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1

Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

2011-03-01

2

Creating a Constructivist Classroom Atmosphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses transcripts to present two very different approaches to helping children remember rules, reflecting very different sociomoral atmospheres that will influence children's development positively or negatively. Explores grouptime, decision making, and conflict resolution as they occur in constructivist classrooms characterized by mutual respect…

DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty

1995-01-01

3

Technology in a Constructivist Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the constructivist model for teaching the effective uses of computer technology. Details five computer-based constructivist projects based on a problem-solving format: Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE), Learning Through Collaborative Visualization Project (CoVis), Computer Clubhouse, JASPER, and…

Ferguson, Donna

2001-01-01

4

A Constructivist's Perspective on Functional Contextualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author presents his arguments to Fox's premise that functional contextualism has an implications for designing instruction. Fox argues that functional contextualism is an alternative to constructivism because constructivism has not empirically demonstrated its effectiveness. However, the author finds this assertion troubling for…

Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

5

Personal and contextual factors influencing the use of constructivist practices in the secondary science internship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports a study that focused on the personal and contextual factors that influenced twelve student teachers' use of constructivist practices during their internship. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of twelve practicing secondary science interns during 1998 and 1999. Data came from researcher's direct observation of intern teaching practice. Data also came from the words of the participants through interviews, reflective pieces, and the documents of the internship. Results from this study revealed three major factors consistently influencing intern use of constructivist practices: (a) personal history informing beliefs and practices, (b) content and pedagogical understanding, and (c) cooperating teacher interpretation of the curriculum and associated pacing regime. How interns learned and liked science best as students formed early beliefs about how to best learn and teach science. With adequate content and pedagogical understanding, interns were able to explore more constructivist ways of teaching their curriculum. Interns had the most freedom in implementing constructivist practices under cooperating teachers who viewed the curriculum conceptually and taught at a slower pace. Principals and state mandated testing influenced this view. The minor or negligible influences on intern use of constructivist practices in most cases in this study included: (a) classroom management and student behavior, (b) interns' view of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, and (c) availability of resources. Results were used to construct a model explaining intern use of constructivist practices in this study. Interns with beliefs about teaching and learning science that included constructivist practices were able to fulfill their personal role identities as teachers under two main conditions: (a) adequate content and pedagogical understanding and (b) conceptual based curriculum with less restrictive pacing regimes. Limitations of the model and areas where further research is needed are discussed.

Eick, Charles Joseph

6

Constructivist Listening: Real-Life Classroom Management and Discipline Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses communication obstacles music educators encounter and considers constructivist listening as a means for music educators to assist one another with discipline and management issues. Describes activities for use in a seminar entitled "Real Life in the Music Classroom: Creating Positive Discipline and Management." (CMK)

McDonald, Nan

2000-01-01

7

Seven Posers in the Constructivist Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, "constructivism" constitutes the "grand unified theory" of the moment. In this article, I maintain that constructivism as a theory of knowledge and constructivism as pedagogy are distinct and that the question of what constructivism about knowledge implies for teaching is under-theorised. Seven classroom scenarios are sketched that…

Kotzee, Ben

2010-01-01

8

Teacher Questioning and Interaction Patterns in Classrooms Facilitated with Differing Levels of Constructivist Teaching Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the impact of teacher questions, question types, and interaction patterns that coincide with high and low levels of constructivist teaching practices. Through both quantitative and qualitative methods the findings revealed that teachers facilitating classrooms with high levels of constructivist teaching practices (HLCTP) were very active as they asked a significantly greater number of questions compared to teachers

Ibrahim Erdogan; Todd Campbell

2008-01-01

9

Teacher Questioning and Interaction Patterns in Classrooms Facilitated with Differing Levels of Constructivist Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the impact of teacher questions, question types, and interaction patterns that coincide with high and low levels of constructivist teaching practices. Through both quantitative and qualitative methods the findings revealed that teachers facilitating classrooms with high levels of constructivist teaching practices (HLCTP)…

Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd

2008-01-01

10

An exploratory case study: The impact of constructivist-based teaching on English language learners understanding of science in a middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the middle school science classroom of a constructivist teacher and examine how constructivist-based teaching influences ELL students and their learning of science. The researcher's purpose was to discover patterns which emerged after close observations, careful documentation, and thoughtful analysis of the research topic. What was discovered by this exploratory case study was not sweeping generalizations but contextual findings. This case study was conducted in the spring of 2006. The researcher sought to answer the question, "How does constructivist teaching help middle school English Language Learners understand science?" Two variable clusters were examined: (1) the independent variable cluster of the constructivist teaching practices of the one selected teacher; and (2) the dependent variable cluster of the middle school English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Four broad categories of data were collected: (1) observations of teaching and learning (including teaching plans and other teaching materials); (2) interviews related to teaching and learning; (3) inventories of teaching and learning; and (4) artifacts of learning. Steve Loos, an eighth grade middle school science teacher, is an expert constructivist-based teacher. His teaching influences English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Steve's teaching influenced the English Language Learners through a variety of pedagogical strategies. The researcher concluded in this study that, "Constructivist teaching helps middle school English Language Learners understand science."

Seimears, C. Matt

11

Conflict Resolution in a Preschool Constructivist Classroom: A Case Study in Negotiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documented one child's development of conflict resolution skills when a peer problem-solving model was used in a constructivist-designed classroom. Findings revealed that this child progressed from a power assertion style of conflict resolution to a more sophisticated form of negotiation. The study supports current thinking that young…

Arcaro-McPhee, Rena; Doppler, Elizabeth E.; Harkins, Debra A.

2002-01-01

12

Beyond Classroom Boundaries: Constructivist Teaching with the Internet (Exploring Literacy on the Internet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the Internet can be used to support the active construction of knowledge within classroom, and can be used to create authentic literacy experiences for children. Discusses how literacy and learning are being redefined by the social constructivist perspective and constructivism. Notes specific Web sites. (SR)

El-Hindi, Amelia E.

1998-01-01

13

Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Technology as a Catalyst for Constructivist Practices in the Classroom: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research described and analyzed teachers' perceptions of technology as a catalyst for stimulating classroom constructivist practices. The teachers were located at multiple schools in one Florida county. The teachers were selected based on participation in the Education through Dynamic Global Experiences (EDGE) program. This One-to-One program…

Menard, Lynne Brown

2010-01-01

14

Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.

Heron, Lory Elen

15

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

16

Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

2010-01-01

17

Confronting the Baby Blues: A Social Constructivist Reflects on Time Spent in a Behaviorist Infant Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflective essay describes the author's experiences as an observer in a behaviorist infant classroom. The author developed four categories of practice to describe what happened in the behaviorist infant room: (1) curricular focus on training typically developing infants to meet typical developmental milestones, (2) the use of highly…

McMullen, Mary Benson

2010-01-01

18

Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on self-regulated learning has stressed the importance of both motivational and cognitive components of classroom learning. Much of this research has examined these components without consideration of potential contextual differences. Using a within-subject correlational design, the present study assessed mean level differences in students' task value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, cognitive strategy use, regulatory strategy use, and classroom academic

CHRISTOPHER A. WOLTERS; PAUL R. PINTRICH

1998-01-01

19

Teacher understanding of the nature of science and its impact on student learning about the nature of science in STS/Constructivist classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the National Science Education Standards both STS/Constructivist teaching strategies and student understanding of the nature of science are stressed. If certain teaching practices can achieve both goals at one time, many problems will be solved. Such relationships were investigated in this study. Teacher subjects were selected based on two extremes of scores on the Testing on Understanding Science. The Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix - Science Version was used to categorize teachers into their use of STS/Constructivist or more traditional strategies based on their teaching behaviors observed from video tapes. After the teacher subjects were selected, a non-equivalent control group design was adapted for the administration of items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) to the students of these teachers. Pre- and post-test data were collected using 20 VOSTS items. VOSTS options were categorized into a Congruent/Partially Congruent/Naive format by a panel of six science educators. A special scoring procedure was devised for the VOSTS items to allow the use of inferential statistics. When performance on 17 VOSTS items were studied, more understanding of the nature of science by teachers, the presence of an STS/Constructivist learning environment in the classroom, or a combination of both factors was not found to help students learn more about the nature of science. Explanations for such results are offered. A McNemar test was performed to take a closer look at the 17 VOSTS items individually. The results indicated that students who were taught by STS/Constructivist teachers with high TOUS scores moved toward "congruent" views concerning the nature of science on a number of VOSTS items. Also, students who were taught by more traditional teachers with low TOUS scores moved toward "naive" views on other VOSTS items. The findings support the fact that teachers who know more about the nature of science and who practice many of the STS/Constructivist teaching strategies assist students in learning more about the nature of science.

Lieu, Sang-Chong

20

"Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

2010-01-01

21

Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

2008-01-01

22

Developing a Model to Ease Youth's Transitions into Residential Treatment: Integrating Constructivist Therapies and Youth Care into a Contextually Relevant Rite of Passage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this applied research project, the tendency for Youth Workers to treat admissions as a sudden procedural event was problematic at a treatment program. Literature from (brief) constructivist therapies, youth care work, and interviews with administrators, youth workers, and youths at a treatment program were used to solve the problem. The Context…

Williams, Paul A.

23

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

24

The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

2014-04-01

25

A Motivational View of Constructivist-informed Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivist and conceptual change perspectives on learning have given rise to a number of models of constructivist classroom teaching. Motivation has been recognized as an important factor in the construction of knowledge and the process of conceptual change, so one could expect that motivation strategies would be integral components of constructivist?informed teaching. The purpose of this paper was to examine,

David Palmer

2005-01-01

26

An eco-behavioral approach to examining the contextual effects of early childhood classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine what child characteristics (age, gender, language) and classroom characteristics (activity, teacher involvement) typically accompany complex interactions with objects and peers in ethnically diverse early childhood classrooms, and whether global classroom quality contributes additional variance to children’s interactions with objects and peers when child and classroom characteristics are accounted for. Two hundred and

Susan Kontos; Margaret Burchinal; Carollee Howes; Steve Wisseh; Ellen Galinsky

2002-01-01

27

Constructivist Pedagogy in Strategic Reading Instruction: Exploring Pathways to Learner Development in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored English as a Second Language (ESL) learner development. In particular, it focused on investigating learners' understanding of reading and their willingness to be engaged in strategic reading in participatory classroom activities. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on reading performance. The context was a…

Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2008-01-01

28

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through…

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

2012-01-01

29

A Constructivist Approach for Digital Learning: Malaysian Schools Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs) through the use of laptops supported within 1:1 e-learning education in Malaysian schools. The main objectives of this study were to investigate (a) different possible gaps between constructivist theory and classroom practices in Malaysian…

Sultan, Waleed H.; Woods, Peter Charles; Koo, Ah-Choo

2011-01-01

30

Designing an Online Class Using a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students have more opportunities to take control of their learning in a constructivist classroom. Learning in this problem-based environment, the students can make sense and apply the learning in the daily life. Brooks and Brooks (1999) recommend five constructivist principles to help educators design a course that helps the students construct…

Chan, Sang

2010-01-01

31

CMC as Written Conversation: A Critical Social-Constructivist View of Multiple Identities and Cultural Positioning in the L2/C2 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model for a critical social-constructivist (CS-C) approach to the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language/culture education. CS-C theories emphasize a critical approach to social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication, and the influence that these activities have on learning. I will use the…

Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.

2005-01-01

32

Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

Martell, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

33

Contextual Factors at the School and Classroom Level Related to Pupils' Performance in Mathematics in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South African pupils performed well below the TIMSS international average in 1995 and 1999 and significantly below all other countries (including the other African countries) in the 1999 study. Path analysis, namely Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis, was applied to the South African TIMSS-R data to explore the effect of contextual factors at…

Howie, Sarah J.

2005-01-01

34

Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine…

Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

2009-01-01

35

An Appraisal of Constructivist Psychotherapies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines potential contributions of four clinical lineages sharing constructivist philosophy: personal construct theory, structural-developmental cognitive therapy, narrative reconstruction, and constructivist family therapy. Briefly reviews emerging trends in psychotherapy research compatible with this perspective. Asserts that current…

Neimeyer, Robert A.

1993-01-01

36

Constructivist strategies in online distance education in nursing.  

PubMed

This article reviews the use of constructivism in traditional brick-and-mortar classrooms, as opposed to the online learning environment. The applicability of constructivism to nursing education is discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for online nursing education programs, offering ways that constructivist methodologies can be applied to online distance education. PMID:19260397

Legg, Timothy J; Adelman, Deborah; Mueller, Dale; Levitt, Cheryle

2009-02-01

37

Preparing Counselors and Therapists: Creating Constructivist and Developmental Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for those who will educate future counselors and psychotherapists, this book marks out a vision for counselor and psychotherapist training for the postmodern era. The book details specific practices that are grounded in constructivist and developmental principles including approaches to classroom instruction, field supervision, curriculum,…

McAuliffe, Garrett; Eriksen, Karen

38

Introduction to Contextual Teaching and Learning. Fastback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fastback shows teachers and teacher educators how contextual teaching and learning (CTL) can change classrooms and teacher education programs. It introduces CTL in the classroom through the fictional Ms. Walters, a veteran classroom teacher who implements CTL strategies. The fastback examines the theories that support her instructional…

Sears, Susan

39

An appraisal of constructivist psychotherapies.  

PubMed

Predicated on a postmodern epistemology, constructivist theories emphasize the proactive, self-organizing features of human knowing and their implications for psychotherapy. This article outlines the potential contributions of 4 clinical lineages sharing a constructivist philosophy--personal construct theory, structural--developmental cognitive therapy, narrative reconstruction, and constructivist family therapy--and briefly reviews emerging trends in psychotherapy research compatible with this perspective. Although current constructivist approaches confront problems as well as prospects, they represent a growing force within psychotherapy, contributing to the sophistication of psychological theory, the diversification of clinical research, and the extension of therapeutic technique. PMID:8473576

Neimeyer, R A

1993-04-01

40

Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

2010-01-01

41

Four Case Studies of Prospective Science Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Constructivist Teaching Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies were constructed for four prospective teachers who were purposely selected as a result of their scores on the Classroom Learning Environment Survey (CLES) to gain a better understanding of emerging constructivist beliefs and classroom practices. Finds two kinds of beliefs, central beliefs defined as those dictating subsequent teaching…

Haney, Jodi J.; McArthur, Julia

2002-01-01

42

Sociomoral Atmosphere in Direct-Instruction, Eclectic, and Constructivist Kindergartens: A Study of Teachers' Enacted Interpersonal Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microanalytic description of teachers' interactions with children suggests that the sociomoral atmospheres of three types of classrooms differ considerably. Children in the direct-instruction classroom experience an almost totally unilateral relationship with the teacher; in the constructivist classroom, there is more reciprocity and intimacy;…

DeVries, Rheta; And Others

1991-01-01

43

Quantifying contextuality.  

PubMed

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; K?obus, W; Wójcik, A

2014-03-28

44

Quantifying Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; K?obus, W.; Wójcik, A.

2014-03-01

45

Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

Mathews, Minu

2007-01-01

46

Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

47

Children's Temperament and Behavior in Montessori and Constructivist Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed mothers and children at four constructivist and ten Montessori preschool classrooms. Found a near significant trend suggesting that temperamentally active boys were more likely to be perceived as behavior problems in Montessori settings, which are characterized by working quietly for long periods of time. No similar trends were revealed…

Yen, Shu-Chen; Ispa, Jean M.

2000-01-01

48

Validity and Reliability of a Shortened, Revised Version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of an existing instrument, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)(Taylor, Dawson & Fraser, 1995; Taylor, Fraser & Fisher, 1993, 1997), for providing insights into the classroom learning environments of beginning science teachers. In the first year of the study, the CLES was used…

Johnson, Bruce; McClure, Robert

2004-01-01

49

A Constructivist Approach in the Interdisciplinary Instruction of Science and Language Arts Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of constructivism and its various manifestations in education has been a topic of much interest in recent years. Inquiry into this theoretical framework has resulted in teacher educators' attempts to help their teacher candidates apply constructivist pedagogy in university classrooms, field experiences and student teaching at two US…

Ledoux, Michael; McHenry, Nadine

2004-01-01

50

Access to Constructivist and Didactic Teaching: Who Gets It? Where Is It Practiced?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated access to didactic and constructivist instruction in U.S. high school science classrooms. Data from a national sample of 3,660 students and their science teachers (from the National Educational Longitudinal Study) indicated that access to the two types of instruction varied by gender, socioeconomic status, academic ability, and course…

Smerdon, Becky A.; Burkam, David T.; Lee, Valerie E.

1999-01-01

51

Constructivist Approaches in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for a constructivist approach to behavioral and social science research, and studies which have applied this methodology, are reviewed. The author suggests that ethnographic techniques of explaining behavior patterns may be as valuable as or more appropriate than traditional behavioral science methods. (GDC)

Magoon, A. Jon

1977-01-01

52

Speaking to the Heart of Oral Contextualization: The Resounding Call for Critical Discussions on Civil Participation and Disobedience, from Black Radio to the Global Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long overdue in the classroom is a critical examination of media coverage when seen and told through the unique vantage point of the audience and storyteller. This discussion is intended to demonstrate how to prepare students to critically examine and evaluate the social role of media within a diverse global society. The author elaborates on the…

Johnson, Phylis

2006-01-01

53

Speaking to the heart of oral contextualization: the resounding call for critical discussions on civil participation and disobedience, from Black radio to the global classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long overdue in the classroom is a critical examination of media coverage when seen and told through the unique vantage point of the audience and storyteller. This discussion is intended to demonstrate how to prepare students to critically examine and evaluate the social role of media within a diverse global society. The author elaborates on the case of one United

Phylis Johnson

2006-01-01

54

Using Writing as a Constructivist Instructional Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers in the area of cognitive science and educational psychology have shown that instructors who encourage student writing are actually helping in motivating a reluctant pupil. It has also been reported that writing indirectly rewards an individual with dynamic interest. Furthermore, it is believed that writing strengthens the self-confidence of a lethargic learner. (Kosakowski, 1998). All in all, promoting writing helps and supports learners cultivate a positive attitude toward the subject matter in question. The constructivist approach promotes a learning paradigm and helps individuals learn and understand by "constructing" knowledge. Learners are effectively encouraged to generate and build their own knowledge base. Learners document progress by constructing new concepts based on previously gained knowledge. The role of the teacher is actually to facilitate the creation of a learning environment. The constructivist approach when used in the classroom enables the students to become more active, independent thinkers of knowledge. Education World writer Gloria Chaika (Chaika, 2000) states that "Talent is important, but practice creates the solid base that allows that unique talent to soar. Like athletes, writers learn by doing. Good writing requires the same kind of dedicated practice that athletes put in. Young writers often lack the support they need to practice writing and develop their talent to the fullest, though." The author has successfully utilized some of these principles and techniques in a senior level course he teaches. He has encouraged students to try to solve problems their own way and has asked them to observe, document, assess and evaluate the results. In the classroom, the author takes the role of a coach and helps the students approach the problem with a different viewpoint. Eventually the students document their conclusions in a page-long essay. This type of writing assignment not only builds critical thinking abilities but also generates improved written communication skills among learners. References: Kosakowski, John, (1998). The Benefits of Information Technology. ERIC Digests; Technology Integration; Technology Role, ED0-IR-98-04 Chaika, Gloria (2000),Encourage Student Writing: Published on the Web, Education World http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/tech042.shtml

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

55

Constructivist Metaphors of Learning Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an analysis of a fundamental distinction between metaphors of finding versus making for the obtaining of new knowledge, a number of constructivist positions in education are discussed and criticised, taking account of earlier criticism particularly by Suchting and by Matthews. Constructivist claims which are denied include the claim that we have no direct access to the world, and the claim that communication is inherently meaningless. What is valuable in constructivism, namely the insistence on active learning, on respect for the pupils own thinking, and on the high priority needed for ideas taught to make sense to pupils, together with the reminder that science is a human product, is important to retain without its additional and ill-founded philosophical baggage.

Ogborn, Jon

56

Unfounded trust: a constructivist meditation.  

PubMed

From a postmodern standpoint, all trust is ultimately unfounded, in the sense that no authoritative theoretical, empirical or practical foundation exists to ground a unified, explicit, and justified framework for psychotherapeutic practice. Following a constructivist meditation on these themes, I offer five playful prescriptions for addressing this predicament that suggest a provisional way forward in a terrain that offers no firm footholds having bedrock certainty. PMID:11641878

Neimeyer, R A

2001-01-01

57

The Constructivist Teaching Inventory: A New Instrument for Assessing Constructivist Teaching Practices in the Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of constructivist teaching methods, the Constructivist Teaching Inventory (CTI), was developed and assessed, the assessment focusing on the validity and reliability of the instrument. A pool of items measuring the presence of identified elements of constructivist teaching was developed; items were…

Greer, Margaret A.; Hudson, Lynne M.; Wiersma, William

58

The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective science teachers in Turkey readily accept pseudoscientific explanations of the origin of species. Constructivist pedagogy underestimates, if not ignores, the difficulty of holding rational discussions in the presence of pseudoscientific or absolute beliefs. Moreover, it gives a higher priority to learners' exposure to alternative constructions through social negotiation than to furthering their appreciation of science. Under these circumstances, self-confirmation and social pressure to accept existing pseudoscientific beliefs may be unanticipated consequences of social negotiation. Considering the aim of science education to foster an appreciation of science, the implications of constructivist pedagogy are, or should be, of great concern to science educators.

Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2014-04-01

59

A Contextual Approach to Social Skills Assessment in the Peer Group: Who Is the Best Judge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually

Kyongboon Kwon; Elizabeth Moorman Kim; Susan M. Sheridan

2012-01-01

60

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

Ehrlen, Karin

2008-01-01

61

Contextualized science? An Indian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study asserts that science is contextualized and should therefore be taught as contextualized. Works of major philosophers in 20th century history, philosophy and sociology of science and recent developments in cognition are discussed in developing a foundation and outlining three themes for contextualized science: (a) science curriculum should emphasize scientific methodology through the generation and testing of knowledge in a specific context, (b) it should validate and evaluate everyday contextual experiences, and (c) develop a context for action by engaging in science, technology and society issues. School science is a major instrument for diffusion and utilization of scientific knowledge. In India, textbooks are often the only classroom source of information for students other than the teacher. The most widely used standard curriculum materials in Indian schools are the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) textbooks. For schools in the Hoshingabad district of Madhya Pradesh, the state prescribes NCERT materials and materials developed for the Hoshingabad Science Teaching Program (HSTP), a grassroots science education initiative. In this study, the investigation of these curriculum materials and interviews with educators (curriculum developers/textbook authors/teachers at New Delhi and Hoshingabad) are used to establish criteria for both the need and the feasibility of contextualized science. Results of the investigation indicate that the centralized NCERT system of curriculum development has undermined context specific treatment of subject matter in their textbooks. While HSTP attempted to contextualize science in rural schools, the present status of the program may be interpreted as either development and legitimization of another standardized curriculum, or, as the culmination of a gradual erosion and dissipation of conceptually valid and concrete educational practices. There are major situational and institutional constraints that impede the use of contextualized instructional materials. Furthermore, teachers' reflections on science in two curricula reveal limited conceptions on the nature of science and a preference for the abstract science of NCERT. The findings indicate that teacher understanding of methodological and epistemological point of view is essential but insufficient to provide a context for action. Teacher training must also incorporate ontological considerations in reform efforts to contextualize school science.

Koul, Ravinder

1997-11-01

62

What children bring to light: A constructivist perspective on children's learning in science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book is intended to explore the constructivist perspective and to clarify its use in the classroom by presenting learning not only as a cognitive experience, but also as one that derives from the emotional, personal, social, cultural, and preconceptual experiences of the learner. Part l introduces the idea of constructivism and its development as an alternative to traditional views of knowledge and learning, and orders, organizes, and reviews the literature on children's learning in science. Part II presents six case studies of individual students in the same fifth grade classroom setting as they learn about the topic light. Part III summarizes the book's constructivist analysis and suggests how understanding knowledge and learning affects the role of the teacher. Case studies with personal orientation themes and the personal construct theory are also reviewed.

Shapiro, Bonnie

2006-12-07

63

Using a metaphor for learning to improve students' metacognition in the chemistry classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constructivist framework was used in conjunction with an interpretive methodology to investigate the effect of an intervention using the metaphor learning is constructing on students' metacognition and learning processes. The metaphor was used to communicate with students regarding learning processes consistent with constructivism. Students were initially found to be generally non-metacognitive regarding their learning processes. Despite some students possessing metacognitive knowledge consistent with a constructivist learning orientation, their pre-intervention views and preferences in relation to teaching and learning were predominantly consistent with transmission models. The effect of the intervention on students' metacognition was variable. Some students became increasingly metacognitive and reported evidence of revision of their learning processes. Others reported little or no effect. The effects of the intervention can be partially explained by considering changes to students' metacognition as conceptual change. However, this study also shows that contextual factors are key determinants of students' propensity to enhance their metacognition and learning processes. This study highlights the potential of using metaphor as a means to assist teachers and students develop a shared language of learning in classroom settings.

Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2001-02-01

64

But good strategy instructors are constructivists!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general nature of constructivist educators' views of teaching are overviewed first, followed by analysis of good strategy instruction in constructivist terms. That good strategy instruction is scaffolded teaching is particularly emphasized. Scaffolded teacher-student interactions necessitate that students experience unique instruction that stimulates a great deal of student construction of to-be-acquired competencies. The only important difference between good strategy teaching

Michael Pressley; Karen R. Harris; Marilyn B. Marks

1992-01-01

65

Student Development in Higher Education: A Constructivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.

Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila

66

A study of the constructivist teaching behaviors within a population of elementary science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much has been written about how constructivism can serve as a referent for teaching and learning science. However, not much is known about the practical application of constructivist-based science in the classroom especially at the elementary level. The purpose of this project was to modify the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) by adding an Individual Reflection Scale (Learning to think) and to use this instrument to measure the teaching behaviors of elementary science teachers. Also, this study attempted to discover which educationally related factors best explain these constructivist-based teaching behaviors. Support for the validity and reliability of the instruments used in this project was obtained through the use of exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha test. To compare the mean scores obtained from the six CLES scales a repeated measures ANOVA was executed. The procedure used to discover which educationally related factors best explain the constructivist-based teaching behaviors was simultaneous multiple regression. Overall, the factor structure of the modified CLES was well defined and reasonably clear. The factor loadings for the six a priori scales were .57 or greater, well above the minimum criterion established for this project. All six of the scales for the modified CLES had reliability scores above Fraser's (1986) learning environment standard of .70. The corrected item-total correlations for all 34 items were well above .30. This study demonstrated that the modified CLES from the teacher's perspective is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure the constructivist-based teaching behaviors of elementary science teachers. The RANOVA indicated that the mean scores for the Uncertainty Scale and the Shared Control Scale were significantly lower than the other four scales. The results from the multiple regression procedures implied that teachers who understand constructivist-based science scored significantly higher on most of the CLES scales. This study allows one to predict that a teacher who understands constructivist-based science may practice this form of pedagogy more often than a teacher who does not. According to this research, elementary teachers may avoid constructivist-based science teaching due to a lack of understanding rather than limited time or support from principal, staff, or peers.

Saleska, Thomas John

67

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

68

Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

2010-01-01

69

Technology Integration and the Classroom Learning Environment: Research for Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes initial results of a collaborative action research endeavor between a regional university and a local\\u000a school (Grade 6 level) using learning environments research to monitor alignment of classroom learning activities with a constructivist\\u000a viewpoint while integrating technology into the curriculum. Student perceptions as measured by the Constructivist Learning\\u000a Environment Survey (CLES) were explored. Teacher logs, teacher interviews,

Sharon H. Harwell; Shannon Gunter; Sandra Montgomery; Cheryl Shelton; Deborah West

2001-01-01

70

Supporting elementary science education for English learners: An evaluation instrument to promote constructivist teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation instrument to be used by elementary school administrators in the promotion of constructivist teaching of elementary science for English Learners using a qualitative and quantitative design that identified effective instructional strategies to be included on the evaluation instrument. This study was conducted in fifth grade classrooms of predominately English Learners whose teachers are CLAD-certified, tenured teachers with at least three years of teaching experience. The classroom observations took place within a multicultural school district with predominantly Hispanic and Filipino students in the Southern San Joaquin Valley of California. The evaluation instrument was used to observe these teachers teach elementary science lessons to classrooms of predominately English Learners. The frequency of the use of the ELD/SDAIE instructional strategies were noted on the evaluation instrument with a check mark, indicating the fact that an instructional technique was employed by the teacher. These observation visits revealed what type of instructional strategies were being utilized in the teaching of science to fifth grade English Learners, whether these CLAD-certified teachers were using ELD strategies, and whether the incidence of ELD/SDAIE constructivist instructional techniques increased with the repeated use of the evaluation instrument. As a result of this study, an evaluation instrument to be utilized by school administrators in the evaluation of elementary science instruction to English Learners was developed. The repeated use of this evaluation instrument coupled with preobservation and postobservation conferences may result in the increase in frequency of ELD/SDAIE methodology and constructivist strategies listed on the evaluation instrument in the elementary science classroom.

Gibbons, Beatrice Lowney

2002-01-01

71

Towards a Cyber-Constructivist Perspective (CCP) of Educational Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theoretical paper uses cybernetic-based approaches and communications theory to advance knowledge of constructivist learning. Explores a cyber-constructivist perspective (CCP) as a tool for increasing awareness of factors that may contribute to effective constructivist educational design within learning communities, and discusses advantages…

Luppicini, Rocci

2003-01-01

72

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

Brooks, John

73

Effective Learning Outcomes of ESL Elementary and Secondary School Students Utilizing Educational Technology Infused with Constructivist Pedagogy (English as a Second Language)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of educational technology infused with constructivist pedagogy in ESL (English as a Second Language) classrooms and to explore alternatives for schools that lack advanced technological learning tools. In this article, the author discusses the alternatives, such as: (1) CELA Research Study:…

Lee, Rebecca

2006-01-01

74

Using an Animated Case Scenario Based on Constructivist 5E Model to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Electrical Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to get pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of first aid knowledge and skills related to electrical shocking and safety within a scenario based animation based on a Constructivist 5E model. The sample of the study was composed of 78 (46 girls and 32 boys) pre-service classroom teachers from two faculties of…

Hirca, Necati

2013-01-01

75

Contextual reasoning distilled  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a foundation of a theory of contextual reasoning from the per- spective of a theory of knowledge representation. Starting from the so-called metaphor of the box, we firstly show that the mechanisms of contextual reasoning proposed in the literature can be classified into three general forms (called localised reasoning, push and pop, and shifting). Secondly,

Massimo Benerecetti; Paolo Bouquet; Chiara Ghidini

2000-01-01

76

Contextualizing Instruction: Leveraging Students' Prior Knowledge and Experiences to Foster Understanding of Middle School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextualizing science instruction involves utilizing students' prior knowledge and everyday experiences as a catalyst for understanding challenging science concepts. This study of two middle school science classrooms examined how students utilized the contextualizing aspects of project-based instruction and its relationship to their science…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2008-01-01

77

Constructivist Theory in the Classroom: Internalizing Concepts through Inquiry Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the learning-cycle inquiry model and applies it to a history lesson on the problems and conflicts leading to World War I. Describes how students tackle a teacher-created problematic situation by conceptualizing questions, constructing hypotheses, and reaching consensus on solutions; debate their proposed solutions with the class; and…

Bevevino, Mary M.; Dengel, Joan; Adams, Kenneth

1999-01-01

78

Constructivist Approach: Removing Misconceptions about Chemical Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of instruction based on constructivist approach on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts (n=41). Also, the effects of gender differences were investigated. Control group students were taught by traditional instruction. Experimental group students were instructed by…

Uzuntiryaki, Esen

79

Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

2000-01-01

80

Changes in High School Teachers' Constructivist Philosophies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the evaluation of the effect of the University of Iowa's program on the development of teachers' constructivist philosophies by participating Korean inservice high school science teachers (n= 70). Concludes that the effect of the workshop was significant and that learning was retained. Contains 11 references. (Author/ASK)

Cho, Jung-Il; Yager, Robert E.; Park, Do-Yong; Seo, Hae-Ae

1997-01-01

81

Technology Teacher Education through a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews literature on constructivist learning theories relevant to and evident in teacher education in a New Zealand university. These theories are illustrated within an authentic technology education context which involves students from a primary teacher-education degree programme. It investigates how a practical activity, based on…

Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Snape, Paul

2011-01-01

82

The Constructivist Teaching Experiment: Illustrations and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an epistemology where mathematics teaching is viewed as goal-directed interactive communication in a consensual domain of experience, mathematics learning is viewed as reflective abstraction in the context of scheme theory. In this view, mathematical knowledge is understood as coordinated schemes of action and operation. Consequently, research methodology has to be designed as a flexible, investigative tool. The constructivist teaching

Leslie P. Steffe

83

Is resilience engineering realist or constructivist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory paper questions whether resilience engineering is a realist or constructivist approach of safety. After a presentation of two positions: critical realism and radical constructivism, the authors explain how the frameworks provided by these two positions were used in different researches, answering different questions that arose during the work. For one, critical realism offered an answer to the problem

Jean Christophe Le Coze; Kenneth Pettersen

84

Contextual Religious Education and the Actuality of Religions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual religious educators tend to view discrete religious traditions as artificially constructed systems disconnected from the ordinary experiences of children. This article sets out the case for the continued representation of religions as substantial social facts in religious education classrooms. Accepting Robert Jackson's critique of…

Wright, Andrew

2008-01-01

85

Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

2011-04-01

86

Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and…

Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

2013-01-01

87

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

Cook, Michele T.

88

Using a Metaphor for Learning To Improve Students' Metacognition in the Chemistry Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a constructivist framework in conjunction with an interpretive methodology to investigate the effect of an intervention using the metaphor "learning is constructing" on students' metacognition and learning process. Believes that contextual factors are key determinants of students' propensity towards enhancing their metacognition and learning…

Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2001-01-01

89

Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also…

Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

90

Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2008-01-01

91

Contextual encoding of geospatial data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual encoding represents information using data attributes that collectively form context. In case of geospatial data, these attributes may include color, texture, and structure attributes of geospatial entities. This paper introduces the paradigm of contextual encoding. It then presents algorithms for generating contextual encoding of geospatial data by automatically deriving salient visual cues such as color, texture, and structure of

Pragyana Mishra; Nagendra Kolluru

2009-01-01

92

Contextual Variability in Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

2011-01-01

93

Structured Contextual Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to start investigations on the possibilities of introducing a structure in the strings generated by internal contextual grammars. First, we consider the idea of associating a tree to a derivation in such a grammar. This can be done in a natural way, by associating parentheses to the contexts of the grammar. In this way

Carlos Martín-Vide; Gheorghe P?un

1998-01-01

94

Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators may or may not be familiar with the term constructivism, but probably recognize it as something to do with learning. The main tenet of constructivist learning is that people construct their own understanding of the world and in turn, their own knowledge. This ERIC Digest examines the constructivist view of learning and how it…

Ishii, Drew K.

95

Constructivist Developmental Theory and Therapy: Implications for Counseling Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that child and adolescent clinicians should consider the contributions of a constructivist developmental framework. Reviews a constructivist developmental model for counseling adolescents. Highlights developmental theory and therapy within the context of the mental health needs of adolescents experiencing aberrant behaviors and/or…

Crespi, Tony D.; Generali, Margaret M.

1995-01-01

96

Teaching-to-Learn: A Constructivist Approach to Shared Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2003, three Atlanta area high school art teachers implemented constructivist lessons to see how students would accept responsibility for their own learning and peer-teaching situations. Each teacher selected at least one class in which to implement a variety of constructivist strategies. The teachers then selected a goal in their…

Milbrandt, Melody K.; Felts, Janet; Richards, Brooke; Abghari, Neda

2004-01-01

97

[Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].  

PubMed

This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702

Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

2013-08-01

98

The impact of a STS/Constructivist learning approach on the beliefs and attitudes of preservice science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an Science-Technology-Society (STS) course for preservice science teachers. The course was designed to change not only preservice science teachers' attitudes toward science, scientists and science courses, but also the awareness and use of STS/Constructivist approaches in teaching. It also focuses on changes in preservice science teachers regarding the effectiveness of an STS/Constructivist learning environment. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used with and a one-group pretest-posttest design. The instruments were administered to the preservice science teachers at the beginning of the semester as pre-tests and again at the end of the semester as post-tests. Data gathered from pre- and post-administration were analyzed for each of the instruments that provide answers to the research questions. The sample consists of forty-one pre-service science teachers who were enrolled in the Societal & Educational Applications of Biological Concepts course during the spring semester of the 2004 and 2005 academic years at the University of Iowa. The major findings for the study include the following: (1) Preservice science teachers showed significantly growth over the semester in their perceptions concerning STS/Constructivism, beliefs about science teaching and learning, and attitudes toward science and technology, and their implications for society. These significant changes were not affected by gender nor grade (elementary vs secondary) level. (2) Preservice science teachers gain in understanding of how students learn with STS/Constructivist approaches. They also increased their use of STS/Constructivist approaches which were developed and applied to teaching science for all students. (3) Preservice science teachers showed statistically significant growth toward an STS/Constructivist philosophy of science teaching and learning in terms of student actions in the classroom, as well as their increased understanding of science processes and content. (4) An STS/Constructivist approach provides student--centered learning environments that are relevant, motivational, and meaningful for preservice science teachers. Further, it encourages them to interact and to participate more actively in science classrooms.

Akcay, Hakan

99

Fifth Graders' Enumeration of Cubes in 3D Arrays: Conceptual Progress in an Inquiry-Based Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes the psychological and sociocultural components of a constructivist paradigm to provide a detailed analysis of how the cognitive constructions students make as they enumerate 3D arrays of cubes develop and change in an inquiry-based, problem-centered mathematics classroom. Describes the classroom work of three pairs of 5th-grade students…

Battista, Michael T.

1999-01-01

100

Contextual Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present a novel algorithm for document clustering. This approach is based on distributional clustering where\\u000a subject related words, which have a narrow context, are identified to form meta-tags for that subject. These contextual words\\u000a form the basis for creating thematic clusters of documents. In a similar fashion to other research papers on document clustering,\\u000a we analyze

Vladimir Dobrynin; David W. Patterson; Niall Rooney

2004-01-01

101

The Social Status of Aggressive Students across Contexts: The Role of Classroom Status Hierarchy, Academic Achievement, and Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…

Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

102

Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

Schoen Giddings, Linda

103

Classroom Model, Model Classroom: Computer-Supported Methodology for Investigating Collaborative-Learning Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been exploring the potential of agent-based modeling methodology for social- science research and, specifically, for illuminating theoretical complementarities of cognitive and socio-constructivist conceptualizations of learning (e.g., Abrahamson & Wilensky, 2005a). The current study advances our research by applying our methodology to pedagogy research: we investigate individual and social factors underlying outcomes of implementing collaborative- inquiry classroom practice. Using

Dor Abrahamson; Paulo Blikstein; Uri Wilensky

104

Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

Sweeney, Heidi

105

Galactic Structure: A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An astrophysics course based on the constructivist approach to science teaching is described. The study of galactic structure is given as an example. Direct experiences and observations, representative-symbolic language, organized knowledge, and formal strategies are emphasized. (KR)

Domenech, Antonio; Casasus, Elena

1991-01-01

106

The Warrant for Constructivist Practice within Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational technology as a form of technical rationality and considers the conflict between practitioners' epistemological position as constructivists and technical rationality. Topics include cybernetics; autonomous systems theory; enactive constructivism; representation versus effective action; mind and memory; enaction in artificial…

Bopry, Jeanette

1999-01-01

107

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

108

The Synergy of Class Size Reduction and Classroom Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contextual approach to understanding class size reduction includes attention to both educational inputs and processes. Based on our study of a class size reduction program in Wisconsin we explore the following question: How do class size reduction and classroom quality interact to produce learning opportunities in early elementary classrooms? To…

Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica; Sherfinski, Melissa

2009-01-01

109

Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

Cincotta, Madeline Strong

1998-01-01

110

Contextual Coalitional Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

111

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

112

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

113

Three Strategies for Interdisciplinary Teaching: Contextualizing, Conceptualizing, and Problem-Centring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper distinguishes among "contextualizing", "conceptualizing", and "problem-centring" as three basic approaches to interdisciplinary curriculum. This typology is based on the type of inquiry that takes place in the classroom. For example, if the guiding epistemology in the interdisciplinary work is that of the humanities, the mode of…

Nikitina, Svetlana

2006-01-01

114

Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

2013-01-01

115

Text Talk, Body Talk, Table Talk: A Design of Ratio and Proportion as Classroom Parallel Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the rationale and 10-day implementation in a 5th-grade classroom (n=19) of an experimental ratio-and-proportion instructional design. In this constructivist-phenomenological design, coming from our theoretical perspective, design research, and domain analysis, students: (1) link "real-world" and "mathematical" objects…

Abrahamson, Dor

2003-01-01

116

A joyful classroom learning system with robot learning companion for children to learn mathematics multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrates the design of a Joyful Classroom Learning System (JCLS) with flexible, mobile and joyful features. The theoretical foundations of this research include the experiential learning theory, constructivist learning theory and joyful learning. The developed JCLS consists of the robot learning companion (RLC), sensing input device, mobile computation unit, mobile display device, wireless local network and operating software.

Chun-wang Wei; I-Chun HUNG; Ling LEE; Nian-shing Chen

2011-01-01

117

Mixed Method Study: Exploring the Use of Educational Technology Tools in K-12 Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful implementation of educational technology is reliant upon constructivist teaching practices. Using technology in the classroom is a method used to make the shift from traditional methods of instruction to more constructive-compatible instruction. Methods of learning including technology integration are a relatively new mode of…

Laliberte, Tonya R.

2009-01-01

118

A Joyful Classroom Learning System with Robot Learning Companion for Children to Learn Mathematics Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research demonstrates the design of a Joyful Classroom Learning System (JCLS) with flexible, mobile and joyful features. The theoretical foundations of this research include the experiential learning theory, constructivist learning theory and joyful learning. The developed JCLS consists of the robot learning companion (RLC), sensing input…

Wei, Chun-Wang; Hung, I-Chun; Lee, Ling; Chen, Nian-Shing

2011-01-01

119

Constructivist Strategies in Phonological Intervention: Facilitating Self-Regulation for Carryover.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist strategies for children who have difficulty achieving phonological carryover. The advantages of constructivist strategies are pointed out and a model of self-regulated learning is applied to constructivist carryover activities which help these children achieve metacognitive abilities similar to…

Ertmer, David J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

1998-01-01

120

Is In-Class Physical Activity at Risk in Constructivist Physical Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist physical education emphasizes cognitive engagement. This study examined the impact of a constructivist curriculum on in-class physical activity. Caloric expenditure in metabolic equivalents (MET) and vector magnitude count (VM) data from a random sample of 41 constructivist lessons were compared with those from a random sample of 35…

Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Sun, Haichun; Ennis, Catherine D.

2007-01-01

121

The Effect of Constructivist Science Teaching on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last three decades, the constructivist approach has been the dominant ideology in the field of educational research. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of constructivist science teaching on the students' understanding about matter, and to compare the effectiveness of a constructivist approach over traditional teaching methods.…

Cakici, Yilmaz; Yavuz, Gulben

2010-01-01

122

Development and Validation of a Modified Turkish Version of the Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Constructivist Learning Environment Survey is an instrument used for assessing students' and teachers' perceptions of their learning environments. The Teacher Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (TCLES) was created to better enable teachers and researchers to determine teachers' perception of their use of constructivist approaches in…

Anagun, Sengul S.; Anilan, Huseyin

2013-01-01

123

A Systemic-Constructivist Approach to the Facilitation and Debriefing of Simulations and Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces some basic concepts of a systemic-constructivist perspective. These show that gaming simulation corresponds closely to a systemic-constructivist approach to learning and instruction. Some quality aspects of facilitating and debriefing simulation games are described from a systemic-constructivist point of view. Finally, a…

Kriz, Willy Christian

2010-01-01

124

The Roles of Teacher Efficacy in Instructional Innovation: Its Predictive Relations to Constructivist and Didactic Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…

Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng

2013-01-01

125

The congruence of perceptions and behaviors exhibited by twelve successful middle school teachers in implementingScience/Technology/Society/Constructivist practices in Iowa Scope, Sequence, and Coordination schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate teacher perceptions about teaching and the strategies they use in teaching for successful middle school teachers purporting to use Science/Technology/Society and Constructivist practices in Iowa Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) schools and (2) to note the congruence between these perceptions and the actual behaviors exhibited by these teachers. Multiple methods of data collection used to discern the actual behaviors included observation by means of classroom videotapes, a teacher perception survey, teacher interviews, instructional documents, teacher stories, demographic information concerning teachers from the Iowa-SS&C database, and a student survey. Findings include: (1) Successful SS&C teachers report that they use STS/Constructivist teaching practices; further, interviews indicated that they also have knowledge and understanding of the science content and pedagogy which are consistent with the STS/Constructivist philosophy. These perceptions and this knowledge influence their stated goals, rationale for teaching, understanding of the teaching and learning processes, and ideas about needed professional development. (2) Successful SS&C teachers exhibit a wide range of STS/Constructivist teaching behaviors. The five most common of these are: (a) acceptance of a variety of student responses, (b) students apply their knowledge in meeting everyday challenges, (c) student-student verbal interactions encouraged, (d) students encouraged to use higher order thinking skills, (e) a variety of assessment tools were used. Over 31% of the questions the teachers ask are higher order level questions; the average wait-time for the teachers is 3.4 seconds following each question. (3) Students report that SS&C teachers provide learning environments that are relevant and meaningful to them and that student-student interaction is encouraged. They do not report involvement with planning, conducting lessons, and assessing their own learning. (4) Teacher beliefs and knowledge about STS/Constructivist philosophy influence their teaching behaviors. The practices of seven of the teachers match their perceptions. One teacher exhibited fewer STS/Constructivist strategies than he reported to be the situation while four practiced more STS/Constructivist strategies than they reported.

Yutakom, Naruemon

1997-11-01

126

Scientists in Their Own Classroom: The Use of Type II Technology in the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper represents and contextualizes the use of advanced technologies in a high school biology classroom to enhance inquiry in traditional science curriculum by drawing upon two years' worth of data. This paper presents the research-practitioners' reflections and understanding of the application of Type II technology's impact when integrated…

Gabric, Kathleen M.; Hovance, Christina Z.; Comstock, Sharon L.; Harnisch, Delwyn L.

2006-01-01

127

Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

128

Emotions and Their Effect on Adult Learning: A Constructivist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult educators are only beginning to understand the interaction between learning and emotion (Dirkx, 2006; O'Regan, 2003). Understanding these concepts and their interaction through the constructivist perspective presents a unique opportunity to appreciate the learner's perspective and the construction of knowledge through experience. Learning is primal. As one of the most basic human behaviors, learning occurs instinctively at all times.

Brad Shuck; Carlos Albornoz; Marina Winberg

129

A Constructivist Perspective for Integrating Spirituality into Counselor Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant efforts have been made in recent years to integrate training in spirituality and religion into counselor training programs. This article highlights issues that may be encountered by some trainees and suggests that constructivist teaching principles be used to mitigate these concerns. The authors present recommendations and activities…

Shaw, Brian M.; Bayne, Hannah; Lorelle, Sonya

2012-01-01

130

Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

131

Curriculum Assessment: Constructivist Primary Mathematics Curriculum in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many national and international studies put forward the idea that primary education in Turkey is questionable in many aspects. As a result, the Ministry of National Education changed primary curriculums in 2004 in Turkey. The curriculum for primary mathematics was redeveloped taking into consideration constructivist theory of education. The…

Sahin, Ismet

2010-01-01

132

The Misuses and Effective Uses of Constructivist Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism has emerged as a very powerful model for explaining how knowledge is produced in the world as well as how students learn. Moreover, constructivist teaching practices are becoming more prevalent in teacher education programs and public schools across the nation, while demonstrating significant success in promoting student learning.…

Gordon, Mordechai

2009-01-01

133

A Constructivist-Informed Approach to Teaching Swimming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in constructivism has fueled enthusiasm for the development of games and team-sport pedagogy over the past decade, but individual sports have yet to receive the same attention. In this article we redress this oversight by suggesting that constructivist perspectives on learning can be used to develop student-centered, inquiry-based…

Light, Richard; Wallian, Nathalie

2008-01-01

134

Teaching Counselors and Therapists: Constructivist and Developmental Course Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers suggestions for transforming the specific courses in the counselor education curriculum. Each chapter includes an introduction--using anecdotes or student quotes; an overview of the impact of constructivism on the course content; an outline of the course structure, assignments, and activities, with the accompanying constructivist

Eriksen, Karen; McAuliffe, Garrett

135

Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

2008-01-01

136

Experimenting in a Constructivist High School Physics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presents a study involving students (n=46) enrolled in an introductory physics course designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem-solving strategies in a constructivist learning environment. Concludes that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and can develop complex problem-solving skills.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-10-09

137

Science studies, climate change and the prospects for constructivist critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the debates over the 'reality' of global warming and the politics of science studies, I seek to clarify what is at stake politically in constructivist understandings of science and nature. These two separate but related debates point to the centrality of modern science in political discussions of the environment and to the difficulties, simultaneously technical and political, in

David Demeritt

2006-01-01

138

Procedural versus Constructivist Education: A Lesson from History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedural versus constructivist debate mirrors the Sophist/Socratic divide of the fifth century B.C. The primary malaise of education today is use of the passive proceduralist approach. Focus on the why rather than the what opens the door to critical thinking and substantive intellectual change. (SK)

Manus, Alice L.

1996-01-01

139

A Constructivist Perspective on Teaching and Learning Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two first-grade teachers' hands-on approaches to teach measurement concepts. One, a constructivist, allowed students to figure out the dimensions of a Mayflower ship outline; the other immediately showed kids how to use a yardstick to estimate a whale's dimensions. Although initially more confused, the first class got more out of their…

Schifter, Deborah

1996-01-01

140

Grounded Practice and the Design of Constructivist Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of constructivist learning environments focuses on the concept of grounded design, a process that involves linking the practices of learning systems design with related theory and research. Topics include directed versus situated learning environments, situated cognition and anchored instruction, social constructivism and problem…

Hannafin, Michael J.; Hannafin, Kathleen M.; Land, Susan M.; Oliver, Kevin

1997-01-01

141

Towards a Constructivist Pedagogy for Year 12 Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist pedagogies are generally not considered to support the teaching of mathematics for externally assessed examination-based courses. In large part, teachers have believed that such approaches are inefficient in covering a set syllabus. This article summarises the author's learning journey in Year 12 mathematics in 2004 where attempts…

Sheppard, Ian

2008-01-01

142

Telephone Teaching: Towards Constructivist Teaching for Rural and Remote Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998 the Charleville School of Distance Education (SDE) in Queensland, Australia, began using telephone teaching to replace high frequency radio as its means of communicating with rural and remote students. A study investigated the extent to which telephone teaching has contributed to the development of a constructivist teaching and learning…

Finger, Glenn; Rotolo, Carolyn

143

A Step for Evaluating Constructivist Approach Integrated Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to reveal the validation of 86-items in order to develop a scale for evaluating constructivist approach integrated online courses in higher education practices. The main aim of this research process is to reveal a scale to further evaluate whether the online education practices in higher education have the notions of…

Gazi, Zehra A.

2011-01-01

144

Constructivist Methods of Marital and Family Therapy: A Practical Precis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides practical review of selected methods of counseling from constructivist orientation: use of repertory grid technique, metaphorical constructions, family transaction procedure, system "bow ties," and various enactment procedures. Provides examples of methods in counseling contexts and further references to additional illustrations and…

Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

1994-01-01

145

Classroom Planetarium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

Ankney, Paul

1981-01-01

146

Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on classroom management, focusing on behavior modification, group management, teacher effects, management training, and planning. Five types of management skills and six principles for effective classroom organization identified by researchers are suggested for application by teachers. (PGD)

Strother, Deborah Burnett

1985-01-01

147

Contextual Awareness for Robust Robot Autonomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contextual awareness refers to having autonomous robots reason about their capabilities and limitation and improve on those limitations through the help of others. This project explored three areas of contextual awareness detecting when anomalous behavior...

R. Simmons

2013-01-01

148

An Investigation of the Use of Real-Time, Authentic Geospatial Data in the K-12 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article situates geospatial technologies as a constructivist tool in the K-12 classroom and examines student experiences with real-time authentic geospatial data provided through a hybrid adventure learning environment. Qualitative data from seven student focus groups demonstrate the effectiveness of using real-time authentic data, peer…

Doering, Aaron; Veletsianos, George

2007-01-01

149

Contextual Aspects of Pronoun Assignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect of contextual restraints on pronoun assignment. Pronoun selection is based on integration of the context even where it is already syntactically constrained. Integration occurs during and not following the assignment of the pronoun. (PMJ)

Hirst, William; Brill, Gary A.

1980-01-01

150

Quantifying ADHD Classroom Inattentiveness, Its Moderators, and Variability: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic,…

Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt

2008-01-01

151

Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

2012-01-01

152

A critical evaluation of Maturana's constructivist family therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical evaluation of the impact of Maturana's constructivist approach to (systemic) family therapy.\\u000a After an historical introduction and a brief description of the main ideas, a number of criticisms are considered. These concern\\u000a the radical antirealist epistemology, and problems in dealing with the social context of the family, and power relations within\\u000a the family

J. C. Mingers

1997-01-01

153

The Constructivist Mapping of Internet Information At Work with Nestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Nestor Web Cartographer software, its features, its user interface, the constructivist approach to\\u000a mapping Internet information that guided its design and the experience gained after 10 years of use in academic contexts.\\u000a We focus on five selected features such as the hybrid representation system, some original visual widgets, the groupware section,\\u000a and we discuss their role

Romain Zeiliger; Liliane Esnault

2008-01-01

154

Classroom Expernomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Classroom Expernomics site was jointly developed by Gregory Delemeester, Associate Professor of Economics, Marietta College, and John Neral, Associate Professor of Economics, Frostburg State University. This site features the Classroom Expernomics newsletter aimed at encouraging the "use of economic experiments as teaching tools for the classroom." The newsletter has been published twice a year since the spring of 1992; all current and previous issues are available at the web site. Each newsletter contains two or three articles by various professors profiling their use of economics experiments in the classroom.

1992-01-01

155

Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: a meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic, and observational differences. Methods: Meta-analy- sis of 23 between-group classroom observation studies using weighted regression, publication bias, goodness of

Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; R. Matt Alderson

2008-01-01

156

Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

Dinsmore, Terri Sue

157

Classroom Screening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom screening device was developed by the Circle Preschool First Chance Project, a government-funded program to integrate handicapped children into regular classroom activities, for use in preschools, nursery schools, Head Start centers and other agencies working with young children. It is designed to give a gross measure of a child's…

Alpha Plus Corp., Piedmont, CA.

158

Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices on Students' Achievement Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of classroom assessment practices on students' achievement goals. The study included 1,636 ninth grade students and 83 science teachers from Muscat public schools in Oman. Results from hierarchical linear modeling techniques showed that class contextual features and teachers' teaching experiences and assessment…

Alkharusi, Hussain

2008-01-01

159

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

160

Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children physically and mentally, focusing attention on their children and their interests, and encourage the children to analyze their actions, (2) museum professionals need to be aware of ways they can help parents interact effectively with their children, and (3) museum researchers need to examine how research in science classrooms can inform research in informal environments.

Hill, Martha Anne Leech

2002-04-01

161

The effects of a new constructivist science curriculum (PIPS) for prospective elementary teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the effectiveness of a new constructivist curriculum model (Powerful Ideas in Physical Science, PIPS) in promoting preservice teachers' understanding of science concepts, in fostering a learning environment supporting conceptual change, and in improving preservice teachers' attitudes toward science as well as their science teaching efficacy beliefs. The PIPS curriculum model integrates a conceptual change perspective with a hands-on, inquiry-based approach and other promising effective teaching strategies such as cooperative learning. Three instructors each taught one class section using the PIPS and one using the existing curriculum for an introductory science course. Their students were 121 prospective elementary teachers at a large mid-western university. ANCOVA and Repeated Measures Analyses of Variance were performed to analyze the scores on concept tests and attitude surveys. Data from videotaped observations of lab sessions and interviews of prospective teachers and their instructors were analyzed by employing a naturalistic inquiry method to get insights into the process of science learning and teaching for the prospective teachers. The interpretations were made based on the findings that could be corroborated by both methodologies. For the twelve prospective teachers interviewed, it was found that the PIPS model was more effective in promoting conceptual understanding and positive attitudes toward science learning for those with lower past science performance. The PIPS approach left more room for self-reflection on the development of understanding of science concepts in contrast to the lecture-lab type teaching. Factors that might have influenced the teacher trainees' attitudes and beliefs about learning and teaching science were identified and discussed. It was also found that better cooperative learning and a more supportive learning environment have been promoted in the PIPS classrooms. However, the differential treatment effects on learning outcomes for all participants of the study, as measured by the paper-pencil instruments, were not statistically significant. Both students' and instructors' perspectives of the PIPS approach are presented in the study. Limitations of the present study as well as recommendations for future revision of the PIPS curriculum and effective implementation of the constructivist teaching in general, are also included.

Liang, Ling L.

162

A contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group: who is the best judge?  

PubMed

Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment. PMID:22731871

Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M

2012-09-01

163

Learning Contextual Metrics for Automatic Image Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The semantic contextual information is shown to be an important resource for improving the scene and image recognition, but\\u000a is seldom explored in the literature of previous distance metric learning (DML) for images. In this work, we present a novel\\u000a Contextual Metric Learning (CML) method for learning a set of contextual distance metrics for real world multi-label images.\\u000a The relationships

Zuotao Liu; Xiangdong Zhou; Yu Xiang; Yan-Tao Zheng

2010-01-01

164

Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2008-01-01

165

Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning in Different Programme Years and Different Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Constructivist views of learning have brought conceptions of learning to attention again. Conceptions are considered important determinants of effective learning. Students can differ in their conceptions depending on their educational experience. Aims: The present study investigated students' conceptions of constructivist learning. Do…

Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2009-01-01

166

Constructivist Career Development as a Paradigm of Empowerment for At-Risk Culturally Diverse College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although constructivist career theory is routinely discussed in the literature, links between theory and practice in education are lacking. The current study focused on the potential of a constructivist curriculum to empower at-risk culturally diverse college students by increasing career self-efficacy and reducing dysfunctional career thoughts.…

Grier-Reed, Tabitha L.; Skaar, Nicole R.; Conkel-Ziebell, Julia L.

2009-01-01

167

Reconstructing Christian Ethics: Exploring Constructivist Practices for Teaching Christian Ethics in the Masters of Divinity Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on an effort to incorporate constructivist pedagogies (learner-centered, inquiry-guided, problem-based models of teaching) into an introductory class on Christian Ethics in an M.Div. curriculum. Although some students preferred more traditional pedagogies, the majority found that constructivist pedagogies better accommodated…

Danaher, William

2009-01-01

168

Replacing Professor Monologues with Online Dialogues: A Constructivist Approach to Online Course Template Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online course delivery requires a divergence from conventional teaching methods. Many online educators have instituted a constructivist approach to course delivery, but have created superficial connections between the technology used and the approach itself. The following article addresses the value of theory-driven online course development and provides a model for launching a constructivist \\

Cynthia Stewart; Christine Bachman; Stephanie Babb

2009-01-01

169

Assessment of a Socio-constructivist Model for Teacher Training: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied a socio-constructivist model for training teachers in Brazil, in the use of Informatics in education. Findings from a case study of the training of 29 teachers show the importance of care and coherence for knowledge creation in the socio-constructivist training model. (SLD)

Joia, Luiz Antonio

2002-01-01

170

Supporting Social Constructivist Learning through the KEEP SLS ePortfolio System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional ePortfolio systems are usually used as an individual learning unit, or an assessment tool in education. However, these systems often lack social constructivist learning features such as sharing, peer review, and group collaboration. This paper describes a new ePortfolio system that supports both personal and social constructivist

Zhang, Xuesong; Olfman, Lorne; Firpo, Daniel

2010-01-01

171

Children, Objects, and Relations: Constructivist Foundations in the Reggio Emilia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how children's construction of relationships in exploring materials helps to explain the constructivist foundations of the Reggio Emilia approach. A quasi-naturalistic study of 12 preschool children, ages 3 and 4 years, individually exploring different kinds of collage papers reveals a range of constructivist categories…

Swann, Annette C.

2008-01-01

172

Employing Constructivist Models of Culture Teaching for Enhanced Efficacy in Pre-Departure, Cross-Cultural Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case for adopting a constructivist approach in the teaching of culture to federal, business and civilian personnel. In support of this argument, the author: (1) outlines the history of culture teaching as it progresses from behaviorist through cognitive to constructivist orientations; (2) argues that a constructivist

Ashby, Wendy

2012-01-01

173

The Constructivist Researcher as Teacher and Model Builder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The constructivist teaching experiment is used in formulating explanations of children’s mathematical behavior. Essentially,\\u000a a teaching experiment consists of a series of teaching episodes and individual interviews that covers an extended period of\\u000a time—anywhere from 6 weeks to 2 years. The explanations we formulate consist of models—constellations of theoretical constructs—that\\u000a represent our understanding of children’s mathematical realities. However, the models

Paul Cobb; Leslie P. Steffe

174

A constructivist model for teaching evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine has reported that it takes roughly 17 years for evidence generated through research to move into clinical practice. Bridging that gap is an urgent need and will require educators to rethink how nurses are prepared for evidence-based practice. The constructivist theory for learning--in which it is assumed that students construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn--may provide a framework for a redesigned baccalaureate curriculum, one that supports evidence-based practice throughout a nursing student's education. PMID:21086866

Rolloff, Mary

2010-01-01

175

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

176

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Alexakos, Konstantinos

2001-03-01

177

Contextual medical-image viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

2004-04-01

178

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

Institute Of Navigation And Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

179

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2006-01-01

180

Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

2013-01-01

181

Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

182

Contextualizing Images in Dreams and Daydreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contextualizing image (CI) is a powerful central image of a dream which appears to “contextualize” (provide a picture-context for) the dreamer's emotion. For instance, dreamers who have experienced any serious traumatic event sometimes dream, “I was overwhelmed by a tidal wave.” This appears to picture their feeling of terror and\\/or vulnerability.

Ernest Hartmann; Robert Kunzendorf; Rachel Rosen; Nancy Gazells Grace

2001-01-01

183

A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (5) The inclusion of children's literature in elementary school science promotes a positive attitude toward science, an increase in student self-confidence in science, and fosters accurate understandings of the nature of science. Recommendations focus on student change, constructivist pedagogy, use of literature in science, and parental involvement in science education.

Numedahl, Paul Joseph

184

Teaching Constructivist Science, K-8: Nurturing Natural Investigators in the Standards-Based Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good teachers know that science is more than just a collection of facts in a textbook and that teaching science goes beyond the mere transmission of information. Actively engaging students in the learning process is critical to building their knowledge base, assessing progress, and meeting science standards. This book shows teachers how to…

Bentley, Michael L.; Ebert, Edward S., II; Ebert, Christine

2007-01-01

185

An Elementary School Teacher's Reflection on Implementing Constructivist Instruction in Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper was to describe how the author, Kuo-Chung Hsu, changed his teaching beliefs and science instruction through participating in a cooperative action research, which is conducted by the author, Jing-Ru Wang. Self-study was adopted to explain and interpret Kuo-Chung Hsu's experience of teaching science in Taiwan island.…

Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Wang, Jing-Ru

2012-01-01

186

Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

Maor, Dorit

187

Big Science for Growing Minds: Constructivist Classrooms for Young Thinkers. Early Childhood Education Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong evidence from recent brain research shows that the intentional teaching of science is crucial in early childhood. "Big Science for Growing Minds" describes a groundbreaking curriculum that invites readers to rethink science education through a set of unifying concepts or "big ideas." Using an integrated learning approach, the author shows…

Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon

2011-01-01

188

Redrawing the Boundaries: A Constructivist Approach to Combating Student Apathy in the Secondary History Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While every field of study presents challenges to the educator, the field of Social Studies and history in particular poses unique obstacles to student success. The issue of scope has been a constant source of anxiety to the history teacher, with new curriculum added with each passing day. Further pressure has been applied to the history teacher…

Kaiser, Christopher

2010-01-01

189

Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom.

Billinger, Stefan

2012-01-01

190

Optimal Inequalities for State-Independent Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextuality is a natural generalization of nonlocality which does not need composite systems or spacelike separation and offers a wider spectrum of interesting phenomena. Most notably, in quantum mechanics there exist scenarios where the contextual behavior is independent of the quantum state. We show that the quest for an optimal inequality separating quantum from classical noncontextual correlations in a state-independent manner admits an exact solution, as it can be formulated as a linear program. We introduce the noncontextuality polytope as a generalization of the locality polytope and apply our method to identify two different tight optimal inequalities for the most fundamental quantum scenario with state-independent contextuality.

Kleinmann, Matthias; Budroni, Costantino; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Gühne, Otfried; Cabello, Adán

2012-12-01

191

Constructivist and Collaborative Learning in a Wireless Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an initiative that enabled applied linguistics' students to collaborate on academic writing assignments outside the classroom using a network of wireless laptops to facilitate flexible meeting times and locations. (Author/VWL)

Sotillo, Susana M.

2002-01-01

192

Design, implementation, and evaluation of two laboratory course constructivist learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the design, implementation, and evaluation of two student-centered, constructivist undergraduate laboratory courses: the intensive general chemistry laboratory course, a first-year course, and the physical chemistry laboratory course, a fourth-year course for chemistry majors. The courses' activities were divided into training and educating blocks according to their cognitive and epistemological content; i.e., the training block activities consisted of structured experiments based on laboratory manuals, which developed specific curricular skills; the educating block consisted of problem-based-learning contextual episodic experiences in the form of case studies, integrative, and independent projects aimed at broadening the students' perspectives and metacognitive abilities. The main goal of the proposed curricular change was to motivate the first-year students to major in chemistry, and once motivated to sustain the interest of declared majors through the undergraduate experience into the fourth year to build stronger graduate programs in chemistry. The effectiveness of the courses in promoting students' intellectual growth, transfer of domain specific knowledge in the sense of procedural transfer i.e., the application of prior knowledge to new learning situations, and active learning of professional or transferable skills that would improve efficiency and effectiveness in their professional preparation was evaluated quantitatively by analyzing the students' group- and individual-reports at the beginning and end of the courses and qualitatively by analyzing the students' responses to open-ended questionnaires at the beginning and end of the courses. The students performed outstandingly as evidenced by the high grades obtained in the graded activities, and by the appreciation of external evaluators who attended the students' public presentations. Analysis of the students' responses to the open-ended questionnaires using indigenous concepts and case study approaches showed intellectual growth in the sense of Perry's theory, gain of domain specific knowledge, and acquisition of transferable skills. Since the implementation of the pilot phase of the prototypical courses in the fall of 2002 to date, seventy three percent of the declared chemistry majors are either pursuing careers in chemistry or have been admitted to chemistry programs nationwide.

Avila, Luis

193

Using Computer Simulations To Enhance Conceptual Change: The Roles of Constructivist Instruction and Student Epistemological Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of a constructivist versus objectivist learning environment on college students' conceptual change using a computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system as an instructional tool. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

Windschitl, Mark; Andre, Thomas

1998-01-01

194

A Conceptual Model of Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Epistemological Beliefs, and Learning Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed a conceptual model of relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation), scientific epistemological belief variables (fixed and tentative), and learning approach. It was proposed that learning environment…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Sungur, Semra

2009-01-01

195

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Aronson, Elliot; Network, Social P.

196

Classroom Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a technician for the Continuing Education department at Confederation College, the author was approached by an Academic Support Strategist from college's Learning Centre who was looking for a solution for one of her students. She was working with a hard-of-hearing student, and at the time, they were sitting together in the classrooms, sharing a…

Donlon, Joe

2007-01-01

197

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

198

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.

1969-12-31

199

Smart Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

2006-01-01

200

Contextual compound screening for improved therapeutic discovery.  

PubMed

Cellular behaviors are governed by combinations of systemic and microenvironmental factors; together, these regulate cell signaling responses to growth factors. This contextual microenvironmental influence also determines drug sensitivity. Hence using in vitro systems that model contextual cellular behavior is highly beneficial for effective therapeutic development. Angiogenesis (formation of blood vessels) is driven by a series of dynamic endothelial cell signaling responses to growth factors under the influence of the vascular extracellular matrix and adjacent pericytes. In vitro primary human vascular cell co-cultures self-assemble into capillary-like structures through reciprocal heterotypic interactions that mimic angiogenic context dynamics. By using temporal live-cell imaging-based analysis, unique angiogenic microenvironments can be delineated to quantify the contextual activity of compound inhibitors. We used this in vitro organotypic contextual screening approach to conduct structure-activity relationship analysis on a combretastatin A-4 analogue series to identify novel compounds with potent vascular disrupting activity in vivo. PMID:24222525

Evensen, Lasse; Odlo, Kristin; Micklem, David R; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Wood, Jeanette; Kuzniewski, Christian; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lorens, James B

2013-12-16

201

Contextual integration of visual objects necessitates attention.  

PubMed

Objects that form a contextually coherent percept are grasped more rapidly and efficiently than objects that are contextually inconsistent with each other. The extent to which such clustering processes depend on visual attention is largely unknown. The present research examined the necessity of attention for object-to-object contextual integration processes during a brief visual glimpse. Participants performed an object classification task on associated object pairs that were presented for a short duration (59 ms). Objects were positioned either in expected relative locations (e.g., a desk lamp on a desk) or in unexpected relative locations (e.g., a desk lamp under a desk). When both stimuli were relevant to task requirements, latencies to spatially consistent object pairs were significantly shorter than those to spatially inconsistent pairs (Experiment 1). These contextual effects disappeared, however, when spatial attention was drawn to one of the two object stimuli while its counterpart object appeared outside the main focus of attention, serving as a task-irrelevant distractor (Experiment 2). Attentional modulation of contextual integration processes was shown to be independent of distractor recognition per se (Experiment 3). Finally, the role of goal-directed (endogenous) and spatial (exogenous) attention factors in contextual integration was explored (Experiment 4). Taken together, our findings suggest that contextual associations play an important role in processing multiple-object visual displays. However, regardless of whether objects are associated by active or passive relations, the construction of a coherent contextual representation strongly relies on the availability of attentional capacity. Possible implications for theories of scene and object recognition are discussed. PMID:24448697

Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

2014-04-01

202

Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

Klassen, Stephen

2006-09-01

203

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers' Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed.

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

204

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

205

A Tale of Two Cultures: The Omani-Indian Encounter in the Literature Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of cultural and contextual approaches in the study of literature has long been accepted as imperative in the literature classroom, fostering, as it does, the sensitization of students to diverse worldviews. This article aims to explore the way in which literature could affect students' preconceived notions of communities and…

Heble, Ayesha; Mehta, Sandhya Rao

2013-01-01

206

Conflict between Learners' Beliefs and Actions: Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on sociocultural and contextual perspectives, this study examines how Japanese language learners perceive a conflict between their beliefs and actions when speaking the target language in the classroom context, and how these learners change their beliefs or actions to overcome the conflict. Data were collected during a second-year level…

Yoshida, Reiko

2013-01-01

207

Insights into Innovative Classroom Practices with ICT: Identifying the Impetus for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…

Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong

2008-01-01

208

Active Learning in the Physics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

Naron, Carol

209

Fundamental monogamy relation between contextuality and nonlocality.  

PubMed

We show that the no-disturbance principle imposes a tradeoff between locally contextual correlations violating the Klyachko-Can-Biniciog?lu-Shumovski inequality and spatially separated correlations violating the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. The violation of one inequality forbids the violation of the other. We also obtain the corresponding monogamy relation imposed by quantum theory for a qutrit-qubit system. Our results show the existence of fundamental monogamy relations between contextuality and nonlocality that suggest that entanglement might be a particular form of a more fundamental resource. PMID:24679270

Kurzy?ski, Pawe?; Cabello, Adán; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

2014-03-14

210

The Electronic Classroom. New Classrooms without Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how teachers can take advantage of the Internet to create classroom projects. The process involves locating collaborating partners via the World Wide Web, then determining which projects would be worthwhile to students. Presents guidelines for organizing a classroom project, discusses classroom considerations, examines teacher…

Barron, Ann E.; Ivers, Karen S.

1998-01-01

211

Towards a Contextualization Solution for Cloud Platform Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a cloud contextualization mechanism which operates in two stages, contextualization of VM images prior to service deployment (PaaS level) and self-contextualization of VM instances created from the image (IaaS level). The contextualization tools are implemented as part of the OPTIMIS Toolkit, a set of software components for simplified management of cloud services and infrastructures. We present the architecture

Django Armstrong; Karim Djemame; Srijith Nair; Johan Tordsson; Wolfgang Ziegler

2011-01-01

212

Analyzing and Critiquing the Concepts of Professional Autonomy and Accountability through the Prisms of Decentralization and Constructivist Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis and synthesis explores constructs of professional autonomy and accountability using constructivist theory and practice to examine the organizational dynamics of centralization/decentralization, particularly as applied to educational organizations. Major schools of constructivist thought are explored to shed light on…

Shapiro, Arthur; Koren, Andrej

2012-01-01

213

Experiences in a Constructivist Community of Practice: An Inquiry into TEEMS--A Science Teacher Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was designed to describe a constructivist science teacher education program and to investigate how students in the program experienced a constructivist learning environment. Nineteen students enrolled in a four-term program for prospective secondary science teachers participated in this one-year study. A rich description of the…

Hassard, Jack; Dias, Michael

214

Teaching a Discrete Information Technology Course in a Constructivist Learning Environment: Is It Effective for Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures preservice teachers' attitudes toward information technology (IT) following their participation in a discrete IT course taught in a constructivist learning environment where the students collaborated to achieve their learning goals and problem solve on tasks. Results revealed that with the constructivist learning approach infused in the…

Wong, Su Luan; Jalil, Habibah Ab; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hong, Tang Sai

2003-01-01

215

The Correlation of Students' Views on Constructivist Teaching Environment and Teachers' Student Control Ideologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between elementary teachers' student control ideology and students' views on constructivist learning environment. In this study, the correlation between the views of teachers working in elementary schools on student control ideology and students' views on constructivist

Beyhan, Omer

2013-01-01

216

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

217

Experimenting in a constructivist high school physics laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although laboratory activities have long been recognized for their potential to facilitate the learning of science concepts and skills, this potential has yet to be realized. To remediate this problem, researchers have called for constructivist learning environments in which students can pursue open inquiry and frame their own research problems. The present study was designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem solving in such an environment. An interpretive research methodology was adopted for the construction of meaning from the data. The data sources included videotapes, their transcripts, student laboratory reports and reflections, interviews with the students, and the teacher's course outline and reflective notes. Forty-six students from three sections of an introductory physics course taught at a private school for boys participated in the study. This article shows the students' remarkable ability and willingness to generate research questions and to design and develop apparatus for data collection. In their effort to frame research questions, students often used narrative explanations to explore and think about the phenomena to be studied. In some cases, blind alleys, students framed research questions and planned experiments that did not lead to the expected results. We observed a remarkable flexibility to deal with problems that arose during the implementation of their plans in the context of the inquiry. These problems, as well as their solutions and the necessary decision-making processes, were characterized by their situated nature. Finally, students pursued meaningful learning during the interpretation of data and graphs to arrive at reasonable answers of their research questions. We concluded that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and in which they can develop complex problem-solving skills.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

218

Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

Bielefeldt, Talbot

1989-01-01

219

Classroom Management. Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning-centered classrooms, the emphasis of classroom management shifts from maintaining behavioral control to fostering student engagement and self-regulation as well as community responsibility. This brief describes classroom management in "learning centered" classrooms, where practices are consistent with recent research knowledge about…

National Education Association Research Department, 2006

2006-01-01

220

Contextual Marketing: The Language\\/Vocabulary of Marketing in SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of ongoing descriptions of Contextual Marketing in SMEs. To date two previous papers have addressed a variety of key factors that contribute to Contextual Marketing. Our first paper, (Carson et al 2002*), addressed the overriding theme of Contextual Marketing and considered issues such as commonalities, triggers, variances, situation specific and language\\/vocabulary. Our second paper, (Copley et

Michael Enright; Paul Copley; Jonathan Deacon; David Carson; Andrew McAuley

221

Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

2013-01-01

222

Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

2010-01-01

223

Teaching the Skill of Contextualizing in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Contextualization", the act of placing events in a proper context, allows teachers to weave a rich, dynamic portrait of a historical period for their students. As teachers strive to identify enduring themes and patterns, they must teach students to appreciate the particular policies, institutions, worldviews, and circumstances that shape a given…

Reisman, Avishag; Wineburg, Sam

2008-01-01

224

A mixture model for contextual text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual text mining is concerned with extracting topical themes from a text collection with context information (e.g., time and location) and comparing\\/analyzing the variations of themes over different contexts. Since the topics covered in a document are usually related to the context of the doc- ument, analyzing topical themes within context can poten- tially reveal many interesting theme patterns. In

Qiaozhu Mei; Chengxiang Zhai

2006-01-01

225

Linux kernel integrity measurement using contextual inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the Linux Kernel Integrity Monitor (LKIM) as an improvement over conventional methods of software integrity measurement. LKIM employs contextual inspection as a means to more completely characterize the operational integrity of a running kernel. In addition to cryptographically hashing static code and data in the kernel, dynamic data structures are examined to provide improved integrity measurement. The

Peter A. Loscocco; Perry W. Wilson; J. Aaron Pendergrass; C. Durward Mcdonell

2007-01-01

226

Generation and Memory for Contextual Detail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-___) and read…

Mulligan, Neil W.

2004-01-01

227

Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems  

SciTech Connect

Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Genovese, Marco [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Olivares, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

2011-09-15

228

Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with…

Jones, Kim; Howley, Aimee

2009-01-01

229

Contextualized Science for Teaching Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses science education in India, arguing that a contextualized curriculum is a powerful means of improvement. The paper presents results from an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in current Indian textbooks and uses India's controversial Sadar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project as a case example. (SM)

Koul, Ravinder; Dana, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

230

Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

Partlow, Michelle C.

2007-01-01

231

Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

2006-01-01

232

Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This scoping review was the first to examine use of social constructivism in KT studies. While the links between social constructivism and KT have not been fully explored, the Knowledge to Action framework has strong constructivist underpinnings that can be used in moving forward within the broader KT enterprise.

2014-01-01

233

Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called “first-person” knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer’s first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

234

Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing approaches to assist scientists applying their expertise to model formation, simulation, and prediction in various domains [4], [5]. On the other hand, first-person knowledge becomes third-person theory only if it proves general by evidence and is acknowledged by a scientific community. Researchers start to focus on building interactive cooperation platforms [1] to accommodate different views into the knowledge discovery process. There are some fundamental questions in relation to scientific knowledge development. What aremajor components for knowledge construction and how do people construct their knowledge? How is this personal construct assimilated and accommodated into a scientific paradigm? How can one design a computational system to facilitate these processes? This chapter does not attempt to answer all these questions but serves as a basis to foster thinking along this line. A brief literature review about how people develop their knowledge is carried out through a constructivist view. A hydrological modeling scenario is presented to elucidate the approach.

Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

235

Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to investigate the underlying issues that contributed to his classroom practice. Data sources included preliminary and follow-up interviews and classroom observations. Data analysis indicated that factors that prevented the epistemological conflict from reaching a resolution included Mr. Hobbs' beliefs about learning, contextual teaching factors, personal experiences as a student, and views of the nature of science. The findings from this case indicate that science teachers possess complex belief systems that are not immediately obvious to either the teacher or science teacher educators, and science teacher educators need to address teacher beliefs when they encourage teachers to implement reformed teaching practices.

Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

2011-02-01

236

An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

2009-01-01

237

Millennial Expectations, Constructivist Theory, and Changes in a Teacher Preparation Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennial Generation (born [asymptotically equivalent to]1982-2002) is now well represented in the university setting. This cohort has its own unique expectations that are in many ways aligned with constructivist propositions of learning. These Millennial expectations will likely necessitate changes in instructional approaches used in the…

Carter, Timothy L.

2009-01-01

238

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2010-01-01

239

A Constructivist-Based Model for the Teaching of Dissolution of Gas in a Liquid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we present details of a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which helps students understand the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. The model derived from Ayas (1995) involves elicitation of pre-existing ideas, focusing on the target concept, challenging students' ideas, and applying newly constructed ideas to similar…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2006-01-01

240

Investigating the Relationships among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students' perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626…

Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2010-01-01

241

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

242

Intentional Integration of Mathematics Content Instruction with Constructivist Pedagogy in Elementary Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to improve the effectiveness of instruction in constructivist pedagogy in a college elementary mathematics education course through intentional integration of instruction in mathematics content. Instructors of this course previously used examples involving mathematics content on an ad hoc basis in an attempt to…

Fast, Gerald R.; Hankes, Judith E.

2010-01-01

243

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2012-01-01

244

Improving Bilingual Student Learning and Thinking Skills through the Use of the Constructivist Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving bilingual students' learning and thinking skills using the constructivist theory. It targeted bilingual high school students in a middle class, suburban Illinois high school. Students' learning and thinking behaviors were documented using methods that showed when and how they employed new learning and…

Thomason, Juliann Elizabeth

245

Critical Thinking Development in Nursing: An Integration of Constructivist and Traditional Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of constructivist teaching strategies has vast professional benefits in nursing education through the promotion of critical thinking skills, as students must demonstrate success on the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses and ultimately perform competently within the nursing profession. While literature…

York, Kimberly

2010-01-01

246

Early Literacy: A Constructivist Foundation for Whole Language. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to consider early literacy education and whole language from the perspective of constructivist theory (which states that human beings acquire knowledge by building it from the inside in interaction with the environment) and research. More specifically, the book intends to show that the whole language movement is part of…

Kamii, Constance, Ed.; And Others

247

Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

Zane, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

248

Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Vision in the Constructivist Conception of Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the constructivist view of learning as a conceptual lens, this paper examines student teachers' professional learning in initial teacher education (ITE). A mixed-method study was conducted with student teachers of a Bachelor of Education Programme in Hong Kong. The quantitative element of the study reveals that student teachers held a…

Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Wong, Angel K. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.

2012-01-01

249

Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

250

The Value of Peers and Support from Scaffolding: Applying Constructivist Principles to the Teaching of Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legacy and sustainability of a university education requires student independence and ownership of learning. Adopting a student-centred constructivist approach to teaching and learning allows students to develop a web of self-constructed, interconnected understanding, and supports their development into lifelong learners. The efficacy of this…

Winstone, Naomi; Millward, Lynne

2012-01-01

251

Drawing the Circle: Collaborative Mind Mapping as a Process for Developing a Constructivist Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes what research has found about the use of collaborative mind mapping to facilitate the development of constructivist preservice teacher education programs. The paper discusses explicit connections between collaborative mind mapping and constructivism, varieties of mind maps, mind mapping as an invitation to thought, and how to use mind…

Oldfather, Penny; And Others

1994-01-01

252

Scaffolding through Cases: Diverse Constructivist Teaching in the Literacy Methods Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on my use of first grade literacy cases to scaffold a diverse constructivist perspective in my literacy methods course for preservice teachers. The cases depicted my concurrent work in a local school with three underachieving readers, two having diverse backgrounds with respect to home languages and socioeconomic status. I…

Kaste, Janine A.

2004-01-01

253

A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Web Development in Post-Secondary Vocational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational education by its nature has a need for delivery methods that place a strong focus on the relationship between school and work and seeks to deliver instruction in a manner that bridges the two as seamlessly as possible. This paper presents a curriculum and constructivist-based instructional delivery approach, designed to emphasize a…

Bunch, John M.

2009-01-01

254

Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

2013-01-01

255

Students' Perceptions in Developing a Multimedia Project within a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Malaysian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a research study that was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia, to investigate students' perceptions in developing a multimedia project within a constructivist-based learning environment. Students worked in groups to create an interactive multimedia application using an authoring…

Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

2010-01-01

256

Engaging Students in Multimedia-Mediated Constructivist Learning--Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia and investigated students' perceptions while working on a multimedia project that was embedded within a constructivist-based learning environment. We studied the impact of using multimedia on students who have little experience with working in a…

Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

2009-01-01

257

Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

Brendel, Michelle

2014-05-01

258

The Consideration of a Constructivist Evaluation Framework in Adult Guidance Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the findings of a doctoral study that examined the measurement of individual progression in the Irish Adult Education Guidance Initiative. The critical constructivist stance of the study challenges the prevalence of the positivist paradigm to evaluate long-term outcomes in adult guidance. The research highlights the…

Hearne, Lucy

2011-01-01

259

Does Constructivist Teaching Help Students Move Their Epistemological Beliefs in Physics through Uppers Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of the development of students' epistemological beliefs is important. There is little empirical evidence for precisely how epistemological beliefs are altered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of constructivist teaching on students' epistemological beliefs in physics. One-group pretest-posttest…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

2008-01-01

260

The Perceptions of Prospective Teachers on the Democratic Aspects of the Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The nations which have the aim to create democratic societies should also realize the same ideals in educational practices. Related literature declare that learning environments based on constructivist approach is assumed to be democratic. In line with this frame, the aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of prospective…

Bay, Erdal; Gundogdu, Kerim; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

2010-01-01

261

Teacher and Student Beliefs on Constructivist Instructional Design: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of a constructivist instructional design on a group of students and their teacher. The sample consisted of 26 students and one teacher. The research was conducted at Istanbul Technical University, School of Foreign Languages, English Preparatory Program. The instructional design based on…

Altun, Sertel; Buyukduman, F. Ilke

2007-01-01

262

Organization Model of a Constructivist Learning Community: A Teilhardian Metaphor for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for learning communities as a fruitful milieu for cognitive development and knowledge construction. Provides a metaphor of a constructivist learning community organization grounded on French scientist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theory of evolution. Asserts that Teilhardian thought is useful for conceptualizing a…

White, Stephen R.

2002-01-01

263

A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning…

Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

2009-01-01

264

Integrating Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in Distance Education: A Constructivist Framework for Social Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New communication technologies and constructivist pedagogy have the great potential to build very powerful paradigm shifts that enhance Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in distance education. Therefore, the main purpose of this chapter is to explore the new concerns, issues and potentials for the IPTV delivery of distance education to…

Yuzer, T. Volkan; Kurubacak, Gulsun

2011-01-01

265

A Constructivist Computational Tool to Assist in Learning Primary School Mathematical Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In constructivist principles, learning is a process in which individuals construct knowledge. Research in Mathematics Education looks for ways to make mathematics education less dry and more attractive. When solving polynomial equations of the first degree, it is very common for teachers to work with the mistaken idea of "changing the sign" when…

Figueira-Sampaio, Aleandra da Silva; dos Santos, Eliane Elias Ferreira; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes

2009-01-01

266

Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

2003-01-01

267

The Effects of Constructivist Learning Environment on Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the effects of constructivist learning environment on prospective teachers' opinions about "mathematics, department of mathematics, discrete mathematics, countable and uncountable infinity" taught under the subject of Cantorian Set Theory in discrete mathematics class, 60 first-year students in the Division of Mathematics Education at…

Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

2010-01-01

268

Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

Hartfield, Perry J.

2010-01-01

269

Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

2014-01-01

270

Teacher Views about Constructivist Instruction and Personal Epistemology: A National Study in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the views about constructivist instruction and personal epistemology of the secondary earth science teachers in Taiwan. Participants were assessed through a paper-and-pencil survey and a "Learning environment preference questionnaire" (LEP) designed to explore personal epistemology. On a five-point Likert scale, teachers,…

Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Ying-Shou

2008-01-01

271

The Integration of Technology into a Constructivist Curriculum: Beyond PowerPoint[R].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a three-year study of a model that uses the tenets of constructionism to integrate technology into a constructivist curriculum. The model has been used in regular face-to-face courses, in interactive instructional television courses, and in an online course. The following three significant themes emerged from analysis of the…

Tucker, Gary R.; Batchelder, Ann

272

From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

2006-01-01

273

The "Good Enough" Drama: Reinterpreting Constructivist Aesthetics and Epistemology in Drama Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When we speak of quality in drama education, we apply different educational and aesthetic criteria. For example, improvised drama practices such as process drama, are closely associated to John Dewey's constructivist philosophy. What makes a drama qualitatively "good" within such a framework differs radically from criteria that are familiar in…

Rasmussen, Bjorn

2010-01-01

274

Using Interactive Whiteboard Technology-Rich Constructivist Learning Environment to Minimize Gender Differences in Chemistry Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brunei, more girls are enrolled at the institutions of higher education than boys. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a constructivist teaching approach, enriched with interactive whiteboard technology could empower males to minimize gender differences in achievement in Chemistry. Two groups of students were taught for six weeks: one…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Shahrizal-Emran

2011-01-01

275

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-01-01

276

Constructivist underpinnings in Donald Schön’s theory of reflective practice: echoes of Nelson Goodman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donald Schön’s theory of reflective practice has garnered unprecedented attention in the field of continuing professional education. In this paper, I examine Schön’s writing on reflective practice and argue that a constructivist orientation is a central, although largely unexplored, underpinning of his work. In particular I consider the work of philosopher Nelson Goodman and suggest that he is a major

Elizabeth Anne Kinsella

2006-01-01

277

Cognitive conflict as a teaching strategy in solving chemistry problems: A dialectic-constructivist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of teaching experiments within a dialectic-constructivist framework based on the following considerations: (a) Cognitive conflicts used in the teaching experiments must be based on problem-solving strategies that students find relatively convincing: (b) after having generated a cognitive conflict, it is essential that the students be provided with an experience

Mansoor Niaz

1995-01-01

278

Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

Faryadi, Qais

2007-01-01

279

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main…

Okland, Gunnar Magne

2012-01-01

280

CMAP LINKING PHRASE CONSTRAINT FOR THE STRUCTURAL NARROWING OF CONSTRUCTIVIST SECOND LANGUAGE TASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In constructivist second language (L2) learning environments 1 , particularly in relatively teacher-remote situations such as those involving Learning Management Systems (LMS), task performance freedom can be an obstacle to the achievement of specific educational objectives. This paper presents an example of task narrowing achieved by Cmap 2 interface related task design. The relations represented by Cmap links are defined

Lawrie Hunter

281

An Instructional 'Man-Trap': Anthropomorphic and Animistic Thought in Constructivist Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses two distinctive issues concerning animistic and anthropomorphic thought in the context of constructivist science education. The first concerns the extent of such ways of thinking, both within science itself and within school science. The second concerns the implications of this for theories of instruction in science education.…

Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

282

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main contribution of this study. The data

Gunnar Magne Økland

2011-01-01

283

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main contribution of this study. The data

Gunnar Magne Økland

2012-01-01

284

Extending the Use of Constructivist Approaches in Career Guidance and Counselling: Solution-Focused Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the use of constructivist approaches by career counsellors. A three phase solution-focused model is presented that will enable career counselling practitioners to use brief, positively oriented strategies in an integrated manner with their clients. In addition, possible ways counsellors might integrate systems thinking in…

Miller, Judi H.

2004-01-01

285

Constructivist Mathematics Education for Students with Mild Mental Retardation. Short Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a constructivist mathematics intervention for students with mild mental retardation, as compared to direct instruction, which is often recommended for these children. A total of 69 students from elementary schools for special education participated in the study, which focused on multiplication learning. They…

Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

2005-01-01

286

Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

Rand, Jane

2013-01-01

287

Constructivist, Emergent, and Sociocultural Perspectives in the Context of Developmental Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall intent is to clarify relationships between psychological constructivist, sociocultural, and emergent perspectives by grounding them in attempts to understand what might be happening in a variety of teaching and learning situations. The first part of the paper outlines an interpretive framework developed in the course of a…

Cobb, Paul; Yackel, Erna

288

Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 1)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

Zane, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

289

Child Development within Culturally Structured Environments. Volume 3: Comparative-Cultural and Constructivist Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a comparative-cultural perspective, this collection of essays examines the co-constructivist nature of human development in culturally organized environments. The contributions also cover a large age span--infancy to adulthood. Chapters in part 1 cover two different directions in the study of early adult-infant interaction from a comparative…

Valsiner, Jaan, Ed.

290

Initial Teacher Development in Science: The Impact of Constructivist-Informed Practice on Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the perceptions of student teachers regarding the extent to which they consider a constructivist approach supports their learning in science. The research was carried out in two phases and drew on questionnaire and interview data. In Phase 1 a questionnaire was used to collect the views of 34 students regarding the…

Patterson, Eira Wyn

2011-01-01

291

Contextual Pavlovian conditioning in the crab Chasmagnathus.  

PubMed

In contextual conditioning, a complex pattern of information is processed to associate the characteristics of a particular place with incentive or aversive reinforcements. This type of learning has been widely studied in mammals, but studies of other taxa are scarce. The context-signal memory (CSM) paradigm of the crab Chasmagnathus has been extensively used as a model of learning and memory. Although initially interpreted as habituation, some characteristics of contextual conditioning have been described. However, no anticipatory response has been detected for animals exposed to the training context. Thus, CSM could be interpreted either as an associative habituation or as contextual conditioning that occurs without a context-evoked anticipatory response. Here, we describe a training protocol developed for contextual Pavlovian conditioning (CPC). For each training trial, the context (conditioned stimulus, CS) was discretely presented and finished together with the unconditioned stimulus (US). In agreement with the CSM paradigm, a robust freezing response was acquired during the 15 training trials, and clear retention was found when tested with the US presentation after short (2 and 4 h) and long (1-4 days) delays. This CPC memory showed forward but not simultaneous presentation conditioning and was context specific and protein synthesis dependent. Additionally, a weak CPC memory was enhanced during consolidation. One day after training, CPC was extinguished by repeated CS presentation, while one presentation induced a memory labilisation-reconsolidation process. Finally, we found an anticipatory conditioned response (CR) during the CS presentation for both short-term (4 h) and long-term memory (24 h). These findings support the conditioning nature of the new paradigm. PMID:23114692

Fustiñana, María Sol; Carbó Tano, Martín; Romano, Arturo; Pedreira, María Eugenia

2013-03-01

292

A contextual algorithm for AVHRR fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contextual algorithm for fire detection with NOAA-AVHRR-LAC data was developed. Unlike ‘traditional’ fire detection algorithms (e.g., multichannel thresholds), the decision to record a fire is made by comparing a fire pixel with the pixels in its immediate neighbourhood. The algorithm is self-adaptive and therefore very consistent over large areas as well as through seasons. The algorithm appears to operate

S. P. Flasse; P. Ceccato

1996-01-01

293

Bounding the quantum dimension with contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the phenomenon of quantum contextuality can be used to certify lower bounds on the dimension accessed by the measurement devices. To prove this, we derive bounds for different dimensions and scenarios of the simplest noncontextuality inequalities. Some of the resulting dimension witnesses work independently of the prepared quantum state. Our constructions are robust against noise and imperfections, and we show that a recent experiment can be viewed as an implementation of a state-independent quantum dimension witness.

Gühne, Otfried; Budroni, Costantino; Cabello, Adán; Kleinmann, Matthias; Larsson, Jan-Åke

2014-06-01

294

A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Science Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contextual approach to teaching is generally recognized as a reasonable and desirable strategy to enhance student learning\\u000a in science. Using several cognitive and learning theories together with various philosophical considerations, I identify five\\u000a distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective.\\u000a Based on these five contexts, I construct a model for teaching

Stephen Klassen

2006-01-01

295

Contextual knowledge configures attentional control networks.  

PubMed

Contextual cues are predictive and provide behaviorally relevant information; they are not the main objective of the current task but can make behavior more efficient. Using fMRI, we investigated the brain networks involved in representing contextual information and translating it into an attentional control signal. Human subjects performed a visual search task for a low-contrast target accompanied by a single non-target that was either perceptually similar or more salient (i.e., higher contrast). Shorter reaction times (RTs) and higher accuracy were found on salient trials, suggesting that the salient item was rapidly identified as a non-target and immediately acts as a spatial "anti-cue" to reorient attention to the target. The relative saliency of the non-target determined BOLD responses in the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). IFG correlated with RT specifically on salient non-target trials. In contrast, bilateral dorsal frontoparietal regions [including the frontal eye fields (FEFs)] were correlated with RT in all conditions. Effective connectivity analyses using dynamic causal modeling found an excitatory pathway from TPJ to IFG to FEF, suggesting that this was the pathway by which the contextual cue was translated into an attentional control signal that facilitated behavior. Additionally, the connection from FEF to TPJ was negatively modulated during target-similar trials, consistent with the inhibition of TPJ by dorsal attentional control regions during top-down serial visual search. We conclude that left TPJ and IFG form a sensory-driven network that integrates contextual knowledge with ongoing sensory information to provide an attentional control signal to FEF. PMID:22159116

DiQuattro, Nicholas E; Geng, Joy J

2011-12-01

296

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

297

Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.  

PubMed

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-19

298

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four tips for use in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom are highlighted: Mr. Bean in the Classroom; Defining Your Future; Coin Questions; Our Futures: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. (Author/VWL)

Epstein, Jim; Ashcraft, Nikki; Clarke, Paul M.; Wolf, Grant S.

1999-01-01

299

Adapting Classroom Schemata.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses schema theory in relation to the language classroom. Argues that as teachers themselves are former learners, the schemata they have developed both inside and outside the classroom will provide them assumptions about how people learn. (Author/VWL)

Littlewood, William

1999-01-01

300

Cameras in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following uses for a video camera in the science classroom: video presentations, microscope work, taping and/or monitoring experiments, analyzing everyday phenomena, lesson enhancement, field trip alternative, and classroom management. (PR)

Steinman, Richard C.

1993-01-01

301

Locally Developed Oral Skills Evaluation in ESL/EFL Classrooms: A Checklist for Developing Meaningful Assessment Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers, students, and other stakeholders collaboratively develop classroom-based assessment procedures for the evaluation of oral skills. By considering crucial issues in assessment such as validity, teacher-learner collaboration, and contextual factors, the authors provide a checklist that will help ESL/EFL teachers…

Ishii, David N.; Baba, Kyoko

2003-01-01

302

Evidence for Social and Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Urban Preschoolers: Effects of Site, Classroom, and Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher ratings of 336 preschool children (mean age = 48 months) attending two urban Head Start programs were collected to examine the influence of contextual variables of teacher training, classroom, and site on the prevalence of significant problems. The prevalence of externalizing behaviors in the "problem range" was higher than expected and…

Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura G.; Morrel, Tanya M.; Acosta, Michelle

2005-01-01

303

Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

304

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

305

Analysing Bilingual Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper analyses and evaluates spoken discourse in the bilingual classroom at Damascus University. It looks at the mechanism of classroom interaction: the use of questions, initiations, repetitions and expansions. Although this paper deals with classroom interaction at Damascus University, it is believed that the results arrived at may…

Hasan, Ali S.

2006-01-01

306

Competition in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

Jameson, Daphne

2007-01-01

307

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome the Madagascar hissing cockroach into your classroom--they are not your average pest! This article describes the basic biology of this relatively tame creature, and how to set up and care for a classroom colony. It includes a list of suggested inquiry-centered classroom activities that you and your students will find both educational and fun!

Moseley, Christine; Wagler, Ron

2005-03-01

308

Classroom Use and Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

Fink, Ira

2002-01-01

309

Academic and social dimensions of student experience: The high school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study I asked how classroom participants defined and acted on academic and social dimensions of classroom life. Because little is known about how students think and feel about classroom experience (Erickson & Schultz, 1992), I focused on their perspectives. In attempting to sort out and report student perspectives, I used a case of one high school science classroom, Mr. Dansen's. Approaching the study of that case much like an anthropologist would, I treated the classroom as a "local world of science with characteristic habits of mind, behaviors, and meaning systems" (Page, 1994, p. 6). I assumed the centrality of meaning in guiding human behavior, accordingly, I used a social constructivist or interpretive theoretical lens. Ethnographic methods were used to document participants' views across a range of strategies: Classroom observations, interviews, a student focus group, a brief questionnaire, and the collection of school and classroom documents. I concluded that curriculum meaning-making is a series of balancing acts. In lessons teachers and students juggle diverse often contradictory academic and social relations. All of the situated activity constructs a fundamental imbalance in classroom experience. Students react to that perceived imbalance. Specifically, three categories of student response were ascertained. One, student isolates or those who withdraw significantly on some academic or social measure, about 45% of students in his class. Two, student enthusiasts; or those most enthusiastic about science and their science teacher, only 5% of students. Three, students who are ambivalent and waffle between engagement and withdrawal, about 50% of students. In sum, students withdrew in large numbers from the educational encounter. The major implication of this research is that students are clear-headed in their assessments of classroom life. Students' interpretations, in turn, directly influence whether or why they find school knowledge important. Thus, this study reveals the importance of considering student input as a legitimate factor in educational equations.

Longo, Ellen O'neil

310

Quantum contextuality for a relativistic spin-1/2 particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum predictions for a single nonrelativistic spin-1/2 particle can be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variables. Here we show that quantum contextuality for a relativistic electron moving in a Coulomb potential naturally emerges if relativistic effects are taken into account. The contextuality can be identified through the violation of noncontextuality inequalities. We also discuss quantum contextuality for the free Dirac electron as well as the relativistic Dirac oscillator.

Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Cabello, Adán; Kwek, L. C.; Oh, C. H.

2013-02-01

311

Contextual Biometric-Based Authentication for Ubiquitous Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We introduce and comment on the concept of contextual pseudo identity. A contextual pseudo identity is a soft identity token\\u000a that is built from both a user’s biometric and the context. When it comes to ubiquitous authentication, a contextual pseudo\\u000a identity promises better security than that offered by traditional biometrics-based identity tokens: the use of context improves\\u000a the tokens’ disposability

Ileana Buhan; Gabriele Lenzini; Sasa Radomirovic

2010-01-01

312

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors Among African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective\\u000a factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural\\u000a equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder,\\u000a and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was

Nikeea Copeland-Linder; Sharon F. Lambert; Yi-Fu Chen; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

313

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

314

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL ELEVATION VIEW OF BRIDGE OVERLOOKING PLEASANTS VALLEY CREEK; VIEW TO EAST. - Pleasants Valley Road Bridge, Spanning Pleasants Creek at Pleasants Valley Road, Vacaville, Solano County, CA

315

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

316

Contextual advertisement placement in printed media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

2010-02-01

317

Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

Conway, Kathryn

318

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-10-01

319

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed `solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa?a; Coll, Richard K.

2010-02-01

320

Facilitating and direct guidance in student-centered classrooms: addressing "lines or pieces" difficulty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores, from both constructivist and cognitive perspectives, teacher guidance in student-centered classrooms when addressing a common learning difficulty with equivalent fractions—lines or pieces—based on number line models. Findings from three contrasting cases reveal differences in teachers' facilitating and direct guidance in terms of anticipating and responding to student difficulties, which leads to differences in students' exploration opportunity and quality. These findings demonstrate the plausibility and benefit of integrating facilitating and direct guidance in student-centered classrooms. Findings also suggest two key components of effective teacher guidance including (a) using pretraining through worked examples and (b) focusing on the relevant information and explanations of concepts. Implementations are discussed.

Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

2014-06-01

321

Facilitating and direct guidance in student-centered classrooms: addressing "lines or pieces" difficulty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores, from both constructivist and cognitive perspectives, teacher guidance in student-centered classrooms when addressing a common learning difficulty with equivalent fractions—lines or pieces—based on number line models. Findings from three contrasting cases reveal differences in teachers' facilitating and direct guidance in terms of anticipating and responding to student difficulties, which leads to differences in students' exploration opportunity and quality. These findings demonstrate the plausibility and benefit of integrating facilitating and direct guidance in student-centered classrooms. Findings also suggest two key components of effective teacher guidance including (a) using pretraining through worked examples and (b) focusing on the relevant information and explanations of concepts. Implementations are discussed.

Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

2014-01-01

322

Design, implementation, and evaluation of two laboratory course constructivist learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the design, implementation, and evaluation of two student-centered, constructivist undergraduate laboratory courses: the intensive general chemistry laboratory course, a first-year course, and the physical chemistry laboratory course, a fourth-year course for chemistry majors. The courses' activities were divided into training and educating blocks according to their cognitive and epistemological content; i.e., the training block activities

Luis Avila

2006-01-01

323

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution\\u000a chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting\\u000a of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon,\\u000a Turkey. Data

Muammer Çalik; Alipasa Ayas; Richard K. Coll

2010-01-01

324

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical\\u000a content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative\\u000a measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed\\u000a lessons

Claudia Khourey-Bowers; Christopher Fenk

2009-01-01

325

Learning speed and contextual isolation in bumblebees.  

PubMed

Bumblebees will learn to approach one of a pair of patterns (a 45 degrees grating) and to avoid the other (a 135 degrees grating) to reach a feeder, and to do the opposite to reach their nest (approach a 135 degrees grating and avoid a 45 degrees grating). These two potentially competing visuo-motor associations are insulated from each other because they are set in different contexts. We investigated what training conditions allow the two sets of associations to be acquired without mutual interference. If the discrimination at the feeder has already been learnt, then the discrimination at the nest can be readily acquired without disrupting the bees' performance at the feeder. But, if the two are learnt simultaneously, there is mutual interference. Prior experience of the two contexts before the discriminations are learnt does not prevent interference. We conclude that visual patterns and contextual cues must already be associated with each other for a visuo-motor association to be isolated from the interfering effects of a competing association that is acquired in a separate context. This pattern of results was mimicked in a simple neural network with Hebbian synapses, in which local and contextual cues were bound together into a configural unit. PMID:11916996

Fauria, Karine; Dale, Kyran; Colborn, Matthew; Collett, Thomas S

2002-04-01

326

Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

2014-01-01

327

Contextual factors in substance use: A study of suburban and inner-city adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives in this research were to examine contextual differences in correlates of substance use among high school students. The focus was on two broad categories of adjustment indices: personal psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) and behaviors reflecting social competence (academic achievement, teacher-rated classroom behaviors, and peer acceptance or rejection). Associations between drug use and each of these constructs were examined in two sociodemographically disparate groups: teens from affluent, suburban families (n = 264), and low socioeconomic status adolescents from inner-city settings (n = 224). Results indicated that suburban youth reported significantly higher levels of substance use than inner-city youth. In addition, their substance use was more strongly linked with subjectively perceived maladjustment indices. Comparable negative associations involving grades and teacher-rated behaviors were found in both groups, and among suburban males only, substance use showed robust positive associations with acceptance by peers. Results are discussed in terms of developmental perspectives on adolescent deviance, contextual socializing forces, and implications for preventive interventions and treatment.

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; D'AVANZO, KAREN

2012-01-01

328

Modeling Discourse Management Compared to Other Classroom Management Styles in University Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A classroom management technique called modeling discourse management was developed to enhance the modeling theory of physics. Modeling discourse management is a student-centered management that focuses on the epistemology of science. Modeling discourse is social constructivist in nature and was designed to encourage students to present classroom material to each other. In modeling discourse management, the instructorâs primary role is of questioner rather than provider of knowledge. Literature is presented that helps validate the components of modeling discourse. Modeling discourse management was compared to other classroom management styles using multiple measures. Both regular and honors university physics classes were investigated. This style of management was found to enhance student understanding of forces, problem solving skills, and student views of science compared to traditional classroom management styles for both honors and regular students. Compared to other reformed physics classrooms, modeling discourse classes performed as well or better on student understanding of forces. Outside evaluators viewed modeling discourse classes to be reformed, and it was determined that modeling discourse could be effectively disseminated.

Desbien, Dwain

2008-05-29

329

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

330

Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol  

PubMed Central

At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

2012-01-01

331

Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

2006-01-01

332

Kohut and Contextualism: Toward a Post-Cartesian Psychoanalytic Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article portrays Heinz Kohut as a pivotal transitional figure in the development of a post-Cartesian, fully contextual psychoanalytic psychology. Despite his contextualization of narcissism and movement toward phenomenology and perspectivalism, remnants of Cartesian, isolated-mind thinking persisted in his metapsychology of the self and in his view of analytic empathy.

Robert D. Stolorow; George E. Atwood; Donna M. Orange

1999-01-01

333

Comprehending Spatial and Contextual Information in Picture-Text Instructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the location, in picture or text, of spatial, contextual, and operational information on comprehension was evaluated. Results showed that textual presentation of spatial information produced fewer errors, pictorial presentation reduced performance times, and pictorial presentation of contextual information reduced assembly times and…

Bieger, George R.; Glock, Marvin D.

1986-01-01

334

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

335

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

336

A Comparison of Behavioral and Constructivist Interventions for Increasing Math-Fact Fluency in a Second-Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although basic math skill deficits are commonly encountered across elementary and secondary school students, few empirically validated, group-administered interventions are available for educators attempting to prevent or remedy such problems. This study compared the effectiveness of two theoretically distinct interventions for improving the…

Poncy, Brian C.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Schmitt, Ara J.

2010-01-01

337

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

338

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes: a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom; and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

339

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

340

Considering the Chalkless Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

2010-01-01

341

Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

342

Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.  

PubMed

Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. PMID:24603347

Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

2014-04-01

343

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

344

Development of a responsive and constructivist portfolio-based assessment of a writing-to-learn curriculum in introductory astronomy: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary evaluator of a National Science Foundation grant-supported project to develop an introductory, writing-to-learn-based astronomy curriculum, my goal was to help design and test materials that would meet the learning needs of non-science majors, especially women and minorities, and promote their science literacy. My immediate problem was to create a context-sensitive assessment that engages teachers' goals and objectives while reconciling these with the diverse needs, interests, and abilities of students. To that end, I developed a responsive or stakeholder-focused constructivist assessment based upon Guba and Lincoln's fourth generation evaluation. Both responsive and constructivist, my-approach reflects recent developments in sociocognitive theories of writing and learning, especially those by Linda Flower. Flower focuses on the literate act or learning task, such as writing a summary, as the basic unit of analysis. Not the act itself but the "site" at which it occurs is of main interest. This is where the tension between the private "self" and the public "other" provides an opportunity for meaning to evolve as students explore alternate writing and learning strategies through inner acts of negotiation. Because the new astronomy curriculum centered around students keeping a learning log or process portfolio, portfolios afforded the ideal documentary evidence of the site at which students negotiate meanings and strategies. The portfolio-based assessment, therefore, centers upon having evaluators or teacher-researchers identify and interpret how students represent learning tasks to themselves and develop strategies to complete these tasks. Researchers next compare and judge their own interpretations of these behaviors according to the pre-ordinate objectives of the curriculum. Then the key stakeholders (i.e., evaluators, students, and teachers), through hermeneutic and dialectic interchanges, reconstruct or recondition these pre-ordmate evaluation criteria, transforming them from external "top-down" criteria to context-sensitive "bottom-up" ones. This reconditioning of the external criteria to a specific classroom context results in triadic consilience---a coherent, synergistic unity among the curriculum's theory, pedagogy, and assessment. With each assessment cycle, therefore, the pedagogy becomes more responsive to all the stakeholders and more grounded in its context.

French, Mary

345

Extending the Classroom "Vineland"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved method for the assessment of Social Development of secondary school students is described. For those with Social Development difficulties, the "Vineland Classroom" Edition can be used and interpreted to provide an Adaptive Behaviour Composite score. Prior to the present development, the "Classroom" Edition was only applicable to…

King, Michael G.

2007-01-01

346

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

347

For the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

Hartig, Gordon; And Others

1978-01-01

348

Differentiating Classroom Guidance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To differentiate is to make different, distinct, or specialized (Costello, 1994). Differentiation has become popular in education as an instructional philosophy aimed at equitably meeting the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Differentiated planning and delivery of classroom guidance is also necessary for appropriate school…

Akos, Patrick; Cockman, Caroline R.; Strickland, Cindy A.

2007-01-01

349

Creating the Multiage Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School restructuring movements have gained a great deal of national attention. This guidebook addresses the multi-age classroom movement, in which a mixed-age group of children stays with a given teacher for a number of years. The work provides a complete design for the mixed-age primary classroom, from philosophy and rationale to sample lesson…

Stone, Sandra J.

350

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

2007-02-11

351

Copyrights and the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A copyright infringement suit involving duplication of material for classroom use without permission or acknowledgement and related cases are discussed with reference to the fair use privilege, the Copyright Act of 1976, and congressional guidelines. Generally, fair use has been rejected as a blanket defense in classroom copying. (MJL)

Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

1983-01-01

352

Is Your Classroom Exciting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways for making classrooms fun, including giving children opportunities to work together, moving things around, letting children learn to set their own controls, setting up the classroom so students can experiment and discover together, and providing bonuses or incentives for the child who is falling behind. (CR)

Grambo, Gregory

1997-01-01

353

Preventive Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter of "Helping Teachers Manage Classrooms" presents strategies and processes that teachers can use to establish well-managed classrooms. These recommendations are based on the results of year-long descriptive studies of the management methods used by third grade teachers and by seventh and eighth grade English and mathematics teachers.…

Evertson, Carolyn M.; Emmer, Edmund T.

354

The Welcoming Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for creating a welcoming classroom environment, including: decorating the room by hanging students' names from the ceiling; making a classroom community puzzle involving each student; and developing a variety of welcoming bulletin boards. A reproducible sheet includes cut-out shapes to make an underwater-theme bulletin board that…

Instructor, 2001

2001-01-01

355

Sociolinguistics in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are three areas of interest in the topic of sociolinguistics in the classroom. First, the study of sociolinguistics is the interest of the professional linguist; second, the application of sociolinguistic principles is or should be the concern of all professional people who care about what goes on in the classroom, especially the teacher;…

Dumas, Bethany K.

356

Classroom Assessment in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then provide…

Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

2011-01-01

357

Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly advocated best practice for classroom assessment is to make the assessments authentic. Authentic is often used as meaning the mirroring of real-world tasks or expectations. There is no consensus, however, in the actual definition of the term or the characteristics of an authentic classroom assessment. Sometimes, the realistic component…

Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Allen, Justin P.

2012-01-01

358

Evangelism in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently said that evangelism or proselytizing has no place in the classroom. The purpose of this essay is to counter this generalization and to explore the nature of legitimate religious influence in the classroom. In doing so I will offer some criteria to help us determine what is and what is not acceptable by way of religious persuasion…

Thiessen, Elmer John

2013-01-01

359

Unified approach to contextuality, nonlocality, and temporal correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We highlight the existence of a joint probability distribution as the common underpinning assumption behind Bell-type, contextuality, and Leggett-Garg-type tests. We then present a procedure to translate contextual scenarios into temporal Leggett-Garg-type and spatial Bell-type ones. To demonstrate the generality of this approach we construct a family of spatial Bell-type inequalities. We show that in the Leggett-Garg scenario a necessary condition for contextuality in time is given by a violation of consistency conditions in the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics.

Markiewicz, M.; Kurzy?ski, P.; Thompson, J.; Lee, S.-Y.; Soeda, A.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.

2014-04-01

360

Quantum contextuality in a Young-type interference experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that correlations between the detector positions at the two-photon Young interference plane exhibit contextual behavior. Contextuality is demonstrated by showing the violation of the n-cycle noncontextuality inequalities [M. Araújo et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 022118 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.022118] for any even number n of observables ranging from 4 to 14. These violations exclude noncontextual hidden-variable theories as an explanation of the conditional two-photon Young pattern. Unlike recent contextuality experiments, ours is free of the compatibility loophole.

Borges, Gilberto; Carvalho, Marcos; de Assis, Pierre-Louis; Ferraz, José; Araújo, Mateus; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Pádua, Sebastião

2014-05-01

361

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood stress influenced fathers’ depressive symptoms and parenting, but not mothers’. The effects of acculturative stress were inconsistent. Results suggest that contextual stressors common to Mexican American families impact parenting behaviors through parental depression.

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

362

Research and Teaching: Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Techniques--Comparing Two Groups of Undergraduate Nonscience Majors in a Biology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Constructivist teaching techniques work well in various instructional settings, but many teachers remain skeptical because there is a lack of quantitative data supporting this model. This study compared an undergraduate nonmajors biology lab section taught in a traditional teacher-centered style to a similar section taught as a constructivist class. Weekly lab quiz scores, attendance, a science attitude inventory, and an analysis of videotapes were used to determine whether student interest and performance were affected by the teaching style used. Evaluative tests showed many significant differences between the groups and demonstrated that the constructivist class had higher quiz scores, more appreciation of science, better attendance, and increased participation in the lab activities than the traditional group.

Travis, Holly; Lord, Thomas

2004-11-01

363

Content-Based VLE Designs Improve Learning Efficiency in Constructivist Statistics Education  

PubMed Central

Background We introduced a series of computer-supported workshops in our undergraduate statistics courses, in the hope that it would help students to gain a deeper understanding of statistical concepts. This raised questions about the appropriate design of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in which such an approach had to be implemented. Therefore, we investigated two competing software design models for VLEs. In the first system, all learning features were a function of the classical VLE. The second system was designed from the perspective that learning features should be a function of the course's core content (statistical analyses), which required us to develop a specific–purpose Statistical Learning Environment (SLE) based on Reproducible Computing and newly developed Peer Review (PR) technology. Objectives The main research question is whether the second VLE design improved learning efficiency as compared to the standard type of VLE design that is commonly used in education. As a secondary objective we provide empirical evidence about the usefulness of PR as a constructivist learning activity which supports non-rote learning. Finally, this paper illustrates that it is possible to introduce a constructivist learning approach in large student populations, based on adequately designed educational technology, without subsuming educational content to technological convenience. Methods Both VLE systems were tested within a two-year quasi-experiment based on a Reliable Nonequivalent Group Design. This approach allowed us to draw valid conclusions about the treatment effect of the changed VLE design, even though the systems were implemented in successive years. The methodological aspects about the experiment's internal validity are explained extensively. Results The effect of the design change is shown to have substantially increased the efficiency of constructivist, computer-assisted learning activities for all cohorts of the student population under investigation. The findings demonstrate that a content–based design outperforms the traditional VLE–based design.

Wessa, Patrick; De Rycker, Antoon; Holliday, Ian Edward

2011-01-01

364

Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

365

LOFT. Contextual view of exhaust stack. Camera facing northeast. At ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOFT. Contextual view of exhaust stack. Camera facing northeast. At right of view if compressor building (TAN-637). Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-6-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

366

Contextual overview; view to north from Interstate Highway 5 viaduct ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual overview; view to north from Interstate Highway 5 viaduct (I-5 replaced Altamont Pass Road); Carroll Road at right; 66mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

367

Initial Engine Tet (IET) distant contextual view of coupling station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Initial Engine Tet (IET) distant contextual view of coupling station retaining wall, and shielded control building (TAN-620). facing northeasterly. INEEL negative no. HD-27-7-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

368

IET distant contextual view of entrance to shielded roadway. facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET distant contextual view of entrance to shielded roadway. facing west. stack and other buildings have been removed. INEEL negative no. HD-21-7-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

369

Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements visible, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

370

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING EC; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. Mare ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING E-C; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters E Garage, Walnut Avenue behind Quarters E, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

371

Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

372

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

373

Contextual view of building 121 from across the river; camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 121 from across the river; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

374

Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west side of driveway; parking lot and utility pole in foreground. Camera facing 38" northeast - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

375

Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side of knoll with eucalyptus windbreak. Camera facing 278" southwest. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

376

14. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DRY DOCK NO. 5, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DRY DOCK NO. 5, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM WEST SIDE. NOTE SERVICE BUILDING (BUILDING NO. 620) IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

377

7. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST, SHOWING NORTH AND EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST, SHOWING NORTH AND EAST WALLS OF ADDITION, AND ALL OF EAST WALL OF MILLS HALL NORTH WING. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

378

CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

379

2. Contextual view looking east, northeast, showing west elevation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view looking east, northeast, showing west elevation of Packing House and Union Ice building. - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

380

2. Contextual view of flume on hillside, looking east. Trestle ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of flume on hillside, looking east. Trestle 6 is visible in the foreground. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

381

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING AND BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

382

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, EAST SIDE, WITH BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

383

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

384

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

385

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

386

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

387

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

388

6. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking south along Division ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking south along Division Street, showing relationship of factory to surrounding area, 213, 215, & 217 Division Street appear on right side of street - Fairbanks Company, 202 Division Street, Rome, Floyd County, GA

389

7. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking north along Division ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking north along Division Street, showing relationship of factory to surrounding buildings and railroad - Fairbanks Company, 202 Division Street, Rome, Floyd County, GA

390

Contextual view of building, with building #12 in right background ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building, with building #12 in right background and building #11 in right foreground. Camera facing east-southeast - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Administration Storehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

391

Contextual view of building, with building #11 in right foreground. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building, with building #11 in right foreground. Camera facing east - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Administration Storehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

392

Contextual view of summer kitchen, showing blacksmith shop downhill at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of summer kitchen, showing blacksmith shop downhill at right and cottage at center (between the trees); camera facing northeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Summer Kitchen, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

393

4. Contextual oblique view to southsouthwest from near north abutment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual oblique view to south-southwest from near north abutment in Jacob Meyer Park, showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

394

5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting, with Jacob Meyer Park at right. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

395

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH FEATURES 7, 6, 8, AND 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

396

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, 5, 4, AND 3 WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

397

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 (RIGHT) WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

398

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

399

Contextual age as a life-position index.  

PubMed

A contextual age construct was developed and examined as a transactional, life-position index of aging. The eighteen-item contextual age index included six interrelated dimensions: physical health, interpersonal interaction, mobility, life satisfaction, social activity, and economic security. In addition to the development of the index, associations among contextual age and sociodemographic characteristics were examined for a sample of 640 persons. Chronological age was correlated negatively with mobility and physical health, and positively with economic security, life satisfaction, and interpersonal interaction. Mobility, economic security, life satisfaction, physical health, and interpersonal interaction discriminated between chronological age groups. Interpersonal interaction, economic security, physical health, and social activity were predictors of life satisfaction. The contextual age construct raises questions concerning several negative myths about aging. The findings reflect the weak validity of chronological age as a unidimensional indicator of life-position and well-being. PMID:3546160

Rubin, A M; Rubin, R B

1986-01-01

400

Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building showing relation to building 91 at right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

401

Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view building 50 on right with building 52 on left; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

402

Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 on right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

403

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

404

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

405

Contextual view of facade (northwest side), camera facing southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of facade (northwest side), camera facing southeast - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

406

Contextual pathognomony: a computationally useful extension of pathognomony.  

PubMed

Lack of adequate focus in problem-solving is a common problem in abductive expert systems. Pathognomonic findings could theoretically provide such focus, but their rarity in most domains makes the concept computationally useless. Pople's concept of constrictor is a useful extension of the concept of pathognomony. By relaxing the focus from a disease to a class of disease, constrictors have less theoretical power than pathognomonic symptoms, but they are more ubiquitous, thus more computationally useful. Similarly, this paper introduces the concept of contextual pathognomony. Contextual pathognomony is an extension of pathognomony that takes into account the current diagnostic context. Like constrictors, contextual pathognomony is more ubiquitous, thus more computationally useful, than pathognomony. Following the description of this new concept, this paper reports and analyses an experiment showing the existence and utility of contextual pathognomony in providing focus to abductive reasoning in the domain of alloantibody identification. PMID:1752126

Fischer, O; Smith, J W

1991-08-01

407

Contextual Pathognomony: A Computationally Useful Extension of Pathognomony  

PubMed Central

Lack of adequate focus in problem solving is a common problem in abductive expert systems. The concept of pathognomonic manifestation could theoretically provide such focus but its rarity in the real world makes the concept computationally useless. Pople's concept of constrictor is a useful extension of the concept of pathognomony. By relaxing the focus from a disease to a class of disease, constrictors have less theoretical power than pathognomonic manifestations, but they are more ubiquitous, thus more computationally useful. Similarly, this paper introduces the concept of contextual pathognomony. Contextual pathognomony is an extension of pathognomony that takes into account the current diagnostic context. Like constrictors, contextual pathognomony is more ubiquitous, thus more computationally useful, than pathognomony. Following the description of this new concept, this paper reports and analyzes an experiment showing the existence and utility of contextual pathognomony in providing focus to abductive reasoning in the domain of alloantibody identification.

Fischer, Olivier; Smith, Jack W.

1990-01-01

408

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end of bridge, view to south-southeast with Rawson Road in foreground. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

409

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

410

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

411

1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

412

Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and north sides, taken from Facility 47 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

413

The differentiated classroom observation scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the DCOS was developed to examine the impact of differentiated classroom practices for gifted

Jerrell C. Cassady; Kristie L. Speirs Neumeister; Cheryll M. Adams; Tracy L. Cross; Felicia A. Dixon; Rebecca L. Pierce

2004-01-01

414

Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

2008-01-01

415

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

416

Development of elementary school students' cognitive structures and information processing strategies under long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were assigned to either a constructivist-oriented instruction group or a traditional teaching group. The research treatment was conducted for 5 months, including six instructional units, and students' cognitive structures were probed through interviews coupled with a metalistening technique'' after the instruction of each unit. The interview narratives were transcribed into the format of flow maps. In addition, the information processing modes shown in the flow maps were also investigated through a series of content analyses. The findings showed that the students in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained significantly better learning outcomes in terms of the extent and integration of their cognitive structures, metacognition engagement, and the usage of information processing strategies. Moreover, it was also revealed that both high achievers and low achievers benefited from the constructivist-oriented instructional activities, but in different ways. For example, both high achievers and low achievers in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained better usage of information processing strategies than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did; but only high achievers displayed better usage of higher order information processing modes (i.e., inferring or explaining) than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did. The results in this study finally suggest a four-stage model for students' process of constructing cognitive structure under the constructivist-oriented science instruction, including cognitive structure acquisition, metacognition enrichment, cognitive structure integration, and cognitive structure refinement.

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-09-01

417

Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

Looser, Theresa A.

418

Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia  

PubMed Central

Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy.

Smolak, Alex

2010-01-01

419

Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual, and child characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and physical punishment. In general, results indicate that the effects of parental, contextual, and

M. Verhoeven; M. Junger; Aken van C; M. Dekovi?; Aken van M. A. G

2007-01-01

420

Contextual Clustering for Analysis of Functional MRI Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We present a contextual clustering procedure for statistical parametric maps (SPM) calculated from time varying three-dimensional images. The algorithm can be used for the detection of neural activations from functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). An important characteristic of SPM is that the intensity distribution of background,(nonactive area) is known,whereas the distributions of activation areas are not. The developed contextual clustering

Eero Salli; Hannu J. Aronen; Sauli Savolainen; Antti Korvenoja; Ari Visa

2001-01-01

421

Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

Chen, Zeqian; Montina, A.

2011-04-01

422

Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.  

PubMed

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

2014-01-01

423

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

424

Looking through the constructivist lens: the art of creating nursing work groups.  

PubMed

Almost every facet of nursing requires some aspect of group work, and at some point in their career most nurse managers will organize or appoint a work group to carry out selected nursing activities. Group work can be challenging for members when work expectations are not clear. However, group outcomes can also be disappointing for the manager who appoints a group, if the group is unable to make decisions and accomplish the specified task or becomes enmeshed in tangential matters. Social constructivism, a recent addition to the family and group literature, provides a different perspective for understanding and facilitating group work. This article provides an overview of group work as seen through the lens of social constructivist thought. The intent of this article is to critique the linear paradigm that some managers use for appointing work groups, committees, and task forces, and to discuss constructivist-based approaches as more effective ways of promoting positive consensus, cohesion, and cooperation among nursing work groups. PMID:8144754

Davis, L L; Cox, R P

1994-01-01

425

Investigating the Relationships Among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students’ perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eight grades of nine elementary public schools located in Ankara, Turkey constituted the participants of this study. Constructivist learning environment survey (CLES), Junior metacognitive awareness inventory (Jr. MAI), and Schommer epistemological belief questionnaire (EB) were administered to students. Factor Analysis of Jr. MAI revealed both knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition items were loaded into one factor. Confirmatory factor analysis of EB revealed a four factor structure namely innate ability, quick learning, omniscient authority, and certain knowledge. Regression analyses revealed that metacognition and omniscient authority were significant predictors of personal relevance dimension of CLES. Metacognition was found as the only predictor of the student negotiation. Innate ability and metacognition significantly contributed to uncertainty. This study revealed that the elementary students with different mastery levels hold different epistemological beliefs and multi-faceted nature of elementary school students’ metacognition was seemed to be supported with this study. It was found that metacognition contributed to model more than epistemological beliefs for all three dimensions of CLES.

Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2010-03-01

426

Stargazing in Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When taking students outside to see the stars is not an option, teachers can bring the stars inside the classroom. These instructions for building a portable planetarium also include suggestions for cross-cultural and social studies connections.

Rios, Jos�

2003-05-01

427

Classroom Communication of Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project analyzes the regular patterns of social interaction in science classrooms and the verbal and nonverbal strategies by which the science content of lessons is communicated. Based on observation and recording of 60 lessons by 20 teachers in seco...

J. L. Lemke

1982-01-01

428

View from My Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the philosophy of a high school chemistry teacher, providing examples through classroom experiences, with emphasis on the use of demonstrations as instructional aids. Specific stoichiometry and conductometric titration demonstrations are discussed. (CS)

Harris, Sidney P.

1980-01-01

429

Forensics Science Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These classroom activities on forensics science from the University of Colorado at Boulder were designed to help students understand the process of scientific investigation and develop better laboratory and data-collection techniques.

Leslie Leinwand (University of Colorado at Boulder;)

2010-05-28

430

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

431

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

432

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

433

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

434

Culture in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four approaches to utilizing and addressing cultural differences in the classroom: multicultural education, anti-bias curriculum, global education, and international education. Presents diversity education techniques in terms of direct communication (explicit), indirect communication (implicit), cultural information resources available…

Levy, Alison

1997-01-01

435

Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

1980-01-01

436

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

437

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

438

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

439

Obscuring Power Structures in the Physics Classroom: Implications for Student Engagement and Physics Identity Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students are disempowered in physics classes finding them to be more difficult, unpleasant, narrow, and masculine when compared to other subjects. Such disempowerment can lead students to limit their engagement. This study explores how physics teachers can help students engage with the material and develop their physics identities by obscuring traditional classroom hierarchies. Employing a positionality lens on case studies of four high school physics teachers, we coded teachersâ behavioral cues that contributed to the relational structure in the classroom. Our findings suggest that teachersâ physical cues (space and hierarchical stance occupied), structural cues (dynamic nature of the classroom allowing alternating roles), contextual cues (including studentsâ thoughts and experiences), and social cues (obscuring traditional boundaries between teacher and student) affect the social distance between the teacher, students, and content. This social distance can moderate studentsâ level of engagement and ultimately their physics identity development.

Hazari, Zahra; Lock, Robynne M.; Cass, Cheryl A.; Beattie, Carrie

2013-12-18

440

Critical Classroom Structures for Empowering Students to Participate in Science Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We compared contextual characteristics that impacted the nature and substance of âsummarizing discussionsâ in a physics and a chemistry classroom in an Hispanic-serving urban high school. Specifically, we evaluated structural components of curricula and classrooms necessary to develop a culture of critical inquiry. Using the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum in the physics course, we found that students demonstrated critical thinking, critical evaluation, and used laboratory evidence to support ideas in whole-class summarizing discussions. We then implemented a model similar to PET in the chemistry course. However, chemistry studentsâ statements lacked evidence, opposition and critical evaluation, and required greater teacher facilitation. We hypothesize that the designed laboratories and the research basis of PET influenced the extent to which physics students verbalized substantive scientific thought, authentic appeals to evidence, and a sense of empowerment to participate in the classroom scientific community.

Belleau, Shelly N.; Otero, Valerie K.

2013-08-04

441

Developing Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Hedges and Personal Pronouns in Inquiry-Based Science Classroom Discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effectiveness of introducing elementary teachers to the scholarly literature on personal pronouns and hedges in classroom discourse, a professional development strategy adopted during a summer institute to enhance teachers’ social understanding (i.e., their understanding of the social functions of language in science discussions). Teachers became aware of how hedges can be employed to remain neutral toward students’ oral contributions to classroom discussions, invite students to share their opinions and articulate their own ideas, and motivate students to inquire. Teachers recognized that the combined use of I and you can render their feedback authoritative, you can shift the focus from the investigation to students’ competence, and we can lead to authority loss. It is argued that explicitness, reflectivity, and contextualization are essential features of professional development programs aimed at improving teachers’ understandings of the social dimension of inquiry-based science classrooms and preparing teachers to engage in inquiry-based teacher-student interactions.

Oliveira, Alandeom W.

2010-02-01

442

Contextual specificity in perception and action  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visually guided control of helicopter flight is a human achievement, and, thus, understanding this skill is, in part, a psychological problem. The abilities of skilled pilots are impressive, and yet it is of concern that pilots' performance is less than ideal: they suffer from workload constraints, make occasional errors, and are subject to such debilities as simulator sickness. Remedying such deficiencies is both an engineering and a psychological problem. When studying the psychological aspects of this problem, it is desirable to simplify the problem as much as possible, and thereby, sidestep as many intractable psychological issues as possible. Simply stated, we do not want to have to resolve such polemics as the mind-body problem in order to contribute to the design of more effective helicopter systems. On the other hand, the study of human behavior is a psychological endeavor and certain problems cannot be evaded. Four related issues that are of psychological significance in understanding the visually guided control of helicopter flight are discussed. First, a selected discussion of the nature of descriptive levels in analyzing human perception and performance is presented. It is argued that the appropriate level of description for perception is kinematical, and for performance, it is procedural. Second, it is argued that investigations into pilot performance cannot ignore the nature of pilots' phenomenal experience. The conscious control of actions is not based upon environmental states of affairs, nor upon the optical information that specifies them. Actions are coupled to perceptions. Third, the acquisition of skilled actions in the context of inherent misperceptions is discussed. Such skills may be error prone in some situations, but not in others. Finally, I discuss the contextual relativity of human errors. Each of these four issues relates to a common theme: the control of action is mediated by phenomenal experience, the veracity of which is context specific.

Proffitt, Dennis R.

1991-01-01

443

A community-based assessment of learning disabilities using environmental and contextual risk factors.  

PubMed

Childhood placement in learning disability (LD) programs in the USA has tripled over the last few decades to 6% of all children enrolled in the public schools today. The revision of educational laws to improve LD testing and reporting guidelines has been credited for these trends. However, some researchers also believe that the increase in LD incidence may be due, in part, to chronic low level exposure to toxicants such as lead, heavy metals, solvents and others chemicals in the physical environment. This study employs the use of geo-statistical methods to explore the potential linkages between these pollution sources and the prevalence rates of LD within an urbanized environment, in the USA. The role of contextual factors such as housing quality, poverty, low parental educational achievement, and other disadvantages are also examined. Using primary data on childhood disabilities for 1997, the LD cases were queried and analyzed to identify the spatial clusters within the community. The neighborhoods within the LD clusters were then compared to other areas in the community on the basis of the environmental and contextual risk factors. The results confirmed that areas of high risk for LD were strongly associated with historically significant sources of lead toxicity and air pollution facilities. Among the socio-economic indicators, the high-risk neighborhoods were characterized by multiple/subdivided housing units, poverty, higher percentage of residents on public assistance and lower adult educational attainment. Taken together, these results suggest the need for a more inclusive multi-disciplinary research on LD that extends beyond the classroom context to the neighborhoods and communities in which these children reside. PMID:12593879

Margai, Florence; Henry, Norah

2003-03-01

444

The Effect of Constructivist Learning Principles Based Learning Materials to Students' Attitudes, Success and Retention in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to investigate whether the learning materials that based on constructivist learning principles have an effect on fifth grade Social Studies students' attitudes, their academic success and their retention. The study was conducted at Sehit Ali Gaffar Okkan Elementary School, Eskisehir. The participants of the study were 5th…

Karaduman, Hidir; Gultekin, Mehmet

2007-01-01

445

Understanding the Cultural Meaning of Selected African Ndop Statues: The Use of Art History Constructivist Inquiry Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a case study in which third-grade children (n=19) examined a series of images of Ndop statues and visual information from the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo using art history constructivist inquiry methods. Presents the results in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

Chanda, Jacqueline; Basinger, Ashlee M.

2000-01-01

446

The Effects of Representations, Constructivist Approaches, and Engagement on Middle School Students' Algebraic Procedure and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of types of representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and student engagement on middle school algebra students' procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding. Data gathered from 16 video lessons and algebra pretest/posttests were used to run three multilevel structural equation models. Symbolic…

Ross, Amanda; Willson, Victor

2012-01-01

447

Investigating the Effectiveness of a Constructivist-Based Teaching Model on Student Understanding of the Dissolution of Gases in Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented in this paper consisted of an investigation of the effectiveness of a four-step constructivist-based teaching activity on student understanding of how pressure and temperature influence the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. Some 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) selected purposively from two school classes in the…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.; Unal, Suat; Costu, Bayram

2007-01-01

448

How Constructivist Are We? Representations of Transmission and Participatory Models of Instruction in the "Journal of College Science Teaching"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism has become a widely understood and broadly accepted learning theory. Constructivism contends that each of us makes sense of our world by connecting new experiences to our existing understandings. Learners, as they encounter new situations, attempt to meld incoming information with their existing understandings. Constructivist

Straits, William; Wilke, Russell

2007-01-01

449

Students' conceptions of constructivist learning: a comparison between a traditional and a problem-based learning curriculum.  

PubMed

This study investigated students' conceptions of constructivist learning activities in a problem-based learning (PBL) and a traditional curriculum. We examined whether students who have chosen for a problem-based curriculum have different conceptions of constructivist assumptions compared to students who have chosen to be enrolled in a traditional, lecture-based curriculum when they enter university. Although constructivism represents an influential view of learning, studies investigating how students conceptualize this perspective have not been conducted before. A structural equation modelling approach was adopted to test the hypothesized model in both student populations and to calculate latent means. Results suggested that students in the PBL environment agree more on constructivist assumptions of cooperative learning and the use of authentic problems, while students in the traditional curriculum acknowledge the importance of motivation to learn more. It is discussed that conceptions of constructivist learning activities can act as an important moderator of PBL effects and should be considered in examining the effects of PBL and probably in all comparative education research. PMID:16933109

Loyens, Sofie M M; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

2006-11-01

450

Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on students' alternative conceptions of the topics "electric circuits", "electric charge flows within an electric circuit", "how the brightness of bulbs and the resistance changes in series and parallel circuits", the current study aims to present a combination of different conceptual change methods within a four-step constructivist teaching…

Ipek, Hava; Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

451

Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade…

Balim, Ali Günay

2013-01-01

452

Toward a Constructivist and Developmental Identity for the Counseling Profession: The Context-Phase-Stage-Style Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist and developmental metatheories offer foundations for prevention- and health-oriented counseling approaches that target the whole population. Proposes an assessment model in which the counselor is directed toward four specific dimensions of human construction and development: social context, life phase, constructive phase, and…

Eriksen, Karen P.; McAuliffe, Garrett J.

1999-01-01

453

The effect of a constructivist learning environment for field-dependent\\/independent students on achievement in introductory computer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted to determine the effect of a constructivist learning environment upon field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) students' achievement in an introductory computer programming course. Prior research in traditional environments had established a correlation between field dependence \\/ independence (FD\\/I) and the design stage of programming.A correlational design was followed, using introductory computer science students in their

David C. Gibbs

2000-01-01

454

When All Is Said and Done, More Is Said than Done: Research Examining Constructivist Instruction for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist literature has become increasingly prominent in the area of special education. The nature of constructivism and its relevance and limitations for students with special needs is discussed, as is the importance of appropriate research in determining the efficacy of instructional interventions. A search of the literature into the…

Apps, Mark; Carter, Mark

2006-01-01

455

In-Service Professional Development and Constructivist Curriculum: Effects on Quality of Child Care, Teacher Beliefs, and Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess three methods of delivering in-service professional development regarding constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. Educators in 44 not-for-profit child care centres in three Canadian cities were studied; 94 educators with formal preservice training participated. The three methods were (a) a…

Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen; Vukelich, Goranka; Recchia, Holly

2011-01-01

456

Effects of Instructional Support within Constructivist Learning Environments for Elementary School Students' Understanding of "Floating and Sinking"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a repeated measures design (pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up) with 161 3rd-grade students, the authors compared 2 curricula on floating and sinking within constructivist learning environments, varying in instructional support. The 2 curricula differed in the sequencing of content and the teacher's cognitively structuring statements. At the…

Hardy, Ilonca; Jonen, Angela; Moller, Komelia; Stern, Elsbeth

2006-01-01

457

Patterns of Instructional Discourse that Promote the Perception of Mastery Goals in a Social Constructivist Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary education students enrolled in an experimental mathematics course participated in this study. The course is taught using a social constructivist approach and is designed to improve students' mathematical problem-solving ability and deepen their understanding of mathematics. The research question for the present study is as follows: In…

Morrone, Anastasia Steffen; Harkness, Shelly S.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz; Caulfield, Richard

2004-01-01

458

A Constructivist Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning: A TUNEL Assay for the Detection of Apoptosis in Cheek Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory exercise is presented that incorporates constructivist principles into a learning experience designed for upper-level university biology courses. The specific objectives for this exercise are as follows: (1) To introduce students to cancer biology and to the regulation of programmed cell death as part of the cell cycle; (2) To engage…

Correiro, Elizabeth E.; Griffin, Leanne R.; Hart, Peter E.

2008-01-01

459

The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Predicting Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Behaviour towards a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-pronged purpose of this study is to examine factors determining the teaching behaviour of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers towards a constructivist approach, likewise referred to as teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was applied to guide the formulation of research purpose and design. Six…

Wang, Carrie Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2013-01-01

460

The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

Willis, Jerry

2011-01-01

461

Social Constructivist Teaching Methods in Australian Universities-- Reported Uptake and Perceived Learning Effects: A Survey of Lecturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pragmatic social constructivist teaching methods require students to construct knowledge by engaging collaboratively with realistic problems, cases or projects. It is hypothesized that they are more effective than traditional didactic teaching methods in developing undergraduate students': (1) theoretical knowledge; (2) profession-specific skills;…

Hanson, James M.; Sinclair, Kenneth E.

2008-01-01

462

Opinions of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers on the Curriculum of Turkish Literature Course Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

Epcacan, Cahit

2013-01-01

463

Development of Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures and Information Processing Strategies under Long-Term Constructivist-Oriented Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

464

Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

2012-01-01

465

Constructing Academic Success by Developing the Attitudes, Perceptions, and Philosophies of Pre-Service Educators Prepared in a Constructivist Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a continued study of the attitudes, perceptions, and philosophies of secondary education science teachers pre-serviced in constructivist teaching methodology over their first five-years of teaching. The following trends came out on reviewing all of the data concerning the attitudes; perceptions and philosophies of five teachers in were…

Hollenbeck, James E.

2006-01-01

466

What’s Under Construction Here? Social Action, Materiality, and Power in Constructivist Studies of Technology and Organizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, organizational scholars have increasingly argued that technology’s affects on organizations are socially constructed. Constructivists who study implementation generally hold that organizational change emerges from an ongoing stream of social action in which people respond to a technology’s constraints and affordances, as well as to each other. Although most students of technology and organizing generally agree

Paul M. Leonardi; Stephen R. Barley

2010-01-01

467

Modality effect on contextual integration in people with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

In this study meaningful social stimuli were used as probes in a task requiring the judgment of semantic appropriateness to investigate contextual integration ability to test the ability of people with Williams syndrome (WS) to integrate information, as opposed to the use of meaningless syllables in audiovisual studies (the McGurk effect). Participants were presented with background auditory primes followed by targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the prime. Two modes of target were presented: a visual target (AV task) or an auditory target (AA task). Participants were asked to respond yes to contextually appropriate pairs and no to those that were contextually inappropriate. The congruency effect was measured as an index of successful central coherence. Similar to normally developing controls, people with WS showed shorter response latencies and greater accuracy in recognizing congruent pairs compared with incongruent pairs. Their performance did not differ from that of controls matched by mental age, but was inferior to that of controls matched by chronological age. The results revealed generalized contextual integration for auditory primes in both tasks, consistent with previous studies using visual presentation of social-related stimuli in people with WS (Hsu, 2013a, 2013c). Further demonstration of the presence of a modality effect on contextual coherence implies that cross-modal learning may be advantageous compared with unimodal learning. PMID:24769430

Hsu, Ching-Fen

2014-07-01

468

Early onset problem behavior, young adult psychopathology, and contextual risk.  

PubMed

A prospective study of 692 male twins was undertaken to investigate the relationships among early adolescent problem behavior, contextual risk, and disinhibitory psychopathology. Early adolescent problem behavior was assessed by the number of the following behaviors engaged in by the time of the age-14 assessment: (1) tobacco use, (2) alcohol use, (3) marijuana use, (4) other illicit drug use, (5) sexual intercourse, and (6) police contact. Contextual risk was assessed as a composite of measures of peer models, parent-offspring conflict, and academic engagement from the age-14 assessment. Disinhibitory psychopathology was assessed by symptoms of nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and adult antisocial behavior at the age-18 assessment. Early adolescent problem behavior and contextual risk were strongly correlated (r = .53) and both were strongly and independently associated with symptoms of disinhibitory psychopathology (r from .35 to .60). The association of early adolescent problem behavior with both contextual risk and disinhibitory psychopathology was mediated entirely by genetic factors while the association between contextual risk and disinhibitory psychopathology was mediated by both genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results are discussed in the context of emerging research on the prognostic significance of early adolescent problem behavior for risk of adult psychopathology. PMID:17539364

Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2007-02-01

469

Constructivist Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes two articles that deal with constructivism: one discusses constructivism and the use of computers in teaching language arts, particularly writing; and the other discusses constructivism and the use of laptop computers in an Australian primary school to help restructure the curriculum. (23 references) (LRW)

Griest, Gary; Loader, David

1993-01-01

470

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

471

Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study  

PubMed Central

These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use.

Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

2010-01-01

472

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

473

Modelling in the Mathematics Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experience with modeling as a teaching technique in the mathematics classroom as opposed to mathematical modeling. Offering models in the mathematics classroom is a good idea. Presents fundamental ideas for creating an effective learning environment with models. (WRM)

Lee, Clare

2000-01-01

474

Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

Faia, Jean E.

1988-01-01

475

Expanding a Learner-Centered Environment Using Group Reports and Constructivist Portfolios  

PubMed Central

A study was performed in the Microbial Physiology course to increase students’ self-awareness of their misconceptions, promote sound research techniques, develop written and oral communication skills, stimulate metacognition, and improve teamwork and interpersonal relationship skills. The transformation in the teaching methodology included using cooperative learning, field trips, and portfolios that targeted diverse learning styles to challenge students in creative ways and to help prepare them for future careers. The entire structure of the class was modified by introducing in-class portfolios to form a constructivist environment in which the discussion and lecture topic of the day were built on prior student knowledge. Based on evaluations, students were very pleased with the new teaching and learning process and learned more content than in the more traditional class. They also felt better able to reflect on their learning.

BUXEDA, ROSA J.; MOORE, DEBORAH A.

2001-01-01

476

Expanding a learner-centered environment using group reports and constructivist portfolios.  

PubMed

A study was performed in the Microbial Physiology course to increase students' self-awareness of their misconceptions, promote sound research techniques, develop written and oral communication skills, stimulate metacognition, and improve teamwork and interpersonal relationship skills. The transformation in the teaching methodology included using cooperative learning, field trips, and portfolios that targeted diverse learning styles to challenge students in creative ways and to help prepare them for future careers. The entire structure of the class was modified by introducing in-class portfolios to form a constructivist environment in which the discussion and lecture topic of the day were built on prior student knowledge. Based on evaluations, students were very pleased with the new teaching and learning process and learned more content than in the more traditional class. They also felt better able to reflect on their learning. PMID:23653539

Buxeda, R J; Moore, D A

2001-05-01

477

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination youâll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management is an ongoing, evolving processâteachers need to modify their daily practices based on the observed behaviors and feedback of their students. This article describes some strategies to manage inquiry-based science classrooms effectively.

Wolfgang, Christie N.

2009-07-01

478

Comets in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a partnership with the Rochester (New York) City School District to enhance their space science curriculum through teacher training seminars designed to increase teachers' knowledge of astronomy. On 1 April 1998, we facilitated the third grade science in-service program. We presented background science information on the Moon and demonstrated hands-on activities that teachers could transfer to their classrooms. During the 1998-99 school year, we visited several middle schools within the school district to facilitate the ``Comet in the Classroom'' program with sixth grade teachers. ``Comets in the Classroom'' presents background knowledge about comets and explains several hands-on activities regarding comets and their travels through the inner solar system. This work is funded through NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Sciences (IDEAS) program.

Goetz, J. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Kort, E.

1999-05-01

479

Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

Staver, John R.

2010-03-01

480

Scientific education early in the curriculum using a constructivist approach on learning.  

PubMed

Physicians need to stay up-to-date with new developments in their field of expertise. This expectation has been made explicit by competency-based educational outcomes in the domain of scholar in the Dutch blueprint. There is a great diversity in teaching methods that aim to achieve a better understanding of scientific knowledge. Applying a constructivist approach to learning in acquiring research competencies we wonder how a research-intensive course is evaluated early in the curriculum and what learning gain students perceive. In a collaborative research-intensive course, the class of 300s-year students rated the quality of 150 preselected randomized controlled trials (RCT) using JAMA Users' Guides, and the pharmaceutical advertisements in which they were referenced. Each student rated two RCTs. Data were analyzed to answer a relevant research question. After the course students completed an evaluation survey. We did this in five consecutive years to capture student experience in relation to fostering a scientific mindset (n = 1,500). In addition we studied outcome of this scientific mindset as scientific output (publications) in journals. Survey data indicate that it is feasible to successfully implement a research-intensive course based on a large cohort using a constructivist paradigm early in the curriculum. Students consider it challenging and report high learning gain in several domains. Aggregated data have even led to four publications in journals. Implementing an active learning research experience early in the curriculum can foster student attitudes, provided the level of difficulty correctly matches the learners' prior knowledge. Further research is required to determine how to improve these active research curricula to maximize impact on learners. PMID:23975621

Vereijken, M W C; Kruidering-Hall, M; de Jong, P G M; de Beaufort, A J; Dekker, F W

2013-09-01

481

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

482

A Spatial Classifier for Multispectral Data Using Contextual Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connectivity describes the spatial relationship among pixels. A spatial classifier which employs the sigma probability concept of the Gaussian distribution and a type of contextual information connectivity of the pixels, is studied in this paper. This spatial classifier attempts to replicate the kind of spatial synthesis done by the human analyst during visual interpretation or to capture the spatial relationships inherent in an aerial photograph. Several classification results of the Landsat TM data using this classifier with different window sizes for capturing the contextual information are illustrated and compared.

Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy

1998-01-01

483

Classroom Design Manual. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual identifies the essential design elements of modern, high quality learning environments and includes discussions on facility programming, management, utilization, evaluation, and planning for future technology. Classrooms examined include general purpose classrooms, lecture halls, seminar rooms, and specialized classrooms such as…

Allen, Robert L.; Bowen, J. Thomas; Clabaugh, Sue; DeWitt, Beth B.; Francis, JoAllen; Kerstetter, John P.; Rieck, Donald A.

484

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management…

Wolfgang, Christie Nicole

2009-01-01

485

Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of 221 employees, perceptions of organizational culture and discrepancy between ideal and actual culture predicted both task performance and contextual (altruism, conscientiousness, organizational citizenship) performance. Organizational warmth, organizational competence, and reward were significant predictors of contextual performance.…

Goodman, Scott A.; Svyantek, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

486

Classroom Management: Beliefs of Preservice Teachers and Classroom Teachers Concerning Classroom Management Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that preservice teachers and experienced teachers share a concern for classroom management, this study compared the beliefs of classroom teachers, intern teachers, and senior level practicum students regarding classroom management styles. Participating in the study were 43 early childhood and 44 elementary education preservice teachers, and…

Laut, John

487

A family of contextual measures of similarity between distributions with application to image retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel family of contextual measures of similarity between distributions: the similarity between two distributions q and p is measured in the context of a third distribution u. In our framework any traditional measure of similarity \\/ dissimilarity has its contextual counterpart. We show that for two important families of divergences (Bregman and Csisz'ar), the contextual similarity computation

Florent Perronnin; Yan Liuand; Jean-Michel Renders

2009-01-01

488

Contextually authentic science for young children: A study of two summer herpetology programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, skills, and dispositions enabled for elementary school participants in two summer herpetology programs, one in North Carolina and one in Florida. An additional purpose of this study was to examine the normative scientific practices in which participants engaged and to describe how these experiences differed across each of the herpetology programs. Finally, the program structures of Herpetology and Reptiles were compared to determine how each herpetology program's activities and methodologies impacted participants' perceptions of authentic science. A goal of this study was to expand and broaden the understanding of how authentic science program structure impacts what is enabled for participants in terms of knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained. This study built on previous research of contextually authentic science practices (Buxton, 2006). This study was conducted and the data analyzed using an interpretative case study, mixed methods approach. Data collected included: video and audio data from classroom and field sessions, participant focus group interviews, photographs, and photo elicitation interviews. Participants' science journals were collected and analyzed. Pre- and post-assessments and surveys were administered and analyzed for twenty-four participants, twelve participants from the Herpetology program and twelve participants from the Reptiles program.

Scott, Catherine Marie

489

Networking the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "CQ Researcher" examines the theme of computer networking in the classroom and discusses uses past and present. It begins with an essay by Christopher Conte that discusses: "Does computer networking really enhance learning? Are teachers adequately prepared to take advantage of computer networking? Will computer networking promote…

Stencel, Sandra, Ed.; And Others

1995-01-01

490

The CAS Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) Computer Algebra System (CAS)Pilot study (2001-2005) is monitoring the use of CAS in senior secondary mathematics. This article explores the author's experiences in the CAS classroom and delineates changes in teaching style, as a result of the introduction of CAS into the senior mathematics…

Garner, Sue

2004-01-01

491

Elementary Classroom Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

Baker, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

492

The Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

Thomas, Dorothy E.

493

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

494

Poetry in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue focus on the use of poetry for study in classrooms at all levels. Titles and authors of the articles include (1) "Summoning the Poem: Several Roads to Xanadu" by Ben F. Nelms; (2) "ABC's of Reading and Writing Poetry in Junior High" by Barbara Arnold; (3) "Invitations" by Elizabeth D. Nelms; (4) "Teaching Poetry…

Wyman, Linda, Ed.

1984-01-01

495

Marine Mammal Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is in Spanish.

496

Photography in Pink Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

Ashburn, Liz

2007-01-01

497

Classroom multiplayer presential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the promising results of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) for educational purposes, this paper maps the essential concepts behind MMOGs, into the classroom context. Since the number of students in this context is not massive and play takes place within a single room rather than on the Internet, we have changed the terms ldquomassivelyrdquo and ldquoonlinerdquo to ldquoclassroomrdquo and

Miguel Nussbaum; Heinz Susaeta; Felipe Jimenez; Ignacio Gajardo; Juan José Andreu; M. Villalta; J. Nordlinger

2009-01-01

498

Robots in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

1984-01-01

499

In the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers five reading activities for classroom use, including "Poetry in Motion" (Janet Millar Grant); "Book-a-Mania" (Maria Ramirez Zirkelback); "Signs of Life" (Karl A. Matz); "Football and Reading Do Mix!" (Cindy Visser); and "Poetry-of-the-Month Club" (Steven Schneider). (MG)

French, Michael P.; Danielson, Kathy Everts

1991-01-01

500

Global Classroom Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook for teachers contains resources and learning activities to help middle and high school age students learn about Boston as an international and multicultural city. The materials can easily be adapted by teachers for use with elementary students. Staff of the Global Classroom Project developed the sourcebooks. For the past two years…

Ruelius, Andrea