextuality, using as an example the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequalities originally designed for detecting contextuality in entangled particles. PMID:27091164

  16. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  17. Updating Language Teaching: Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, L.

    1975-01-01

    The cognitive-code theory of learning has influenced the field of language teaching. Increased use of communicative practice and contextualization, simulation, concept-based teaching methods and increased integration of language skills are the result of this influence observed in the classroom. (CLK)

  18. Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Louise Cherry, Ed.; Marrett, Cora B., Ed.

    The 11 chapters comprising this work focus on the interactional influences that may be related to differential classroom experiences for males and females. The effects of contextual factors, teacher characteristics, and student characteristics are investigated. Addressed primarily to researchers, this information should prove useful to teachers,

  19. A five year study of the attitudes, perceptions, and philosophies of five secondary science education teachers prepared in the constructivist teaching methodology advanced at the University of Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbeck, James Edward

    1999-11-01

    The present study researched the attitudes, Perceptions, and philosophies of five secondary education science teachers prepared in the constructivist teaching methodology advanced at the University of Iowa. This study is a continuation of a three-year study---the Salish I Project supported by the US Department of Education. The teachers studied are five 1993 University of Iowa Science Education Center graduates who have taught for five years. The main objective of the present study was finding answers to four questions aiming at further understanding of the impact and importance of the preservice education in I the constructivist teaching methodology of new teachers, and the changes they experience in the first five years of teaching. The instruments used in the study are various as they cover a wide range of different categories of beliefs I in terms of teaching, learning, teacher performance and view of school. The following trends came out on reviewing all of the data: in the first year of teaching three of the five teachers studied taught as constructivist teachers. in the third year of teaching, the classroom practices of the teachers converged more closely to their beliefs and preservice preparation. In the fifth year, all five teachers were ranked as constructivist in their teaching methodology in the classroom. Using the Wilcoxson test, significant, positive relationships were revealed between the teacher's philosophy of teaching and learning, with their actual practice. Teacher's philosophy and teaching practice were compared with selected standards set forth by the National Science Education Standards and were found to be in close alignment in their fifth year of teaching. Teachers prepared in the constructivist methodology are concerned about their subject content and value student input and reflection. The teachers reported using student-initiated ideas, alternative assessment strategies and being receptive to alternatives. Other important factors identified by the teachers as condition to their successes are maturation, experience, and acceptance in the school and community. All five teachers attributed their preservice education at the University of Iowa as a significant factor in their successes in the science classroom. in the science classroom.

  20. Is In-Class Physical Activity at Risk in Constructivist Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Sun, Haichun; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2007-01-01

    Constructivist physical education emphasizes cognitive engagement. This study examined the impact of a constructivist curriculum on in-class physical activity. Caloric expenditure in metabolic equivalents (MET) and vector magnitude count (VM) data from a random sample of 41 constructivist lessons were compared with those from a random sample of 35…

  1. What Is the Role of Constructivist Teachers within Faculty Communication Networks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Lawson, Anton E.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biology faculty of one high school (n = 9) and the mathematics faculty of another (n = 16), this study tested the hypothesis that constructivist teachers play an active role within teacher communication networks (the constructivist-teacher hypothesis). This hypothesis contrasts with the view that constructivist teachers operate alone and…

  2. The Roles of Teacher Efficacy in Instructional Innovation: Its Predictive Relations to Constructivist and Didactic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…

  3. Constructivist Strategies in Phonological Intervention: Facilitating Self-Regulation for Carryover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist strategies for children who have difficulty achieving phonological carryover. The advantages of constructivist strategies are pointed out and a model of self-regulated learning is applied to constructivist carryover activities which help these children achieve metacognitive abilities similar to…

  4. Development and Validation of a Modified Turkish Version of the Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagun, Sengul S.; Anilan, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    The Constructivist Learning Environment Survey is an instrument used for assessing students' and teachers' perceptions of their learning environments. The Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES) was created to better enable teachers and researchers to determine teachers' perception of their use of constructivist approaches in…

  5. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  6. The Constructivist Mapping of Internet Information At Work with Nestor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiliger, Romain; Esnault, Liliane

    This paper presents the Nestor Web Cartographer software, its features, its user interface, the constructivist approach to mapping Internet information that guided its design and the experience gained after 10 years of use in academic contexts. We focus on five selected features such as the hybrid representation system, some original visual widgets, the groupware section, and we discuss their role within a constructivist approach. We argue that they favour the collaborative and incremental construction of formalized knowledge. A case study in Lyon School of Management (EM LYON) is discussed with more details.

  7. Makiguchian pedagogy in the middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, Iris Teresa

    In an atmosphere of multi-culturism and the increasing need for innovative methods for science teaching, investigating educators from different parts of the world is well regarded. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871--1944) was a prescient thinker who foreshadowed many of the modern social constructivist ideals of teaching before they became formalized in Western thought. He believed in the harmonious balance between an individual and society as the only viable goal of education. With this in mind, he introduced the concepts of "evaluation," "cognition" and "value creation" that embody this balance. "Cognition" is associated with "truth" and "evaluation" is involved with the subject-object relationship. Moreover, Makiguchian pedagogy's concept of "value creation" offers a sociological and philosophical basis for "classroom inclusion." Additionally, Makiguchian pedagogy is compared to John Dewey's philosophy as well as the educational philosophy expressed in The National Science Standards. In this teacher participant study, classroom observational data showed that several dimensions of Makiguchian pedagogical practice occurred conjointly with relatively high frequencies. These included frequent occurrences of interactional conversation between students and teacher merged within a context of expressions of personal and collective values, social contextual references, valuing and personal evaluative statements, and episodic information that the students contributed from personal experiences relevant to the science topics. Additionally, Likert-type questionnaire data collected from the students who experienced the Makiguchian lessons, and observational data from professional colleagues who viewed video taped records of the lessons, provided additional corroborative evidence supporting the researcher's findings. A content analysis of lesson plans containing Makiguchian principles of teaching and learning in relation to the ensuing classroom performance of the teacher showed a close correspondence. Learners were encouraged to produce creative pieces of written or graphic artwork to express their scientific understandings as is consistent with a Makiguchian approach. The students' work contained highly symbolic and metaphorical content while also accurately presenting fundamental scientific information gained from the lessons. These findings suggest that a Makiguchian approach to learning can enhance socially-situated learning while also sustaining adequate mastery of science content.

  8. The Social Status of Aggressive Students across Contexts: The Role of Classroom Status Hierarchy, Academic Achievement, and Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…

  9. Simulation-Based Constructivist Approach for Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reflect the leadership strategies that may arise using a constructivist approach based on organizational learning. This approach involved the use of simulations that focused on ethical tensions in school principals' daily experiences, and the development of codes of ethical conduct to reduce these tensions. The

  10. A Constructivist Perspective on Teaching and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Compares two first-grade teachers' hands-on approaches to teach measurement concepts. One, a constructivist, allowed students to figure out the dimensions of a Mayflower ship outline; the other immediately showed kids how to use a yardstick to estimate a whale's dimensions. Although initially more confused, the first class got more out of their…

  11. Change as Collaborative Inquiry: A Constructivist Methodology for Reinventing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tony

    1998-01-01

    An obsolete, unworkable approach to achieving high standards is top-down dictation of goals and minimal staff compliance. A constructivist change strategy is based on collaboration. It is an action research and development process enabling everyone to understand the problem, reach agreement on goals, and share responsibility for implementing…

  12. Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…

  13. Web-Enhanced Learning: Engaging Students in Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neo, Mai

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of a web-based constructivist learning environment, which was developed based on a course given to students in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM) on student learning. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, a web-based multimedia-mediated project was developed based on an Internet…

  14. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  15. The Evolving Role of the Researcher in Constructivist Longitudinal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter

    2002-01-01

    Explores the evolution of the relationship between researcher and participants in longitudinal, constructivist studies. Issues inherent in this evolving relationship are examined and the authors illustrate how the resolution of these issues influences the researcher. Asserts that the lessons learned can be applied to practice and advocate using a

  16. Teaching Counselors and Therapists: Constructivist and Developmental Course Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Karen; McAuliffe, Garrett

    This book offers suggestions for transforming the specific courses in the counselor education curriculum. Each chapter includes an introduction--using anecdotes or student quotes; an overview of the impact of constructivism on the course content; an outline of the course structure, assignments, and activities, with the accompanying constructivist

  17. Contemplating a Constructivist Stance for Active Learning within Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    This article examines constructivist philosophies for learning with an emphasis on student-centered environments in education and the active involvement of students in learning as they relate new understanding to what they already know and refine previous skills in terms of newly acquired proficiencies. Active learning is explored from a…

  18. Simulation-Based Constructivist Approach for Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reflect the leadership strategies that may arise using a constructivist approach based on organizational learning. This approach involved the use of simulations that focused on ethical tensions in school principals' daily experiences, and the development of codes of ethical conduct to reduce these tensions. The…

  19. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to

  20. Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these

  1. Reflection of Constructivist Theories in Current Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvova, Alena; Chudy, Stefan; Neumeister, Pavel; Plischke, Jitka; Kvintova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    In this overview study, we would like to present the basic constructivist approaches that have affected or influenced the current concept of education. The teacher-student interaction is reflected by personality, psychological traits, attitudes and cultural capital of the participants of the educational process as well as the teacher's effort to…

  2. Teacher Evaluation, Performance-Related Pay, and Constructivist Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Guodong; Akiba, Motoko

    2015-01-01

    Using statewide longitudinal teacher survey data collected in 2009 and 2010, this study examined the characteristics of teacher evaluation used to determine performance-related pay (PRP), and the association between PRP and improvement in the practice of constructivist instruction. The study found that 10.9% of middle school mathematics teachers…

  3. A Constructivist-Informed Approach to Teaching Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Wallian, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Interest in constructivism has fueled enthusiasm for the development of games and team-sport pedagogy over the past decade, but individual sports have yet to receive the same attention. In this article we redress this oversight by suggesting that constructivist perspectives on learning can be used to develop student-centered, inquiry-based…

  4. A Constructivist Perspective for Integrating Spirituality into Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Brian M.; Bayne, Hannah; Lorelle, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made in recent years to integrate training in spirituality and religion into counselor training programs. This article highlights issues that may be encountered by some trainees and suggests that constructivist teaching principles be used to mitigate these concerns. The authors present recommendations and activities…

  5. A Constructivist Perspective on Teaching and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Compares two first-grade teachers' hands-on approaches to teach measurement concepts. One, a constructivist, allowed students to figure out the dimensions of a Mayflower ship outline; the other immediately showed kids how to use a yardstick to estimate a whale's dimensions. Although initially more confused, the first class got more out of their

  6. Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

  7. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to…

  8. Developing a Constructivist Learning Environment in Online Postsecondary Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Sylvester N.

    2010-01-01

    This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in…

  9. A Social Constructivist Approach to Computer-Mediated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a computer-mediated teaching system called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) that incorporates a social constructivist approach, maintaining that learning occurs primarily through a socially interactive process. Discusses use of CAPSI in an undergraduate course at the University of Manitoba that showed students…

  10. A Step for Evaluating Constructivist Approach Integrated Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazi, Zehra A.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to reveal the validation of 86-items in order to develop a scale for evaluating constructivist approach integrated online courses in higher education practices. The main aim of this research process is to reveal a scale to further evaluate whether the online education practices in higher education have the notions of…

  11. Constructivist Pedagogy and Subject-Centered Learning: The Subjectivist Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper introduces the subjectivist teaching/learning paradigm (STP), which uses students' social and cultural enculturation processes to structure affect-laden constructivist learning experiences focused in the subject area being taught. STP uses powerful learning experiences to promote two goals: enculturation into the subject area and…

  12. Determining US Workers' Training: History and Constructivist Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review two accounts of the history of workplace learning and training in the USA that emphasize issues of power and control in the determination of what training occurs, and place these issues at the center of their analyses. Design/methodology/approach: The two texts are reviewed and a constructivist paradigm…

  13. Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these…

  14. Cognitive conflict as a teaching strategy in solving chemistry problems: A dialectic-constructivist perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of teaching experiments within a dialectic-constructivist framework based on the following considerations: (a) Cognitive conflicts used in the teaching experiments must be based on problem-solving strategies that students find relatively convincing: (b) after having generated a cognitive conflict, it is essential that the students be provided with an experience that could facilitate the resolution of the conflict; and (c) the teaching strategy developed is used by an interactive constructivist approach within an intact classroom. The study was based on two sections of freshman students who had registered for Chemistry I at the Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela. One of the sections was randomly designated as the control group and the other as the experimental group. To introduce cognitive conflict, the experimental group was exposed to two teaching experiments dealing with stoichiometry problems based on the concept of limiting reagent. Students in the control group were exposed to the same problems - however, without the cognitive conflict teaching experiments format. To evaluate the effect of the teaching experiments, both groups were evaluated on five different problems at different intervals during the semester, referred to as posttests. All posttests formed part of the regular evaluation of the students. Results obtained show the advantage of the experimental group on four of the posttests. It is concluded that the experimental treatment was effective in improving performance on the immediate posttests. It was observed that some students protect their core belief [see Lakatos, I. (1970). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 91-196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] in stoichiometry (establishing equivalent relations between different elements or compounds) by ignoring the conflicting data, just as conflicting (anomalous) data do not necessarily convince a scientist to abandon a particular theory.Received: 23 September 1993; Revised: 29 August 1994;

  15. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  16. Using the Contextual Orientation to Facilitate the Study of Bible with Generation X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousens, Beth; Morrison, Jeremy S.; Fendrick, Susan P.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the use of the contextual orientation to the Bible--which seeks to understand the Bible as a product of its time, and in the context of historical-critical biblical scholarship--as a deliberate, significant aspect of a teacher's overall approach to reaching Jewish adults in their 20s and 30s. Through classroom observation…

  17. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer

  18. The effect of classroom instruction, attitudes towards science and motivation on students' views of uncertainty in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Meadow

    This study examined developmental and gender differences in Grade 5 and 9 students' views of uncertainty in science and the effect of classroom instruction on attitudes towards science, and motivation. Study 1 examined views of uncertainty in science when students were taught science using constructivist pedagogy. A total of 33 Grade 5 (n = 17, 12 boys, 5 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 16, 8 boys, 8 girls) students were interviewed about the ideas they had about uncertainty in their own experiments (i.e., practical science) and in professional science activities (i.e., formal science). Analysis found an interaction between grade and gender in the number of categories of uncertainty identified for both practical and formal science. Additionally, in formal science, there was a developmental shift from dualism (i.e., science is a collection of basic facts that are the result of straightforward procedures) to multiplism (i.e., there is more than one answer or perspective on scientific knowledge) from Grade 5 to Grade 9. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the understanding uncertainty in practical and formal science. Study 2 compared the attitudes and motivation towards science and motivation of students in constructivist and traditional classrooms. Scores on the measures were also compared to students' views of uncertainty for constructivist-taught students. A total of 28 students in Grade 5 (n = 13, 11 boys, 2 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 15, 6 boys, 9 girls), from traditional science classrooms and the 33 constructivist students from Study 1 participated. Regardless of classroom instruction, fifth graders reported more positive attitudes towards science than ninth graders. Students from the constructivist classrooms reported more intrinsic motivation than students from the traditional classrooms. Constructivist students' views of uncertainty in formal and practical science did not correlate with their attitudes towards science and motivation.

  19. The Synergy of Class Size Reduction and Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica; Sherfinski, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    A contextual approach to understanding class size reduction includes attention to both educational inputs and processes. Based on our study of a class size reduction program in Wisconsin we explore the following question: How do class size reduction and classroom quality interact to produce learning opportunities in early elementary classrooms? To…

  20. Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta, Madeline Strong

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

  1. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

  2. Creating an Articulate Classroom: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences of Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Annie Therese

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the continuing "issue" of developing classrooms where talk is used as means of building concepts and understanding. As curriculum guidance increasingly refers to "exploratory talk" and "dialogic talk", it questions why practice seems resistant to change, despite the promotion of social constructivist approaches to learning in…

  3. Text Talk, Body Talk, Table Talk: A Design of Ratio and Proportion as Classroom Parallel Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the rationale and 10-day implementation in a 5th-grade classroom (n=19) of an experimental ratio-and-proportion instructional design. In this constructivist-phenomenological design, coming from our theoretical perspective, design research, and domain analysis, students: (1) link "real-world" and "mathematical" objects…

  4. A Joyful Classroom Learning System with Robot Learning Companion for Children to Learn Mathematics Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Chun-Wang; Hung, I-Chun; Lee, Ling; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates the design of a Joyful Classroom Learning System (JCLS) with flexible, mobile and joyful features. The theoretical foundations of this research include the experiential learning theory, constructivist learning theory and joyful learning. The developed JCLS consists of the robot learning companion (RLC), sensing input…

  5. Science in the Multicultural Classroom. A Guide to Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta H.

    This book is designed to help the teacher become a reflective practitioner in the multicultural science classroom. The ideas presented are grounded in constructivist theory and emphasize a multicultural approach to science education. The first section, "Addressing Diversity," deals with issues germane to the science education needs of culturally…

  6. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Flipping at an Open-Enrollment College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzler, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is a blended, constructivist learning environment that reverses where students gain and apply knowledge. Instructors from K-12 to the college level are interested in the prospect of flipping their classes, but are unsure how and with which students to implement this learning environment. There has been little discussion…

  7. Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Downey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Designed around a practical "practice-what-you-teach" approach to methods instruction, "Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher" is based on current constructivist philosophy, organized around 5E inquiry, and guided by the National Science Education Teaching Standards. Written in a reader-friendly style, the…

  8. Mixed Method Study: Exploring the Use of Educational Technology Tools in K-12 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laliberte, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Successful implementation of educational technology is reliant upon constructivist teaching practices. Using technology in the classroom is a method used to make the shift from traditional methods of instruction to more constructive-compatible instruction. Methods of learning including technology integration are a relatively new mode of…

  9. The Mathematics Reform Movement: Assessing the Degree of Reform in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, David O.; Bohlin, Carol; Bohlin, Roy; Tracz, Susan

    This paper explores the nature and status of the mathematics reform movement (focusing on California's initiatives) in America's public schools, the connection between the reform movement and constructivist epistemology, the development of an assessment tool for measuring the degree of reform present in a secondary mathematics classroom, and the

  10. Characterising Individual and Social Concept Development in Collaborative Computer Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmboe, Christian; Scott, Phil H.

    2005-01-01

    Within-group similarities and between-group differences are used to illustrate the socio-cultural nature of the concept-building process in highly collaborative computer science classrooms. Simultaneously, a social constructivist perspective is used to describe the individual aspects of this development. The study uses written explanations from…

  11. Mentors' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Change in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Mentors' perceptions of factors associated with educational change were identified following an individualized mentoring program about constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. A qualitative case study analysis of the mentors' journals of six classrooms was conducted to review their perceptions of change. Classroom…

  12. Facilitating and Direct Guidance in Student-Centered Classrooms: Addressing "Lines or Pieces" Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

    2014-01-01

    This study explores, from both constructivist and cognitive perspectives, teacher guidance in student-centered classrooms when addressing a common learning difficulty with equivalent fractions--lines or pieces--based on number line models. Findings from three contrasting cases reveal differences in teachers' facilitating and direct guidance…

  13. Does Space Matter? Impact of Classroom Space on Student Learning in an Organic-First Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthyala, Rajeev S.; Wei, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have reported on the positive impact of social constructivist approaches on learning in introductory chemistry courses. However, the widespread use of such approaches is being hampered to a certain degree by uncertainty as to whether one needs a special type of classroom. In this study, we investigated student learning in two…

  14. Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Downey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Designed around a practical "practice-what-you-teach" approach to methods instruction, "Your Science Classroom: Becoming an Elementary/Middle School Science Teacher" is based on current constructivist philosophy, organized around 5E inquiry, and guided by the National Science Education Teaching Standards. Written in a reader-friendly style, the

  15. Does Space Matter? Impact of Classroom Space on Student Learning in an Organic-First Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthyala, Rajeev S.; Wei, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have reported on the positive impact of social constructivist approaches on learning in introductory chemistry courses. However, the widespread use of such approaches is being hampered to a certain degree by uncertainty as to whether one needs a special type of classroom. In this study, we investigated student learning in two

  16. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Flipping at an Open-Enrollment College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzler, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is a blended, constructivist learning environment that reverses where students gain and apply knowledge. Instructors from K-12 to the college level are interested in the prospect of flipping their classes, but are unsure how and with which students to implement this learning environment. There has been little discussion

  17. Evaluation of an Innovative Mathematics Program in Terms of Classroom Environment, Student Attitudes, and Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Howard; Fraser, Barry J.

    Dull classroom environments, poor students' attitudes and inhibited conceptual development led to the creation of an innovative mathematics program, the Class Banking System (CBS), which enables teachers to use constructivist ideas and approaches. To assess the effectiveness of the CBS, actual and preferred versions of the Individualized Classroom…

  18. Placing Cybereducation in the UK Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchik, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of the Internet in the classroom has often been characterized as a practice that disconnects the teacher from traditional forms of externally imposed influence. This paper examines this assertion by mapping the emerging field of cybereducation and considering how endemic knowledge is contextualized by national curricular authorities. The…

  19. Tying Signals: Restoring Classroom Order after Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Icbay, Mehmet Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at publicly demonstrating how classroom order is mutually established by a teacher and students in transition periods. Transitions take place in each instance when a current activity finishes, simultaneously the contextual organisation of the activity changes, and then the previously established order is lost. As a result, the…

  20. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  1. Field Dependence and Contextual Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Karen; Patty, Del

    1991-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of contextual organizers for subjects (n=276) of three cognitive styles (field dependent, field independent, and field intermediate) during computer-assisted instruction. Findings were advance organizers were more effective for field-dependent subjects; postorgainzers were more effective for field-intermediate…

  2. Clinical Guidelines Contextualization in GLARE

    PubMed Central

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Terenziani, Paolo; Montani, Stefania; Torchio, Mauro; Molino, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The adaptation of clinical guidelines to specific contexts is a fundamental task to promote guideline dissemination and use. Several aspects of contextualization need to be faced, including the adaptation of guidelines to local resource availability and (for computer-based guideline approaches) to local software environment. We show how a computer-based approach can help in such a challenging task. PMID:17238480

  3. Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2003-01-01

    Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

  4. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a variety of pedagogical functions. Students perceived Group-Investigations and Peer Assessments as positive in that they contributed to realizing constructivist features in their classrooms. The students also reported that they gained several learning outcomes through Group-Investigations, including more positive attitudes, new knowledge, greater learning capabilities, and improved self-esteem. However, the Group-Investigation and Peer Assessment methods were perceived as negative and problematic by those who had rarely been exposed to such inquiry-based, student-centered approaches.

  5. Classroom Constructivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Constructivism, which holds that knowledge is created out of each individual's own experience, is recapturing researchers' attention. To constructivists, teachers are not omniscient oracles, but nutritionists providing an environment for children to grow their own knowledge. Students might learn division by planning a field trip instead of…

  6. Classroom Volcanology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the use of a constructivist model for engaging students in the curriculum. The student end of the model is characterized by the knowledge, personal experience, degree of motivation, and level of interest that a student brings to a learning situation. (DDR)

  7. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample…

  8. Reconstructing Christian Ethics: Exploring Constructivist Practices for Teaching Christian Ethics in the Masters of Divinity Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, William

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on an effort to incorporate constructivist pedagogies (learner-centered, inquiry-guided, problem-based models of teaching) into an introductory class on Christian Ethics in an M.Div. curriculum. Although some students preferred more traditional pedagogies, the majority found that constructivist pedagogies better accommodated…

  9. Supporting Social Constructivist Learning through the KEEP SLS ePortfolio System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuesong; Olfman, Lorne; Firpo, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Traditional ePortfolio systems are usually used as an individual learning unit, or an assessment tool in education. However, these systems often lack social constructivist learning features such as sharing, peer review, and group collaboration. This paper describes a new ePortfolio system that supports both personal and social constructivist

  10. The Methods of Teaching Course Based on Constructivist Learning Approach: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel; Yücel-Toy, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate how the course designed based on constructivist principles has been implemented, what actions have been taken to solve problems and what thoughts have arisen in the minds of teacher candidates with regard to the constructivist learning approach. In this study, an action research was employed which…

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Constructivist Teaching Scores Based on Their Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' constructivist teaching and their learning styles based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. The Learning Styles Inventory-3 was administered at the beginning of the semester to determine preferred learning style. The Constructivist Teaching Evaluation Form was filled…

  12. Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Techniques: Comparing Two Groups of Undergraduate Nonscience Majors in a Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly; Lord, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Constructivist teaching techniques work well in various instructional settings, but many teachers remain skeptical because there is a lack of quantitative data supporting this model. This study compared an undergraduate nonmajors biology lab section taught in a traditional teacher-centered style to a similar section taught as a constructivist

  13. Pre-Service Teachers and the Use of Constructivist Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    My exploratory case study examined the use of a learning platform to facilitate constructivist teaching strategies by pre-service teachers during their student teaching and field experiences in elementary science classes. Constructivist teaching strategies include inquiry lessons and active learning techniques. Dialogue, interviews and online…

  14. An Ever-Changing Meaning: A Career Constructivist Application to Working with African Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, L. Marinn; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2012-01-01

    Refugees are expected to determine how to integrate past experiences into their lives in a new culture. Constructivist approaches to counseling allow refugees opportunities to determine how to integrate these experiences into their future career choices. Refugee experiences throughout the resettlement process and a constructivist career counseling…

  15. A Constructivist Learning Experience: Reconstructing a Web Site Using Web Based Multimedia Authoring Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neo, Ken T. K.; Neo, Mai

    2001-01-01

    Uses multimedia to create a constructivist learning experience and to innovate a multimedia constructivist learning model based on a course at Multimedia University (Malaysia). Assessed students' problem solving skills and ability to evaluate a Web site's design, creativity, and navigational structure by requiring them to reconstruct and improve…

  16. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample

  17. Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,

  18. A Triphasic Model of the Teaching-Learning Environment Based on Constructivist Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Roger; And Others

    A model of the teaching-learning environment, based on cognitive-constructivist theories of learning, is presented. The model consists of three dimensions. Dimension One (Opportunity for Constructivist Activity) represents the proportion of teaching-learning activity that is directed to encouraging self-reflection, mobilization of individual…

  19. Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

  20. Web-Based Designed Activities for Young People in Health Education: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Modern Health Education in primary schools is increasingly using computer technologies in a variety of ways to enhance teaching and learning. Here, a Constructivist approach for a web-based educational activity for Grade 7 is discussed using an example of designing a healthy Food Handling Manual in the food industry. The Constructivist principles…

  1. Using Technology Tools to Engage Students with Multiple Learning Styles in a Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solvie, Pamela; Kloek, Molly

    2007-01-01

    This research study investigated the use of technology tools to support constructivist learning experiences in a preservice teacher education reading methods course. Learning opportunities based on Kolb's learning styles model were used to support understanding of course content in the constructivist environment. Technology tools were used during…

  2. Doing Social Constructivist Research Means Making Empathic and Aesthetic Connections with Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song

    2014-01-01

    Social constructivist theorists tend to identify qualitative educational research as discovering meaning and understanding by the researcher's active involvement in the construction of meaning. Although these approaches have been widely influenced by Vygotsky's social constructivist approach, his own theoretical framework has received…

  3. A Bold Step Forward: Juxtaposition of the Constructivist and Freeschooling Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatul, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the juxtaposition of learning within the parallel structure of the constructivist and freeschooling models of education. To begin, characteristics describing the constructivist-learning model are provided, followed by a summary of the major components of the freeschooling-learning model. Finally, the parallel structure…

  4. Web-Based Designed Activities for Young People in Health Education: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Modern Health Education in primary schools is increasingly using computer technologies in a variety of ways to enhance teaching and learning. Here, a Constructivist approach for a web-based educational activity for Grade 7 is discussed using an example of designing a healthy Food Handling Manual in the food industry. The Constructivist principles

  5. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  6. Children, Objects, and Relations: Constructivist Foundations in the Reggio Emilia Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Annette C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how children's construction of relationships in exploring materials helps to explain the constructivist foundations of the Reggio Emilia approach. A quasi-naturalistic study of 12 preschool children, ages 3 and 4 years, individually exploring different kinds of collage papers reveals a range of constructivist categories…

  7. Age in Social Interaction. On Constructivist Epistemologies and the Social Psychology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronsson, Karin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses work on age in interaction in terms of constructivist epistemologies, relating research on ageism to work on adult-child interaction in a cultural comparative perspective. By focusing on identity in interaction, applied linguistics combines constructivist developments with close textual analyses and maintains that it is possible to avoid…

  8. The Effects of Grouping and Instructional Strategies on Conceptual Understanding and Critical Thinking Skills in the Secondary Biology Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maryellen; Zeidler, Dana L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe selected instructional strategies (traditional and constructivist) and grouping practices (homogeneous and heterogeneous) on conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills in biology classrooms in three high schools. The context of the study was the teaching and learning of plant…

  9. An Investigation of the Use of Real-Time, Authentic Geospatial Data in the K-12 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Aaron; Veletsianos, George

    2007-01-01

    This article situates geospatial technologies as a constructivist tool in the K-12 classroom and examines student experiences with real-time authentic geospatial data provided through a hybrid adventure learning environment. Qualitative data from seven student focus groups demonstrate the effectiveness of using real-time authentic data, peer…

  10. Changing the attitudes and practices of professional developers through a constructivist model: The Technical Assistance Academy for Mathematics and Science Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Karen Jungblut

    For much of this century, mathematics and science have been taught in a didactic manner that is characterized by a passive student and a lecturing teacher. Since the late eighties national standards have encouraged professional developers specializing in mathematics and science education to deliver the messages of inquiry-based learning, active student engagement, and learner-constructed knowledge to the teachers they support. Follow-up studies of professional development programs, however, found that telling teachers was no more effective than telling students. Information transmitted in a passive setting was not transferring into effective classroom practices. This phenomenological case study was conducted to determine the effects of a constructivist-oriented professional development experience, the Technical Assistance Academy, in changing the practices and attitudes of mathematics and science professional developers regarding the use of constructivist strategies in workshop design. This study focused on 45 professional developers who participated in the Technical Assistance Academy. Data from a 2 1/2 year period were collected from session evaluations, journal reflections, a follow-up interview, and site visits that included observations and collaborative planning. Content analysis procedures were used to find common themes among the data. Use of new skills developed as a result of participation in the Technical Assistance Academy was determined using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Levels of Use framework (Hall & Hord, 1987). Changes in attitude were determined by examining participants' journal reflections related to common constructivist themes such as those discussed by Fosnot (1996c): learning is developmental, disequilibrium and reflection facilitate learning, and the construction of "big ideas" results from the opportunity to struggle with new information. Results verified that all 45 participants demonstrated some level of use, and that most were in the 3 highest of 5 levels of use: mechanical (11%), routine (16%), refinement (27%), integration (24%), and renewal (22%). Participants reported valuing (a) active engagement necessary for the developmental progression of learning to occur, (b) their own disequilibrium, (c) opportunity to reflect, and they acknowledged a clearer understanding and appreciation of the big ideas in workshop design such as networking, collaboration, content and staff development standards, equity, and community building. Results support the conclusion that learning about constructivist instructional strategies in a long-term program that models them positively affects participants' attitudes and enhances their use of similar strategies in the design of professional development experiences for others. Knowledge developed in a constructivist setting transferred into effective facilitator practices.

  11. A contextual extension of Spekkens' toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jan-A.?ke

    2012-03-01

    Quantum systems show contextuality. More precisely, it is impossible to reproduce the quantum-mechanical predictions using a non-contextual realist model, i.e., a model where the outcome of one measurement is independent of the choice of compatible measurements performed in the measurement context. There has been several attempts to quantify the amount of contextuality for specific quantum systems, for example, in the number of rays needed in a KS proof, or the number of terms in certain inequalities, or in the violation, noise sensitivity, and other measures. This paper is about another approach: to use a simple contextual model that reproduces the quantum-mechanical contextual behaviour, but not necessarily all quantum predictions. The amount of contextuality can then be quantified in terms of additional resources needed as compared with a similar model without contextuality. In this case the contextual model needs to keep track of the context used, so the appropriate measure would be memory. Another way to view this is as a memory requirement to be able to reproduce quantum contextuality in a realist model. The model we will use can be viewed as an extension of Spekkens' toy model [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007)], and the relation is studied in some detail. To reproduce the quantum predictions for the Peres-Mermin square, the memory requirement is more than one bit in addition to the memory used for the individual outcomes in the corresponding noncontextual model.

  12. A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numedahl, Paul Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (5) The inclusion of children's literature in elementary school science promotes a positive attitude toward science, an increase in student self-confidence in science, and fosters accurate understandings of the nature of science. Recommendations focus on student change, constructivist pedagogy, use of literature in science, and parental involvement in science education.

  13. A study of the effects of constructivist-based vs. traditional direct instruction on 8th grade science comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berube, Clair Thompson

    2001-07-01

    Studies conducted nationwide over the past several decades point consistently to the evidence that American school children lag behind several other countries in science scores. Problems arise from this dilemma, including the question of the ability of our youngsters to compete nationally and globally in the sciences as adults. Current research in this area of scores currently studies mostly mathematics. The few studies conducted concerning science mainly highlight students in other countries and neglects minorities and females regarding outcomes. By contrast, this study investigated the effects of teacher types (also defined as teaching styles or classroom orientation) on student outcomes on two measures; the standardized Standards of Learning 8th grade science test for the state of Virginia, and the Higher-Order Skills test (Berube, 2001), which was a researcher-constricted comprehension measurement. Minority and gender interactions were analyzed as well. Teacher type was designated by using the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor & Fraser, 1991). Participants included students from five large urban middle schools and thirteen middle school science teachers. Scores from the two measures were used to determine differences in student outcomes as they pertained to teacher type, gender and ethnicity. Analysis indicated that students who were taught by teachers with more traditional and mixed teaching styles performed better on the Higher-Order Skills comprehension measurement, while teachers with constructivist teaching styles actually had the lowest scoring students. Also, the interaction of ethnicity and teacher type was significant, indicating that Higher-Order Skills scores were influenced by that interaction, with Caucasians scoring the highest when taught by teachers with mixed teaching styles. Such findings could profit school administrators considering the interaction of student achievement and teaching styles on high-stakes testing environments. Suggestions are made for future studies concerning females and minorities in these same environments.

  14. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    Recent advances in the neurosciences have begun to elucidate how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge. Some of these findings are consistent with a cognitive view of constructivist models of learning and provide additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. Current thought at the interface between neurocognitive research and constructivist philosophy is summarized here and discussed in a context of implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science education.

  15. Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

  16. Classroom Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankney, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

  17. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  18. Contextual modulation outside of awareness.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Colin W G; Harris, Justin A

    2005-03-29

    Contextual effects are ubiquitous in vision and reveal fundamental principles of sensory coding. Here, we demonstrate that an oriented surround grating can affect the perceived orientation of a central test grating even when backward masking of the surround prevents its orientation from being consciously perceived. The effect survives introduction of a gap between test and surround of over a degree even under masking, suggesting either that contextual information can effectively propagate across early visual cortex in the absence of awareness of the signaled context or that it can proceed undetected to higher processing levels at which such horizontal propagation may not be necessary. The effect under masking also shows partial interocular transfer, demonstrating processing of orientation by binocular neurons in visual cortex in the absence of conscious orientation perception. This pattern of results is consistent with the suggestion that simultaneous orientation contrast is mediated at multiple levels of the visual processing hierarchy, and it supports the view that propagation of signals to and, possibly, back from higher visual areas is necessary for conscious perception. PMID:15797029

  19. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. PMID:22899567

  20. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  1. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including

  2. Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Motivations for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…

  3. A constructivist theoretical proposition of cultural competence development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-11-01

    Cultural competence development in healthcare professions is considered an essential condition to promote quality and equity in healthcare. Even if cultural competence has been recognized as continuous, evolutionary, dynamic, and developmental by most researchers, current models of cultural competence fail to present developmental levels of this competence. These models have also been criticized for their essentialist perspective of culture and their limited application to competency-based approach programs. To our knowledge, there have been no published studies, from a constructivist perspective, of the processes involved in the development of cultural competence among nurses and undergraduate student nurses. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical proposition of cultural competence development in nursing from a constructivist perspective. We used a grounded theory design to study cultural competence development among nurses and student nurses in a healthcare center located in a culturally diverse urban area. Data collection involved participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 24 participants (13 nurses and 11 students) working in three community health settings. The core category, 'learning to bring the different realities together to provide effective care in a culturally diverse context', was constructed using inductive qualitative data analysis. This core category encompasses three dimensions of cultural competence: 'building a relationship with the other', 'working outside the usual practice framework', and 'reinventing practice in action.' The resulting model describes the concurrent evolution of these three dimensions at three different levels of cultural competence development. This study reveals that clinical experience and interactions between students or nurses and their environment both contribute significantly to cultural competence development. The resulting theoretical proposition of cultural competence development could be used not only to guide initial and continuing nursing education, but also to help redefine quality of care in a culturally diverse context. PMID:26077350

  4. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  5. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  6. Constructivism in Practice: an Exploratory Study of Teaching Patterns and Student Motivation in Physics Classrooms in Finland, Germany and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerenwinkel, Anne; von Arx, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    For the last three decades, moderate constructivism has become an increasingly prominent perspective in science education. Researchers have defined characteristics of constructivist-oriented science classrooms, but the implementation of such science teaching in daily classroom practice seems difficult. Against this background, we conducted a sub-study within the tri-national research project Quality of Instruction in Physics (QuIP) analysing 60 videotaped physics classes involving a large sample of students (N = 1192) from Finland, Germany and Switzerland in order to investigate the kinds of constructivist components and teaching patterns that can be found in regular classrooms without any intervention. We applied a newly developed coding scheme to capture constructivist facets of science teaching and conducted principal component and cluster analyses to explore which components and patterns were most prominent in the classes observed. Two underlying components were found, resulting in two scales—Structured Knowledge Acquisition and Fostering Autonomy—which describe key aspects of constructivist teaching. Only the first scale was rather well established in the lessons investigated. Classes were clustered based on these scales. The analysis of the different clusters suggested that teaching physics in a structured way combined with fostering students' autonomy contributes to students' motivation. However, our regression models indicated that content knowledge is a more important predictor for students' motivation, and there was no homogeneous pattern for all gender- and country-specific subgroups investigated. The results are discussed in light of recent discussions on the feasibility of constructivism in practice.

  7. Design, implementation, and evaluation of two laboratory course constructivist learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Luis

    This study is concerned with the design, implementation, and evaluation of two student-centered, constructivist undergraduate laboratory courses: the intensive general chemistry laboratory course, a first-year course, and the physical chemistry laboratory course, a fourth-year course for chemistry majors. The courses' activities were divided into training and educating blocks according to their cognitive and epistemological content; i.e., the training block activities consisted of structured experiments based on laboratory manuals, which developed specific curricular skills; the educating block consisted of problem-based-learning contextual episodic experiences in the form of case studies, integrative, and independent projects aimed at broadening the students' perspectives and metacognitive abilities. The main goal of the proposed curricular change was to motivate the first-year students to major in chemistry, and once motivated to sustain the interest of declared majors through the undergraduate experience into the fourth year to build stronger graduate programs in chemistry. The effectiveness of the courses in promoting students' intellectual growth, transfer of domain specific knowledge in the sense of procedural transfer i.e., the application of prior knowledge to new learning situations, and active learning of professional or transferable skills that would improve efficiency and effectiveness in their professional preparation was evaluated quantitatively by analyzing the students' group- and individual-reports at the beginning and end of the courses and qualitatively by analyzing the students' responses to open-ended questionnaires at the beginning and end of the courses. The students performed outstandingly as evidenced by the high grades obtained in the graded activities, and by the appreciation of external evaluators who attended the students' public presentations. Analysis of the students' responses to the open-ended questionnaires using indigenous concepts and case study approaches showed intellectual growth in the sense of Perry's theory, gain of domain specific knowledge, and acquisition of transferable skills. Since the implementation of the pilot phase of the prototypical courses in the fall of 2002 to date, seventy three percent of the declared chemistry majors are either pursuing careers in chemistry or have been admitted to chemistry programs nationwide.

  8. The Relation of Theory and Analysis in Explanations of Belief Salience: Conditioning, Displacement, and Constructivist Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delia, Jesse G.; O'Keefe, Daniel J.

    1977-01-01

    Advocates according a central role to context-relevant beliefs in the operation of attitudinal saliency through contrasting Delia et al's cognitive-constructivist analysis with Cronen and Conville's operant conditioning and aggression displacement accounts. (Author)

  9. The Learning Virus: An Affective, Constructivist Movement Shaped by Ultrasociality in the Age of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershler, Jeff; Stabile, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Redefining the discourse toward a "better fit" cultural framework of beliefs, thought, language, and action through ultrasociality, a constructivist meme can help nurture an epistemological break (or rupture) from the traditional objectivist paradigm in education.

  10. Using Computer Simulations To Enhance Conceptual Change: The Roles of Constructivist Instruction and Student Epistemological Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Andre, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a constructivist versus objectivist learning environment on college students' conceptual change using a computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system as an instructional tool. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  11. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  12. Exploring Explicit and Implicit Influences on Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Development of Beliefs and Classroom Practice through Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics education literature supports the complex process of prospective secondary mathematics teacher (PSMT) learning and development, the impact of beliefs on PSMT learning and development, and the lack of demonstrated mathematics classroom practice supported by current constructivist reform perspectives referred to as…

  13. Contextual Analysis Of Tactical Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Arthur V.; Rowland, Patricia J.; Pemberton, Wade G.

    1984-06-01

    Current automated approaches for recognizing spatially localized objects fall short of human recognition performance for two reasons. First, the classical statistical pattern recognizer uses only locally measured scene information in the recognition process. Contextual information can and should be extracted and exploited to enhance automated statistical approaches. Second, the human recognizer is able to learn from and adapt to new situations, while the automatic statistical pattern recognizer is confounded by any object that fails to match some subset of its training experience. Techniques from artificial intelligence can be employed to endow the machine with the ability to adapt to the scene at hand based on feedback of derived scene information. This paper describes an intelligent automated object recognition system that uses extracted scene context and feedback for improved recognition.

  14. "Friending" Vygotsky: A Social Constructivist Pedagogy of Knowledge Building through Classroom Social Media Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churcher, Kalen M. A.; Downs, Edward; Tewksbury, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Social media and web 2.0 technologies are an attractive supplement to the higher education experience and are embraced as a way to foster intra-and extracurricular knowledge generation among a class community. However, these collaborative media require a rethinking of the theoretical framework through which we engage student communities of…

  15. Big Science for Growing Minds: Constructivist Classrooms for Young Thinkers. Early Childhood Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence from recent brain research shows that the intentional teaching of science is crucial in early childhood. "Big Science for Growing Minds" describes a groundbreaking curriculum that invites readers to rethink science education through a set of unifying concepts or "big ideas." Using an integrated learning approach, the author shows…

  16. An Elementary School Teacher's Reflection on Implementing Constructivist Instruction in Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Wang, Jing-Ru

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to describe how the author, Kuo-Chung Hsu, changed his teaching beliefs and science instruction through participating in a cooperative action research, which is conducted by the author, Jing-Ru Wang. Self-study was adopted to explain and interpret Kuo-Chung Hsu's experience of teaching science in Taiwan island.…

  17. Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Dorit

    A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

  18. Teaching Constructivist Science, K-8: Nurturing Natural Investigators in the Standards-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Michael L.; Ebert, Edward S., II; Ebert, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Good teachers know that science is more than just a collection of facts in a textbook and that teaching science goes beyond the mere transmission of information. Actively engaging students in the learning process is critical to building their knowledge base, assessing progress, and meeting science standards. This book shows teachers how to

  19. Teaching Constructivist Science, K-8: Nurturing Natural Investigators in the Standards-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Michael L.; Ebert, Edward S., II; Ebert, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Good teachers know that science is more than just a collection of facts in a textbook and that teaching science goes beyond the mere transmission of information. Actively engaging students in the learning process is critical to building their knowledge base, assessing progress, and meeting science standards. This book shows teachers how to…

  20. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  1. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  2. Contextual fear conditioning depresses infralimbic excitability.

    PubMed

    Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Cruz, Emmanuel; Criado-Marrero, Marangelie; Porter, James T

    2016-04-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show hypo-active ventromedial prefrontal cortices (vmPFC) that correlate with their impaired ability to discriminate between safe and dangerous contexts and cues. Previously, we found that auditory fear conditioning depresses the excitability of neurons populating the homologous structure in rodents, the infralimbic cortex (IL). However, it is undetermined if IL depression was mediated by the cued or contextual information. The objective of this study was to examine whether contextual information was sufficient to depress IL neuronal excitability. After exposing rats to context-alone, pseudoconditioning, or contextual fear conditioning, we used whole-cell current-clamp recordings to examine the excitability of IL neurons in prefrontal brain slices. We found that contextual fear conditioning reduced IL neuronal firing in response to depolarizing current steps. In addition, neurons from contextual fear conditioned animals showed increased slow afterhyperpolarization potentials (sAHPs). Moreover, the observed changes in IL excitability correlated with contextual fear expression, suggesting that IL depression may contribute to the encoding of contextual fear. PMID:26860438

  3. An Integrated Approach to Mathematical Modeling: A Classroom Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Helen M.

    Modeling, simulation, and discrete mathematics have all been identified by professional mathematics education organizations as important areas for secondary school study. This classroom study focused on the components and tools for modeling and how students use these tools to construct their understanding of contextual problems in the content area…

  4. Student Engagement in the Classrooms of Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Helen M.

    This paper presents findings of a study that investigated factors that contribute to the engagement of students. Based on the theoretical model of Newmann, Wehlage, and Lamborn (1992), the study examined the effect of instructional approaches of teachers, contextual features of classrooms, and attributes of student experience on students'…

  5. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  6. Transforming Multicultural Classrooms through Creative Place-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Connor

    2013-01-01

    Classrooms are spaces where diverse cultures have the potential to share lived experiences and gain insight from each other's "spatial, geographical, and contextual dimensions of existence" (Gruenewald, 2008, p. 310). Teachers facilitate multicultural perspectives being integrated into curriculum by analyzing data at school sites…

  7. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

  8. Technology Tools, A Web-Based Learning Environment for the Science and Mathematics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gerald W.; Hoffman, Harol

    TechTools™ is a professional development program for science and mathematics teachers for purposes of promoting a constructivist pedagogy with modern technologies: probeware, image processing, multimedia, e-mail, and the WWW. We report preliminary results on (1) changes in teachers' use of technology tools, classroom pedagogy and attitude, and (2) systemic ingredients which are catalytic and inhibitors to the technology reformation necessary in the educational system.

  9. Facilitating Student Learning through Contextualization: A Review of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of evidence for contextualization, defined here as an instructional approach connecting foundational skills and college-level content. Two forms of contextualization are identified, "contextualized" and "integrated" instruction. Despite methodological limitations, the available studies suggest that contextualization has the

  10. Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael A; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

    2015-04-01

    Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (n = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

  11. The Use of Constructivist Teaching Practices by Four New Secondary School Science Teachers: A Comparison of New Teachers and Experienced Constructivist Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Lee Yuen

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the use of constructivist teaching practices by four new secondary school science teachers (NSTs) from a preparation program with a focus on constructivism. Data of the NSTs is compared to data of secondary school teachers from two different sources: (i) new teachers (NTs) from a broad-scale nationally-funded project involving…

  12. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to its physical counterpart, the more positive will be the observer's perception of the collection. We reason that the similarity would lead online visitors to develop greater cognitive involvement which in turn will produce more positive attitudes toward the collection. In support of this argument, we present the results of a comparative study in which 565 participants were exposed randomly to four different exhibitions: two-dimensional collections of art and aircraft museums and three-dimensional tours of similar museums. Results indicate that whereas 3D tours have a strong effect on users' intentions to visit the real museum, cognitive involvement and sense of presence mediate the association between these variables. In terms of managerial implications, our study shows that if educational professionals want to stimulate their students to visit museums, 3D tours appear to be more effective for engaging learners through a realistic-looking environment. By offering richer perceptual cues and multimodal feedback (e.g., users can view 3D objects from multiple viewpoints or zoom in/out the objects), the study suggests that participants may increase their reasoning process and become more interested in cultural content.

  13. Introductory geology for elementary education majors utilizing a constructivist approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.M.; Kelso, P.R.; Rexroad, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    "Field Excursions in Earth Science" is designed as a non-prerequisite field-based course for elementary education majors. Classic Canadian Shield and Michigan Basin outcrops and Quaternary features are used to teach those Earth science objectives considered most important for K-8 teachers by the Michigan State Board of Education and by others. We integrated these objectives into five conceptual pathways rather than presenting them as discrete pieces of information. A variety of teaching techniques based on constructivist educational theory are employed, so that pre-service teachers experience active-learning strategies in the context of how science is practiced. Our learning strategies address the cognitive and affective domains and utilize personal experiences in conjunction with pre- and post-experience organizers to allow students to develop individual meanings. We place emphasis on observations and concepts and we encourage students to explain their understanding of concepts verbally and in a variety of written formats. Activities address spatial concepts and map reading; mineral, rock, and fossil identification; formation of rocks; surficial processes and landform development; structural deformation and plate tectonics; and environmental issues. Students keep field notes and have daily projects. They address the pedagogical structure of the course in a daily diary.

  14. Teacher change and professional development: A case study of teachers engaged in an innovative constructivist science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akura, Okong'o. Gabriel

    This study examined both the changes that elementary school teachers experienced when they implemented a reform-based science curriculum and the impact of professional development on this transformation. The research involved a case study of three purposefully selected teachers implementing the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program during the 2002--2003 school year. The LIFE program is a curriculum designed to enhance science literacy among learners from high poverty urban environments. While the study was grounded in the tradition of critical theory (Carspecken, 1996), the theoretical perspective of hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) guided data collection and analysis. Extensive observations of the teachers were made in order to capture and record the teacher change phenomenon. Data were recorded by means of field notes, audio and videotapes, semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and video Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews. Emerging themes relating to teacher change, knowledge interests, constructivist pedagogy, and professional development illustrated how teachers grapple with various aspects of implementing a reform-based science curriculum. The teachers in this study were similar to those in earlier investigations, which found that sustained professional development programs involving mentoring and constant reflection enable elementary science teachers to change their instructional strategies from the technical-realist orientation towards the practical-hermeneutic and emancipatory-liberatory orientations. The study has implications for science curriculum developers and designers of professional development programs.

  15. Semantic Image Segmentation with Contextual Hierarchical Models.

    PubMed

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-05-01

    Semantic segmentation is the problem of assigning an object label to each pixel. It unifies the image segmentation and object recognition problems. The importance of using contextual information in semantic segmentation frameworks has been widely realized in the field. We propose a contextual framework, called contextual hierarchical model (CHM), which learns contextual information in a hierarchical framework for semantic segmentation. At each level of the hierarchy, a classifier is trained based on downsampled input images and outputs of previous levels. Our model then incorporates the resulting multi-resolution contextual information into a classifier to segment the input image at original resolution. This training strategy allows for optimization of a joint posterior probability at multiple resolutions through the hierarchy. Contextual hierarchical model is purely based on the input image patches and does not make use of any fragments or shape examples. Hence, it is applicable to a variety of problems such as object segmentation and edge detection. We demonstrate that CHM performs at par with state-of-the-art on Stanford background and Weizmann horse datasets. It also outperforms state-of-the-art edge detection methods on NYU depth dataset and achieves state-of-the-art on Berkeley segmentation dataset (BSDS 500). PMID:26336116

  16. Natural Sciences Teachers' Skills of Managing the Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakçi, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The quality of education and instruction is related to effective execution of educational and instructional activities and efficiency of these activities is related to how the class is managed. Considered to be the manager of the classroom processes and program, teachers are expected to effectively direct and manage various material and human…

  17. Natural Sciences Teachers' Skills of Managing the Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Sendil; Kaymaki, Gliz

    2015-01-01

    The quality of education and instruction is related to effective execution of educational and instructional activities and efficiency of these activities is related to how the class is managed. Considered to be the manager of the classroom processes and program, teachers are expected to effectively direct and manage various material and human

  18. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  19. Classroom Connect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Describes the World Wide Web site called Classroom Connect. Notes that it gives easy access to Global Resources and Directory of Educational Sites (GRADES), which lists only "high quality" sites. Briefly discusses 17 sites listed by GRADES, and seven sections of the Classroom Connect site. (RS)

  20. Classroom Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpha Plus Corp., Piedmont, CA.

    This classroom screening device was developed by the Circle Preschool First Chance Project, a government-funded program to integrate handicapped children into regular classroom activities, for use in preschools, nursery schools, Head Start centers and other agencies working with young children. It is designed to give a gross measure of a child's…

  1. Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Terri Sue

    This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

  2. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  3. Classroom Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…

  4. Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

  5. Influences of Constructivist-Oriented Nutrition Education on Urban Middle School Students' Nutrition Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…

  6. Analyzing and Critiquing the Concepts of Professional Autonomy and Accountability through the Prisms of Decentralization and Constructivist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur; Koren, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    This analysis and synthesis explores constructs of professional autonomy and accountability using constructivist theory and practice to examine the organizational dynamics of centralization/decentralization, particularly as applied to educational organizations. Major schools of constructivist thought are explored to shed light on…

  7. The Implementation of a Social Constructivist Approach in Primary Science Education in Confucian Heritage Culture: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H?ng, Ngô Vu Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Social constructivism has been increasingly studied and implemented in science school education. Nevertheless, there is a lack of holistic studies on the implementation of social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture. This study aims to determine to what extent a social constructivist approach is…

  8. Employing Constructivist Models of Culture Teaching for Enhanced Efficacy in Pre-Departure, Cross-Cultural Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case for adopting a constructivist approach in the teaching of culture to federal, business and civilian personnel. In support of this argument, the author: (1) outlines the history of culture teaching as it progresses from behaviorist through cognitive to constructivist orientations; (2) argues that a constructivist…

  9. Experiences in a Constructivist Community of Practice: An Inquiry into TEEMS--A Science Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassard, Jack; Dias, Michael

    This research was designed to describe a constructivist science teacher education program and to investigate how students in the program experienced a constructivist learning environment. Nineteen students enrolled in a four-term program for prospective secondary science teachers participated in this one-year study. A rich description of the…

  10. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  11. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  12. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This scoping review was the first to examine use of social constructivism in KT studies. While the links between social constructivism and KT have not been fully explored, the Knowledge to Action framework has strong constructivist underpinnings that can be used in moving forward within the broader KT enterprise. PMID:24885925

  13. Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spekkens, R.W.

    2005-05-15

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem establishes the impossibility of a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, or equivalently, that quantum theory is contextual. In this paper, an operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (i) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory (ii) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures rather than just sharp measurements, and (iii) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality.

  14. Contextuality and nonlocality in decaying multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    Everyday experience supports the existence of physical properties independent of observation in strong contrast to the predictions of quantum theory. In particular, the existence of physical properties that are independent of the measurement context is prohibited for certain quantum systems. This property is known as contextuality. This Rapid Communication studies whether the process of decay in space-time generally destroys the ability of revealing contextuality. We find that in the most general situation the decay property does not diminish this ability. However, applying certain constraints due to the space-time structure either on the time evolution of the decaying system or on the measurement procedure, the criteria revealing contextuality become inherently dependent on the decay property or an impossibility. In particular, we derive how the context-revealing setup known as Bell's nonlocality tests changes for decaying quantum systems. Our findings illustrate the interdependence between hidden and local hidden parameter theories and the role of time.

  15. Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry A.

    The conversion of a limited-use, "white elephant" auditorium into an electronic classroom to be used as a flexible instructional space with numerous potentials for enrichment of learning via utilization of electromechanical aids. (FS)

  16. The flipped classroom: now or never?

    PubMed

    Hawks, Sharon J

    2014-08-01

    Pedagogical changes and new models of delivering educational content should be considered in the effort to address the recommendations of the 2007 Institute of Medicine report and Benner's recommendations on the radical transformation of nursing. Transition to the nurse anesthesia practice doctorate addresses the importance of these recommendations, but educational models and specific strategies on how to implement changes in educational models and systems are still emerging. The flipped classroom (FC) is generating a considerable amount of buzz in academic circles. The FC is a pedagogical model that employs asynchronous video lectures, reading assignments, practice problems, and other digital, technology-based resources outside the classroom, and interactive, group-based, problem-solving activities in the classroom. This FC represents a unique combination of constructivist ideology and behaviorist principles, which can be used to address the gap between didactic education and clinical practice performance. This article reviews recent evidence supporting use of the FC in health profession education and suggests ways to implement the FC in nurse anesthesia educational programs. PMID:25167605

  17. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called “first-person” knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer’s first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

  18. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

  19. Understanding teaching or teaching for understanding: Alternative frameworks for science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildy, Helen; Wallace, John

    We came to this study with a set of beliefs about good science teaching that had been heavily influenced by the constructivist literature of the past decade. In this article we reexamine some of our own assumptions about good teaching by exploring the classroom practices of an experienced physics teacher. This teacher did not fit the mold of the constructivist teacher and, yet, there was much to suggest that he was meeting the needs of the students in his class. His methods were almost entirely whole class - focusing mainly on physics content, examination technique and algorithm practice. Our close observation of this teacher in his Grade 11 classroom over several months suggests an alternative framework for examining his work. We examine this framework through a number of themes: teacher confidence, the structure of the discipline, student motivation, trust, and the cultural context of learning. We argue for a broader view of good science teaching than that proposed by the constructivist literature, one that takes into account teachers' and students' understandings of science in relation to their social and cultural contexts.Received: 29 December 1993; Revised: 18 August 1994;

  20. The Effects of Constructivist Learning Environment on Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

    2010-01-01

    To explore the effects of constructivist learning environment on prospective teachers' opinions about "mathematics, department of mathematics, discrete mathematics, countable and uncountable infinity" taught under the subject of Cantorian Set Theory in discrete mathematics class, 60 first-year students in the Division of Mathematics Education at…

  1. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the…

  3. Applying Constructivist Instructional Strategies to E-Learning: A Case Study of a Web Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye Diana

    2014-01-01

    As the practice of e-learning continues to proliferate, online educators, especially in the computing disciplines, are facing special challenges, due to the lack of relevant literature, the technical nature of the courses, and the perceived need for direct student support mechanisms. This paper presents a constructivist instructional approach to…

  4. A Constructivist Case Study Examining the Leadership Development of Undergraduate Students in Campus Recreational Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…

  5. Designing and Experimenting of English Instructional Material for Facilitating Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Constructivism has emerged as one of the greatest influences on the practice of education in the last twenty-five years. Teachers have embraced constructivist-based pedagogy with an enthusiasm that is rare in these days of quick fixes and a shopping mall approach to school improvement. For many teachers, the focus on constructing…

  6. Effectiveness of Explicit and Constructivist Mathematics Instruction for Low-Achieving Students in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E.H.; Maas, Cora J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of smallgroup constructivist and explicit mathematics instruction in basic multiplication on low-achieving students' performance and motivation. A total of 265 students (aged 8-11 years) from 13 general and 11 special elementary schools for students with learning and/or behavior disorders participated in the…

  7. Do Junior High School Students Perceive Their Learning Environment as Constructivist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustafa, Asely; Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the manner in which the features of a constructivist learning environment, and the mechanisms at its base, are expressed in junior high school students' conceptions. Our research is based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches, deigned to provide a wider ranging and deeper…

  8. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and

  9. The Use of Facebook in an Introductory MIS Course: Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ractham, Peter; Kaewkitipong, Laddawan; Firpo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this article is to evaluate via a Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) the implementation of a Social Constructivist learning framework for an introductory Management Information System (MIS) course. Facebook was used as a learning artifact to build and foster a learning environment, and a series of features and

  10. Constructivist Theory Applied to Collaborative Learning in Teacher Education: In Search of ZPD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyikos, Martha; Hashimoto, Reiko

    1997-01-01

    Examines to what extent constructivist theory explains interactions that occurred during group work on a teacher education project in foreign languages. Content analysis was used to examine dialog journals and self-reports on the group process and on each student's role in the group. Findings address division of labor, role taking, desire for…

  11. Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendel, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

  12. Experimentation with a Socio-Constructivist Process for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Gravel, Helene; Bourque, Wendy; Langis, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    A socio-constructivist and experiential process for climate change education was experimented within two coastal communities of Eastern Canada with 39 students 13 and 14 years of age. The pedagogical process, based on local observation of climate change, Duit's conceptual change theory (1999) and experiential learning, aimed for the improvement of…

  13. Rhythmic Instruction from Square One: A Constructivist Teacher and Her Metronome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adhering to a constructivist approach, this teacher focused on problem solving and group discussion as she initiated a study of traditional notation. She began with the metronome to make the steady beat less abstract for those students who still learn best through concrete operations. The students were challenged to match magnets of various

  14. Perceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers Concerning Constructivist Perspectives to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin-Can, Bilge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how a four-semester sequence teacher education program helps change pre-service teachers' perceptions about constructivist teaching and learning as they progress through the program. The participants of the study included a total of 194 science pre-service teachers in four different semesters of their

  15. A Constructivist View of Learning and Teaching in Science. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Philip; And Others

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This booklet…

  16. Ben's Perception of Space and Subitizing Activity: A Constructivist Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    This 22-session constructivist teaching experiment set out to investigate a preschool student's number understanding relative to his subitizing activity. Subitizing, a quick apprehension of the numerosity of a small set of items, has been found to characterize perceptual and conceptual processes students rely on as their understanding of number…

  17. The Use of Metaphor and Technology to Enhance the Instructional Planning of Constructivist Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dils, A. Keith

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a teacher educator used a Computer Applications for Educator's preservice education course to teach constructivist lesson planning to students who were in the process of planning lessons. It was hypothesized that by providing scaffolding and coaching during the planning process, preservice teachers could be guided to learn…

  18. Cracks in the Iceberg: Surfacing the Tensions of Constructivist Pedagogy in the Context of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the result of my inquiry into the nature of my constructivist pedagogy in the context of a postgraduate course that focused on theoretical and practical dimensions of mentoring at a major university in the north of Israel. Drawing on four critical incidents in my university teaching, I address the question: What happens when you…

  19. Supporting Social Constructivist Learning through the KEEP SLS ePortfolio System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuesong; Olfman, Lorne; Firpo, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Traditional ePortfolio systems are usually used as an individual learning unit, or an assessment tool in education. However, these systems often lack social constructivist learning features such as sharing, peer review, and group collaboration. This paper describes a new ePortfolio system that supports both personal and social constructivist…

  20. The Use of Facebook in an Introductory MIS Course: Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ractham, Peter; Kaewkitipong, Laddawan; Firpo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this article is to evaluate via a Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) the implementation of a Social Constructivist learning framework for an introductory Management Information System (MIS) course. Facebook was used as a learning artifact to build and foster a learning environment, and a series of features and…

  1. Applying a Constructivist-Developmental Practice-Based Learning Framework to the Recreation Internship Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Patricia J.; Sable, Janet R.

    2011-01-01

    The recreation internship is one of the most critical components of professional preparation education, yet educators have done little to explore the experience from a constructivist-developmental growth perspective. This article presents a practice-based learning framework that shows promise for fostering moral development among recreation

  2. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

  3. Conceptualizing Mind and Consciousness: Using Constructivist Ideas to Transcend the Physical Bind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers and scientists seeking to conceptualize consciousness, and subjective experience in particular, have focused on sensation and perception, and have emphasized binding--how a percept holds together. Building on a constructivist approach to conception centered on separistic-holistic complexes incorporating multiple levels of abstraction,…

  4. Teacher Views about Constructivist Instruction and Personal Epistemology: A National Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Ying-Shou

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the views about constructivist instruction and personal epistemology of the secondary earth science teachers in Taiwan. Participants were assessed through a paper-and-pencil survey and a "Learning environment preference questionnaire" (LEP) designed to explore personal epistemology. On a five-point Likert scale, teachers,…

  5. Engaging Students in Multimedia-Mediated Constructivist Learning--Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia and investigated students' perceptions while working on a multimedia project that was embedded within a constructivist-based learning environment. We studied the impact of using multimedia on students who have little experience with working in a…

  6. Constructivist Perspectives for Developing and Implementing Lesson Plans in General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    Stacy McKenzie is challenged to find new ways to involve students in their learning. She begins this journey by developing a lesson planning framework based on constructivist principles for learning. The perspectives Stacy applies in her program are shared in this article: First, by examining how she crafts a lesson framework that provides…

  7. Investigating the Relationships among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2010-01-01

    The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students' perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626…

  8. The Perceptions of Prospective Teachers on the Democratic Aspects of the Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Erdal; Gundogdu, Kerim; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The nations which have the aim to create democratic societies should also realize the same ideals in educational practices. Related literature declare that learning environments based on constructivist approach is assumed to be democratic. In line with this frame, the aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of prospective…

  9. Students' Perceptions in Developing a Multimedia Project within a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Malaysian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a research study that was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia, to investigate students' perceptions in developing a multimedia project within a constructivist-based learning environment. Students worked in groups to create an interactive multimedia application using an authoring…

  10. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  11. Child Development within Culturally Structured Environments. Volume 3: Comparative-Cultural and Constructivist Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valsiner, Jaan, Ed.

    Using a comparative-cultural perspective, this collection of essays examines the co-constructivist nature of human development in culturally organized environments. The contributions also cover a large age span--infancy to adulthood. Chapters in part 1 cover two different directions in the study of early adult-infant interaction from a comparative…

  12. Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception

  13. Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

  14. The Student as Knowledge Engineer: A Constructivist Model for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Ralph

    1990-01-01

    An experiment applied the theories of knowledge engineering and expert systems to science instruction for junior high school students. The model encourages a more creative, constructivist approach to teaching certain science concepts and skills while fostering improvement of logical thinking, communication, and independent learning skills. Results

  15. Toward a Post-Constructivist Ethics in/of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist epistemologies focus on ethics as a system of values in the mind--even when previously co-constructed in a social context--against which social agents compare the actions that they mentally plan before performing them. This approach is problematic, as it forces a wedge between thought and action, body and mind, universal and

  16. Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

  17. Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

  18. Computer-Mediated Communication and Science Teacher Training: Two Constructivist Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    The education of science teachers necessarily involves instruction around the use of computer technologies. Acadia University, a laptop institution, offers a unique setting where students are immersed in the critique of pedagogical applications of computers. The current trend to employ constructivist approaches in teaching provides a backdrop for…

  19. Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic

  20. Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Limits in Calculus: A Two-Part Constructivist Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Margaret Smolinka

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigated students' conceptual knowledge of limits in calculus by implementing semi-structured interviews. The constructivist learning principles of Piaget and Inhelder as well as theories of understanding by Skemp guided the study. In Phase I, a pilot study was conducted with 15 students from a Calculus III class. By using…

  1. Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

  2. A Constructivist Approach in a Blended E-Learning Environment for Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelmans, Stephan; Wessa, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report on the students' evaluation of a self-constructed constructivist e-learning environment for statistics, the compendium platform (CP). The system was built to endorse deeper learning with the incorporation of statistical reproducibility and peer review practices. The deployment of the CP, with interactive workshops and…

  3. The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…

  4. Constructivist Mathematics Education for Students with Mild Mental Retardation. Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a constructivist mathematics intervention for students with mild mental retardation, as compared to direct instruction, which is often recommended for these children. A total of 69 students from elementary schools for special education participated in the study, which focused on multiplication learning. They…

  5. Scaffolding through Cases: Diverse Constructivist Teaching in the Literacy Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaste, Janine A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on my use of first grade literacy cases to scaffold a diverse constructivist perspective in my literacy methods course for preservice teachers. The cases depicted my concurrent work in a local school with three underachieving readers, two having diverse backgrounds with respect to home languages and socioeconomic status. I

  6. Rhythmic Instruction from Square One: A Constructivist Teacher and Her Metronome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adhering to a constructivist approach, this teacher focused on problem solving and group discussion as she initiated a study of traditional notation. She began with the metronome to make the steady beat less abstract for those students who still learn best through concrete operations. The students were challenged to match magnets of various…

  7. A Constructivist Computational Tool to Assist in Learning Primary School Mathematical Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueira-Sampaio, Aleandra da Silva; dos Santos, Eliane Elias Ferreira; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes

    2009-01-01

    In constructivist principles, learning is a process in which individuals construct knowledge. Research in Mathematics Education looks for ways to make mathematics education less dry and more attractive. When solving polynomial equations of the first degree, it is very common for teachers to work with the mistaken idea of "changing the sign" when…

  8. A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning

  9. A Constructivist Study of Middle School Students' Narratives and Ecological Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary L.; Flatt, Barbara; York, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using participant observation, we describe/interpret the results of teaching a constructivist unit that empowered students in narrative writing and illustration. Participant observation methods included daily note taking, pre-post questioning, and photographing artworks. We analyzed students' stories and illustrations with borrowed and emerging…

  10. Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

  11. Constructivist Teaching Practices Used by Five Teacher Leaders for the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Abha; Yager, Stuart O.; Yutakom, Naruemon; Yager, Robert E.; Ali, Mohmaed Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    There has been a wealth of research examining learning environments as one of the variables that contributes to academic success for students studying science. A constructivist learning environment has been explored as one way to assist students in achieving greater success with science learning. There is a lack of research concerning how and if…

  12. Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade…

  13. A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning…

  14. An Instructional 'Man-Trap': Anthropomorphic and Animistic Thought in Constructivist Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

    This paper addresses two distinctive issues concerning animistic and anthropomorphic thought in the context of constructivist science education. The first concerns the extent of such ways of thinking, both within science itself and within school science. The second concerns the implications of this for theories of instruction in science education.…

  15. Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okland, Gunnar Magne

    2012-01-01

    A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main

  16. A Classification of Constructivist Instructional Design Models Based on Learning and Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardanesh, Hashem

    2006-01-01

    In a conceptual-analytical study using a deductive classificatory content analysis method ten constructivist instructional design models were selected, and learning/teaching approaches within each model were appraised. Using the original writings of the originators of each design model, the learning and teaching approaches employed or permitted to…

  17. Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

    This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

  18. Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

    This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National

  19. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  20. Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

  1. A Constructivist Approach in a Blended E-Learning Environment for Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelmans, Stephan; Wessa, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report on the students' evaluation of a self-constructed constructivist e-learning environment for statistics, the compendium platform (CP). The system was built to endorse deeper learning with the incorporation of statistical reproducibility and peer review practices. The deployment of the CP, with interactive workshops and

  2. Integrating Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in Distance Education: A Constructivist Framework for Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan; Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2011-01-01

    New communication technologies and constructivist pedagogy have the great potential to build very powerful paradigm shifts that enhance Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in distance education. Therefore, the main purpose of this chapter is to explore the new concerns, issues and potentials for the IPTV delivery of distance education to…

  3. Early Literacy: A Constructivist Foundation for Whole Language. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance, Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to consider early literacy education and whole language from the perspective of constructivist theory (which states that human beings acquire knowledge by building it from the inside in interaction with the environment) and research. More specifically, the book intends to show that the whole language movement is part of…

  4. The "Good Enough" Drama: Reinterpreting Constructivist Aesthetics and Epistemology in Drama Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    When we speak of quality in drama education, we apply different educational and aesthetic criteria. For example, improvised drama practices such as process drama, are closely associated to John Dewey's constructivist philosophy. What makes a drama qualitatively "good" within such a framework differs radically from criteria that are familiar in…

  5. Toward a Post-Constructivist Ethics in/of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist epistemologies focus on ethics as a system of values in the mind--even when previously co-constructed in a social context--against which social agents compare the actions that they mentally plan before performing them. This approach is problematic, as it forces a wedge between thought and action, body and mind, universal and…

  6. Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

  7. Millennial Expectations, Constructivist Theory, and Changes in a Teacher Preparation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Timothy L.

    2009-01-01

    The Millennial Generation (born [asymptotically equivalent to]1982-2002) is now well represented in the university setting. This cohort has its own unique expectations that are in many ways aligned with constructivist propositions of learning. These Millennial expectations will likely necessitate changes in instructional approaches used in the…

  8. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  9. Constructivist Mathematics Education for Students with Mild Mental Retardation. Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a constructivist mathematics intervention for students with mild mental retardation, as compared to direct instruction, which is often recommended for these children. A total of 69 students from elementary schools for special education participated in the study, which focused on multiplication learning. They

  10. Reanalysis of Discernment from a Social Constructivist Perspective: Academic Consultation Sessions in Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    From the social constructivist perspective, this paper examines speech style shifts in academic consultation sessions between professors and students in Japanese universities and demonstrates that politeness is an interactional achievement. The paper attempts to show how what has previously been described as a display of discernment can be…

  11. A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Web Development in Post-Secondary Vocational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Vocational education by its nature has a need for delivery methods that place a strong focus on the relationship between school and work and seeks to deliver instruction in a manner that bridges the two as seamlessly as possible. This paper presents a curriculum and constructivist-based instructional delivery approach, designed to emphasize a…

  12. Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed…

  13. The Consideration of a Constructivist Evaluation Framework in Adult Guidance Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearne, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the findings of a doctoral study that examined the measurement of individual progression in the Irish Adult Education Guidance Initiative. The critical constructivist stance of the study challenges the prevalence of the positivist paradigm to evaluate long-term outcomes in adult guidance. The research highlights the…

  14. A Constructivist Approach to Studying the Bullwhip Effect by Simulating the Supply Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; Adenso-Díaz, B.; Moreno, Plácido

    2015-01-01

    The Cider Game is a simulator for a supply chain-related learning environment. Its main feature is that it provides support to students in the constructivist discovery process when learning how to make logistics decisions, at the same time as noting the occurrence of the bullwhip phenomenon. This learning environment seeks a balance between direct…

  15. Organization Model of a Constructivist Learning Community: A Teilhardian Metaphor for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Argues for learning communities as a fruitful milieu for cognitive development and knowledge construction. Provides a metaphor of a constructivist learning community organization grounded on French scientist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theory of evolution. Asserts that Teilhardian thought is useful for conceptualizing a…

  16. Academically At-Risk Students' Perceptions of a Constructivist High School Biology Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created…

  17. Prospective High School Physics Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Practices: From Traditionalist to Constructivist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the teaching practices of prospective high school physics teachers with respect to their preference for teaching as a traditionalist or as a constructivist. To study the beliefs of prospective high school physics teachers on this subject, firstly, the Teacher Belief Survey was administered to 135

  18. Applying a Constructivist-Developmental Practice-Based Learning Framework to the Recreation Internship Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Patricia J.; Sable, Janet R.

    2011-01-01

    The recreation internship is one of the most critical components of professional preparation education, yet educators have done little to explore the experience from a constructivist-developmental growth perspective. This article presents a practice-based learning framework that shows promise for fostering moral development among recreation…

  19. Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades: A Constructivist Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Haas, Mary Elizabeth

    Meaningful learning of social studies content, skills, and values through a constructivist approach is this textbook's approach. The textbook is designed to help teachers facilitate students' development into problem-solvers and decision-makers who take an active role as citizens of their world. It is designed to illustrate the following: the…

  20. Assessing the Contribution of a Constructivist Learning Environment to Academic Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy for learning, which refers to students' beliefs in their capabilities to regulate their own learning, could determine students' motivation and academic achievement and, therefore, is significant in the learning process. This study examined how educational efforts based on constructivist theory were associated with the

  1. An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

  2. The Effect of Constructivist Instruction on Prospective Teachers' Attitudes toward Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogdu, Kerim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates the effect of employing constructivist methods and materials on the attitudes of prospective teachers' (psychological counseling students) toward human rights education. Method: The research employed a quasi-experimental pre test-post test control group design. The experimental group, consisted of 23 male and…

  3. Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the

  4. Critical Thinking Development in Nursing: An Integration of Constructivist and Traditional Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of constructivist teaching strategies has vast professional benefits in nursing education through the promotion of critical thinking skills, as students must demonstrate success on the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses and ultimately perform competently within the nursing profession. While literature…

  5. Constructivist Inspiration: A Project-Based Model for L2 Learning in Virtual Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman-Taveau, Rebekah; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Project-based learning can be used when creating simulated authentic cultural experiences via virtual trips on the World Wide Web. Project-based learning is a comprehensive, constructivist-based approach that engages students in the investigation of authentic problems. This paper focuses on the theoretical basis for project-based learning and…

  6. The Constructivist Resume: Promoting the Career Adaptability of Graduate Students in Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Cascone, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the constructivist resume, an original approach developed to promote professional identity development and career adaptability (i.e., concern, curiosity, confidence, and control) in students completing graduate-level counselor training programs. The authors discuss underlying theories, including Super's (1990; Super, Savickas,…

  7. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended

  8. Assessing the Contribution of a Constructivist Learning Environment to Academic Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy for learning, which refers to students' beliefs in their capabilities to regulate their own learning, could determine students' motivation and academic achievement and, therefore, is significant in the learning process. This study examined how educational efforts based on constructivist theory were associated with the…

  9. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Place Value within a Constructivist Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murawska, Jaclyn Marie

    2013-01-01

    This research study examined the development of 43 preservice elementary school teachers' conceptual understanding of place value after participating in a research-based constructivist unit of instruction in place value. The preservice teachers were enrolled in one of three terms of an elementary mathematics methods course in a private…

  10. Prospective High School Physics Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Practices: From Traditionalist to Constructivist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the teaching practices of prospective high school physics teachers with respect to their preference for teaching as a traditionalist or as a constructivist. To study the beliefs of prospective high school physics teachers on this subject, firstly, the Teacher Belief Survey was administered to 135…

  11. Conceptualizing Mind and Consciousness: Using Constructivist Ideas to Transcend the Physical Bind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers and scientists seeking to conceptualize consciousness, and subjective experience in particular, have focused on sensation and perception, and have emphasized binding--how a percept holds together. Building on a constructivist approach to conception centered on separistic-holistic complexes incorporating multiple levels of abstraction,

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Constructivist Learning Approach on Learners' Academic Achievements, Retention and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semerci, etin; Batdi, Veli

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to answer the question "Does a Constructivist Learning Approach have any effect on learners' academic achievement, retention and attitude scores?" As a result of a systematic investigation of experimental studies carried out between 2002 and 2015 in national and international area, 324 (218 articles, 106 theses)

  13. Design of the Model of Constructivist Learning Theory for Moral Education in Physical Education Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chenyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve better effect of moral education in physical education teaching, this article employed constructivist learning theory to design the model of moral education according to the characteristics of physical education teaching, in order that the majority of P.E. teachers draw lessons from it in their teaching practice, and service to…

  14. Perceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers Concerning Constructivist Perspectives to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin-Can, Bilge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how a four-semester sequence teacher education program helps change pre-service teachers' perceptions about constructivist teaching and learning as they progress through the program. The participants of the study included a total of 194 science pre-service teachers in four different semesters of their…

  15. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Place Value within a Constructivist Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murawska, Jaclyn Marie

    2013-01-01

    This research study examined the development of 43 preservice elementary school teachers' conceptual understanding of place value after participating in a research-based constructivist unit of instruction in place value. The preservice teachers were enrolled in one of three terms of an elementary mathematics methods course in a private

  16. Cracks in the Iceberg: Surfacing the Tensions of Constructivist Pedagogy in the Context of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the result of my inquiry into the nature of my constructivist pedagogy in the context of a postgraduate course that focused on theoretical and practical dimensions of mentoring at a major university in the north of Israel. Drawing on four critical incidents in my university teaching, I address the question: What happens when you

  17. Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Genovese, Marco; Olivares, Stefano

    2011-09-15

    Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

  18. Semantic Contextual Cuing and Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the…

  19. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  20. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  1. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  2. Generation and Memory for Contextual Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.

    2004-01-01

    Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-___) and read…

  3. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has

  4. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  5. Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

  6. Contextual Education: Internship. Occasional Papers No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfs, Claus H.

    The process of contextualization of theological education through an internship experience at Perkins School of Theology is described. Perkins is a graduate professional school of theology preparing persons for leadership in the church, and the internship normally follows the second year of academic study. The intern is placed in a teaching…

  7. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive

  8. Contextual Teaching and Learning Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Coll. of Education.

    This report documents best practices in teacher education at five universities (George Washington University, Western Oregon University, the University of Louisville, Colorado State University, and the University of New Mexico). The universities were part of a project to identify and document how contextual teaching and learning can improve…

  9. Contextualized Science for Teaching Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Dana, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses science education in India, arguing that a contextualized curriculum is a powerful means of improvement. The paper presents results from an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in current Indian textbooks and uses India's controversial Sadar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project as a case example. (SM)

  10. Using Contextual Teaching and Learning in Foods and Nutrition Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    Contextual teaching and learning is a relatively new concept in the field of education. However, the principles and practices of contextual teaching and learning have been around for centuries (Dijkstra, 1998). Contextual teaching and learning is defined as a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to…

  11. A Review of the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Tera B.; Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency (TOSCRF; Hammill, Wiederholt, & Allen, 2006), as its name implies, is designed to measure contextualized silent reading fluency in students aged 7 to 18. Its purposes are to identify good and poor readers, to measure contextual fluency, and to monitor reading development. The TOSCRF measures how…

  12. Using Contextual Teaching and Learning in Foods and Nutrition Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    Contextual teaching and learning is a relatively new concept in the field of education. However, the principles and practices of contextual teaching and learning have been around for centuries (Dijkstra, 1998). Contextual teaching and learning is defined as a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to

  13. Classroom climate indicators and attitudes towards foreigners.

    PubMed

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The school has been described as an important socialization agent in the process of political development. But the mechanism concerning how school contributes to political development has rarely been investigated. In this study we focus on contextual variables, i.e., classroom climate indicators that are seen as important aspects of the context in which adolescent development takes place. The study was based on the total of 1312 German students. In multilevel analyses, we regressed students' reports on intolerant attitudes towards foreigners on background characteristics as well as on the perceived classroom climate. Fairness in the classroom as perceived by the individual student was found to be negatively related to intolerance and achievement pressure was positively related. Students attending the high college-bound track reported less antiforeigner attitudes as did students where parents had a more sophisticated educational background. The results are discussed proposing schools to provide an open climate as a contextual framework for the development of tolerant attitudes among adolescents. PMID:18083222

  14. Implications of the Socio-Cultural Context for the Co-Construction of Talk in a Task-Based English as a Foreign Language Classroom in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article I investigate how Japanese students manage interaction together in a task-based English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. Using methods from conversation analysis and focusing on the contextual dimensions of language, I analyse data from a real classroom task with a view to understanding the ways in which social processes and…

  15. The robustness of contextuality and the contextuality cost of empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, HuiXian; Cao, HuaiXin; Wang, WenHua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce and discuss the robustness of contextuality (RoC) R C ( e) and the contextuality cost C( e) of an empirical model e. The following properties of them are proved. (i) An empirical model e is contextual if and only if R C ( e) > 0; (ii) the RoC function R C is convex, lower semi-continuous and un-increasing under an affine mapping on the set EM of all empirical models; (iii) e is non-contextual if and only if C( e) = 0; (iv) e is contextual if and only if C( e) > 0; (v) e is strongly contextual if and only if C( e) = 1. Also, a relationship between R C ( e) and C( e) is obtained. Lastly, the RoC of three empirical models is computed and compared. Especially, the RoC of the PR boxes is obtained and the supremum 0.5 is found for the RoC of all no-signaling type (2, 2, 2) empirical models.

  16. La complexite de l'implantation de l'approche socio-constructiviste et de l'integration des TIC (The Complexity of Implementing the Socio-constructivist Approach and Integrating ICT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viens, Jacques; Renaud, Luc

    2001-01-01

    The education programs of Quebec have a social constructivist focus characterized by project teaching, learner autonomy, cooperation, and metacognition. However, important technological and pedagogical hurdles must be overcome before these new practices can be implemented. (Author/SV)

  17. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without

  18. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  19. Supplementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas Fir Plywood Association, Tacoma, WA.

    Three prototype portable classrooms were developed for both conventional and component construction. One of these economical units was built for $7.50 per square foot. Construction of each type is explained through use of photographs and text. Included in the presentation are--(1) cluster grouping suggestions, (2) interior and exterior

  20. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  1. Classroom Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

  2. Contextual classification on the massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Classifiers are often used to produce land cover maps from multispectral Earth observation imagery. Conventionally, these classifiers have been designed to exploit the spectral information contained in the imagery. Very few classifiers exploit the spatial information content of the imagery, and the few that do rarely exploit spatial information content in conjunction with spectral and/or temporal information. A contextual classifier that exploits spatial and spectral information in combination through a general statistical approach was studied. Early test results obtained from an implementation of the classifier on a VAX-11/780 minicomputer were encouraging, but they are of limited meaning because they were produced from small data sets. An implementation of the contextual classifier is presented on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) at Goddard that for the first time makes feasible the testing of the classifier on large data sets.

  3. Managing Spatial Selections With Contextual Snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Mindek, P; Gröller, M E; Bruckner, S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial selections are a ubiquitous concept in visualization. By localizing particular features, they can be analysed and compared in different views. However, the semantics of such selections often depend on specific parameter settings and it can be difficult to reconstruct them without additional information. In this paper, we present the concept of contextual snapshots as an effective means for managing spatial selections in visualized data. The selections are automatically associated with the context in which they have been created. Contextual snapshots can also be used as the basis for interactive integrated and linked views, which enable in-place investigation and comparison of multiple visual representations of data. Our approach is implemented as a flexible toolkit with well-defined interfaces for integration into existing systems. We demonstrate the power and generality of our techniques by applying them to several distinct scenarios such as the visualization of simulation data, the analysis of historical documents and the display of anatomical data. PMID:25821284

  4. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers Competence in Classroom Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets childrens interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young childrens classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

  5. Proposed test of macroscopic quantum contextuality

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-09-15

    We show that, for any system with a number of levels which can be identified with n qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with n, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with n, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

  6. Axiomatic approach to contextuality and nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, Karol; Grudka, Andrzej; Joshi, Pankaj; K?obus, Waldemar; ?odyga, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    We present a unified axiomatic approach to contextuality and nonlocality based on the fact that both are resource theories. In those theories, the main objects are consistent boxes, which can be transformed by certain operations to achieve certain tasks. The amount of resource is quantified by appropriate measures of the resource. Following a recent paper [J. I. de Vicente, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 424017 (2014), 10.1088/1751-8113/47/42/424017], and recent development of abstract approach to resource theories, such as entanglement theory, we propose axioms and welcome properties for operations and measures of resources. As one of the axioms of the measure we propose the asymptotic continuity: the measure should not differ on boxes that are close to each other by more than the distance with a factor depending logarithmically on the dimension of the boxes. We prove that relative entropy of contextuality is asymptotically continuous. Considering another concept from entanglement theory (the convex roof of a measure), we prove that for some nonlocal and contextual polytopes, the relative entropy of a resource is upper bounded up to a constant factor by the cost of the resource. Finally, we prove that providing a measure X of resource does not increase under allowed class of operations such as, e.g., wirings, the maximal distillable resource which can be obtained by these operations is bounded from above by the value of X up to a constant factor. We show explicitly which axioms are used in the proofs of presented results, so that analogous results may remain true in other resource theories with analogous axioms. We also make use of the known distillation protocol of bipartite nonlocality to show how contextual resources can be distilled.

  7. Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  8. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  9. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

  10. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  11. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  12. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel

  13. A Tale of Two Cultures: The Omani-Indian Encounter in the Literature Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heble, Ayesha; Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of cultural and contextual approaches in the study of literature has long been accepted as imperative in the literature classroom, fostering, as it does, the sensitization of students to diverse worldviews. This article aims to explore the way in which literature could affect students' preconceived notions of communities and

  14. From Neoliberal Policy to Neoliberal Pedagogy: Racializing and Historicizing Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Zachary A.; Lozenski, Brian D.; McManimon, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first trace the history of "management," particularly in the United States, from the plantation to the factory to the corporation, with the intention of understanding and contextualizing "classroom management" in today's educational lexicon. To do so, we look at the intertwining history of racial

  15. A Tale of Two Cultures: The Omani-Indian Encounter in the Literature Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heble, Ayesha; Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of cultural and contextual approaches in the study of literature has long been accepted as imperative in the literature classroom, fostering, as it does, the sensitization of students to diverse worldviews. This article aims to explore the way in which literature could affect students' preconceived notions of communities and…

  16. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  17. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

  18. Methods in Second Language Classroom-Oriented Research: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 50 empirical classroom-oriented investigations of second-language learning concludes that there is a need for more contextualized research; extended theoretical bases of research; an extended range of research tools, techniques, and methods; reevaluation of the distinctions between process- and product-oriented research; and more…

  19. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from

  20. Directed Consultation, the SEALS Model, and Teachers' Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoca, Luci M.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Byun, Soo-yong; Lee, David L.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Rucker, Nkecha; Moohr, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Directed consultation is presented as a professional development framework to guide and support teachers in the implementation of evidence-based interventions that involve contextual and process-oriented approaches designed to be incorporated into daily classroom management. This approach consists of four components: pre-intervention observations…