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1

The effects of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a differential effect of two different learning environments determined by constructivist classroom contextual factors on elementary science students' motivation and learning strategies. Teaching and learning practices in the regular classroom vs. teaching and learning practices in a life [biodiversity] laboratory were investigated for this study. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory (modified) was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (modified) was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Also, some individual teachers had lower constructivist teaching practices in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom, indicating that classroom contextual factors can be teacher controlled and thus, not simply location dependent. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1, which, although the life laboratory score was higher, did not show a statistically significant difference. A 2 x 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of a teacher-selected convenience sample of students were conducted at the end of the semester and focused on patterns of instruction and student learning. Theme analysis revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study enabling advanced knowledge acquisition; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides; especially when it comes to learning new science concepts.

Milner, Andrea Rae

2

Constructivist Pedagogy in Primary Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the difficulty in translating constructivist theory into effective practice, this study examined how primary school teachers implemented constructivist education into their kindergarten through second-grade classrooms. Participating in the study were six teachers who had received master's degrees from a constructivist program and who had…

Rainer, Julie; Guyton, Edi; Bowen, Christie

3

The Constructivist Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining how people learn, the educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner can be synthesized to give this set of core Constructivist principles. Principles of effective mathematics teaching: (1) allows learning that is "active" and "reflective". Students are required to transfer key concepts to new situations; (2) allows…

Jones, Karrie; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.

2010-01-01

4

Technology in a Constructivist Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the constructivist model for teaching the effective uses of computer technology. Details five computer-based constructivist projects based on a problem-solving format: Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE), Learning Through Collaborative Visualization Project (CoVis), Computer Clubhouse, JASPER, and…

Ferguson, Donna

2001-01-01

5

Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

2008-01-01

6

Seven Posers in the Constructivist Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, "constructivism" constitutes the "grand unified theory" of the moment. In this article, I maintain that constructivism as a theory of knowledge and constructivism as pedagogy are distinct and that the question of what constructivism about knowledge implies for teaching is under-theorised. Seven classroom scenarios are sketched that…

Kotzee, Ben

2010-01-01

7

Learners' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in the process of a constructivist-learning environment in Classroom Management Course. Teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained before and after a social constructivist curriculum implementation. Prior to the…

Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

2006-01-01

8

Teacher Questioning and Interaction Patterns in Classrooms Facilitated with Differing Levels of Constructivist Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the impact of teacher questions, question types, and interaction patterns that coincide with high and low levels of constructivist teaching practices. Through both quantitative and qualitative methods the findings revealed that teachers facilitating classrooms with high levels of constructivist teaching practices (HLCTP)…

Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd

2008-01-01

9

Comparison of Student Learning about Diffusion and Osmosis in Constructivist and Traditional Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the effects of constructivist versus traditional teaching approaches on university students' learning about osmosis and diffusion. Students understood diffusion and osmosis more deeply in the constructivist-informed classroom, which used small discussion groups rather than traditional large lecture groups. Suggests ways to improve…

Christianson, Roger G.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

1999-01-01

10

Change in Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in a constructivist learning environment in a classroom management course. Within a qualitative case study design, teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained through document analysis before and after they were…

Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

2009-01-01

11

A Constructivist Approach for Introducing Pre-Service Teachers to Educational Technology: Online and Classroom Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals for our preparation of pre-service teacher educators in educational media and technology include the development of pedagogical ability as well as technical knowledge and skills. Pedagogically we adopted the goal of teaching the students to use technology to facilitate a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. We have developed a classroom-based and online courses in which we immerse

Anne K. Bednar; Michael T. Charles

12

Students' beliefs, attitudes, and conceptual change in a traditional and a constructivistic high school physics classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the relationships between student beliefs about the nature of science, student attitudes, and conceptual change about the nature of forces were investigated within a traditional and within a constructivistic high school physics classroom. Students in both classrooms were honors students taking a first year high school physics course and were primarily white and middle to upper SES. Students in the traditional classroom were all high ability juniors, and physics instruction was integrated with pre-calculus. Students in the constructivistic classroom were a mixture of juniors and seniors. Due to the interrelated nature of these factors and the complexity of their interactions, a naturalistic inquiry design was chosen. The data sources included videotape of 7-9 weeks of instruction; analysis of the videotapes using the Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix (Gallagher & Parker, 1995); field notes; pretest/posttest assessment with the Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhammer, 1992); student responses from the Views on Science-Technology-Society questionnaire (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992), the Questionnaire for the Assessment of a Science Course (Chiappetta, 1995), and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor, Fraser, & White, 1994); student interviews; and teacher interviews. In the traditional classroom, (a) students did not think that physics was relevant to everyday experiences; (b) high conceptual change students were more likely to have an angular world view (Cobern, 1993) and have views more similar to the teacher's about the nature of science; and (c) high conceptual change students were able to develop an internally consistent understanding of the content; however, that content appeared to be isolated knowledge in some students. In the constructivistic classroom, (a) students saw physics as relevant and useful; (b) there was no difference in world view or agreement with the teacher's views on the nature of science between high and low conceptual change students; (c) students appreciated the importance of empirical evidence; and (d) low conceptual change students had low classroom engagement. Mean gains in conceptual change were larger for the traditional classroom.

Adams, April Dean

13

A Study of Secondary Science Teacher Efficacy and Level of Constructivist Instructional Practice Implementation in West Virginia Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of use of selected constructivist instructional practices and level of teacher efficacy in West Virginia secondary science classrooms. The study next sought to determine if a relationship existed between level of use of the constructivist practices and teacher efficacy. In addition the study…

Knapp, Amanda Kristen

2013-01-01

14

Student Appropriation of Thinking Strategies in a Constructivist Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed method study examined the oral contributions and personal journal writing of 8 focal students in an eleventh-grade integrated history/English classroom to ascertain whether and to what extent the students had appropriated three types of cognitive strategies desired and modeled by their teachers. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of…

Hall, Beatrice A.

2010-01-01

15

A study of secondary science teacher efficacy and level of constructivist instructional practice implementation in West Virginia science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of use of selected constructivist instructional practices and level of teacher efficacy in West Virginia secondary science classrooms. The study next sought to determine if a relationship existed between level of use of the constructivist practices and teacher efficacy. In addition the study sought to determine if differences existed in level of use of the selected constructivist practices and/or teacher efficacy based on selected demographic variables. The study was a mixed-methods design. First, a researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data regarding the level of use of constructivist instructional practices. Efficacy data were collected using an adapted (with permission) version of the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale ( TSES) by Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, and Hoy (1998). The study population consisted of secondary science teachers (middle, junior, and high school) in the state of West Virginia. The last survey question allowed educators to volunteer for a short follow-up interview to clarify the quantitative data. Overall, West Virginia science teachers reported frequent use of the selected constructivist instructional practices. Few significant differences were found based on the selected demographic variables. West Virginia science teachers reported moderately high efficacy levels. Few significant differences were found based on selected demographic variables. A moderate but significant correlation was found between teacher efficacy level and the level of use of the selected constructivist practices. The follow-up interviews clarified concepts and revealed barriers to implementation of new practices in the science classroom.

Knapp, Amanda Kristen

16

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

17

Radical Conversations: Part Two--Cultivating Social-Constructivist Learning Methods in ABE Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many U.S. prisons an overuse of individualized instruction silences literacy learners and reinforces oppressive notions about what knowledge is and whose knowledge counts. In these classrooms, methods that invite learners to tap their background knowledge, reflect on their worlds, and dialogue with others to construct meaning--commonplace in…

Muth, Bill; Kiser, Madeline

2008-01-01

18

Confronting the Baby Blues: A Social Constructivist Reflects on Time Spent in a Behaviorist Infant Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflective essay describes the author's experiences as an observer in a behaviorist infant classroom. The author developed four categories of practice to describe what happened in the behaviorist infant room: (1) curricular focus on training typically developing infants to meet typical developmental milestones, (2) the use of highly…

McMullen, Mary Benson

2010-01-01

19

Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on self-regulated learning has stressed the importance of both motivational and cognitive components of classroom learning. Much of this research has examined these components without consideration of potential contextual differences. Using a within-subject correlational design, the present study assessed mean level differences in students' task value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, cognitive strategy use, regulatory strategy use, and classroom academic

Christopher A. Wolters; Paul R. Pintrich

1998-01-01

20

Constructivist Assessment Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to describe the assessment environment in constructivist-oriented science, technology, and society (STS) classrooms. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews and subjected to a constant comparative analysis associated with a grounded theory model. Three themes emerged from the analysis: (1) a description of the…

Freedman, Robin Lee Harris

21

"Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

2010-01-01

22

The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

2014-01-01

23

The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom, and the Relationship between Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…

Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John

2013-01-01

24

Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

2008-01-01

25

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

26

The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

2015-02-01

27

The Many Faces of Constructivist Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although constructivist discussions in the classroom are often treated as if they were all of the same kind, in this paper I argue that there are subtle but important distinctions that need to be made. An analysis of these distinctions shows that there is a continuum of different constructivist discussions. At one extreme are teacher-directed…

Golding, Clinton

2011-01-01

28

So, What is Constructivist Teaching? A Rubric for Teacher Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the idea that a constructivist classroom is very different from a traditional setting, this article presents a rubric based on current understanding of constructivist theory and education. The rubric is designed as a formative assessment of teachers to stimulate thinking and improve methods related to constructivist teaching. (SD)

Stork, Steve; Engel, Susan

1999-01-01

29

How Constructivist-Based Teaching Influences Students Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide details about the beneficial processes the constructivist pedagogy has in the area of teaching science. No Child Left Behind could possibly cause detrimental effects to the science classroom and the constructivist teacher, so this essay tells how constructivist-based teaching influences students and their…

Seimears, C. Matt; Graves, Emily; Schroyer, M. Gail; Staver, John

2012-01-01

30

A Contextual Analysis of Classroom Interaction at the University Level: An Operations Research Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to demonstrate how an interactive model can be used as a "semiotic" tool to reconcile contrasting views of the role of the college professor. The study used concepts of group dynamics to study classroom leadership, climate, and expectations and a social-psychological perspective was used to analyze group interaction patterns as…

Hester, Paul H.

31

Student Contextualization in the History Classroom: The Roles of Cognitive Apprenticeship and Teacher Epistemology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical thinking is an integral part of understanding and doing history, as well as a good example of the kind of critical thinking necessary in today's society. This study, conducted in two phases, investigated ways in which students are brought to this higher level of thinking in the social studies classroom. Data collection occurred…

Clark, Tammy Lynn

2012-01-01

32

CMC as Written Conversation: A Critical Social-Constructivist View of Multiple Identities and Cultural Positioning in the L2/C2 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model for a critical social-constructivist (CS-C) approach to the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language/culture education. CS-C theories emphasize a critical approach to social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication, and the influence that these activities have on learning. I will use the…

Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.

2005-01-01

33

Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

Ahmed, Noveera T.

2015-01-01

34

Constructivist Teaching Strategies: Projects in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides information from experienced teachers on constructivist teaching, offering examples of preservice teachers' projects, lesson plans, and real-life advice. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Writing Case Studies: Constructing an Understanding of Student and Classroom" (Bettejim Cates); (2) "Educating Children Who are Racial and Ethnic…

Brown, Jessie C., Ed.; Adams, Arlene, Ed.

35

Why the Child's Construction of Relationships Is Fundamentally Important to Constructivist Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has two purposes: (1) to explain briefly in terms of Piaget's theory why relationships are fundamental for constructivist teachers; and (2) to show how constructivist teachers can think about relationships in classroom activities. In a nutshell, the message is that the process by which children are constructing their intelligence,…

DeVries, Rheta

2004-01-01

36

Teaching and Learning Cycles in a Constructivist Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to analyze and synthesize the knowledge collected in the area of conceptual models used in teaching and learning during inquiry-based projects, and to propose a new frame for organizing the classroom interactions within a constructivist approach. The IMSTRA model consists in three general phases: Immersion, Structuring,…

Singer, Florence Mihaela; Moscovici, Hedy

2008-01-01

37

Effective Integration of ICT in Jordanian Schools: An Analysis of Pedagogical and Contextual Impediments in the Science Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of interviews and classroom observations were conducted with a group of in-service science teachers, students, school principal, and computer lab supervisors, from a "Discovery" female school in Jordan to assess their utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science. The study also intended to determine how these participants were using ICT and if they had any internal and external impediments in the way of the effective integration of ICT in the teaching of science. Results showed that some participants were using ICT creatively in their science teaching. However, despite considerable political pressure to increase ICT use in the classroom, most expressed frustration at the lack of ICT tools, support from the school, from the Ministry of Education, and from the surrounding community. The article proposes possible resolutions to help these participants overcome their impediments. Some of the suggested resolutions for the internal impediments include involving teachers in preparing the school's time-table, equipping the school with more ICT tools and offering more training courses for teachers. However, the suggested resolutions for the external impediments involve (1) The Ministry of Education to rethink the administration of board examinations, (2) The school to sacrifice scoring higher in board examinations for preparing more creative and more versatile students' perspectives.

Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Abuloum, Amjad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu

2009-06-01

38

The Constructivist Learning Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Much cognitive science research has been used to support a new model of learning. This most promising new model is called the Constructivist Learning Model (CLM). Russell Yeany (University of Georgia) has called CLM the most exciting idea of the past 50 y

Robert E. Yager

2000-01-01

39

Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

40

ON RELATIVISM IN CONSTRUCTIVIST PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars criticize constructivist approaches to psychology for culminating in a nihilistic relativism. This article reviews the problem of relativism within per- sonal construct psychology and social constructionism. It argues that labeling constructivist approaches to psychology as essentially relativist or nonrelativist simplifies the debate by assigning indisputable characteristics to a family of theories. Both relativ- ist and nonrelativist interpretations of

Jonathan D. Raskin

2001-01-01

41

Constructivist Pedagogy for the Business Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business education and learning has become formidable and challenging over the last few years. A traditional learning environment is bereft of active learning where students only try to memorise terms and concepts and is unable to apply them to the real corporate world. It was found in the business communication classes that students fail to…

Mathews, Minu

2007-01-01

42

Quantifying Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.

Grudka, A.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Joshi, P.; K?obus, W.; Wójcik, A.

2014-03-01

43

Quantifying contextuality.  

PubMed

Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; K?obus, W; Wójcik, A

2014-03-28

44

The constructivist transformation of a preservice science teacher’s view on teaching creationism and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an introductory course in teacher education employing a constructivist approach, students were encouraged to examine their attitudes and beliefs about science teaching. One of those students, Molly, had a strong desire to teach creationism in the high school classroom. This article resulted from a case study of the changes in that student's attitude and beliefs toward the teaching of

William J. Pankratius

1995-01-01

45

Validity and Reliability of a Shortened, Revised Version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of an existing instrument, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)(Taylor, Dawson & Fraser, 1995; Taylor, Fraser & Fisher, 1993, 1997), for providing insights into the classroom learning environments of beginning science teachers. In the first year of the study, the CLES was used with 290 upper elementary, middle, and high

Bruce Johnson; Robert McClure

2004-01-01

46

Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.  

PubMed

In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

Garneau, Amélie Blanchet; Pepin, Jacinthe

2015-01-01

47

On Contextuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

48

The Paradox of Constructivist Instruction: A Communicative Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of constructivist oriented instruction in learning institutions comes an enormous challenge, that of structuring individual-centered learning within a community of learners. Within this instructional framework, struggles to satisfy both individual and group learning needs can lead to one canceling the other out. Tendencies towards…

Luppicini, Rocci

49

Speaking to the Heart of Oral Contextualization: The Resounding Call for Critical Discussions on Civil Participation and Disobedience, from Black Radio to the Global Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long overdue in the classroom is a critical examination of media coverage when seen and told through the unique vantage point of the audience and storyteller. This discussion is intended to demonstrate how to prepare students to critically examine and evaluate the social role of media within a diverse global society. The author elaborates on the…

Johnson, Phylis

2006-01-01

50

Speaking to the heart of oral contextualization: the resounding call for critical discussions on civil participation and disobedience, from Black radio to the global classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long overdue in the classroom is a critical examination of media coverage when seen and told through the unique vantage point of the audience and storyteller. This discussion is intended to demonstrate how to prepare students to critically examine and evaluate the social role of media within a diverse global society. The author elaborates on the case of one United

Phylis Johnson

2006-01-01

51

Using Writing as a Constructivist Instructional Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers in the area of cognitive science and educational psychology have shown that instructors who encourage student writing are actually helping in motivating a reluctant pupil. It has also been reported that writing indirectly rewards an individual with dynamic interest. Furthermore, it is believed that writing strengthens the self-confidence of a lethargic learner. (Kosakowski, 1998). All in all, promoting writing helps and supports learners cultivate a positive attitude toward the subject matter in question. The constructivist approach promotes a learning paradigm and helps individuals learn and understand by "constructing" knowledge. Learners are effectively encouraged to generate and build their own knowledge base. Learners document progress by constructing new concepts based on previously gained knowledge. The role of the teacher is actually to facilitate the creation of a learning environment. The constructivist approach when used in the classroom enables the students to become more active, independent thinkers of knowledge. Education World writer Gloria Chaika (Chaika, 2000) states that "Talent is important, but practice creates the solid base that allows that unique talent to soar. Like athletes, writers learn by doing. Good writing requires the same kind of dedicated practice that athletes put in. Young writers often lack the support they need to practice writing and develop their talent to the fullest, though." The author has successfully utilized some of these principles and techniques in a senior level course he teaches. He has encouraged students to try to solve problems their own way and has asked them to observe, document, assess and evaluate the results. In the classroom, the author takes the role of a coach and helps the students approach the problem with a different viewpoint. Eventually the students document their conclusions in a page-long essay. This type of writing assignment not only builds critical thinking abilities but also generates improved written communication skills among learners. References: Kosakowski, John, (1998). The Benefits of Information Technology. ERIC Digests; Technology Integration; Technology Role, ED0-IR-98-04 Chaika, Gloria (2000),Encourage Student Writing: Published on the Web, Education World http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/tech042.shtml

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

52

The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrusion of pseudoscience into science classrooms is a problem in science education today. This paper discusses the implications of constructivist pedagogy, which relies on the notions of viability and inter-subjectivity, in a context favourable to the acceptance of pseudoscience. Examples from written statements illustrate how prospective science teachers in Turkey readily accept pseudoscientific explanations of the origin of species. Constructivist pedagogy underestimates, if not ignores, the difficulty of holding rational discussions in the presence of pseudoscientific or absolute beliefs. Moreover, it gives a higher priority to learners' exposure to alternative constructions through social negotiation than to furthering their appreciation of science. Under these circumstances, self-confirmation and social pressure to accept existing pseudoscientific beliefs may be unanticipated consequences of social negotiation. Considering the aim of science education to foster an appreciation of science, the implications of constructivist pedagogy are, or should be, of great concern to science educators.

Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2014-04-01

53

The Effects of Contextual and Personal Factors on Young Adolescents' Social Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the proposal that (a) contextual and personal factors affect the endorsement of social goals during early adolescence and (b) contextual factors and social goals may change over time. Self-reports of classroom contextual factors (i.e., promotion of performance goals, social interaction, and mutual respect) and personal…

Kiefer, Sarah M.; Matthews, Yanique T.; Montesino, Mario; Arango, Liza; Preece, Krystle K.

2013-01-01

54

Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A Problem of Contextualizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and…

Ehrlen, Karin

2008-01-01

55

Process-Oriented Inquiry--A Constructivist Approach to Early Childhood Science Education: Teaching Teachers to Do Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process-oriented inquiry can help preservice and inservice early childhood teachers implement constructivist science education in their own classrooms. In this article, we discuss the basic elements of process-oriented inquiry applied to early childhood science education, show how we foster the development of process-oriented inquiry teaching…

Martin, David Jerner; Jean-Sigur, Raynice; Schmidt, Emily

2005-01-01

56

Understanding teaching or teaching for understanding: Alternative frameworks for science classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We came to this study with a set of beliefs about good science teaching that had been heavily influenced by the constructivist literature of the past decade. In this article we reexamine some of our own assumptions about good teaching by exploring the classroom practices of an experienced physics teacher. This teacher did not fit the mold of the constructivist

Helen Wildy; John Wallace

1995-01-01

57

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

58

Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

2010-01-01

59

But good strategy instructors are constructivists!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general nature of constructivist educators' views of teaching are overviewed first, followed by analysis of good strategy instruction in constructivist terms. That good strategy instruction is scaffolded teaching is particularly emphasized. Scaffolded teacher-student interactions necessitate that students experience unique instruction that stimulates a great deal of student construction of to-be-acquired competencies. The only important difference between good strategy teaching

Michael Pressley; Karen R. Harris; Marilyn B. Marks

1992-01-01

60

The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

Brooks, John

61

Using an Animated Case Scenario Based on Constructivist 5E Model to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Electrical Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to get pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of first aid knowledge and skills related to electrical shocking and safety within a scenario based animation based on a Constructivist 5E model. The sample of the study was composed of 78 (46 girls and 32 boys) pre-service classroom teachers from two faculties of…

Hirca, Necati

2013-01-01

62

Constructivist Practices to Increase Student Engagement in the Orchestra Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehearsal engagement is an important concept sometimes neglected by conductors. For students, to be engaged means that they are actively involved with the music during the rehearsal. Even if the director leads a perfect rehearsal, he or she has not necessarily engaged students in a meaningful musical experience. This may be because conductors…

Scruggs, Bernadette

2009-01-01

63

Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

2014-01-01

64

Process-oriented inquiry—A constructivist approach to early childhood science education: Teaching teachers to do science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-oriented inquiry can help preservice and inservice early childhood teachers implement constructivist science education\\u000a in their own classrooms. In this article, we discuss the basic elements of process-oriented inquiry applied to early childhood\\u000a science education, show how we foster the development of process-oriented inquiry teaching skills with our preservice early\\u000a childhood education students, and argue that the validity of children’s

David Jerner Martin; Raynice Jean-Sigur; Emily Schmidt

2005-01-01

65

Technology Teacher Education through a Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews literature on constructivist learning theories relevant to and evident in teacher education in a New Zealand university. These theories are illustrated within an authentic technology education context which involves students from a primary teacher-education degree programme. It investigates how a practical activity, based on…

Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Snape, Paul

2011-01-01

66

Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

2010-01-01

67

Constructivist Learning Approach in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism is not a new concept. It has its roots in philosophy and has been applied to sociology and anthropology, as well as cognitive psychology and education. The aim of this research is to reveal if there is a significant difference between the means of achievement and retention learning scores of constructivist learning approach applied…

Demirci, Cavide

2009-01-01

68

Incremental Inductive Learning in a Constructivist Agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constructivist paradigm in Artificial Intelligence has been definitively inaugurated in the earlier 1990's by Drescher's pioneer work [10]. He faces the challenge of design an alternative model for machine learning, founded in the human cognitive developmental process described by Piaget [x]. His effort has inspired many other researchers.

Perotto, Filipo Studzinski; Älvares, Luís Otávio

69

Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

2000-01-01

70

Contextual Religious Education and the Actuality of Religions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual religious educators tend to view discrete religious traditions as artificially constructed systems disconnected from the ordinary experiences of children. This article sets out the case for the continued representation of religions as substantial social facts in religious education classrooms. Accepting Robert Jackson's critique of…

Wright, Andrew

2008-01-01

71

Mentors' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Change in Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentors' perceptions of factors associated with educational change were identified following an individualized mentoring program about constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. A qualitative case study analysis of the mentors' journals of six classrooms was conducted to review their perceptions of change. Classroom

Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen

2013-01-01

72

Snakes or Ladders? An Examination of the Experiences of Two Teacher Leaders Returning to Classroom Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who have held leadership roles at the school, district, or provincial level have the potential to contribute to student and school success when they return to classroom teaching. The contrasting experiences of two teacher leaders who returned voluntarily to classroom teaching are analyzed using Owens's (2004) social constructivist

Munroe, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

73

Intercorporeality and Ethical Commitment: An Activity Perspective on Classroom Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a sociocultural alternative to contemporary constructivist conceptions of classroom interaction. Drawing on the work of Vygotsky and Leont'ev, we introduce an approach that offers a new perspective through which to understand the "specifically human" forms of knowing that emerge when people engage in joint activity. To…

Radford, Luis; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2011-01-01

74

Developing a constructivist learning environment in online postsecondary science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Delphi study addressed the concerns of postsecondary educators regarding the quality of education received by postsecondary science students who receive their instruction online. This study was framed with the constructivist learning theory and Piaget's and Dewey's cognitive development theories. The overarching question addressed a gap in research literature surrounding the pedagogical practices that could be successfully applied to future postsecondary online science education. The panel consisted of 30 experts in the area of online postsecondary education. Qualitative data from the initial seed questions were used to create a Likert-type survey to seek consensus of the themes derived from participant responses. Participants reached agreement on six items: apply constructivism to science curricula, identify strengths and challenges of online collegiate students, explicate students' consequences due to lack of participation in discussion forums, ensure that online course content is relevant to students' lives, reinforce academic integrity, and identify qualities face-to-face collegiate science instructors need when transitioning to online science instructors. The majority of participants agreed that gender is not an important factor in determining the success of an online collegiate science student. There was no consensus on the efficacy of virtual labs in an online science classroom. This study contributes to positive social change by providing information to new and struggling postsecondary science teachers to help them successfully align their instruction with students' needs and, as a result, increase students' success.

Hackworth, Sylvester N.

75

Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose…

Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

2014-01-01

76

ICT and Constructivist Strategies Instruction for Science and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept learning in science and mathematics had often times been taught based on assumptions of alternative concepts or even in some instances based on misconceptions. Some educational researchers favour a constructivist approach in teaching science and mathematics. The constructivist literature existing makes use of alternative conceptions as…

Kong, Ng Wai; Lai, Kong Sow

2005-01-01

77

Transforming Constructivist Learning into Action: Design Thinking in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…

Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph

2012-01-01

78

Understanding Teacher Responses to Constructivist Learning Environments: Challenges and Resolutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best…

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2006-01-01

79

The Social Status of Aggressive Students across Contexts: The Role of Classroom Status Hierarchy, Academic Achievement, and Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…

Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

80

Contextual Learning Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on contextual learning issues. "Learning to Learn Strategies of Successful Real Estate Professionals: Implications for Learning in the Workplace" (Margot B. Weinstein) describes a multicase study in which a model called the Individual Learning System was used to identify the strategies and resources…

1999

81

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

82

Academically at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist high school biology pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.

Sweeney, Heidi

83

Galactic Structure: A Constructivist Approach to Teaching Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An astrophysics course based on the constructivist approach to science teaching is described. The study of galactic structure is given as an example. Direct experiences and observations, representative-symbolic language, organized knowledge, and formal strategies are emphasized. (KR)

Domenech, Antonio; Casasus, Elena

1991-01-01

84

The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the constructivist activities. Major themes were described. Constructivist strategies help bridge the gap between neurological and cognitive sciences and classroom teaching and learning. A variety of implications for nursing educators are outlined as well as directions for future research.

Merrill, Alison Saricks

85

Placing Cybereducation in the UK Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the Internet in the classroom has often been characterized as a practice that disconnects the teacher from traditional forms of externally imposed influence. This paper examines this assertion by mapping the emerging field of cybereducation and considering how endemic knowledge is contextualized by national curricular authorities. The…

Menchik, Daniel A.

2004-01-01

86

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

87

Classroom Constructivism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivism, which holds that knowledge is created out of each individual's own experience, is recapturing researchers' attention. To constructivists, teachers are not omniscient oracles, but nutritionists providing an environment for children to grow their own knowledge. Students might learn division by planning a field trip instead of…

Trotter, Andrew

1995-01-01

88

Temporal Contextual Cueing Title: Temporal contextual cueing of visual attention  

E-print Network

1 Temporal Contextual Cueing Title: Temporal contextual cueing of visual attention Journal of visual events independent of responses. We asked whether this "temporal context" could be implicitly of the visual world plays an important role in guiding visual attention to target events. Sequential processing

Chun, Marvin M.

89

Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate change science is unreliable or is controversial within the expert community. Thus, an urgent task for climate scientists may be to give the public useful guidelines for recognizing and rejecting junk science and disinformation.

Somerville, R. C.

2012-12-01

90

A Joyful Classroom Learning System with Robot Learning Companion for Children to Learn Mathematics Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research demonstrates the design of a Joyful Classroom Learning System (JCLS) with flexible, mobile and joyful features. The theoretical foundations of this research include the experiential learning theory, constructivist learning theory and joyful learning. The developed JCLS consists of the robot learning companion (RLC), sensing input…

Wei, Chun-Wang; Hung, I-Chun; Lee, Ling; Chen, Nian-Shing

2011-01-01

91

Creating an Articulate Classroom: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences of Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the continuing "issue" of developing classrooms where talk is used as means of building concepts and understanding. As curriculum guidance increasingly refers to "exploratory talk" and "dialogic talk", it questions why practice seems resistant to change, despite the promotion of social constructivist approaches to learning in…

Fisher, Annie Therese

2011-01-01

92

Facilitating and Direct Guidance in Student-Centered Classrooms: Addressing "Lines or Pieces" Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores, from both constructivist and cognitive perspectives, teacher guidance in student-centered classrooms when addressing a common learning difficulty with equivalent fractions--lines or pieces--based on number line models. Findings from three contrasting cases reveal differences in teachers' facilitating and direct guidance…

Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

2014-01-01

93

Contextual Coalitional Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

94

MANAGEMENT DES BIBLIOTHEQUES ACADEMIQUES : UNE APPROCHE ORGANISATIONNELLE SELON UNE METHODOLOGIE CONSTRUCTIVISTE  

E-print Network

, Systémique, Méthodologie constructiviste Title Academic Libraries Management : Organizational approach management problems of the academic libraries in the actual context. Then, we define these organizations through a constructivist methodology. Keywords Academic Library, Strategic Management, Systemic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Linking Radical Constructivism and Semiotics To Design a Constructivist Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the philosophies of radical constructivism and semiotics and discusses the implications of semiotics for radical constructivist learning. Presents the design of a constructivist learning environment using the semiotic perspective of R. Stamper (1993). (SLD)

Uden, Lorna; Liu, Kecheng; Shank, Gary

2001-01-01

96

Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

2013-01-01

97

Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a variety of pedagogical functions. Students perceived Group-Investigations and Peer Assessments as positive in that they contributed to realizing constructivist features in their classrooms. The students also reported that they gained several learning outcomes through Group-Investigations, including more positive attitudes, new knowledge, greater learning capabilities, and improved self-esteem. However, the Group-Investigation and Peer Assessment methods were perceived as negative and problematic by those who had rarely been exposed to such inquiry-based, student-centered approaches.

Oh, Phil Seok

98

What Is the Role of Constructivist Teachers within Faculty Communication Networks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the biology faculty of one high school (n = 9) and the mathematics faculty of another (n = 16), this study tested the hypothesis that constructivist teachers play an active role within teacher communication networks (the constructivist-teacher hypothesis). This hypothesis contrasts with the view that constructivist teachers operate alone and…

Judson, Eugene; Lawson, Anton E.

2007-01-01

99

Classroom Acoustics  

MedlinePLUS

... desks or chairs. When sound lingers in a room there is more interference with speech. In a classroom it is important to have a short reverberation time. Who is affected by poor classroom acoustics? All children are affected by poor classroom acoustics, ...

100

Georgia Tech: Contextual Computing Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Contextual Computing Group is a research organization at Georgia Tech College of Computing that focuses on the field of contextually-aware, wearable computing systems. The group is interested in "how the continued emergence of on-body computational resources will impact society." Topics addressed in its work include Wearable Computing, Augmented Reality, Lifelong Everyday Interfaces, Natural Gestural Interfaces, First-Person Perceptive Agents, Contextual Computing Devices, Human Computer Interaction, Computer Vision, Memory Prostheses, Embedded Computers, and Sensor Fusion. Projects related to Wearable Computing have yielded hardware products that are available to purchase. Resources that the group has found useful are available to download free of charge.

101

The congruence of perceptions and behaviors exhibited by twelve successful middle school teachers in implementingScience/Technology/Society/Constructivist practices in Iowa Scope, Sequence, and Coordination schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate teacher perceptions about teaching and the strategies they use in teaching for successful middle school teachers purporting to use Science/Technology/Society and Constructivist practices in Iowa Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) schools and (2) to note the congruence between these perceptions and the actual behaviors exhibited by these teachers. Multiple methods of data collection used to discern the actual behaviors included observation by means of classroom videotapes, a teacher perception survey, teacher interviews, instructional documents, teacher stories, demographic information concerning teachers from the Iowa-SS&C database, and a student survey. Findings include: (1) Successful SS&C teachers report that they use STS/Constructivist teaching practices; further, interviews indicated that they also have knowledge and understanding of the science content and pedagogy which are consistent with the STS/Constructivist philosophy. These perceptions and this knowledge influence their stated goals, rationale for teaching, understanding of the teaching and learning processes, and ideas about needed professional development. (2) Successful SS&C teachers exhibit a wide range of STS/Constructivist teaching behaviors. The five most common of these are: (a) acceptance of a variety of student responses, (b) students apply their knowledge in meeting everyday challenges, (c) student-student verbal interactions encouraged, (d) students encouraged to use higher order thinking skills, (e) a variety of assessment tools were used. Over 31% of the questions the teachers ask are higher order level questions; the average wait-time for the teachers is 3.4 seconds following each question. (3) Students report that SS&C teachers provide learning environments that are relevant and meaningful to them and that student-student interaction is encouraged. They do not report involvement with planning, conducting lessons, and assessing their own learning. (4) Teacher beliefs and knowledge about STS/Constructivist philosophy influence their teaching behaviors. The practices of seven of the teachers match their perceptions. One teacher exhibited fewer STS/Constructivist strategies than he reported to be the situation while four practiced more STS/Constructivist strategies than they reported.

Yutakom, Naruemon

1997-11-01

102

Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

2010-01-01

103

A Constructivist Model for Evaluating Postgraduate Supervision: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new constructivist model of knowledge development in a case study that illustrates how a group of postgraduate students defined and evaluated effective postgraduate supervision. This new model is based on "personal construct theory" and "repertory grid technology" which is combined with interviews and group discussion. It is…

Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Roche, Val

2004-01-01

104

Constructivist 1 Case Studies in Instructional Design1I !  

E-print Network

Constructivist I 1 Case Studies in Instructional Design1I ! Brent G.Wilson Universityof Coloradoat environments :case studies in instructional design / Brent G. Wilson, editor ;foreword by David N. Perkins. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 0-87778-290-3 1.Instructional systems--Design

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Trauma of Children of the Sudan: A Constructivist Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined from a social constructivist view the trauma experienced by Sudanese refugee children in a Midwestern U.S. city. The study explored how the children, their U.S. foster parents, and social workers from a child welfare agency described their understanding of the migration experience. Findings point to the importance of placing…

Bolea, Patty Stow; Grant, George, Jr.; Burgess, Marcy; Plasa, Olja

2003-01-01

106

Implementation challenges for a constructivist physical education curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Curriculum fidelity describes the extent to which a curriculum is implemented faithfully as planned. Curriculum fidelity issues may arise when teachers implement the curriculum inconsistently due to differences in philosophy, barriers in the setting, or other local concerns.Purpose: The study examined challenges that a teacher faced in implementing a constructivist physical education curriculum that had fidelity implications.Research design: Ethnographic

Xihe Zhu; Catherine D. Ennis; Ang Chen

2011-01-01

107

A Social Constructivist Approach to Computer-Mediated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer-mediated teaching system called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) that incorporates a social constructivist approach, maintaining that learning occurs primarily through a socially interactive process. Discusses use of CAPSI in an undergraduate course at the University of Manitoba that showed students…

Pear, Joseph J.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.

2002-01-01

108

Understanding teacher responses to constructivist learning environments: Challenges and resolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best constructivist environments or materials. We were invited to work as mediators with a middle-school science staff that was experiencing conflicts regarding two learning environments, PBL (which was the school's politically correc learning environment) and traditional. With mediated group workshops, teachers were sensitized to their own and colleagues' individual learning differences (ILDs), as measured by two styles inventories (the LSI - Kolb, 1976; and the LCI - Johnston & Dainton, 1997). Using these inventories, a learning-environment questionnaire, field notes, and delayed interviews a year later, we found that there was a relationship between teachers' preferred styles, epistemological beliefs, and their preferred teaching environment. Moreover, when the participating teachers, including early-adopters and nonvolunteers to PBL, became more sensitive to their colleagues' preferences, many staff conflicts were resolved and some mismatched teachers expressed more openness to PBL. We argue that having teachers understand their own ILDs and related responses to constructivist learning environments can contribute to resolving staff conflicts and sustaining such environments. We present a cognitive model and a strategy which illustrate this argument.

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2006-05-01

109

A Constructivist Perspective on Teaching and Learning Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two first-grade teachers' hands-on approaches to teach measurement concepts. One, a constructivist, allowed students to figure out the dimensions of a Mayflower ship outline; the other immediately showed kids how to use a yardstick to estimate a whale's dimensions. Although initially more confused, the first class got more out of their…

Schifter, Deborah

1996-01-01

110

Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these…

Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2011-01-01

111

A model for constructivist initial physics teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an interview?based study of attitudes towards physics education in Portugal, a three?year long innovatory programme was devised and implemented. Based on Kelly's theory of constructive alternativism, and supported by Rogers’ model for educational innovation, the programme introduced students to a constructivist approach to physics educators, allowed them the opportunity to develop it during teaching practice, and supported them during

Marília F. Thomaz; John K. Gilbert

1989-01-01

112

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2012-01-01

113

Israeli Identities and the Politics of Threat: A Constructivist Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to offer an alternative analysis to the predominantly positivist-rationalist approaches exhibited by most studies of Israel's policies towards the Palestinians. Rather than focusing on realist estimations of power and the national interest as dictating the foreign and defence policies of Israel since its establishment, this paper draws attention to the causes of these manifestations. Using a constructivist

Asaf Siniver

2011-01-01

114

Implications of Piaget's Constructivist Theory for Character Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines character education from the constructivist perspective, discussing Piaget's research on children's reasoning about moral rules, which offers a framework for examining education. Examines parallel teacher/child relationships, which affect moral development, and presents examples of how teachers can create cooperative interpersonal…

DeVries, Rheta

1998-01-01

115

Young Children Investigating: Can a Constructivist Approach Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that science investigation by young children should not be constrained by rigid curriculum frameworks, but be prompted by natural curiosity, as in the constructivist approach. Maintains that cognitive abilities in science and investigative skills will develop if children are encouraged to test their observations, questions, and hypotheses…

Nicholls, Gill

1998-01-01

116

Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Motivations for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…

Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

2014-01-01

117

Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

2012-01-01

118

Classroom Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…

Technology & Learning, 2005

2005-01-01

119

Classroom Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video a mathematics teacher demonstrates how she incorporates accessibility strategies into her physical classroom environment. Several details are shown about the organization and management of a math classroom with a view toward accessibility, expectations, kinesthetic involvement, and a positive environment.

TeacherLine

2012-01-01

120

TWO FORMS OF EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONTEXTUALISM Duncan PRITCHARD  

E-print Network

TWO FORMS OF EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONTEXTUALISM Duncan PRITCHARD University of Stirling, Scotland in which contextualism might be developed. 0. Introduction Contextualist epistemological theories--are, without doubt, the new vogue in epistemology. The popularity of this general approach belies, however

Edinburgh, University of

121

Responsive Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Responsive Classroom addresses some of the challenges present in any elementary classroom, be it first-grade mathematics or third-grade science, by offering "an approach to teaching and learning that fosters safe, challenging, and joyful classrooms and schools, kindergarten through eighth grade." Through this website, classroom teachers share "practical strategies for bringing together social and academic learning throughout the school day." They report that teachers in urban, rural, and suburban settings nationwide find that these strategies have increased student investment, responsibility, and learning, and decreased problem behaviors. Studies detailing the effectiveness of the program are posted on this website. The basic principles of the program are also described, but the books detailing their approach must be purchased. The newsletter, however, is available free of charge and the archive includes previously published articles, which can be searched by topic, such as technology in the classroom and family involvement.

122

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

123

Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices on Students' Achievement Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of classroom assessment practices on students' achievement goals. The study included 1,636 ninth grade students and 83 science teachers from Muscat public schools in Oman. Results from hierarchical linear modeling techniques showed that class contextual features and teachers' teaching experiences and assessment practices interacted significantly with students' characteristics in influencing students' achievement goals. Recommendations, implications,

Hussain Alkharusi

2008-01-01

124

Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices on Students' Achievement Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of classroom assessment practices on students' achievement goals. The study included 1,636 ninth grade students and 83 science teachers from Muscat public schools in Oman. Results from hierarchical linear modeling techniques showed that class contextual features and teachers' teaching experiences and assessment…

Alkharusi, Hussain

2008-01-01

125

Transforming Multicultural Classrooms through Creative Place-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classrooms are spaces where diverse cultures have the potential to share lived experiences and gain insight from each other's "spatial, geographical, and contextual dimensions of existence" (Gruenewald, 2008, p. 310). Teachers facilitate multicultural perspectives being integrated into curriculum by analyzing data at school sites…

Sloan, Connor

2013-01-01

126

Constructivist learning of anatomy: gaining knowledge by creating anatomical casts.  

PubMed

Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these goals. This report describes a student-implemented protocol for making postmortem anatomical casts of the bronchial tree and coronary arteries of rats using Silastic® sealant. The teacher facilitated this process by asking leading questions to guide the students toward the development of their own conclusions. This relatively simple and inexpensive procedure has important applications for the constructivist approach to study cardiovascular and respiratory morphology. PMID:21337719

Hermiz, David J; O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

2011-01-01

127

Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2003-01-01

128

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti  

E-print Network

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti , P. Bouquet , and C. Ghidini ¡ ¢ Dip. di Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, U.K. Phone number: +44 (0)161 247 1556 C.Ghidini@doc.mmu.ac.uk Abstract can be traced back to R. Weyhrauch and his work on mechanising logical theories in the interactive

Bouquet, Paolo

129

Contextual Setting and Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in mathematics performance between boys and girls were investigated. Tests with content appropriate for boys or for girls were given randomly to 163 boys and 147 girls from ten high schools. Differences in performance favored the boys. Students' performance tended to be better on questions with sex-appropriate contextual settings. (DT)

Leder, Gilah

1976-01-01

130

The Project Approach: An Appreciation for the Constructivist Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore my appreciation for the 'constructivist theory' for which an epistemological stance is expressed as an educational ideology, or referred to as constructivism; essentially to construct one's own knowledge. Six energetic five-year-old boys from an urban public school, located within a mid-western state became the focus of this theory. The early learning programme

Pamela R. Cook

131

Is rational-emotive therapy (RET) “rationalist” or “constructivist”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Mahoney, Guidano, and other modern constructivists and process-oriented therapists are partly on the right track and are making some interesting additions to traditional cognitive therapy. But they sometimes also revert to inefficient and side-tracking psychoanalytically-oriented methods of therapy. RET, in both its individual and family therapy approaches, attempts to use the most effective and hardheaded of the so-called rationalist

Albert Ellis

1990-01-01

132

Cognition in Context: Students' Perceptions of Classroom Goal Structures and Reported Cognitive Strategy Use in the College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined contextual and personal factors related to the use of cognitive strategies by undergraduates. Specifically, students' goal orientations (intrinsic or extrinsic) and perceptions of the classroom environment (i.e., task or performance structured) were evaluated as predictors of student use of deep or surface level cognitive…

Lyke, Jennifer A.; Young, Allison J. Kelaher

2006-01-01

133

Self-Evaluation of Expertise in Teaching Elementary Physical Education from Constructivist Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Constructivist Teaching Practices Inventory in Elementary Physical Education (CTPI-EPE) was developed for the purpose of this study to assess teachers’ expertise in constructivist-oriented physical education teaching. One hundred and eighty-three elementary physical education teachers completed the CTPI-EPE. Four subscales of the CTPI-EPE emerged from an exploratory factor analysis and were in line with major dimensions of constructivist-oriented teaching practices.

Weiyun Chen; Judith A. Burry-Stock; Inez Rovegno

2000-01-01

134

Twin inequality for fully contextual quantum correlations  

E-print Network

Quantum mechanics exhibits a very peculiar form of contextuality. Identifying and connecting the simplest scenarios in which more general theories can or cannot be more contextual than quantum mechanics is a fundamental step in the quest for the principle that singles out quantum contextuality. The former scenario corresponds to the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality. Here we show that there is a simple tight inequality, twin to the KCBS, for which quantum contextuality cannot be outperformed. In a sense, this twin inequality is the simplest tool for recognizing fully contextual quantum correlations.

Adan Cabello

2013-02-15

135

Classroom Catapults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wow, our plastic load flew 540 centimeters! This is so cool!" An interdisciplinary unit on catapults was responsible for the excitement and enthusiasm generated in the author's classroom. In their social studies class, students learned about the Middle A

Villano, Diane D.

2001-02-01

136

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Konstantinos Alexakos

2001-03-01

137

Changing the attitudes and practices of professional developers through a constructivist model: The Technical Assistance Academy for Mathematics and Science Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For much of this century, mathematics and science have been taught in a didactic manner that is characterized by a passive student and a lecturing teacher. Since the late eighties national standards have encouraged professional developers specializing in mathematics and science education to deliver the messages of inquiry-based learning, active student engagement, and learner-constructed knowledge to the teachers they support. Follow-up studies of professional development programs, however, found that telling teachers was no more effective than telling students. Information transmitted in a passive setting was not transferring into effective classroom practices. This phenomenological case study was conducted to determine the effects of a constructivist-oriented professional development experience, the Technical Assistance Academy, in changing the practices and attitudes of mathematics and science professional developers regarding the use of constructivist strategies in workshop design. This study focused on 45 professional developers who participated in the Technical Assistance Academy. Data from a 2 1/2 year period were collected from session evaluations, journal reflections, a follow-up interview, and site visits that included observations and collaborative planning. Content analysis procedures were used to find common themes among the data. Use of new skills developed as a result of participation in the Technical Assistance Academy was determined using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Levels of Use framework (Hall & Hord, 1987). Changes in attitude were determined by examining participants' journal reflections related to common constructivist themes such as those discussed by Fosnot (1996c): learning is developmental, disequilibrium and reflection facilitate learning, and the construction of "big ideas" results from the opportunity to struggle with new information. Results verified that all 45 participants demonstrated some level of use, and that most were in the 3 highest of 5 levels of use: mechanical (11%), routine (16%), refinement (27%), integration (24%), and renewal (22%). Participants reported valuing (a) active engagement necessary for the developmental progression of learning to occur, (b) their own disequilibrium, (c) opportunity to reflect, and they acknowledged a clearer understanding and appreciation of the big ideas in workshop design such as networking, collaboration, content and staff development standards, equity, and community building. Results support the conclusion that learning about constructivist instructional strategies in a long-term program that models them positively affects participants' attitudes and enhances their use of similar strategies in the design of professional development experiences for others. Knowledge developed in a constructivist setting transferred into effective facilitator practices.

Charles, Karen Jungblut

138

Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2008-01-01

139

What is the role of constructivist teachers within faculty communication networks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the biology faculty of one high school (n = 9) and the mathematics faculty of another (n = 16), this study tested the hypothesis that constructivist teachers play an active role within teacher communication networks (the constructivist-teacher hypothesis). This hypothesis contrasts with the view that constructivist teachers operate alone and largely severed from communications among colleagues. Two types of representations of communication patterns among faculty members (i.e., sociographs) were created and analyzed for each faculty. One type of sociograph plotted communications concerning content/pedagogical issues while the other type plotted social/informal communications. Trained raters assessed constructivist-teaching practices using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). Positive relationships were found between constructivist-teaching practices and the frequency and significance of communications within both faculties - more so for content/pedagogical issues than for social/informal communications. Importantly, peers sought out constructivist teachers more often than they did traditional teachers, presumably seeking advice regarding teaching practice. Results support the constructivist-teacher hypothesis and indicate that constructivist teachers are not isolated from their peers. Instead, they appear to play an active role, particularly when colleagues are discussing issues related to content and pedagogy.

Judson, Eugene; Lawson, Anton E.

2007-03-01

140

Reconstructing Christian Ethics: Exploring Constructivist Practices for Teaching Christian Ethics in the Masters of Divinity Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on an effort to incorporate constructivist pedagogies (learner-centered, inquiry-guided, problem-based models of teaching) into an introductory class on Christian Ethics in an M.Div. curriculum. Although some students preferred more traditional pedagogies, the majority found that constructivist pedagogies better accommodated…

Danaher, William

2009-01-01

141

Social Constructivist Learning, Sense of Community, and Learner Satisfaction in Asynchronous Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlation between social constructivist learning, sense of community, and learner satisfaction in an asynchronous learning environment using a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, correlational design. The study focuses on three questions: (1) What is the relationship between social constructivist learning and sense of…

Hemphill, Suzanne S.

2011-01-01

142

A framework and a methodology for developing authentic constructivist e-Learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantically rich domains require operative knowledge to solve complex problems in real-world settings. These domains provide an ideal environment for developing authentic constructivist e-learning environments. In this paper we present a framework and a methodology for developing authentic learning environments for such domains. The framework is based on an ecological view and characterizes dimensions of a typical constructivist environment in

Imran A. Zualkernan

2006-01-01

143

A Practical Guide and a Constructivist Rationale for Inquiry Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the practical issues in implementing instructional approaches based on constructivist views of learning. The authors do not view this as a procedural guide, but rather believe that the design of these inquiry based learning (IBL) approaches must be guided by the view of learning represented in constructivist frameworks.…

Duffy, Thomas M.; Raymer, Pamela L.

2010-01-01

144

The effects of constructivist teaching approaches on middle school students' algebraic understanding  

E-print Network

). 6 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND LITERATURE Representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and engagement are important contributors to students? learning. These variables rest upon the ideas of Jerome Bruner, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Ernst von... both kinds of learning acquisition. 3 Purpose of This Dissertation This study examined a hypothesized model whereby representations (Bruner, 1966) and constructivist teaching approaches (Piaget, 1954; Piaget, 1970; Piaget, 1973; Vygotsky, 1978...

Ross, Amanda Ann

2009-06-02

145

Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

Pruitt, Rebecca J.

2011-01-01

146

Children, Objects, and Relations: Constructivist Foundations in the Reggio Emilia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how children's construction of relationships in exploring materials helps to explain the constructivist foundations of the Reggio Emilia approach. A quasi-naturalistic study of 12 preschool children, ages 3 and 4 years, individually exploring different kinds of collage papers reveals a range of constructivist categories…

Swann, Annette C.

2008-01-01

147

Pre-Service Teachers' Constructivist Teaching Scores Based on Their Learning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' constructivist teaching and their learning styles based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. The Learning Styles Inventory-3 was administered at the beginning of the semester to determine preferred learning style. The Constructivist Teaching Evaluation Form was filled…

Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

2014-01-01

148

Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

2011-01-01

149

An Ever-Changing Meaning: A Career Constructivist Application to Working with African Refugees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refugees are expected to determine how to integrate past experiences into their lives in a new culture. Constructivist approaches to counseling allow refugees opportunities to determine how to integrate these experiences into their future career choices. Refugee experiences throughout the resettlement process and a constructivist career counseling…

Pierce, L. Marinn; Gibbons, Melinda M.

2012-01-01

150

Teaching Computer-Mediated Visual Communication to a Large Section: A Constructivist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A constructivist approach to teaching encourages students to seek answers for themselves, while the instructor acts as a guide and facilitator as students pursue information gathering and knowledge construction. In a large class, it is difficult to use a constructivist model of education simply because of the number of students involved. This…

Switzer, Jamie S.

2004-01-01

151

Employing Constructivist Models of Culture Teaching for Enhanced Efficacy in Pre-Departure, Cross-Cultural Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case for adopting a constructivist approach in the teaching of culture to federal, business and civilian personnel. In support of this argument, the author: (1) outlines the history of culture teaching as it progresses from behaviorist through cognitive to constructivist orientations; (2) argues that a constructivist

Ashby, Wendy

2012-01-01

152

Prefrontal neuronal circuits of contextual fear conditioning.  

PubMed

Over the past years, numerous studies have provided a clear understanding of the neuronal circuits and mechanisms involved in the formation, expression and extinction phases of conditioned cued fear memories. Yet, despite a strong clinical interest, a detailed understanding of these memory phases for contextual fear memories is still missing. Besides the well-known role of the hippocampus in encoding contextual fear behavior, growing evidence indicates that specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulate contextual fear acquisition and storage in both animals and humans that ultimately leads to expression of contextual fear memories. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the recent literature on the role of distinct prefrontal subregions in contextual fear behavior and provide a working model of the neuronal circuits involved in the acquisition, expression and generalization of contextual fear memories. PMID:25287656

Rozeske, R R; Valerio, S; Chaudun, F; Herry, C

2015-01-01

153

Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

Maor, Dorit

154

Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of Making and Writing Words (MWW), a variation of the Making Words word study activity by Cunningham and Cunningham (1992), on second-grade students word learning. MWW was implemented daily with a group of second-grade students' over a five-month period. Results indicated that students who received the MWW treatment…

Rasinski, Timothy; Oswald, Ruth

2005-01-01

155

Teaching and Learning Activities in the Online Classroom: A Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish standards of quality in online courses developed through the University of Hawaii's Asynchronous Learning project funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a preliminary study of courses from various disciplines was conducted. The aim of the study was to identify teaching activities that contributed to the creation of a high quality…

Odin, Jaishree K.

156

The flipped classroom: now or never?  

PubMed

Pedagogical changes and new models of delivering educational content should be considered in the effort to address the recommendations of the 2007 Institute of Medicine report and Benner's recommendations on the radical transformation of nursing. Transition to the nurse anesthesia practice doctorate addresses the importance of these recommendations, but educational models and specific strategies on how to implement changes in educational models and systems are still emerging. The flipped classroom (FC) is generating a considerable amount of buzz in academic circles. The FC is a pedagogical model that employs asynchronous video lectures, reading assignments, practice problems, and other digital, technology-based resources outside the classroom, and interactive, group-based, problem-solving activities in the classroom. This FC represents a unique combination of constructivist ideology and behaviorist principles, which can be used to address the gap between didactic education and clinical practice performance. This article reviews recent evidence supporting use of the FC in health profession education and suggests ways to implement the FC in nurse anesthesia educational programs. PMID:25167605

Hawks, Sharon J

2014-08-01

157

Smart Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

2006-01-01

158

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.

1969-12-31

159

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

160

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Aronson, Elliot; Network, Social P.

161

Contextual logic for quantum systems  

E-print Network

In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.

Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes

2007-02-02

162

Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.  

PubMed

Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. PMID:22899567

Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

163

Contextual learning: a reflective learning intervention for nursing education.  

PubMed

Nursing educators need to continue to explore ways that new pedagogies such as narrative pedagogy and reflective practice inform and extend students' thinking in classroom and clinical situations. The goal of instruction becomes creating an opportunity for learning that integrates content knowledge with knowledge of the context. Educational methodologies that incorporate the use of context in a reflective, dialogical approach over time hold much promise in developing a dynamic process of thinking in practice. Contextual learning is a reflective learning intervention that offers new possibilities for nurse educators to prepare nurses to think critically in practice. In this expository paper the design and instructional methodology of contextual learning is discussed, beginning with a brief overview of the nature of critical thinking and the use of narrative as major underpinnings in the development of this intervention. Examples of how the intervention was implemented with novice nurses in practice is provided. Finally, reflections on how the intervention could be refined for nursing students is offered. PMID:16646944

Forneris, Susan G; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J

2006-01-01

164

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

165

Context Dynamic and Explanation in Contextual Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the dynamic of context through the use of a context-based formalism called contextual graphs that has been initially developed in the SART application for the development of a support system in incident solving on a subway line. First, we present the formalism of contextual graphs through its new implementation. Second, we discuss the dynamic of context in

Patrick Brézillon

2003-01-01

166

Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

2013-01-01

167

Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many discussions about learning a second language focus on teaching methodologies, little emphasis is given to the contextual factors—individual, social, and societal—that affect students' learning. These contextual factors can be con- sidered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process. This digest discusses these perspectives as they relate to learning any second language, with a

AÍDA WALQUI

168

Contextual medical-image viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

2004-04-01

169

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

170

Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the neurosciences have begun to elucidate how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge. Some of these findings are consistent with a cognitive view of constructivist models of learning and provide additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. Current thought at the interface between neurocognitive research and constructivist philosophy is summarized here and discussed in a context of implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science education.

Anderson, O. Roger

171

A Conceptual Model of Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Epistemological Beliefs, and Learning Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed a conceptual model of relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation), scientific epistemological belief variables (fixed and tentative), and learning approach. It was proposed that learning environment…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Sungur, Semra

2009-01-01

172

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

173

A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles  

PubMed Central

This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

Stamps, Arthur

2014-01-01

174

Facilitating Student Learning through Contextualization: A Review of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a review of evidence for contextualization, defined here as an instructional approach connecting foundational skills and college-level content. Two forms of contextualization are identified, "contextualized" and "integrated" instruction. Despite methodological limitations, the available studies suggest that contextualization has the…

Perin, Dolores

2011-01-01

175

Constructivist Career Development as a Paradigm of Empowerment for At-Risk Culturally Diverse College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although constructivist career theory is routinely discussed in the literature, links between theory and practice in education are lacking. The current study focused on the potential of a constructivist curriculum to empower at-risk culturally diverse college students by increasing career self-efficacy and reducing dysfunctional career thoughts. Using a pre\\/post-test design, 75 under-prepared undergraduates who were enrolled in six sections of

Tabitha L. Grier-Reed; Nicole R. Skaar; Julia L. Conkel-Ziebell

2009-01-01

176

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

177

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of units designed to teach students about the global importance of Antarctica. Topics covered in these units includes ice, the ocean, geology, weather, topography, auroras, the history of Antarctic exploration, living in Antarctica, animals, plants, the Antarctic Treaty, and the environment. Each unit has a selection of activities that are adaptable to the range of abilities in a class and the particular interests of the students. There are hundreds of useful web links throughout and a wealth of support material listed under Classroom Resources.

Haywood, Elizabeth

178

Thursday's Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every Thursday, this NASA-created learning resource presents a new topic with the aim of providing "a lasting connection between NASA's latest research and the classroom environment." Prior lesson topics have included the recent solar eclipse, the Mars Polar Lander, and organisms that survive in extreme conditions and their implications for the possibility of extraterrestrial life. For each lesson, there are links to news reports and a range of lesson plans and activity sheets designed for different age groups. The site also contains an archive/ schedule of prior and future lessons.

179

Synthesising Contextually Appropriate Intonation in Limited Domains   

E-print Network

We describe a method of synthesising contextually appropriate intonation with limited domain unit selection voices. The method enables the natural language generation component of a dialogue system to specify its intonation ...

Baker, Rachel; Clark, Robert A J; White, Michael

180

Contextual Alignment of Cognitive and Neural Dynamics.  

PubMed

Effective real-world communication requires the alignment of multiple individuals to a common perspective or mental framework. To study how this alignment occurs at the level of the brain, we measured BOLD response during fMRI while participants (N = 24) listened to a series of vignettes either in the presence or absence of a valid contextual cue. The valid contextual cue was necessary to understand the information in each vignette. We then examined where and to what extent the shared valid context led to greater intersubject similarity of neural processing. Regions of the default mode network including posterior cingulate cortex and medial pFC became more aligned when participants shared a valid contextual framework, whereas other regions, including primary sensory cortices, responded to the stimuli reliably regardless of contextual factors. Taken in conjunction with previous research, the present results suggest that default mode regions help the brain to organize incoming verbal information in the context of previous knowledge. PMID:25244122

Ames, Daniel L; Honey, Christopher J; Chow, Michael; Todorov, Alexander; Hasson, Uri

2014-09-22

181

Active Learning in the Physics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

Naron, Carol

182

Insights into Innovative Classroom Practices with ICT: Identifying the Impetus for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…

Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong

2008-01-01

183

Teaching Intercultural English Learning/Teaching in World Englishes: Some Classroom Activities in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…

Lee, Kang-Young

2012-01-01

184

A Tale of Two Cultures: The Omani-Indian Encounter in the Literature Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of cultural and contextual approaches in the study of literature has long been accepted as imperative in the literature classroom, fostering, as it does, the sensitization of students to diverse worldviews. This article aims to explore the way in which literature could affect students' preconceived notions of communities and…

Heble, Ayesha; Mehta, Sandhya Rao

2013-01-01

185

Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

186

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

2012-01-01

187

Conflict between Learners' Beliefs and Actions: Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on sociocultural and contextual perspectives, this study examines how Japanese language learners perceive a conflict between their beliefs and actions when speaking the target language in the classroom context, and how these learners change their beliefs or actions to overcome the conflict. Data were collected during a second-year level…

Yoshida, Reiko

2013-01-01

188

Classroom Management. Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning-centered classrooms, the emphasis of classroom management shifts from maintaining behavioral control to fostering student engagement and self-regulation as well as community responsibility. This brief describes classroom management in "learning centered" classrooms, where practices are consistent with recent research knowledge about…

National Education Association Research Department, 2006

2006-01-01

189

Guiding Student Research: Social Studies for Constructivist Schools. Supreme Collaboration; History in Hyperstudio; Constructivist Learning with Primary Sources; Supporting World Opinion Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles discuss constructivist practices for social studies in middle schools and high schools. Highlights include simulations; collaboration between teachers and librarians; the use of HyperStudio for collaborative interdisciplinary projects; using online primary source materials; and Web resources that help provide background…

Farmer, Leslie S. J.; Yucht, Alice H.; Lincoln, Margaret; Valenza, Joyce

2001-01-01

190

Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

2003-01-01

191

The Correlation of Students' Views on Constructivist Teaching Environment and Teachers' Student Control Ideologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between elementary teachers' student control ideology and students' views on constructivist learning environment. In this study, the correlation between the views of teachers working in elementary schools on student control ideology and students' views on constructivist

Beyhan, Omer

2013-01-01

192

Exploring High School Students' and Teachers' Preferences toward the Constructivist Internet-Based Learning Environments in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores high school students' and teachers' preferences towards constructivist Internet-based learning environments. The study proposes a framework, including two dimensions and five aspects, to illustrate the features of the Internet-based learning environments. Based upon this framework, the "Constructivist Internet-based learning…

Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

193

Random graphs: structural-contextual dichotomy.  

PubMed

A formal definition of random graphs is introduced which is applicable to graphical pattern recognition problems. The definition is used to formulate rigorously the structural-contextual dichotomy of random graphs. The probability of outcome graphs is expressed as the product of two terms, one due to the statistical variability of structure among the outcome graphs and the other due to their contextual variability. Expressions are obtained to estimate the various probability, typicality, and entropy measures. The members in an ensemble of signed digraphs are interpreted as outcome graphs of a random graph. The synthesized random graph is used to quantify the structural, contextual, and overall typicality of the outcome graphs with respect to the random graph. PMID:21868910

Wong, A K; Ghahraman, D E

1980-04-01

194

Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2009-01-01

195

Non-contextual chocolate ball versus value indefinite quantum cryptography  

E-print Network

Non-contextual chocolate ball versus value indefinite quantum cryptography Karl Svozil Institute on chocolate ball configurations utilizable for cryptography which cannot be realized by quantum systems. The possibility that quantum cryptography supported by value indefiniteness (contextuality) has practical

Svozil, Karl

196

Neonatal Handling Enhances Contextual Fear Conditioning and Alters Corticosterone  

E-print Network

significantly in their freezing response immediately following footshock on the conditioning day. However, whenNeonatal Handling Enhances Contextual Fear Conditioning and Alters Corticosterone Stress Responses memory consolidation processes in contextual fear conditioning. Therefore, neonatal handling may affect

Spencer, Robert L.

197

Inside the Primary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

Simon, Brian

1980-01-01

198

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

199

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome the Madagascar hissing cockroach into your classroom--they are not your average pest! This article describes the basic biology of this relatively tame creature, and how to set up and care for a classroom colony. It includes a list of suggested inquiry-centered classroom activities that you and your students will find both educational and fun!

Moseley, Christine; Wagler, Ron

2005-03-01

200

Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

2013-01-01

201

Clarifying Functional Contextualism: A Reply to Commentaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, who wrote "Constructing a Pragmatic Science of Learning and Instruction with Functional Contextualism," feels honored that his article received commentary from several distinguished scholars in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT). In response to their comments, the author briefly discusses some of…

Fox, Eric J.

2006-01-01

202

Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual

Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

2008-01-01

203

The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

2007-01-01

204

What Is the Difference? Using Contextualized Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mr. Carter is about to start a two-day lesson on subtraction of integers with his sixth-grade prealgebra students. He plans to use contextualized problems that will allow his students to develop an interpretation of subtraction that involves the idea of "difference." This article outlines one way to teach students develop number line…

Tillema, Erik S.

2012-01-01

205

Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons  

PubMed Central

Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

206

Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

Yang, Shih-Ying

2008-01-01

207

Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal

Julie C. Sedivy; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Craig G. Chambers; Gregory N. Carlson

1999-01-01

208

Specialist Review 99. Contextual inference of protein  

E-print Network

FIR ST PAG E PR O O FS Specialist Review 99. Contextual inference of protein function Aswin Sai is by identifying the function of proteins and RNAs encoded in its genome. Traditionally, computational methods used to assign protein function are based on the simple assumption that proteins with similar sequences (homologs

Babu, M. Madan

209

Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

2010-01-01

210

Developing Student Understanding: Contextualizing Calculus Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the practice of one high school teacher who provided students with concrete examples from their physics class to give them a contextually rich environment in which to explore the abstractions of calculus. Indicates that students discovered connections between the physics concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration and the calculus…

Schwalbach, Eileen M.; Dosemagen, Debra M.

2000-01-01

211

Generation and Memory for Contextual Detail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-___) and read…

Mulligan, Neil W.

2004-01-01

212

Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended…

Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

213

The Consideration of a Constructivist Evaluation Framework in Adult Guidance Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the findings of a doctoral study that examined the measurement of individual progression in the Irish Adult Education Guidance Initiative. The critical constructivist stance of the study challenges the prevalence of the positivist paradigm to evaluate long-term outcomes in adult guidance. The research highlights the…

Hearne, Lucy

2011-01-01

214

Effects of Constructivist-Oriented Instruction on Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was primarily to explore the effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on fifth graders' cognitive structures about biological reproduction. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 eleven year olds in Taiwan, who were assigned to either a…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

215

Using Interactive Whiteboard Technology-Rich Constructivist Learning Environment to Minimize Gender Differences in Chemistry Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Brunei, more girls are enrolled at the institutions of higher education than boys. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a constructivist teaching approach, enriched with interactive whiteboard technology could empower males to minimize gender differences in achievement in Chemistry. Two groups of students were taught for six weeks: one…

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Shahrizal-Emran

2011-01-01

216

Organization Model of a Constructivist Learning Community: A Teilhardian Metaphor for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for learning communities as a fruitful milieu for cognitive development and knowledge construction. Provides a metaphor of a constructivist learning community organization grounded on French scientist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theory of evolution. Asserts that Teilhardian thought is useful for conceptualizing a…

White, Stephen R.

2002-01-01

217

Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

2012-01-01

218

Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

Rand, Jane

2013-01-01

219

Effectiveness of Explicit and Constructivist Mathematics Instruction for Low-Achieving Students in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we compared the effects of smallgroup constructivist and explicit mathematics instruction in basic multiplication on low-achieving students' performance and motivation. A total of 265 students (aged 8-11 years) from 13 general and 11 special elementary schools for students with learning and/or behavior disorders participated in the…

Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E.H.; Maas, Cora J.M.

2004-01-01

220

Does Constructivist Teaching Help Students Move Their Epistemological Beliefs in Physics through Uppers Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of the development of students' epistemological beliefs is important. There is little empirical evidence for precisely how epistemological beliefs are altered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of constructivist teaching on students' epistemological beliefs in physics. One-group pretest-posttest…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

2008-01-01

221

Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

Brendel, Michelle

2014-12-01

222

Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

2013-01-01

223

The "Good Enough" Drama: Reinterpreting Constructivist Aesthetics and Epistemology in Drama Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When we speak of quality in drama education, we apply different educational and aesthetic criteria. For example, improvised drama practices such as process drama, are closely associated to John Dewey's constructivist philosophy. What makes a drama qualitatively "good" within such a framework differs radically from criteria that are familiar in…

Rasmussen, Bjorn

2010-01-01

224

Teacher Views about Constructivist Instruction and Personal Epistemology: A National Study in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the views about constructivist instruction and personal epistemology of the secondary earth science teachers in Taiwan. Participants were assessed through a paper-and-pencil survey and a "Learning environment preference questionnaire" (LEP) designed to explore personal epistemology. On a five-point Likert scale, teachers,…

Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Ying-Shou

2008-01-01

225

From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

2006-01-01

226

Investigating the Relationships among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students' perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626…

Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2010-01-01

227

An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a design theory for Constructivist Gaming Learning Environment necessitates, among other things, the establishment of design principles. These principles have the potential to help designers produce games, where users achieve higher levels of learning. This paper focuses on twelve design principles: Probing, Distributed, Multiple Routes,…

Rosario, Roberto A. Munoz; Widmeyer, George R.

2009-01-01

228

Teacher and Student Beliefs on Constructivist Instructional Design: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of a constructivist instructional design on a group of students and their teacher. The sample consisted of 26 students and one teacher. The research was conducted at Istanbul Technical University, School of Foreign Languages, English Preparatory Program. The instructional design based on…

Altun, Sertel; Buyukduman, F. Ilke

2007-01-01

229

Child Development within Culturally Structured Environments. Volume 3: Comparative-Cultural and Constructivist Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a comparative-cultural perspective, this collection of essays examines the co-constructivist nature of human development in culturally organized environments. The contributions also cover a large age span--infancy to adulthood. Chapters in part 1 cover two different directions in the study of early adult-infant interaction from a comparative…

Valsiner, Jaan, Ed.

230

Perceptions of Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers Concerning Constructivist Perspectives to Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify how a four-semester sequence teacher education program helps change pre-service teachers' perceptions about constructivist teaching and learning as they progress through the program. The participants of the study included a total of 194 science pre-service teachers in four different semesters of their…

Taskin-Can, Bilge

2013-01-01

231

A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning…

Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

2009-01-01

232

An Examination of Expressive Functions in a Constructivist Model of Written Composing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on constructivist theory (emphasizing meaning generation rather than communication), the study described in this report clarifies and elaborates on the definition of the term "expressive writing." First, the paper offers a rationale for the study and a discussion of the research methodology, which combined analysis of texts and theories as…

West, Martha Meyer

233

Cracks in the Iceberg: Surfacing the Tensions of Constructivist Pedagogy in the Context of Mentoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is the result of my inquiry into the nature of my constructivist pedagogy in the context of a postgraduate course that focused on theoretical and practical dimensions of mentoring at a major university in the north of Israel. Drawing on four critical incidents in my university teaching, I address the question: What happens when you…

Orland-Barak, Lily

2005-01-01

234

Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

Jena, Ananta Kumar

2012-01-01

235

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

2010-01-01

236

Designing and Experimenting of English Instructional Material for Facilitating Constructivist Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Constructivism has emerged as one of the greatest influences on the practice of education in the last twenty-five years. Teachers have embraced constructivist-based pedagogy with an enthusiasm that is rare in these days of quick fixes and a shopping mall approach to school improvement. For many teachers, the focus on constructing…

Sharma, Ritu

2011-01-01

237

Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

Faryadi, Qais

2007-01-01

238

Science/Technology/Society: A Reform Arising from Learning Theory and Constructivist Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Iowa-Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) Program assists schools with reform of their entire middle school programs, grades 6-8, and features the science, technology, and society (STS) instructional approach. This reform translates to the creation of new frameworks for the school program and aims to produce "constructivist" teachers to…

Yager, Robert E.

239

Mathematics Tutoring through a Constructivist Lens: The Challenges of Sense-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses dilemmas teachers may face when shifting their concept of teaching or tutoring from explaining or telling to a constructivist perspective of facilitating the development of students' knowledge structures. Examines teachers' decisions during a 20-minute segment of dialogue between a student and teacher while studying linear functions. (14…

Arcavi, Abraham; Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1992-01-01

240

An operational approach for analyzing ICT-based constructivist and adaptive learning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivism is a learning theory that states that people learn best when they actively construct their own knowledge. Adaptability is the ability to adapt learning ex- periences to different kinds of learners. A significant number of ICT-based constructivist learning systems and ICT-based adaptive learning systems have been proposed in recent years. A critical problem related to the design and use

Vu Minh Chieu; Dao Thi Viet Anh; Pham Khac Hung

2006-01-01

241

A Constructivist Neural Network Learns the Past Tense of English Verbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructivist neural network is presented that mod- els the acquisition of the past tense of English verbs. The network constructs its architecture in response to the learning task, corresponding to neurobiological and psychological evidence. The model outperforms other connectionist and symbolic models in learning and in displaying psychologically realistic learning and generalization behavior. It is argued that the suc-

Gert Westermann

1997-01-01

242

An Instructional 'Man-Trap': Anthropomorphic and Animistic Thought in Constructivist Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses two distinctive issues concerning animistic and anthropomorphic thought in the context of constructivist science education. The first concerns the extent of such ways of thinking, both within science itself and within school science. The second concerns the implications of this for theories of instruction in science education.…

Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

243

The Effects of Constructivist Learning Environment on Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the effects of constructivist learning environment on prospective teachers' opinions about "mathematics, department of mathematics, discrete mathematics, countable and uncountable infinity" taught under the subject of Cantorian Set Theory in discrete mathematics class, 60 first-year students in the Division of Mathematics Education at…

Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e

2010-01-01

244

Applying Constructivist Instructional Strategies to E-Learning: A Case Study of a Web Development Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the practice of e-learning continues to proliferate, online educators, especially in the computing disciplines, are facing special challenges, due to the lack of relevant literature, the technical nature of the courses, and the perceived need for direct student support mechanisms. This paper presents a constructivist instructional approach to…

Wang, Ye Diana

2014-01-01

245

The Perceptions of Prospective Teachers on the Democratic Aspects of the Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The nations which have the aim to create democratic societies should also realize the same ideals in educational practices. Related literature declare that learning environments based on constructivist approach is assumed to be democratic. In line with this frame, the aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of prospective…

Bay, Erdal; Gundogdu, Kerim; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

2010-01-01

246

Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the…

Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2013-01-01

247

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

248

Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

249

Constructivist Mathematics Education for Students with Mild Mental Retardation. Short Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a constructivist mathematics intervention for students with mild mental retardation, as compared to direct instruction, which is often recommended for these children. A total of 69 students from elementary schools for special education participated in the study, which focused on multiplication learning. They…

Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

2005-01-01

250

Applying a Constructivist-Developmental Practice-Based Learning Framework to the Recreation Internship Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreation internship is one of the most critical components of professional preparation education, yet educators have done little to explore the experience from a constructivist-developmental growth perspective. This article presents a practice-based learning framework that shows promise for fostering moral development among recreation…

Craig, Patricia J.; Sable, Janet R.

2011-01-01

251

A Constructivist Stretch: Preservice Teachers Meet Preteens in a Technology-Based Literacy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study conducted within a constructivist framework to examine pre-service teachers' development and implementation of a collaborative, technology-based literacy project with 11- and 12-year-old learners. Concludes that the pre-service teachers learned the value of Internet technology, e-mail, and hypermedia applications, but problems…

Bauer, John F.; Anderson, Rebecca S.

2002-01-01

252

Bounding the quantum dimension with contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the phenomenon of quantum contextuality can be used to certify lower bounds on the dimension accessed by the measurement devices. To prove this, we derive bounds for different dimensions and scenarios of the simplest noncontextuality inequalities. Some of the resulting dimension witnesses work independently of the prepared quantum state. Our constructions are robust against noise and imperfections, and we show that a recent experiment can be viewed as an implementation of a state-independent quantum dimension witness.

Gühne, Otfried; Budroni, Costantino; Cabello, Adán; Kleinmann, Matthias; Larsson, Jan-Ã. ke

2014-06-01

253

Contextual Pavlovian conditioning in the crab Chasmagnathus.  

PubMed

In contextual conditioning, a complex pattern of information is processed to associate the characteristics of a particular place with incentive or aversive reinforcements. This type of learning has been widely studied in mammals, but studies of other taxa are scarce. The context-signal memory (CSM) paradigm of the crab Chasmagnathus has been extensively used as a model of learning and memory. Although initially interpreted as habituation, some characteristics of contextual conditioning have been described. However, no anticipatory response has been detected for animals exposed to the training context. Thus, CSM could be interpreted either as an associative habituation or as contextual conditioning that occurs without a context-evoked anticipatory response. Here, we describe a training protocol developed for contextual Pavlovian conditioning (CPC). For each training trial, the context (conditioned stimulus, CS) was discretely presented and finished together with the unconditioned stimulus (US). In agreement with the CSM paradigm, a robust freezing response was acquired during the 15 training trials, and clear retention was found when tested with the US presentation after short (2 and 4 h) and long (1-4 days) delays. This CPC memory showed forward but not simultaneous presentation conditioning and was context specific and protein synthesis dependent. Additionally, a weak CPC memory was enhanced during consolidation. One day after training, CPC was extinguished by repeated CS presentation, while one presentation induced a memory labilisation-reconsolidation process. Finally, we found an anticipatory conditioned response (CR) during the CS presentation for both short-term (4 h) and long-term memory (24 h). These findings support the conditioning nature of the new paradigm. PMID:23114692

Fustiñana, María Sol; Carbó Tano, Martín; Romano, Arturo; Pedreira, María Eugenia

2013-03-01

254

A contextual algorithm for AVHRR fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contextual algorithm for fire detection with NOAA-AVHRR-LAC data was developed. Unlike ‘traditional’ fire detection algorithms (e.g., multichannel thresholds), the decision to record a fire is made by comparing a fire pixel with the pixels in its immediate neighbourhood. The algorithm is self-adaptive and therefore very consistent over large areas as well as through seasons. The algorithm appears to operate

S. P. Flasse; P. Ceccato

1996-01-01

255

Contextual Coherence in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled and restricted dialogue systems are reliable enough to be deployed in various real world applications. The more\\u000a conversational a dialogue system becomes, the more difficult and unreliable become recognition and processing. Numerous research\\u000a projects are struggling to overcome the problems arising with more- or truly conversational dialogue system. We introduce\\u000a a set of contextual coherence measurements that can improve

Robert Porzel; Iryna Gurevych

2003-01-01

256

Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics  

E-print Network

Uncertainty in economics still poses some fundamental problems illustrated, e.g., by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. To overcome these difficulties, economists have introduced an interesting distinction between 'risk' and 'ambiguity' depending on the existence of a (classical Kolmogorovian) probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainty situations. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that 'context' plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian quantum-like framework. In this paper we introduce the notion of 'contextual risk' with the aim of modeling a substantial part of the situations in which usually only 'ambiguity' is present. More precisely, we firstly introduce the essentials of an operational formalism called 'the hidden measurement approach' in which probability is introduced as a consequence of fluctuations in the interaction between entities and contexts. Within the hidden measurement approach we propose a 'sphere model' as a mathematical tool for situations in which contextual risk occurs. We show that a probabilistic model of this kind is necessarily non-Kolmogorovian, hence it requires either the formalism of quantum mechanics or a generalization of it. This insight is relevant, for it explains the presence of quantum or, better, quantum-like, structures in economics, as suggested by some authors, and can serve to solve the aforementioned paradoxes.

Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

2011-05-09

257

Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

Klopfenstein, Marie

2005-09-01

258

Contextuality is about identity of random variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics.

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-12-01

259

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes: a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom; and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

260

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

261

Modeling Discourse Management Compared to Other Classroom Management Styles in University Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A classroom management technique called modeling discourse management was developed to enhance the modeling theory of physics. Modeling discourse management is a student-centered management that focuses on the epistemology of science. Modeling discourse is social constructivist in nature and was designed to encourage students to present classroom material to each other. In modeling discourse management, the instructorâs primary role is of questioner rather than provider of knowledge. Literature is presented that helps validate the components of modeling discourse. Modeling discourse management was compared to other classroom management styles using multiple measures. Both regular and honors university physics classes were investigated. This style of management was found to enhance student understanding of forces, problem solving skills, and student views of science compared to traditional classroom management styles for both honors and regular students. Compared to other reformed physics classrooms, modeling discourse classes performed as well or better on student understanding of forces. Outside evaluators viewed modeling discourse classes to be reformed, and it was determined that modeling discourse could be effectively disseminated.

Desbien, Dwain

2008-05-29

262

Considering the Chalkless Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

2010-01-01

263

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

264

How Does Bilingual Instruction Enhance English Achievement? A Mixed-Methods Study of Cantonese-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

When literacy instruction is integrated and contextualized in a child's background knowledge and daily experiences, learning is increased. This mixed-methods study describes effective bilingual instruction in second-grade classrooms in the United States where teachers utilize students' linguistic capital and foster home–school connections, two factors that may assist in successful academic outcomes. Data were collected in four second-grade transitional bilingual classrooms

Yuuko Uchikoshi; Helen Maniates

2010-01-01

265

Contextual modulation and stimulus selectivity in extrastriate cortex.  

PubMed

Contextual modulation is observed throughout the visual system, using techniques ranging from single-neuron recordings to behavioral experiments. Its role in generating feature selectivity within the retina and primary visual cortex has been extensively described in the literature. Here, we describe how similar computations can also elaborate feature selectivity in the extrastriate areas of both the dorsal and ventral streams of the primate visual system. We discuss recent work that makes use of normalization models to test specific roles for contextual modulation in visual cortex function. We suggest that contextual modulation renders neuronal populations more selective for naturalistic stimuli. Specifically, we discuss contextual modulation's role in processing optic flow in areas MT and MST and for representing naturally occurring curvature and contours in areas V4 and IT. We also describe how the circuitry that supports contextual modulation is robust to variations in overall input levels. Finally, we describe how this theory relates to other hypothesized roles for contextual modulation. PMID:25449337

Krause, Matthew R; Pack, Christopher C

2014-11-01

266

Prediction of contextual speech intelligibility from isolated word intelligibility measures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two nonlinear formulae posited by Boothroyd (1978) for prediction of contextual intelligibility from measures of isolated word intelligibility with four different sets of speech intelligibility data. Both of Boothroyd's formulae, Pc = 1 - (1 - Pi)2 and Pc = 1 - (1 - Pi)1.5 (1 + Pi), provided excellent fit of measured contextual intelligibility with predicted contextual intelligibility for all sets of data. Attempts to improve correlation coefficients between measured and predicted contextual intelligibility by iterating Boothroyd's suggested exponents did not significantly improve the predictive ability of the original formulae. PMID:6521470

Schiavetti, N; Sitler, R W; Metz, D E; Houde, R A

1984-12-01

267

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

268

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words which varied in word frequency and contextual diversity. All first-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

269

Ideas for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares some of the activities for the classroom invented by Gill Hatch. One of those activities is the activity for older students, which is for the five-year-olds through to post-graduates. Card-sorting game, geometry games, algebra games, and loop games are also some of those activities for the classroom invented by…

Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2006

2006-01-01

270

Evaluating Psychosocial Classroom Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rating scale was designed to measure college classroom climate in Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Spain, as well as to describe and compare college classroom environments. Data were gathered from 33 classes of students training to be public or private primary school teachers at colleges in Sevilla and Huelva. Participant observation and…

Villar Angulo, Luis Miguel

271

Lawyer In The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern drug education is marked by an increased use of the professional from the community as a guest speaker in the classroom. The use of some basic guidelines may assist the teacher in finding a "classroom lawyer," and in making his presentation more meaningful. (Author)

Ingram, Verner M., Jr.

1974-01-01

272

Creating the Multiage Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School restructuring movements have gained a great deal of national attention. This guidebook addresses the multi-age classroom movement, in which a mixed-age group of children stays with a given teacher for a number of years. The work provides a complete design for the mixed-age primary classroom, from philosophy and rationale to sample lesson…

Stone, Sandra J.

273

Understanding Classroom Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in classrooms occurs through and is embedded in the interpersonal communication between teachers and students and among students. Classroom communication is negotiated by teachers and students as they act and react to each other through their verbal and nonverbal behavior. (CB)

Puro, Pamela; Bloome, David

1987-01-01

274

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

275

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

276

Promoting Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: (1) that participation in a course providing theory and practice in the classroom use of technology promotes its use and results in gained competence in technology use; and (2) that functional relations exist among the availability of technology in the classroom, technology utilization, and…

Rosenfeld, Barbara; Martinez-Pons, Manuel

2005-01-01

277

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group of classroom tips discusses the benefits of peer coaching, peer group conversation about teachers' classroom experiences, using visual displays for collegial sharing, using cultural brokers in educational settings, and the role of picture books in developing literacy skills in diverse students with disabilities. (Author/CK)

Benedetti, Teresa; De Gaetano, Yvonne; Weinstein-McShane, Ruth; Paez, Doris; McCarty, Laurie; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Bakken, Jeffrey P.

1997-01-01

278

Culturally Responsive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

279

Evaluation in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

Becnel, Shirley

280

Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed `solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa?a; Coll, Richard K.

2010-02-01

281

Science Teaching/Science Learning: Constructivist Learning in Urban Classrooms. Ways of Knowing in Science and Mathematics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the professional development program Model Science Lab Project which provides a new perspective of science teaching and learning to both teachers and students. During the project, participants benefited from additional time during the study year, science content training, pedagogy training, curriculum resources, reduced…

Harcombe, Elnora S.

282

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical\\u000a content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative\\u000a measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed\\u000a lessons

Claudia Khourey-Bowers; Christopher Fenk

2009-01-01

283

The theory of planned behaviour: predicting pre-service teachers' teaching behaviour towards a constructivist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-pronged purpose of this study is to examine factors determining the teaching behaviour of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers towards a constructivist approach, likewise referred to as teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was applied to guide the formulation of research purpose and design. Six pre-service teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of

Carrie Lijuan Wang; Amy S. Ha

2011-01-01

284

Developmental commentary: individual and contextual influences on student-teacher relationships and children's early problem behaviors.  

PubMed

Understanding factors associated with children's early behavioral difficulties is of vital importance to children's school success, and to the prevention of future behavior problems. Although biological factors can influence the expression of certain behaviors, the probability of children exhibiting classroom behavior problems is intensified when they are exposed to multiple risk factors, particularly negative student-teacher interactions. Children who exhibit behavior problems during early childhood and the transition to kindergarten, without intervention, can be placed on a developmental trajectory for serious behavior problems in later grades. Using a developmental systems model, this commentary provides a conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of individual and contextual factors to the development of early student-teacher relationships. Parent, teacher, and student characteristics are discussed as they are related to shaping student-teacher interactions and children's adjustment to school. PMID:18645750

Myers, Sonya S; Pianta, Robert C

2008-07-01

285

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

286

Teachers’ practical knowledge about classroom management in multicultural classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in creating a positive working atmosphere in their multicultural classrooms. Twelve teachers were selected

Jan van Tartwijk; Perry den Brok; Ietje Veldman; Theo Wubbels

2009-01-01

287

Classroom Management and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of classroom management and the impact of classroom climate on student academic achievement has been independently documented by scholars. Less is currently know regarding the relationship linking classroom management and climate. Therefore, the purpose of this quasi experimental study was to explore the influence of classroom

Ratzburg, Susan A.

2010-01-01

288

Anomalous Weak Values Are Proofs of Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average result of a weak measurement of some observable A can, under postselection of the measured quantum system, exceed the largest eigenvalue of A . The nature of weak measurements, as well as the presence of postselection and hence possible contribution of measurement disturbance, has led to a long-running debate about whether or not this is surprising. Here, it is shown that such "anomalous weak values" are nonclassical in a precise sense: a sufficiently weak measurement of one constitutes a proof of contextuality. This clarifies, for example, which features must be present (and in an experiment, verified) to demonstrate an effect with no satisfying classical explanation.

Pusey, Matthew F.

2014-11-01

289

Contextual inquiry: discovering physicians' true needs.  

PubMed

Gathering user requirements that represent the true needs of the users is a challenge. There are many elicitation methods in use today, but they generally are not successful in identifying a comprehensive set of requirements that reflect the users' true needs. This paper describes the requirements gathering method, Contextual Inquiry, that we used to generate physician requirements for a comprehensive Clinical Information System. We feel that this method has advantages over traditional techniques such as surveys, questionnaires, traditional interviews, and focus groups, in obtaining a more comprehensive analysis of the true needs of the users. PMID:8563326

Coble, J M; Maffitt, J S; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G

1995-01-01

290

Students' Constructivist Paradigm in a Spatial Problem-Solving Inquiry-Based Mathematics Medhat H. Rahim, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, P7B 5E1  

E-print Network

307 Students' Constructivist Paradigm in a Spatial Problem-Solving Inquiry-Based Mathematics, and establishing interrelationships between and among components and wholes, brought about a rich learning

Spagnolo, Filippo

291

Contextualizing Community in Teacher Bible Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interactions surrounding Bible teaching as a means of understanding how Jewish youth are discursively implicated within ideologies of community. Drawing on theoretical frameworks from linguistic anthropology and interactional sociolinguistics, I present a micro-analysis of a classroom lesson on the book of Leviticus to…

Avni, Sharon

2013-01-01

292

The Effects on Students' Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Teacher-Student Interactions, Students' Social Skills and Classroom Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in classrooms, by taking into consideration teacher-student interactions,…

Poulou, Maria

2014-01-01

293

How Does Bilingual Instruction Enhance English Achievement? A Mixed-Methods Study of Cantonese-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When literacy instruction is integrated and contextualized in a child's background knowledge and daily experiences, learning is increased. This mixed-methods study describes effective bilingual instruction in second-grade classrooms in the United States where teachers utilize students' linguistic capital and foster home-school connections, two…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Maniates, Helen

2010-01-01

294

Classroom Research by Classroom Teachers, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume celebrates teachers as life-long learners of the art of teaching, by presenting 21 action research studies designed and implemented by classroom teachers. A "How To Get Started" section outlines action research steps and offers worksheets. Descriptions of the research studies begin with ethnographic studies, which include "Adopt a…

Tanner, Michael, Ed.

1992-01-01

295

Contextual Control of Slot-Machine Gambling: Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were trained and tested to select stimuli of differing physical quantities in the presence of 2 color contextual cues for more than and less than. Following more than and less than relational training, participants allocated the majority of their responses to the slot machine that shared formal properties of color with the contextual

Hoon, Alice; Dymond, Simon; Jackson, James W.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

296

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

297

On Holism and The Contextual Character of Natural Qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a discourse on the contextual nature of physical qualities. The realistic and observational contexts in which a system exists are demonstrated as equally involved in defining its qualities. Each quality could be consequently considered as natural and experiential at the same time. The subsequently proposed thesis of the contextual co-definition of natural\\/experiential qualities in the relationship between the

Vuk Uskokovi?

2012-01-01

298

Experimental Observation of Hardy-Like Quantum Contextuality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextuality is a fundamental property of quantum theory and a critical resource for quantum computation. Here, we experimentally observe the arguably cleanest form of contextuality in quantum theory [A. Cabello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180404 (2013)] by implementing a novel method for performing two sequential measurements on heralded photons. This method opens the door to a variety of fundamental experiments and applications.

Marques, Breno; Ahrens, Johan; Nawareg, Mohamed; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed

2014-12-01

299

Exploiting contextual data for event retrieval in surveillance video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual information is vital for the robust extraction of semantic information in automated surveillance systems. We have developed a scene independent framework for the detection of events in which we provide 2D and 3D contextual data for the scene under surveillance via a novel fast and convenient interface tool. In addition, the proposed framework illustrates the use of integral images,

Philip Kelly; Ciarán O. Conaire; Noel E. O'connor

2009-01-01

300

Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

2006-01-01

301

Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol  

PubMed Central

At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events. PMID:23087629

van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

2012-01-01

302

Individual and Contextual Influences on Academic Dishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students at nine medium to large state universities were surveyed in this comprehensive investigation of the influences of individual and contextual factors on self-reported academic dishonesty. Results suggested that cheating was influenced by a number of characteristics of individuals including age, gender, and grade-point average, as well as a number of contextual factors including the level of cheating among peers,

Donald L. McCabe; Linda Klebe Trevino

1997-01-01

303

Intrinsic and contextual features in object recognition.  

PubMed

The context in which an object is found can facilitate its recognition. Yet, it is not known how effective this contextual information is relative to the object's intrinsic visual features, such as color and shape. To address this, we performed four experiments using rendered scenes with novel objects. In each experiment, participants first performed a visual search task, searching for a uniquely shaped target object whose color and location within the scene was experimentally manipulated. We then tested participants' tendency to use their knowledge of the location and color information in an identification task when the objects' images were degraded due to blurring, thus eliminating the shape information. In Experiment 1, we found that, in the absence of any diagnostic intrinsic features, participants identified objects based purely on their locations within the scene. In Experiment 2, we found that participants combined an intrinsic feature, color, with contextual location in order to uniquely specify an object. In Experiment 3, we found that when an object's color and location information were in conflict, participants identified the object using both sources of information equally. Finally, in Experiment 4, we found that participants used whichever source of information-either color or location-was more statistically reliable in order to identify the target object. Overall, these experiments show that the context in which objects are found can play as important a role as intrinsic features in identifying the objects. PMID:25630379

Schlangen, Derrick; Barenholtz, Elan

2015-01-01

304

Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

Looser, Theresa A.

305

Classroom Constitutional Conventions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson provides a simulation in which upper elementary and middle school students establish classroom routines, participate in decision-making activities, improve their understanding of the Constitutional Convention, and differentiate among the three branches of government. (BSR)

Roach, Carol

1987-01-01

306

Stargazing in Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When taking students outside to see the stars is not an option, teachers can bring the stars inside the classroom. These instructions for building a portable planetarium also include suggestions for cross-cultural and social studies connections.

Rios, Jos�

2003-05-01

307

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

308

Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

2010-06-25

309

The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

Kramer, David C., Ed.

1985-01-01

310

Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

1980-01-01

311

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

312

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

313

EPIcenter in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the summer workshop experiences of a participant in the EPIcenter (Earth Processes Information Center for Teachers). Describes the impact of the experience on the professional practices of the classroom teacher. (DDR)

Svoboda, Michele

1998-01-01

314

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

315

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

316

Development of a responsive and constructivist portfolio-based assessment of a writing-to-learn curriculum in introductory astronomy: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary evaluator of a National Science Foundation grant-supported project to develop an introductory, writing-to-learn-based astronomy curriculum, my goal was to help design and test materials that would meet the learning needs of non-science majors, especially women and minorities, and promote their science literacy. My immediate problem was to create a context-sensitive assessment that engages teachers' goals and objectives while reconciling these with the diverse needs, interests, and abilities of students. To that end, I developed a responsive or stakeholder-focused constructivist assessment based upon Guba and Lincoln's fourth generation evaluation. Both responsive and constructivist, my-approach reflects recent developments in sociocognitive theories of writing and learning, especially those by Linda Flower. Flower focuses on the literate act or learning task, such as writing a summary, as the basic unit of analysis. Not the act itself but the "site" at which it occurs is of main interest. This is where the tension between the private "self" and the public "other" provides an opportunity for meaning to evolve as students explore alternate writing and learning strategies through inner acts of negotiation. Because the new astronomy curriculum centered around students keeping a learning log or process portfolio, portfolios afforded the ideal documentary evidence of the site at which students negotiate meanings and strategies. The portfolio-based assessment, therefore, centers upon having evaluators or teacher-researchers identify and interpret how students represent learning tasks to themselves and develop strategies to complete these tasks. Researchers next compare and judge their own interpretations of these behaviors according to the pre-ordinate objectives of the curriculum. Then the key stakeholders (i.e., evaluators, students, and teachers), through hermeneutic and dialectic interchanges, reconstruct or recondition these pre-ordmate evaluation criteria, transforming them from external "top-down" criteria to context-sensitive "bottom-up" ones. This reconditioning of the external criteria to a specific classroom context results in triadic consilience---a coherent, synergistic unity among the curriculum's theory, pedagogy, and assessment. With each assessment cycle, therefore, the pedagogy becomes more responsive to all the stakeholders and more grounded in its context.

French, Mary

317

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

318

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

319

Learning to write in science in the primary grades: A contextual study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study described the way three children appropriated scientific discourse in their writing (and drawing) during second and third grades. Their scientific writing was situated within an "integrated" curriculum in which science instruction included hands-on activities as well as literacy events such as the reading of informational books and the writing of various scientific texts. The study included long-term participant observation of the children during their science lessons. Interviews of the teachers and children were also conducted. The findings indicate that, in this community, the process of learning how to express new scientific ideas in word and images is a complex one, in which children must simultaneously take up distinct theoretical ideas, scientific vocabulary, generic text structure, generic linguistic skills, methods of illustration to express empirical and theoretical ideas, and audience awareness. Writing in this science classroom was highly scaffolded by classroom discussion, teacher read-alouds, hands-on activities, and teacher modeling, as well as by the kinds of writing tasks (or genre set) that were made available to children. Three children, Hannah, Jason, and Rose, took up various aspects of this scaffolding in unique ways, producing unique forms of scientific writing and drawing as they constructed meanings in science. The study provides insights into the relationship between contextual influences and young children's appropriation of scientific discourse. The study has implications for elementary school science instruction, at a time when "scientific literacy" is highly contested.

Honig, Sheryl L.

320

Anomalous Weak Values Are Proofs of Contextuality  

E-print Network

The average result of a weak measurement of some observable $A$ can, under post-selection of the measured quantum system, exceed the largest eigenvalue of $A$. The nature of weak measurements, as well as the presence of post-selection and hence possible contribution of measurement-disturbance, has led to a long-running debate about whether or not this is surprising. Here, it is shown that such "anomalous weak values" are non-classical in a precise sense: a sufficiently weak measurement of one constitutes a proof of contextuality. This clarifies, for example, which features must be present (and in an experiment, verified) to demonstrate an effect with no satisfying classical explanation.

Matthew F. Pusey

2014-11-12

321

Contextual reasoning is NP-complete  

SciTech Connect

The logic of context with the ist (c, p) modality has been proposed by McCarthy as a foundation for contextual reasoning. This paper shows that propositional logic of context is NP-complete and therefore more tractable than multimodal logics or Multi Language hierarchical logics which are PSPACE-complete. This result is given in a proof-theoretical way by providing a tableau calculus, which can be used as a decision procedure for automated reasoning. The computational gap between logic of context and modal logics is analyzed and some indications for the use of either formalisms are drawn on the basis of the tradeoff between compactness of representation and tractability of reasoning.

Massacci, F. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza via Salaria, Roma (Italy)

1996-12-31

322

Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.  

PubMed

Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based. PMID:25239095

Lie, Kin-Pou

2015-01-01

323

Critical classroom structures for empowering students to participate in science discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared contextual characteristics that impacted the nature and substance of "summarizing discussions" in a physics and a chemistry classroom in an Hispanic-serving urban high school. Specifically, we evaluated structural components of curricula and classrooms necessary to develop a culture of critical inquiry. Using the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum in the physics course, we found that students demonstrated critical thinking, critical evaluation, and used laboratory evidence to support ideas in whole-class summarizing discussions. We then implemented a model similar to PET in the chemistry course. However, chemistry students' statements lacked evidence, opposition and critical evaluation, and required greater teacher facilitation. We hypothesize that the designed laboratories and the research basis of PET influenced the extent to which physics students verbalized substantive scientific thought, authentic appeals to evidence, and a sense of empowerment to participate in the classroom scientific community.

Belleau, Shelly N.; Otero, Valerie K.

2013-01-01

324

Content-Based VLE Designs Improve Learning Efficiency in Constructivist Statistics Education  

PubMed Central

Background We introduced a series of computer-supported workshops in our undergraduate statistics courses, in the hope that it would help students to gain a deeper understanding of statistical concepts. This raised questions about the appropriate design of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in which such an approach had to be implemented. Therefore, we investigated two competing software design models for VLEs. In the first system, all learning features were a function of the classical VLE. The second system was designed from the perspective that learning features should be a function of the course's core content (statistical analyses), which required us to develop a specific–purpose Statistical Learning Environment (SLE) based on Reproducible Computing and newly developed Peer Review (PR) technology. Objectives The main research question is whether the second VLE design improved learning efficiency as compared to the standard type of VLE design that is commonly used in education. As a secondary objective we provide empirical evidence about the usefulness of PR as a constructivist learning activity which supports non-rote learning. Finally, this paper illustrates that it is possible to introduce a constructivist learning approach in large student populations, based on adequately designed educational technology, without subsuming educational content to technological convenience. Methods Both VLE systems were tested within a two-year quasi-experiment based on a Reliable Nonequivalent Group Design. This approach allowed us to draw valid conclusions about the treatment effect of the changed VLE design, even though the systems were implemented in successive years. The methodological aspects about the experiment's internal validity are explained extensively. Results The effect of the design change is shown to have substantially increased the efficiency of constructivist, computer-assisted learning activities for all cohorts of the student population under investigation. The findings demonstrate that a content–based design outperforms the traditional VLE–based design. PMID:21998652

Wessa, Patrick; De Rycker, Antoon; Holliday, Ian Edward

2011-01-01

325

Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. However, the theory has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570 two-parent Mexican American families. Results support the negative impact of economic stress on parenting through parental depressive symptoms. Neighborhood stress influenced fathers’ depressive symptoms and parenting, but not mothers’. The effects of acculturative stress were inconsistent. Results suggest that contextual stressors common to Mexican American families impact parenting behaviors through parental depression. PMID:20126298

White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

2009-01-01

326

Development of elementary school students' cognitive structures and information processing strategies under long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were assigned to either a constructivist-oriented instruction group or a traditional teaching group. The research treatment was conducted for 5 months, including six instructional units, and students' cognitive structures were probed through interviews coupled with a metalistening technique'' after the instruction of each unit. The interview narratives were transcribed into the format of flow maps. In addition, the information processing modes shown in the flow maps were also investigated through a series of content analyses. The findings showed that the students in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained significantly better learning outcomes in terms of the extent and integration of their cognitive structures, metacognition engagement, and the usage of information processing strategies. Moreover, it was also revealed that both high achievers and low achievers benefited from the constructivist-oriented instructional activities, but in different ways. For example, both high achievers and low achievers in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained better usage of information processing strategies than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did; but only high achievers displayed better usage of higher order information processing modes (i.e., inferring or explaining) than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did. The results in this study finally suggest a four-stage model for students' process of constructing cognitive structure under the constructivist-oriented science instruction, including cognitive structure acquisition, metacognition enrichment, cognitive structure integration, and cognitive structure refinement.

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-09-01

327

Profile change in preservice science teacher's epistemological and ontological beliefs about constructivist learning: Implications for science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated preservice teachers' understandings of the ontology and epistemology underlying constructivist notions of learning, and the implications that changes in ontological beliefs and epistemological commitments had on preservice teachers' conceptions of themselves as teachers and their conceptions of students as learners. Multiple views of constructivism formed the basis for much of the instruction that was presented throughout these preservice teachers' education program, as revealed by faculty interview data. For the 16 preservice teachers included in this study, the epistemological and ontological characteristics for each teacher's developing views of learning were identified through four in-depth interviews. Data from interviews were used to construct a constructivist profile for each preservice teacher's views of learning (i.e., a profile containing ontological beliefs, epistemological commitments, and pedagogical beliefs). Changes in the profiles for each individual were documented over the time span of this study. Of the sixteen participants in the study, five significantly changed ontological and epistemological beliefs and eleven did not. Profile changes for the five who did change also resulted in changes in their conceptions of science teaching and learning (CSTL). This study demonstrated that the notion of a constructivist profile could be aligned with CSTL. It also demonstrated implications that changes in components for an educational constructivist profile have for a preservice teacher's view of themselves as teacher. However, changes in ontological and epistemological beliefs are not easy, nor are they easily internalized. On the positive side, when change did occur, these changes were attributed to the coursework associated within this preservice teacher education program that attempted to advance constructivist philosophies---or a program designed to develop a constructivist perspective on teaching and learning. Teaching about constructivist philosophies, as this program did, helped some preservice teachers develop conceptions of teaching and learning that were well grounded philosophically. The overall conclusion drawn from this research is that preservice teachers can develop 'constructivist' notions of teaching that are consistent with and founded upon philosophical principles. For teacher educators attempting to change preservice teachers views on teaching, preservice teacher education programs should challenge their student's ontological beliefs and epistemological commitments if they expect to see changes in how science is taught and learned. For researchers, this study offers insights into the reasons that preservice teachers give for changes in their thinking about learning to teach.

Kwak, Youngsun

328

Teachers' Practical Knowledge about Classroom Management in Multicultural Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…

van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo

2009-01-01

329

Classroom Teachers and Classroom Research. JALT Applied Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers leads classroom language teachers through the process of developing and completing a classroom research project. Arranged in four sections, they include: "Language Teaching and Research" (David Nunan); "Where Are We Now? Trends, Teachers, and Classroom Research" (Dale T. Griffee); "First Things First: Writing the Research…

Griffee, Dale T., Ed.; Nunan, David, Ed.

330

Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

Faia, Jean E.

1988-01-01

331

Mathematics Classrooms, Gender and Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that explores the relationship between classroom factors and students' beliefs about themselves as learners of mathematics. Identifies classroom factors that might influence students' beliefs. Contains 45 references. (DDR)

Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.

1996-01-01

332

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

333

Practical Linguistic Steganography using Contextual Synonym Substitution and a  

E-print Network

Practical Linguistic Steganography using Contextual Synonym Substitution and a Novel Vertex Coding steganography is concerned with hiding information in natural language text. One of the major transformations used in linguistic steganography is synonym substitution. However, few existing studies have studied

334

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE RED BRIDGE LOOKING NORTH FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE RED BRIDGE LOOKING NORTH FROM FUEL HOLLOW ROAD. - Red Bridge, Spanning Yellow river at abandoned county road, 7.3 miles northeast of Postville, Postville, Allamakee County, IA

335

Contextual view to northnorthwest of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to north-northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

336

Contextual view to north of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to north of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater, taken from adjacent circular drive (135mm lens) - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

337

Contextual view to southwest of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to southwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90mm lens). Pedestals within Amphitheater are supports for bench seating - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

338

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

339

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

340

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

341

Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

342

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing southsouthwest, with ocean bank ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing south-southwest, with ocean bank visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

343

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city of Port Hueneme visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

344

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port buildings visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

345

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

346

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

347

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

348

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

349

5. East portal of Tunnel 5, contextual view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East portal of Tunnel 5, contextual view to the northeast from the west end of Cruzette Siding, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

350

1. West portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to northeast, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to northeast, 135mm lens. The tunnel penetrates the toe of Dorris Hill, which rises to the left. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

351

1. West portal of Tunnel 22, contextual view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 22, contextual view to the northwest, 135mm lens. Tunnel 22 pierces a ridge separating Oakridge from Westfir. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 22, Milepost 581.85, Oakridge, Lane County, OR

352

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF LITTLE FALLS DAM POWERPLANT AND NORTHWEST END OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE. LOOKING WEST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

353

Contextual view of summer kitchen, showing blacksmith shop downhill at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of summer kitchen, showing blacksmith shop downhill at right and cottage at center (between the trees); camera facing northeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Summer Kitchen, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

354

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end of bridge, view to south-southeast with Rawson Road in foreground. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

355

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view to southwest along Port Kenyon Road. South end of bridge at left. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

356

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from north end of bridge, view to north along Dillon Road. Former Valley Flower Creamery at right center. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

357

7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

358

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELTDRIVEN BACKUP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELT-DRIVEN BACKUP SYSTEM ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

359

Simulating Quantum Mechanics by Non-Contextual Hidden Variables  

E-print Network

No physical measurement can be performed with infinite precision. This leaves a loophole in the standard no-go arguments against non-contextual hidden variables. All such arguments rely on choosing special sets of quantum-mechanical observables with measurement outcomes that cannot be simulated non-contextually. As a consequence, these arguments do not exclude the hypothesis that the class of physical measurements in fact corresponds to a dense subset of all theoretically possible measurements with outcomes and quantum probabilities that \\emph{can} be recovered from a non-contextual hidden variable model. We show here by explicit construction that there are indeed such non-contextual hidden variable models, both for projection valued and positive operator valued measurements.

Rob Clifton; Adrian Kent

1999-08-09

360

1. West portal of Tunnel 25, contextual view to northeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 25, contextual view to northeast from Tunnel 24 (HAER CA-200), 135mm lens. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 25, Milepost 133.09, Applegate, Placer County, CA

361

3. East portal of Tunnel 24, contextual view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East portal of Tunnel 24, contextual view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note also Harriman Common Standard drain structure at right. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 24, Milepost 132.9, Applegate, Placer County, CA

362

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) FEATURES 1, 5, 4, AND 3 WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

363

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

364

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW NORTHEAST TOWARDS FEATURES 6 (LEFT) AND 7 (RIGHT) WITHIN MILL COMPLEX. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

365

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW WEST OF FEATURE 14 IN FOREGROUND, WITH FEATURES 7, 6, 8, AND 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

366

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

367

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

368

Contextual view of bridge, showing singlespan pin connected parker through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of bridge, showing single-span pin connected parker through truss design, looking north from downstream of the kettle river - Orient Bridge, Spanning Kettle River at Richardson Road, Orient, Ferry County, WA

369

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination youâll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management is an ongoing, evolving processâteachers need to modify their daily practices based on the observed behaviors and feedback of their students. This article describes some strategies to manage inquiry-based science classrooms effectively.

Wolfgang, Christie N.

2009-07-01

370

Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, ``nullify'' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest.

Appleby, D. M.

2002-02-01

371

Experimental observation of hardy-like quantum contextuality.  

PubMed

Contextuality is a fundamental property of quantum theory and a critical resource for quantum computation. Here, we experimentally observe the arguably cleanest form of contextuality in quantum theory [A. Cabello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180404 (2013)] by implementing a novel method for performing two sequential measurements on heralded photons. This method opens the door to a variety of fundamental experiments and applications. PMID:25554865

Marques, Breno; Ahrens, Johan; Nawareg, Mohamed; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed

2014-12-19

372

Investigating the Relationships Among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students’ perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eight grades of nine elementary public schools located in Ankara, Turkey constituted the participants of this study. Constructivist learning environment survey (CLES), Junior metacognitive awareness inventory (Jr. MAI), and Schommer epistemological belief questionnaire (EB) were administered to students. Factor Analysis of Jr. MAI revealed both knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition items were loaded into one factor. Confirmatory factor analysis of EB revealed a four factor structure namely innate ability, quick learning, omniscient authority, and certain knowledge. Regression analyses revealed that metacognition and omniscient authority were significant predictors of personal relevance dimension of CLES. Metacognition was found as the only predictor of the student negotiation. Innate ability and metacognition significantly contributed to uncertainty. This study revealed that the elementary students with different mastery levels hold different epistemological beliefs and multi-faceted nature of elementary school students’ metacognition was seemed to be supported with this study. It was found that metacognition contributed to model more than epistemological beliefs for all three dimensions of CLES.

Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2010-03-01

373

Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

Talbert, Robert

2014-01-01

374

The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

2004-01-01

375

Classroom Design at Binghamton University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the work of the Classroom Environment Committee at Binghamton University (New York) that created classroom standards for multimedia technology when renovating classrooms. Discusses data display, network connections, screens, laptop computers, lighting, furniture, design considerations, and the need for communication with faculty. (LRW)

Donahue, Jeffrey B.

2000-01-01

376

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management…

Wolfgang, Christie Nicole

2009-01-01

377

Pigeons exhibit contextual cueing to both simple and complex backgrounds.  

PubMed

Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con. PMID:24491468

Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

2014-05-01

378

Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization  

PubMed Central

We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

2014-01-01

379

Adaptive smoothing via contextual and local discontinuities.  

PubMed

A novel adaptive smoothing approach is proposed for noise removal and feature preservation where two distinct measures are simultaneously adopted to detect discontinuities in an image. Inhomogeneity underlying an image is employed as a multiscale measure to detect contextual discontinuities for feature preservation and control of the smoothing speed, while local spatial gradient is used for detection of variable local discontinuities during smoothing. Unlike previous adaptive smoothing approaches, two discontinuity measures are combined in our algorithm for synergy in preserving nontrivial features, which leads to a constrained anisotropic diffusion process that inhomogeneity offers intrinsic constraints for selective smoothing. Thanks to the use of intrinsic constraints, our smoothing scheme is insensitive to termination times and the resultant images in a wide range of iterations are applicable to achieve nearly identical results for various early vision tasks. Our algorithm is formally analyzed and related to anisotropic diffusion. Comparative results indicate that our algorithm yields favorable smoothing results, and its application in extraction of hydrographic objects demonstrates its usefulness as a tool for early vision. PMID:16237991

Chen, Ke

2005-10-01

380

Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

2014-08-01

381

Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.  

PubMed

We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. PMID:22487485

Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

2012-06-01

382

AMPK: a contextual oncogene or tumor suppressor?  

PubMed Central

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions to monitor and maintain energy homeostasis at the cellular and organismal level. AMPK was perceived historically primarily as a component of the LKB1/STK11 tumor suppressor (LKB1 mutations cause the Peutz Jegher’s cancer predisposition syndrome, PJS) cascade upstream of the TSC1/2/mTOR pathway and thus likely to be a tumor suppressor. However, AMPK has recently been demonstrated to promote cancer cell survival in the face of extrinsic and intrinsic stressors including bioenergetic, growth factor and oncogene stress(1-3), compatible with studies showing that AMPK is required for oncogenic transformation(4). Thus whether AMPK acts as a bona fide tumor suppressor or a contextual oncogene and, of particular importance, whether AMPK should be targeted for activation or inhibition during cancer therapy is controversial and requires clarification. We aim to initiate discussions of these critical questions by reviewing the role of AMPK with an emphasis on cancer cell adaptation to microenvironment stress and therapeutic intervention. Overall AMPK function is the topic of several comprehensive reviews(5-7). PMID:23644529

Liang, Jiyong; Mills, Gordon B.

2013-01-01

383

Use of a Course Management System Based on Claroline to Support a Social Constructivist Inspired Course: A Greek case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to use a course management system (CMS) based on the open source software Claroline within a blended mode course, incorporating social constructivist approaches to learning, and to investigate its strengths and the challenges faced by the students and the instructor. Participants were 72 students and their instructor. Research data were collected through student questionnaires, transcripts of students’

Marina Papastergiou

2007-01-01

384

Development of Elementary School Students' Cognitive Structures and Information Processing Strategies under Long-Term Constructivist-Oriented Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were…

Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2005-01-01

385

A Constructivist Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning: A TUNEL Assay for the Detection of Apoptosis in Cheek Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory exercise is presented that incorporates constructivist principles into a learning experience designed for upper-level university biology courses. The specific objectives for this exercise are as follows: (1) To introduce students to cancer biology and to the regulation of programmed cell death as part of the cell cycle; (2) To engage…

Correiro, Elizabeth E.; Griffin, Leanne R.; Hart, Peter E.

2008-01-01

386

The Effects of Representations, Constructivist Approaches, and Engagement on Middle School Students' Algebraic Procedure and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of types of representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and student engagement on middle school algebra students' procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding. Data gathered from 16 video lessons and algebra pretest/posttests were used to run three multilevel structural equation models. Symbolic…

Ross, Amanda; Willson, Victor

2012-01-01

387

Equipping athletes to make informed decisions about performance-enhancing drug use: a constructivist perspective from educational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay introduces some prominent constructivist theories of learning and shows how they can be applied to the design of anti-doping education programmes. It briefly outlines the ATLAS and ATHENA programmes, which have had some success in the USA, and explores the potential for educational research to make further contributions to the development of successful anti-doping education programmes. Recommended directions

James M. Hanson

2009-01-01

388

An Outcome Study of Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Indecision in an Undergraduate Constructivist Career Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored outcomes in a constructivist career course. Using a pretest-posttest design, the authors assessed the empowerment (operationalized as career decision self-efficacy) and career indecision of 82 culturally diverse college students at a large, midwestern university. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance.…

Grier-Reed, Tabitha L.; Skaar, Nicole R.

2010-01-01

389

Enhancing a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Application through Constructivist Approach: The Case of Spatial Training of Middle Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to develop and to test a low-cost virtual reality spatial trainer in terms of its effectiveness in spatial training. The researchers adopted three features deriving from the constructivist perspective to guide the design of the trainer, namely interaction, instruction, and support. The no control pre test post test…

Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri; Abd. Rashid, Nazre

2014-01-01

390

Investigating the Effectiveness of a Constructivist-Based Teaching Model on Student Understanding of the Dissolution of Gases in Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented in this paper consisted of an investigation of the effectiveness of a four-step constructivist-based teaching activity on student understanding of how pressure and temperature influence the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. Some 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) selected purposively from two school classes in the…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.; Unal, Suat; Costu, Bayram

2007-01-01

391

Emergent Modularity and U-Shaped Learning in a Constructivist Neural Network Learning the English Past Tense  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructivist neural network model is presented that learnsthe past tense of English verbs. The model builds its architecturein response to the learning task in a way consistent withneurobiological and psychological evidence. The model outperformsexisting connectionist and symbolic past tense modelsin terms of learning and generalization behavior, and it displaysa U-shaped learning curve for many irregular verbs. Thetrained model develops

Gert Westermann

1998-01-01

392

When the Old Is Stronger than the New: Introduction of Constructivist Methodology in a Special Education School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we describe an action-research project that our research team proposed to a group of teachers working in a special education school. The main idea was to introduce new methods to teach reading and writing in their school, mainly constructivist-based ones on teaching the function of writing text. In this paper we focus on the process…

Martin-del-Campo, Beatriz; Garcia, Lidia Rodriguez; Lorca, Manuela Martinez; de las Heras Minguez, Gema; del Rosario Diaz-Perea, Maria

2010-01-01

393

A Functionalist-Constructivist Perspective on the Ontogenesis of Grammar: The Acquisition of Two Swedish Particles/Prepositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the functionalist-constructivist approach to acquisition of grammar where word classes emerge as a result of distributional differences related to function. Focus is on acquisition of two Swedish forms, "i" and "pa," which can belong to the categories of either particles or prepositions, in two Swedish children, based on…

Zlatev, Jordan

394

Cognitive-Metacognitive and Content-Technical Aspects of Constructivist Internet-Based Learning Environments: A LISREL Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a LISREL analysis, this study validated the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Survey (CILES). CILES consisted of six scales, sorted by two aspects. The first aspect, the cognitive-metacognitive aspect, included the scales of student negotiation, inquiry learning, and reflective thinking, whereas the second aspect, the…

Wen, Meichun Lydia; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming; Chuang, Shih-Chyueh

2004-01-01

395

Patterns of Instructional Discourse that Promote the Perception of Mastery Goals in a Social Constructivist Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary education students enrolled in an experimental mathematics course participated in this study. The course is taught using a social constructivist approach and is designed to improve students' mathematical problem-solving ability and deepen their understanding of mathematics. The research question for the present study is as follows: In…

Morrone, Anastasia Steffen; Harkness, Shelly S.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz; Caulfield, Richard

2004-01-01

396

Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on students' alternative conceptions of the topics "electric circuits", "electric charge flows within an electric circuit", "how the brightness of bulbs and the resistance changes in series and parallel circuits", the current study aims to present a combination of different conceptual change methods within a four-step constructivist teaching…

Ipek, Hava; Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

397

The Electronic Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of telecommunications in establishing the electronic classroom in distance education is illustrated. Using a computer-based doctoral program and the UNIX operating system as an example, how a personal computer and modem may be combined with a telephone line for instructional delivery is described. A number of issues must be addressed in…

Mizell, Al P.; Centini, Barry M.

398

A Restructured Biology Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As his high school restructured to improve student outcomes, a biology teacher altered the instructional environment of his classroom accordingly, emphasizing curriculum, instruction, and assessment. As he acted more like a coach than a dispenser of information, students took more responsibility for learning and improving the quality of their…

McCauley, Kevin J.

1995-01-01

399

Networking the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "CQ Researcher" examines the theme of computer networking in the classroom and discusses uses past and present. It begins with an essay by Christopher Conte that discusses: "Does computer networking really enhance learning? Are teachers adequately prepared to take advantage of computer networking? Will computer networking promote…

Stencel, Sandra, Ed.; And Others

1995-01-01

400

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

2005-01-01

401

Windows into Art Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

Grauer, Kit, Ed.

1995-01-01

402

Fluency in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers two distinct approaches to oral reading instruction that can easily be incorporated into primary-grade literacy curricula. It enables teachers to go beyond the conventional "round-robin" approach by providing strong instructional support and using challenging texts. Grounded in research and classroom experience, the book explains…

Kuhn, Melanie R., Ed.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J., Ed.

2007-01-01

403

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

404

Elementary Classroom Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

Baker, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

405

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

TESOL Journal, 1993

1993-01-01

406

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

407

Flexible Classroom Furniture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

Kim Hassell,

2011-01-01

408

Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

Simpson-Beck, Victoria

2011-01-01

409

Classroom Contexts for Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

2014-01-01

410

Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

Mathews, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

411

Reorganizing Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for teachers in competency-based education settings to use in establishing and maintaining a system of classroom and individual student progress charts and records. Describes the development of an instructional materials file to help students become more responsible for obtaining the materials needed for each lesson. (LRA)

Owenby, Ermine M.

1979-01-01

412

Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) As schools scramble to restructure in the hope of thwarting failure, administrators often appropriate money for outside experts who counsel on professional development as well as outside magic-pill programs for student achievement. High-stakes testing remains the arbiter. Perhaps the use of the best practice of inquiry, or classroom

Stohl, Christina

2010-01-01

413

The Classroom Equalizer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multiple Activities Curriculum, developed by the Stanford University Center for Educational Research, broadens the scope of classroom experiences and thinking skills required, so that students weak in the traditional academic skills of reading and language have more chance to participate in class and to feel worthwhile. (Author/SJL)

Rosenholtz, Susan J.

1979-01-01

414

Classroom multiplayer presential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the promising results of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) for educational purposes, this paper maps the essential concepts behind MMOGs, into the classroom context. Since the number of students in this context is not massive and play takes place within a single room rather than on the Internet, we have changed the terms ldquomassivelyrdquo and ldquoonlinerdquo to ldquoclassroomrdquo and

Miguel Nussbaum; Heinz Susaeta; Felipe Jimenez; Ignacio Gajardo; Juan José Andreu; M. Villalta; J. Nordlinger

2009-01-01

415

Classroom Management That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find the best classroom management strategies to use when teaching in an elementary school setting. I wanted to conduct the best possible management tools for a variety of age groups as well as meet educational standards. Through my research I found different approaches in different grade levels is an important…

Cleve, Lauren

2012-01-01

416

Classroom management and disaffection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on aspects of the Norwich Area Schools Consortium (NASC) cross-school Classroom Management and Disaffection research project undertaken as part of the NASC programme. It documents the dual interwoven ‘stories’ of teacher engagement in research as a learning expand the substantive research undertaken. The project took place in two stages, the focus of the second stage emerging from

Barbara Zamorski; Terry Haydn

2002-01-01

417

Strategies in Classroom Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching—always a challenging profession —has, in today's complex society, become even more difficult. Large classes, sophisticated students, legal constraints, all compound the problems of dealing with student misbehavior. Today's teacher must be well-prepared to deal with problems, this author believes. He outlines six strategies that constitute a basic plan for classroom management.

Robert L. Shrigley

1979-01-01

418

The Intelligent Classroom  

E-print Network

This paper is an adaptation of an article that appeared in the September/October 1999 issue of the IEEE Intelligent Systems journal. It provides an informal description of the Intelligent Classroom and looks at examples of what happens as the speaker writes on the board, lectures from slides, and does an anatomy lecture. Also, the paper features pretty color pictures.

David Franklin; Joshua Flachsbart; Kristian Hammond

1999-01-01

419

Flipping the Classroom Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

Riendeau, Diane

2013-02-01

420

Language, Schools and Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of language in education is examined, and the ways in which recent research helps in the understanding of classroom language are explored. The relevance of such research to practicing teachers as well as to sociologists is also discussed. The volume is divided into nine chapters: (1) "Why Is Language Important in Education?"; (2) "Some…

Stubbs, Michael

421

Classroom Idea-Sparkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four Idea-Sparkers that were submitted by Jason McKinney, a graduate student at Southern Mississippi University and a 1st-grade teacher at Pisgah Elementary in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. First is entitled, "Raceway in the Classroom." This activity can help increase children's fluency and ability to identify numerous sight…

Kieff, Judith

2007-01-01

422

Using Your Classroom Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles provides suggestions on using classroom libraries. One article suggests filling the library with genre books to inspire critical reading, critical thinking, and learning across the curriculum (folktales, fairy tales, tall tales, historical fiction, biographies, and autobiographies). Another article presents information on…

Barchers, Suzanne; And Others

1993-01-01

423

The Structured Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to highlight the organisation of the remedial classroom. The data were collected from observations and semi-structured interviews with 10 teachers in remedial classes for children seen and treated as having concentration deficits. The teachers use primarily compensatory language that places the deficits in the pupils.…

Ljusberg, Anna-Lena

2011-01-01

424

Formation in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the relationship between the academic knowledge of the guild and the formation of students in the classroom? This Forum gathers four essays originally presented at a Special Topics Session at the 2009 conference of the American Academy of Religion (Atlanta, Georgia), with a brief introductory essay by Fred Glennon explaining the genesis of…

Glennon, Fred; Jacobsen, Douglas; Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt; Thatamanil, John J.; Porterfield, Amanda; Moore, Mary Elizabeth

2011-01-01

425

Librarian in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As community college learning resource centers deal more with student instruction, librarians are gaining credence as true educators. In an effort to reinforce library usage and understand teaching faculty constraints, some librarians--many of them teaching "drop-outs"--have returned to the classroom. This paper describes the experiences of one…

Sabol, Cathy

426

The Engineered Adjustment Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the curriculum, behavioral modification program, summer activities, and parent involvement in the Papillion (Nebraska) Title III elementary level "engineered classroom" program for emotionally disturbed students. Noted is program initiation after parents and teachers became upset over poor academic progress and behaviors of an…

Spilker, George

427

The Fight Free Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes implementation of the Fight Free Classroom intervention (designed to decrease fighting and aggressiveness by helping students take ownership of their behavior) in an urban elementary school that included students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Overall, aggressive acts among students with and without EBD decreased…

Whedon, Craig K.; Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Fletcher, Reginald

2000-01-01

428

The Network Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the role of new computer communications technologies in education focuses on modern networking systems, including fiber distributed data interface and Integrated Services Digital Network; strategies for implementing networked-based communication; and public online information resources for the classroom, including Bitnet, Internet,…

Maule, R. William

1993-01-01

429

Theme: The Electronic Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consists of seven articles on the use of electronics in vocational agricultural education. Topics include (1) the Ag Ed Network, (2) computer simulations, (3) video simulation, (4) classroom equipment, (4) online information systems, (5) expert systems, and (6) computer networking in California. (CH)

Herz, Bruce; And Others

1988-01-01

430

In the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen conference papers on classroom techniques for second language teaching are presented, including: "Cooperative Learning at the Post-Secondary Level in Japan" (Steve McGuire, Patricia Thornton, David Kluge); "Shared Inquiry Fosters Critical Thinking Skills in EFL Students" (Carol Browning, Jerold Halvorsen, Denise Ahlquist); "Story Grammar:…

1997

431

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tree frogs are small (2-5 cm) animals which not only interest students but also can be maintained in classrooms for a few days. Characteristics (species, ranges, habitat, reproductive cycle, and locomotion) and housing/care needs are described. Long-term maintenance is not recommended due to the difficulty of providing live food. (DH)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

432

Poetry in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These reprints from the "English Journal's" department, "Poetry in the Classroom," present successful approaches to teaching 22 poems. The poems are grouped under seven headings: "Poems from the Tradition,""The Creation,""The Carpe Diem Theme,""Where Shall Man Journey?""Symbolic Settings,""Poems for the Junior High School," and "Poems of our…

Petitt, Dorothy, Ed.

433

The Classroom Animal: Snails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

Kramer, David S.

1985-01-01

434

The effects of a four-semester pre-service secondary teacher education program on the perceptions and practices of pre-service science teachers concerning constructivist perspectives to teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an exploratory study that examines: (a) changes in pre-service teachers philosophical and pedagogical conceptions concerning teaching and learning, (b) changes in pre-service teachers' perceptions concerning the instruction they received in their methods courses, and (c) the relationships among pre-service teachers pedagogical and philosophical conceptions, perceptions about the methods course instruction and their own instructional practices, and their actual instructional practices as revealed on videotapes over a four-semester sequence. A sample of thirty-six pre-service teachers (18 males and 18 females) from the Iowa-SSTEP four-semester sequence volunteered to participate in the study. Three instruments were used to generate the main data to answer the research questions. The three instruments were: (a) Teachers Pedagogical and Philosophical Interview (TPPI), (b) Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), and (c) videotape portfolio evaluated with the Expert Science Teaching Evaluation Model (ESTEEM). Major results include the following: (1) As pre-service teachers enrolled in a four-semester sequence progressed through the teacher education program, their conceptions concerning teaching and learning became significantly and increasingly more student-centered in terms of what students need to do to enhance their understanding of science concepts and processes as well as in their espoused philosophies of teaching and learning. (2) Pre-service teachers integrated their newly acquired student-centered conceptions from their methods courses, with their previous teacher-centered conceptions to develop mixed conceptions about teaching and learning. (3) Pre-service teachers' espoused conceptions and their perceptions about classroom practices rarely align observed teaching practices in their classroom. (4) Pre-service teacher cohort level in the Iowa-SSTEP sequence proved to have a positive and significant effect on pre-service teachers' constructivist practices of teaching and learning. Their student-centered practices increased as they ascended the hierarchy of the Iowa-SSTEP four-semester sequence. (5) Though reported conceptions, perceptions, and practices were increasingly student-centered as pre-service teachers progressed through the teacher education program, they were characterized as both teacher-centered and student-centered indicating that they retained some teacher-centered beliefs.

Masene, Robert Sinvula

435

Expanding a Learner-Centered Environment Using Group Reports and Constructivist Portfolios  

PubMed Central

A study was performed in the Microbial Physiology course to increase students’ self-awareness of their misconceptions, promote sound research techniques, develop written and oral communication skills, stimulate metacognition, and improve teamwork and interpersonal relationship skills. The transformation in the teaching methodology included using cooperative learning, field trips, and portfolios that targeted diverse learning styles to challenge students in creative ways and to help prepare them for future careers. The entire structure of the class was modified by introducing in-class portfolios to form a constructivist environment in which the discussion and lecture topic of the day were built on prior student knowledge. Based on evaluations, students were very pleased with the new teaching and learning process and learned more content than in the more traditional class. They also felt better able to reflect on their learning. PMID:23653539

BUXEDA, ROSA J.; MOORE, DEBORAH A.

2001-01-01

436

Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control group and student interviews to add validity to student written pieces of work.

Jimarez, Teresa

437

Constructing Media Artifacts in a Social Constructivist Environment to Enhance Students' Environmental Awareness and Activism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current science education reforms and policy documents highlight the importance of environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. As "environmental problems are socially constructed in terms of their conceptualized effects on individuals, groups, other living things and systems research based on constructivist principles provides not only a coherent framework in which to theorize about learning, but also a context for understanding socially constructed issues" (Palmer and Suggate in Res Pap Educ 19(2), 2004, p. 208). This research study investigated the impacts of the learning processes structured based on the theories of constructionism and social constructivism on students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. Students constructed multimedia artifacts expressing their knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and activism about environmental issues through a constructionist design process. In addition, a social networking site was designed and used to promote social interaction among students. Twenty-two high school environmental science students participated in this study. A convergent mixed methods design was implemented to allow for the triangulation of methods by directly comparing and contrasting quantitative results with qualitative findings for corroboration and validation purposes. Using a mixed method approach, quantitative findings are supported with qualitative data (student video projects, writing prompts, blog entries, video projects of the students, observational field notes, and reflective journals) including spontaneous responses in both synchronous and asynchronous conversations on the social network to provide a better understanding of the change in students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. The findings of the study indicated that students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism were improved at different scales (personal, community, global) throughout the constructionist and social constructivist learning processes.

Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

2015-02-01

438

Connected Classroom Climate: A Validity Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connected classroom climate, which focuses on the role of student–student communication in establishing a positive classroom climate, is a relatively new construct with the potential to enhance the understanding of classroom interaction. Results of this study support both the content and construct validity of Dwyer et al.'s (2004) Connected Classroom Climate Inventory as a measure of connected classroom climate. As

Danette Ifert Johnson

2009-01-01

439

The classroom space project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom Space is a national education project funded by PPARC and run by the University of Leicester, in collaboration with the National Space Centre. It aims to revitalize science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. The comprehensive classroom resources-which are available to download free of charge from the project website www.classroomspace.org.uk-are all linked to the National Curriculum and are fully self-contained. The materials are developed through partnership between space scientists, teachers and education professionals. The project was launched at the ASE Annual Meeting in January, and this paper summarizes the motivation for the project and its development, as well as looking forward to ideas for an extension to the project for which funding has been confirmed.

Verbickas, Sarah

2005-11-28

440

Everyday Classroom Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Everyday Classroom Tools site has developed The Threads of Inquiry, an integrated inquiry-inspiring curriculum framework that brings science and the Internet into the everyday life of the K-6 classroom. Students are involved in 10 hands-on investigations that focus on the changing seasons, shadows, light, night and day, and the sun. Each thread is divided into 3 grade level sections (K-2, 2-4, and 4-6). Each investigation contains the title; purpose (how the thread fits into the curriculum, the National Science Standards that are stressed and vocabulary words); materials needed and time requirements; teacher background information; suggested fiction and nonfiction books and other Web sites; and development issues and inquiring investigation for each of the three grade levels. Assessments for the threads, additional activities and lessons, and journals from teachers who have participated in the investigations are included.

Anderson, Carl; Jones, Christine; Mandel, Eric; Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian C.; Project, Nasa'S L.; Ruiz, Tania

2007-12-12

441

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Interviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the technique of using interviews to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Interviews enable instructors to judge the extent of understanding students have developed with respect to a series of well-focused, conceptually-related scientific ideas. This site provides an overview of this assessment instrument including information about how to use classroom interviews to their maximum benefit. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry A.; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

442

C-SPAN Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The C-SPAN in the classroom website is geared toward teachers of political science - or specifically U.S. Government. The site is split into six segments: Principles of Government, the Constitution, Political Participation and each of the three branches of government. Each of these sections features video clips, and questions for class discussion. Free site membership is available, but not required to use the site. Some additional content and services are available with membership.

443

Marine Mammal Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is also in Spanish.

444

CIESE Online Classroom Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of all grades can use these projects to enhance their science curriculum through use of the Internet. Many projects utilize real time data, others draw from primary/historical information sources. In collaborative projects, students from around the world contribute data for comparison. Each project includes a brief description, teacher guide, standards, classroom activities, data source links, even online help. Many projects focus on water, water quality, weather, oceanography topics. Undergraduate science education is also featured.

445

Sustainable Seas Classroom Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multimedia approach promotes ocean exploration and conservation. Underwater expeditions to National Marine Sanctuaries provide case studies and data for lesson plans. Topics include: biological oceanography; ocean regions and habitats; physical ocean process; human links to and impacts on the ocean; applications of oceanography. Virtual expeditions link the classroom experience with the individual National Marine Sanctuaries, research methods and technology, and researchers' experiences. Free, on-line teacher workshops feature top ocean researchers and policy makers.

446

Contextualization of visualizations of climate data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is developing tools and approaches to allow users to contextualize climate datasets by linking them to publications, documents, datasets, and other related information (we call this "commentary metadata"). This allows users to benefit from the existing expertise accumulated within the community. In this presentation we describe how we enhance the visualization of climate data by combining interactive web-based visualizations with commentary information, enabling the user to see data in its full context. Visualization tools satisfying the following specific use cases are currently being developed in the context of the CHARMe project: - Plotting timeseries data alongside "significant events" that might affect the quality of the data. This tool is subject of a different abstract submitted by ECMWF. - Visualization of climate data user's commentary related to a subset of a dataset. For many applications it is very useful to be able to provide commentary about specific geographic regions, time windows or even specific pixels within a dataset. For example: recording instances of poor data quality, inaccurate pixel classification or effects of cirrus cloud and sun-glint, etc. This tool is aimed mainly at scientific users and analysts who wish to understand climate datasets in detail, from new users who want to find out more about a feature found in a dataset to experts who want to record, disseminate and evaluate the results of their research work, especially when related to a specific area of the world. The development of this tool is based in existing projects developed at University of Reading, such as ncWMS and BlogMyData. - Visual intercomparison of data and metadata, allowing synchronized interaction with several comparable climate datasets. This will assist users in judging which dataset is best fitted for their purpose as well as provide users with a better understanding of a dataset by measuring observational difference between datasets. This tool will focus on specific examples such as comparison of ESA's CCI SST and Cloud datasets, intercomparison of Climate Impact variables, and Obs4MIPS and CMIP5 data. The presentation will briefly introduce the CHARMe project and explore in more detail the work undergone so far in the development of the tools mentioned above.

Alegre, Raquel; Blower, Jon; Kratzenstein, Frank; Rozum, Iryna; Clifford, Debbie; O'Neil, Alan

2014-05-01

447

Cortical dynamics of contextually cued attentive visual learning and search: Spatial and object evidence accumulation  

E-print Network

Cortical dynamics of contextually cued attentive visual learning and search: Spatial and object; spatial attention; object attention; saliency map; visual search; scene perception; scene memory; implicit humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently

Spence, Harlan Ernest

448

Intertrial Temporal Contextual Cuing: Association Across Successive Visual Search Trials Guides Spatial Attention  

E-print Network

Intertrial Temporal Contextual Cuing: Association Across Successive Visual Search Trials Guides Hiroshima University Contextual cuing refers to the facilitation of performance in visual search due trials, this study tested whether 1 trial facilitates visual search of the next trial. Participants

Jiang, Yuhong

449

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of  

E-print Network

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article as specified by its own developmental strategy. Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy; contextual

Meagher, Mary

450

A Classroom of Polymer Factories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

1998-01-01

451

5 Keys to Effective Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When new teachers walk into their first classroom, they take on many new responsibilities, including establishing and enforcing classroom rules. Five simple guidelines can help new teachers develop an effective classroom management that reflects their teaching style.

Kimberly Kode

452

Editor's Roundtable: Classroom management � la Goldilocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom management is a difficult balancing act. Like Goldilocks, teachers should sample all the classroom management techniques available to them to find the ones that are "just right" for their classroom. Therefore, teachers must quickly establish a c

Liftig, Inez

2009-07-01

453

Neal-Schuman Electronic Classroom Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses planning, designing, and implementing electronic classrooms. Chapters cover: (1) background, including the definition of electronic classrooms, classroom types, and justifications; (2) planning, including planners and the planning process; (3) gathering and analyzing information, including instructional needs assessment,…

Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke

454

Contextually authentic science for young children: A study of two summer herpetology programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, skills, and dispositions enabled for elementary school participants in two summer herpetology programs, one in North Carolina and one in Florida. An additional purpose of this study was to examine the normative scientific practices in which participants engaged and to describe how these experiences differed across each of the herpetology programs. Finally, the program structures of Herpetology and Reptiles were compared to determine how each herpetology program's activities and methodologies impacted participants' perceptions of authentic science. A goal of this study was to expand and broaden the understanding of how authentic science program structure impacts what is enabled for participants in terms of knowledge, skills, and dispositions gained. This study built on previous research of contextually authentic science practices (Buxton, 2006). This study was conducted and the data analyzed using an interpretative case study, mixed methods approach. Data collected included: video and audio data from classroom and field sessions, participant focus group interviews, photographs, and photo elicitation interviews. Participants' science journals were collected and analyzed. Pre- and post-assessments and surveys were administered and analyzed for twenty-four participants, twelve participants from the Herpetology program and twelve participants from the Reptiles program.

Scott, Catherine Marie

455

Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

2013-01-01

456

Supply chain management in emerging markets - Implications of contextual constraints for internationalisation and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to explore the nature and implications of supply chain management in emerging markets (EM), (1) by elaborating on the theoretical construct of EM contextual supply chain constraint, (2) by proposing a classification of EM contextual supply chain constraints, and (3) by putting forth testable propositions related to the EM contextual supply chain constraints. The

Harri Lorentz

457

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

458

Participation in a coteaching classroom and students' end-of-course test scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General education students consistently perform poorly on standardized science tests. Coteaching is an instructional strategy that improves the achievement of students with disabilities, but very little research exists that examines the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coteaching classrooms on the performance of general education students. The constructivist theoretical framework provided the foundation for this research. The research question examined the effect that coteaching classrooms had on the performance of general education biology students. In this experimental design utilizing a posttest-only control group, coteaching instructional strategy was the treatment, and student performance was measured using the scores obtained from the biology end-of-course test. Data for this study was analyzed using an independent t-test. The results of this study revealed that there was not a statistically significant difference in student performance on the biology end-of-course test between treatment and control groups. More than half of the general education biology students enrolled in coteaching classrooms failed the end-of-course test. Researchers may use this study as a catalyst to examine other instructional practices that may improve student performance in science courses. The results of this study may be used to persuade coteachers of the importance of attending frequent professional development opportunities that examine a variety of coteaching instructional strategies. Improving the performance of general education students in science may improve standardized test scores, afford more students the opportunity to attend college, and ensure that students are able to compete on a global level.

Debro, Ava

459

Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.  

PubMed

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired. PMID:25354126

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

2014-11-01

460

Variation in the contextuality of language: an empirical measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of formality\\/con textuality is proposed as the most important dimension of variation between linguistic expressions. Formal communication conveys information explicitly, through the linguistic expression itself, whereas contextual communication conveys information implicitly, through the context of the expression. An empirical measure of formality, the F-score, is proposed, based on the frequencies of different word classes. Nouns, adjectives, articles and

FRANCIS HEYLIGHEN; JEAN-MARC DEWAELE

1998-01-01

461

The Effect of Contextual Predictability on Oral Reading Reversals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects on oral reading reversals of various contextual conditions ranging from no context to highly predictable contexts among white, middle-class, male first graders. The study was designed to demonstrate the relationship between language redundancy and reversals in a beginning reading population in order to suggest…

Reinstein, Steven S.

462

Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater. Steps lead up from wings of stage area to club house grade level (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

463

Contextual view to northnorthwest of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to north-northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater (90 mm lens). View taken from top of steps visible in previous photo. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

464

Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view to northwest of Burton Park Club House and Amphitheater. Gable-roofed building at right is barn housing maintenance equipment for the park. Adobe wall with pilasters forms backdrop for amphitheater stage (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

465

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

466

Contextual view of building 46 showing north and south wings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 46 showing north and south wings of building 46 with new wing at center, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

467

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of building 65 looking across California Avenue showing building 65 east elevation at left and buildings 99 and 99A at right; camera facing southwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

468

Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences From Contextual Influences in Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race\\/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening our understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting Section

Huynh-Nhu Le; Rosario Ceballo; Ruth Chao; Nancy E. Hill; Velma McBride Murry; Ellen E. Pinderhughes

2008-01-01

469

Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

2013-01-01

470

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DECONTAMINATION ROOM, ADSORBER REMOVAL HATCHES (FLAT ON GRADE), AND BRIDGE CRANE. INEEL PROOF NUMBER HD-17-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

471

Manipulating Slot Machine Preference in Problem Gamblers through Contextual Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pathological and nonpathological gamblers completed a task that assessed preference among 2 concurrently available slot machines. Subsequent assessments of choice were conducted after various attempts to transfer contextual functions associated with irrelevant characteristics of the slot machines. Results indicated that the nonproblem gambling…

Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.

2010-01-01

472

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM DOWNSTREAM. Crew, vehicles, boats, and equipment are from the California Department of Transportation's Transportation Laboratory conducting test borings for the replacement bridge. - Smith River Bridge, CA State Highway 199 Spanning Smith River, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

473

Contextual view of the Hall of Transportation from Yerba Buena ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of the Hall of Transportation from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3) at far right, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Hall of Transportation, 440 California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

474

Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using…

Brady, Timothy F.; Chun, Marvin M.

2007-01-01

475

4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, 135mm lens. This end of the tunnel was badly damaged during construction in April 1909 by a disgruntled worker who set off a heavy powder charge, injuring fellow workers and destroying a steam shovel. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

476

3. Downhill side of the mudshed, contextual view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Downhill side of the mudshed, contextual view to the south showing the steep slopes typical of this portion of the Natron Cutoff, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

477

1. West portal of Tunnel 23, contextual view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 23, contextual view to the west-northwest, 380mm lens. Tunnel 22 pierces the toe of Lookout Point. Note that the tracks have been realigned toward the Willamette River to bypass Tunnel 23. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 23, Milepost 584.5, Westfir, Lane County, OR

478

Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization

Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

2014-01-01

479

Aligning Mentorship Style with Beginning Teachers' Development: Contextual Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 70 pairs of supervisory teachers and teacher interns at the University of Saskatchewan examined contextual supervision in the mentorship of student teachers' oral questioning skills. Findings indicate that supervisory skills improved, especially when supervisors adjusted their leadership styles to match protege development levels, and…

Ralph, Edwin G.

2000-01-01

480

Contextual Control by Function and Form of Transfer of Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated conditions leading to contextual control by stimulus topography over transfer of functions. Three 4-member stimulus equivalence classes, each consisting of four (A, B, C, D) topographically distinct visual stimuli, were established for 5 college students. Across classes, designated A stimuli were open-ended linear figures,…

Perkins, David R.; Dougher, Michael J.; Greenway, David E.

2007-01-01

481

Nicotine enhances contextual fear memory reconsolidation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there remains no study that has explored the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Day 0), fear conditioning (Day 1), reactivation (Day

Shaowen Tian; Fulian Huang; Peng Li; Zhenbang Li; Shouhong Zhou; Haifeng Deng; Yufeng Yang

2011-01-01

482

Role of entorhinal cortical plasticity in spatial and contextual memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well accepted that the hippocampus (HIP) is important for spatial and contextual memories, however, it is not clear if the entorhinal cortex (EC), the main input\\/output structure for the hippocampus, is also necessary for memory storage. Damage to the EC in humans results in memory deficits. However, animal studies report conflicting results on whether the EC is necessary

April Ethel Hebert

2005-01-01

483

Incorporating contextual information in recommender systems using a multidimensional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a multidimensional (MD) approach to recommender systems that can provide recommendations based on additional contextual information besides the typical information on users and items used in most of the current recommender systems. This approach supports multiple dimensions, profiling information, and hierarchical aggregation of recommendations. The article also presents a multidimensional rating estimation method capable of selecting two-dimensional

Gediminas Adomavicius; Ramesh Sankaranarayanan; Shahana Sen; Alexander Tuzhilin

2005-01-01

484

Contextual Spatiospectral Postreconstruction of Cloud-Contaminated Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method has been proposed recently for the contextual reconstruction of cloud-contaminated areas in multitemporal multispectral images. It is based on the idea of making the prediction process learn from information available in the cloud-free neighborhood of contaminated areas. Though promising, this method does not fully exploit all available information, thus leaving room for further methodological enhancements. This letter

Souad Benabdelkader; Farid Melgani

2008-01-01

485

UMND1: Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation Using Contextual Semantic Relatedness  

E-print Network

is marked as the target word to be dis- ambiguated. The system processes each instance through multiple instance passed to the preprocessing stage is first segmented into words, and then all compound wordsUMND1: Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation Using Contextual Semantic Relatedness Siddharth

Pedersen, Ted

486

18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing east. Buildings A-2 and C-5 at left, Building J-12 at right. Replicates historic viedw at GA-2309-9. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

487

Contextual view of Point Bonita Ridge, showing Bonita Ridge access ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Point Bonita Ridge, showing Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and location of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation (see stake at center left), camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

488

Contextual Modulation of Memory Consolidation Bertram Gerber1  

E-print Network

subsequent olfactory memory consolidation. Third, we found no evidence for a modulation of olfactory memoryResearch Contextual Modulation of Memory Consolidation Bertram Gerber1 and Randolf Menzel Institut fu¨r Neurobiologie, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, D 14195 Berlin, Germany We investigate olfactory

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

489

1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union Ice building, which is located to the north of Packing House (right hand side in photo) - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

490

A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2010-01-01

491

A framework for contextual information in digital collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of contextual information associated with digital collections. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is based on an extensive review and analysis of both the scholarly literature from many disciplines about the concept of context and the professional literature (including standards) related to the description of information artifacts. The paper

2011-01-01

492

Part 1: Transforming Family Nursing Theory: From Mechanicism to Contextualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the systems metaphor has been useful in conceptualizing families, at this time in our evolution offamily nursing theory and practice it is essential that we begin to broaden our understanding and conceptualization offamily. Evolving out of a contextual worldview, this article presents an alternate metaphor to address aspects of family that are not captured by the systems metaphor. Based

Gwen A. Hartrick

1995-01-01

493

Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between Jones and Boone Drives. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between Jones and Boone Drives. ASA office (U.S. Border Control Environmental Office Building no. 317) is shown at center. Camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

494

IET distant contextual view of coupling station, tracks and retaining ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET distant contextual view of coupling station, tracks and retaining wall. experiment shack on left side of coupling station remains from snaptran tests. Camera facing northerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-7-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

495

10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

496

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view to south from edge of bluff east of Rawson Road. Bridge visible among trees at left center. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

497

Intelligent classification of web pages using contextual and visual features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address classification of Web content and in particular its application in the detection of pornographic Web pages. Filtering of undesirable Web content is mainly achieved based on blocking a specific Web address via searching it in a reference list of black URLs or doing a plain contextual analysis on the page by searching special keywords in

Ali Ahmadi; Mehran Fotouhi; Mahmoud Khaleghi

2011-01-01

498

Web Page Summarization for Just-in-Time Contextual Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual advertising is a type of Web advertising, which, given the URL of a Web page, aims to embed into the page the most relevant textual ads available. For static pages that are displayed repeatedly, the matching of ads can be based on prior analysis of their entire content; however, often ads need to be matched to new or dynamically

Aris Anagnostopoulos; Andrei Z. Broder; Evgeniy Gabrilovich; Vanja Josifovski; Lance Riedel

2011-01-01

499

1. West portal of Tunnel 38, contextual view to east, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 38, contextual view to east, 135mm lens. West portal of Tunnel 3 (HAER CA-212) on original Central Pacific Transcontinental line visible in distance at left. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 38, Milepost 180.58, Cisco, Placer County, CA

500

1. West portal of Tunnel 39, contextual view to east, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West portal of Tunnel 39, contextual view to east, 135mm lens. West portal of Tunnel 4 (HAER CA-214) on the original Central Pacific Transcontinental line is visible at left. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 39, Milepost 180.95, Cisco, Placer County, CA