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Sample records for consumption diet quality

  1. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in ...

  2. Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Benoît; Givens, D Ian; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita; Krauss, Ronald M; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Pan, An; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of milk in a balanced healthy diet. The evidence to date suggests at least a neutral effect of milk intake on health outcomes. The possibility that milk intake is simply a marker of diets higher in nutritional quality cannot be ruled out. This review also identifies a number of key research gaps pertaining to the impact of milk consumption on health. These need to be addressed to better inform future dietary guidelines. PMID:27118060

  3. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

  4. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality with 100% fruit juice consumption in children: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...

  5. Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Lawrence, Frank R; Hartman, Terryl J; Curran, Julianne M

    2009-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables. These recommendations target specific subgroups of vegetables, including dry beans and peas. Dry beans and peas provide an array of nutrients and phytochemicals that have been shown to have beneficial health effects, yet consumption levels in the United States are quite low. Few studies have examined the influence of legume consumption on nutrient intakes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient and food group intakes of dry bean and pea consumers compared to nonconsumers. Dietary intake data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged > or =19 years was used. Results show that on any given day only 7.9% of adults are consuming dry beans and peas; Mexican Americans or other Hispanics are more likely to be consumers than nonconsumers. Consuming approximately (1/2) c dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, and magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. These data support the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation. Increased consumption of dry beans and peas-economical and nutrient-rich foods-could improve the diet quality of Americans. PMID:19394480

  6. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  7. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  8. Contribution of beef consumption to nutrient intake, diet quality, and food patterns in the diets of the US population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the association between the nutrient contribution of beef, in its lowest and highest fat forms, and diet quality and food patterns in individuals 4+ years of age. Beef consumers were categorized into three groups (lowest lean/highest fat [LLHF]; middle lean/middle fat content; an...

  9. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...

  10. Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most children do not meet the recommendation for fruit consumption. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the US; however, no studies have examined the association of total apple products, apples, apple sauce, and 100 % apple juice consumption on diet quality and weight/adiposity in ...

  11. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and ...

  12. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  13. Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  14. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  15. Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined u...

  16. One hundred percent orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutient adequacy, and no increased risk for overweight/obesity in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100 percent orange juice consumption by children 2 to 18 years of age (n = 7250) participating in the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with intakes of select nutrients, MyPyramid food groups, diet quality-measur...

  17. Consumption of 100% fruit juice is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality but not with weight status in children: NHANES 2007-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children using the more recent national data. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining the data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090). Intake of nutrien...

  18. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between almond consumption, the most widely consumed tree nut in the US, and nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and weight/adiposity in adults. Data from adults (N=24,808), 19+ years, participating in the NHANES 2001-2010 were u...

  19. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  20. Rice consumption is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine the association of rice consumption with nutrient intake and diet quality in a recent nationally representative sample of United States adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination survey data (2005-2010) were used to assess the association of rice co...

  1. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice ...

  2. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality, better nutrient intakes, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity in Children 2-18 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2-18. A nationally representative sample of children aged 2-18 (N=14,690) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  3. Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

  4. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  5. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. PMID:26494025

  6. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y) (n = 1665), 6-12 y (n = 2446), 13-18 y (n = 3139), and 19+y (n = 8861). Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables), using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day) among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups (< 0.0001). In 100% FJ consumers, total and whole fruit consumption was higher and intake of added sugars was lower in all age groups. Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet. PMID:21314991

  7. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M.; Barraj, Leila M.; Rampersaud, Gail C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may

  8. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that

  9. Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

  10. The effect of whole grain consumption (WG) on diet quality and healthy eating index (HEI) scores in children aged 1 to 18 years: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of whole grain (WG) consumption on diet quality and nutrient intake in children: 2-5 y n=2,278), 6-12 y (n=3,868), and 13-18 y (n=4,931) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1999-2004 data. Age groups were divided into four WG consumption groups:...

  11. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p < 0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p < 0.0001); vitamin K (p = 0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p < 0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of

  12. Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yujeong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake). Regarding intake volume of vitamin C, the normal group posted 143.9% of the recommended DRI, whereas the risk group showed only 65.5% of the recommended DRI. In terms of simple sugar intake from snacks, students in the normal group consumed 58.4 g while the risk group consumed 50.2 g. These levels constituted 12.5% of their total daily volume of sugar intake from snacks, which is higher than the 10% standard recommended by the WHO. In conclusion, children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks for ADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development. PMID:21779528

  13. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  14. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality, better nutrient intakes, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity in children 2–18 years: NHANES 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; DiRienzo, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background None of the studies of whole grains that have looked either at diet or weight/adiposity measures have focused exclusively on oatmeal. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2–18. Design A nationally representative sample of children aged 2–18 (N=14,690) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010 was used. Intake was determined from a single 24-h dietary recall. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Covariate-adjusted regression analyses, using appropriate sample weights, were used to determine differences between oatmeal consumers and non-consumers for demographics, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures (p<0.01). Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for weight measures and obesity (p<0.05). Results Compared to non-consumers, oatmeal consumers were more likely to be younger and less likely to be smokers. Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and potassium, and significantly lower intakes of total, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium. Oatmeal consumers had higher dietary quality scores attributable to higher intakes of whole grains and lower intakes of refined grains and empty calories. Children consuming oatmeal were at lower risk for having central adiposity and being obese. Conclusions Consumption of oatmeal by children was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthful diet. PMID:26022379

  15. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  16. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality associated with lean beef consumption in the US: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dietary guidelines recommend consuming meats in its lowest fat form. NHANES 1999–2004 24-hr dietary recall data were used to compare nutrient intake and diet quality (HEI-2005) between highest lean/lowest fat (HLLF) beef consumers, and lowest lean/highest fat (LLHF) beef consumers aged 4+ y (n e...

  17. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

  18. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  19. Indicators for the evaluation of diet quality.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ángel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Olza, Josune

    2015-01-01

    The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that

  20. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  1. Consumption of carotenoid-rich diet improves plasma inflammatory markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple studies have investigated the effects of carotenoids on a limited selection of cytokines. However, inflammation is a complex system involving numerous interacting cytokines. In this study, a broad array of 30 cytokines was measured after consumption of low- and high-carotenoid diets. Nine m...

  2. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years. Design Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting. Setting Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years. Results Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0.001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency. PMID:23816283

  3. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. Findings After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18–0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15–0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.56). Conclusion In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. PMID:26966329

  4. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgren, Adam R.; Booth, Alison O.; Kaur, Gunveen; Cicerale, Sara; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Thorpe, Maree G.; Keast, Russell S. J.; Riddell, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306) were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (28%). A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001). Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them. PMID:25665159

  5. Biofilm Consumption and Variable Diet Composition of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) during Migratory Stopover

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Catherine B.; Bond, Alexander L.; Davidson, Peter J. A.; Butler, Robert W.; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Many shorebird species undertake long-distance migrations punctuated by brief stays at food-rich, estuarine stopover locations. Understanding use of these food resources helps guide conservation and responsible development decisions. We determined the extent and degree to which Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) utilized biofilm as a food resource across a large and variable stopover location during northward (spring) migration. We investigated the spatial heterogeneity in diet composition, to determine whether shorebirds were consistently feeding on biofilm or whether diet varied between naturally and anthropogenically delineated sites. We used stable isotope analysis to estimate that biofilm conservatively comprised 22% to 53% of Western Sandpiper droppings across all sampling sites and that prey composition differed significantly between areas within the stopover location. Widespread biofilm consumption demonstrates the importance of biofilm as a dietary component. Variable diet composition suggests that habitat heterogeneity may be an important component of high quality stopover locations in the context of “state-dependant trade-offs” of Western Sandpiper population sub-groups. Future management decisions must consider and address potential impacts on the biofilm community throughout a stopover location, as single site studies of diet composition may not be adequate to develop effective management strategies for entire stopover sites. PMID:25875528

  6. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged $74 years. Design: Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regres...

  7. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Obesity among Food Pantry Participants in Hartford, CT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robaina, Kate A.; Martin, Katie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examine relationships between food security, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among food pantry users. Methods: Convenience sample of 212 food pantry clients in Hartford, CT from June, 2010 to May, 2011. Main outcomes included food security (United States Department of Agriculture module), fruit and vegetable consumption (Block…

  8. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with healthcare resource use in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and...

  9. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements. PMID:25827289

  10. Intra- and interspecific differences in diet quality and composition in a large herbivore community.

    PubMed

    Redjadj, Claire; Darmon, Gaëlle; Maillard, Daniel; Chevrier, Thierry; Bastianelli, Denis; Verheyden, Hélène; Loison, Anne; Saïd, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity in large herbivore communities is often explained by niche segregation allowed by differences in body mass and digestive morphophysiological features. Based on large number of gut samples in fall and winter, we analysed the temporal dynamics of diet composition, quality and interspecific overlap of 4 coexisting mountain herbivores. We tested whether the relative consumption of grass and browse differed among species of different rumen types (moose-type and intermediate-type), whether diet was of lower quality for the largest species, whether we could identify plant species which determined diet quality, and whether these plants, which could be "key-food-resources" were similar for all herbivores. Our analyses revealed that (1) body mass and rumen types were overall poor predictors of diet composition and quality, although the roe deer, a species with a moose-type rumen was confirmed as an "obligatory non grazer", while red deer, the largest species, had the most lignified diet; (2) diet overlap among herbivores was well predicted by rumen type (high among species of intermediate types only), when measured over broad plant groups, (3) the relationship between diet composition and quality differed among herbivore species, and the actual plant species used during winter which determined the diet quality, was herbivore species-specific. Even if diets overlapped to a great extent, the species-specific relationships between diet composition and quality suggest that herbivores may select different plant species within similar plant group types, or different plant parts and that this, along with other behavioural mechanisms of ecological niche segregation, may contribute to the coexistence of large herbivores of relatively similar body mass, as observed in mountain ecosystems. PMID:24586233

  11. Type A behaviour and consumption of an atherogenic diet: no association in the PRIME study.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M; Woodside, J V; Yarnell, J W G; Arveiler, D; Haas, B; Amouyel, P; Montaye, M; Ferrières, J; Ruidavets, J B; Ducimetière, P; Bingham, A; Evans, A

    2007-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that the association between Type A behaviour and coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated through diet. This analysis investigates associations between Type A behaviour and diet, with particular focus on foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol (cake, cheese, eggs and fried potatoes), foods high in unsaturated fats (fish and nuts), and fruit and vegetables. The analysis was conducted on data collected from 10,602 men from Northern Ireland and France screened for inclusion in the PRIME cohort study. Type A behaviour was measured using the Framingham Type A Behaviour Patterns Questionnaire, diet was measured using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and various demographic details were also assessed. Levels of Type A behaviour and intakes of all food groups were similar to previous studies. Using regression, Type A behaviour was significantly associated with diet, and specifically with a higher consumption of cheese and vegetables in Northern Ireland, and a higher consumption of cake, fish and vegetables in France. These associations are most plausibly explained as a result of lifestyle, although the possibility of independent associations between Type A behaviour and diet remains. The work is limited by the use of questionnaires, but the findings available suggest that Type A behaviour is unlikely to be associated with the consumption of a diet that has previously been linked to CHD. These findings suggest that any association between Type A behaviour and CHD is unlikely to be mediated through diet. PMID:17498842

  12. Significance of diet type and diet quality for ecological diversity of African ungulates.

    PubMed

    Codron, Daryl; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Sponheimer, Matt; Codron, Jacqui; DE Ruiter, Darryl; Brink, James S

    2007-05-01

    1. We test two nutritional hypotheses for the ecological diversity of ungulates, the browser/grazer (diet type) and diet quality models, among free-ranging herbivores in a South African savanna, the Kruger National Park. Tests are based on assessment of relationships between diet type and diet quality with body mass and hypsodonty, two morphological features that have been associated with both elements. 2. We use stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces to reconstruct diet in terms of proportions of C(3) plants (browse) and C(4) plants (grass) consumed by different species in different seasons. These data are combined with proxies for diet quality (per cent nitrogen, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin) from faeces to track changes in diet quality. 3. Two statistical approaches are used in model selection, i.e. tests of significant correlations based on linear regression analyses, and an information-theory approach (Akaike's Information Criterion) providing insight into strength of evidence for models. 4. Results of both methods show that, contrary to many predictions, body mass and diet type are not related, but these data confirm predictions that diet quality decreases with increasing body size, especially during the dry season. Hypsodonty, as expected, varies with diet type, increasing with increased grass intake. 5. These findings support both a diet type and diet quality model, implying some degree of exclusivity. We propose that congruence between models may be achieved through addition of diet quality proxies not included here, because hypsodonty is more likely a reflection of the abrasive properties of consumed foods, i.e. related to food quality, rather than food type. This implies that adaptation to diets of varying quality, through changes in body size and dental features, has been the primary mechanism for diversification in ungulates. 6. Our interpretation contrasts with several recent studies advocating diet type as

  13. Overall diet quality is not associated with diet cost among youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise; Lipsky, Leah; Mehta, Sanjeev; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of diet quality with diet cost in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom diet is an important component of medical management. Differences in food group spending by diet quality were also examined to identify potential budgetary reallocation to improve overall diet quality. Families of 252 youth with type 1 diabetes ages 8–18 years completed 3-day youth diet records. Cost of each food reported was calculated based on the average price obtained from two online grocery stores. Diet cost was estimated as average daily cost of foods consumed. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI2005), Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), and Whole Plant Food Density (WPFD) scores were evaluated. Differences in mean daily diet cost across tertiles of HEI2005, NRF9.3, and WPFD were modest, with none reaching statistical significance. Those in the upper tertile of HEI-2005 spent more on whole fruit, whole grains, lean meat, and low-fat dairy, and less on high-fat meat and high-fat dairy compared to those in the lower tertiles. Higher quality diets can be obtained at comparable costs to lesser quality diets, suggesting that cost need not be an insurmountable barrier to more healthful eating. Reallocation of spending may increase overall quality without substantially increasing overall spending. Findings suggest potential strategies for assisting families of youth with type 1 diabetes in identifying cost-effective ways to achieve a more healthful diet. PMID:25266245

  14. Factors Associated with Consumption of Diabetic Diet among Type 2 Diabetic Subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M.; Patel, Yash M.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the current situation of and factors associated with consumption of diabetic diet among 399 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects from Ahmedabad, Western India. The study was performed with diagnosed (at least one year old) diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya Hospital), Ahmedabad during July 2010–November 2010. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, behavioural profile, risk profile (glycaemic status, hypertension, and obesity), and diet-related history (consumption of diabetic diet, consumption of low fat/skimmed milk, method of cooking, and sources for diet advice). Blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting lipid profile were measured. All analyses including multivariate logistic regression were conducted using SPSS, version 11.5. In total, 399 T2DM subjects (65% male, 35% female) with mean age of 53.16±7.95 years were studied. Although 73% of T2DM subjects were consuming diabetic diet, the good glycaemic control (HbA1c level <7%) was achieved only in 35% of the subjects. The majority (75%) of the subjects had a positive family history of diabetes, and 52% were obese. In 77%, the main source of dietary advice was doctor. In 36%, the main methods of cooking were: boiling and roasting. The final multivariate model showed that visit to dietician, level of education, intake of low fat, and family history of diabetes were independent predictors for diabetic diet consumption among T2DM subjects. However, longitudinal and cohort studies are required to establish the association between consumption of diabetic diet and glycaemic control. PMID:23304911

  15. Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

    2001-09-01

    Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

  16. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. The objective was to compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. Th...

  17. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  18. Diet quality and psychosocial mediators in rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE: Obesity and its comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes, are largely preventable or modifiable through behavioral factors, such as dietary intake. We examined associations among diet quality, dietary intake, and psychosocial mediators of behavioral chan...

  19. Influences on the diet quality of preschool children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children’s quality of diet. Design Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child’s mealtime environment. Children’s diet quality was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet z-score was calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate whilst sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of take-away food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children’s quality of diet were examined, according to mothers cluster membership. Subjects 324 mother-child pairs, in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged between 2-5 years. Setting Hampshire, UK. Results Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster one had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster two (all P<0.001). Clusters were termed ‘more resilient’ and ‘less resilient’ respectively. Children of mothers in the less resilient cluster ate meals sitting at a table less often (p=0.03) and watched more television (p=0.01). These children had significantly poorer quality diets (β −0.61, 95% CI −0.82, −0.40, p=<0.001). This association was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for confounding factors, that included maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (p=0.006). Conclusion This study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children’s quality of diet. PMID:25409750

  20. Diets for disease? Intraurban variation in reported food consumption in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, A; Macintyre, S; Anderson, A

    1994-06-01

    A recent official report on the Scottish Diet reviews evidence for poor health and poor diets among the Scots, and makes extensive and specific recommendations about dietary change. This paper examines the extent to which reported consumption of fifteen of the food groups discussed in that report vary among four neighbourhoods in Glasgow City. Some foods appear to be typical of a wider Glaswegian (or Scottish) diet and show little variation among neighbourhoods (e.g. semi-skimmed milk, white fish, confectionery, cakes and pastries, savoury snacks). Other foods however show marked differences between neighbourhoods after controlling for sex, age and social class; these include fruit, vegetables, meat (particularly processed meat products), bread, spreading fats, sugar, natural fruit juice and alcohol. This suggests that such intraurban variations in food consumption cannot be explained simply by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors in individuals and that cultural and supply factors also need to be taken into account. PMID:7979343

  1. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...

  2. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  3. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  4. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  5. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  6. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  7. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  8. Vitamin D3: A Role in Dopamine Circuit Regulation, Diet-Induced Obesity, and Drug Consumption.

    PubMed

    Trinko, Joseph R; Land, Benjamin B; Solecki, Wojciech B; Wickham, Robert J; Tellez, Luis A; Maldonado-Aviles, Jaime; de Araujo, Ivan E; Addy, Nii A; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    The influence of micronutrients on dopamine systems is not well defined. Using mice, we show a potential role for reduced dietary vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in promoting diet-induced obesity (DIO), food intake, and drug consumption while on a high fat diet. To complement these deficiency studies, treatments with exogenous fully active vitamin D3 (calcitriol, 10 µg/kg, i.p.) were performed. Nondeficient mice that were made leptin resistant with a high fat diet displayed reduced food intake and body weight after an acute treatment with exogenous calcitriol. Dopamine neurons in the midbrain and their target neurons in the striatum were found to express vitamin D3 receptor protein. Acute calcitriol treatment led to transcriptional changes of dopamine-related genes in these regions in naive mice, enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in both naive mice and rats, and increased locomotor activity after acute amphetamine treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Alternatively, mice that were chronically fed either the reduced D3 high fat or chow diets displayed less activity after acute amphetamine treatment compared with their respective controls. Finally, high fat deficient mice that were trained to orally consume liquid amphetamine (90 mg/L) displayed increased consumption, while nondeficient mice treated with calcitriol showed reduced consumption. Our findings suggest that reduced dietary D3 may be a contributing environmental factor enhancing DIO as well as drug intake while eating a high fat diet. Moreover, these data demonstrate that dopamine circuits are modulated by D3 signaling, and may serve as direct or indirect targets for exogenous calcitriol. PMID:27257625

  9. Mushroom intake is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality: 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...

  10. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS. PMID:25984744

  11. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-05-01

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001-2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007-2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS. PMID:25984744

  12. Macronutrients, Diet Quality, and Frailty in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Shannon, Jackilen; Redden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frailty, a phenotype of multisystem impairment and expanding vulnerability, is associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes not entirely explained by advancing age. We investigated associations of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and overall diet quality with frailty status in older community-dwelling men. Methods. Participants were 5,925 men aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study at six U.S. centers. Diet was assessed at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire. We assessed frailty status (robust, intermediate, or frail) at baseline and at a second clinic visit (a mean of 4.6 years later) using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess associations between macronutrient intake, dietary fiber, and the Diet Quality Index Revised with frailty status at baseline and at the second clinic visit. Results. At baseline, 2,748 (46.4%) participants were robust, 2,681 (45.2%) were intermediate, and 496 (8.4%) were frail. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and dietary fiber showed no consistent associations with frailty status. Overall diet quality exhibited fairly consistent associations with frailty status. The Diet Quality Index Revised was inversely associated with frail status relative to robust status at the baseline visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.63; p for trend < .0001) and at the second clinic visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.97; p for trend = .0180). Conclusions. Overall diet quality was inversely associated with prevalent and future frailty status in this cohort of older men. PMID:24304504

  13. Impacts of traditional food consumption advisories: Compliance, changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Food consumption advisories are often posted when industrial activities are expected to affect the quality and availability of traditional foods used by First Nations. We were recently involved in a project and asked to summarize details regarding the impacts of traditional food consumption advisories with respect to compliance, broader changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods by people. Methods Our review was not conducted as a formal systematic comprehensive review; rather, we focused on primary and grey literature presenting academic, health practitioner and First Nations viewpoints on the topic available from literature databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of KnowledgeSM) as well as the internet search engine Google. Some information came from personal communications. Results Our overview suggests that when communicated effectively and clearly, and when community members are involved in the process, consumption advisories can result in a decrease in contaminant load in people. On the other hand, consumption advisories can lead to cultural loss and have been linked to a certain amount of social, psychological, nutritional, economic and lifestyle disruption. In some cases, communities have decided to ignore consumption advisories opting to continue with traditional lifestyles believing that the benefits of doing so outweigh the risk of following advisories. Conclusions We identified that there are both positive and negative aspects to the issuance of traditional food consumption advisories. A number of variables need to be recognized during the development and implementation of advisories in order to ensure a balance between human health, maintenance of cultures and industrial activity. PMID:21651789

  14. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and their impact on the diet of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata M; Motta, Janaína V Santos; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed foods, its associated factors, and its influence on nutrient intake in young adults. METHODS In 2004-2005, the individuals belonging to the Pelotas birth cohort of 1982 were identified for a home interview. A total of 4,297 individuals were interviewed and 4,202 individuals were included in the study (follow-up rate of 77.4%). Diet was assessed using a questionnaire on dietary intake and the percentage of daily caloric intake attributed to ultra-processed foods as well as the intake of macro- and micronutrients were estimated. The association between cohort characteristics and the consumption of ultra-processed foods was assessed using linear regression. Analysis of variance and Pearson’s Chi-square test were used to evaluate the association between the quintiles of the consumption of ultra-processed food, nutrient intake and adequacy of nutrient intake, respectively. RESULTS The consumption of ultra-processed foods corresponded to 51.2% of the total caloric intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among women, individuals with higher education, and individuals who were never poor and eutrophic. The increased consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively correlated with the consumption of fat, cholesterol, sodium, iron, calcium, and calories (p < 0.001) and was negatively correlated with the consumption of carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The high consumption of ultra-processed foods and its positive correlation with the intake of sodium, cholesterol, and fats underscores the need to perform interventions aimed at decreasing the intake of this food group. PMID:26018785

  15. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and their impact on the diet of young adults.

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata M; Motta, Janaína V Santos; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed foods, its associated factors, and its influence on nutrient intake in young adults. METHODS In 2004-2005, the individuals belonging to the Pelotas birth cohort of 1982 were identified for a home interview. A total of 4,297 individuals were interviewed and 4,202 individuals were included in the study (follow-up rate of 77.4%). Diet was assessed using a questionnaire on dietary intake and the percentage of daily caloric intake attributed to ultra-processed foods as well as the intake of macro- and micronutrients were estimated. The association between cohort characteristics and the consumption of ultra-processed foods was assessed using linear regression. Analysis of variance and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to evaluate the association between the quintiles of the consumption of ultra-processed food, nutrient intake and adequacy of nutrient intake, respectively. RESULTS The consumption of ultra-processed foods corresponded to 51.2% of the total caloric intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among women, individuals with higher education, and individuals who were never poor and eutrophic. The increased consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively correlated with the consumption of fat, cholesterol, sodium, iron, calcium, and calories (p < 0.001) and was negatively correlated with the consumption of carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The high consumption of ultra-processed foods and its positive correlation with the intake of sodium, cholesterol, and fats underscores the need to perform interventions aimed at decreasing the intake of this food group. PMID:26018785

  16. Maternal high-fat diet consumption impairs exercise performance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Walter, Isabel; Klaus, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to scrutinise the influence of maternal high-fat diet (mHFD) consumption during gestation and lactation on exercise performance and energy metabolism in male mouse offspring. Female C3H/HeJ mice were fed either a semi-synthetic high-fat diet (HFD; 40 % energy from fat) or a low-fat diet (LFD; 10 % energy from fat) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both groups received the LFD. At the age of 7·5 weeks half of the maternal LFD (n 20) and the mHFD (n 21) groups were given access to a running wheel for 28 d as a voluntary exercise training opportunity. We show that mHFD consumption led to a significantly reduced exercise performance (P < 0·05) and training efficiency (P < 0·05) in male offspring. There were no effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight. Lipid and glucose metabolism was disturbed in mHFD offspring, with altered regulation of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) (P < 0·001), fatty acid synthase (P < 0·05) and GLUT1 (P < 0·05) gene expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, maternal consumption of a HFD is linked to decreased exercise performance and training efficiency in the offspring. We speculate that this may be due to insufficient muscle energy supply during prolonged exercise training. Further, this compromised exercise performance might increase the risk of obesity development in adult life. PMID:26101629

  17. Impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk ...

  18. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M.H.; Jones, Jason P.H.; Jones, Peter J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. Design A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1) identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2) assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3) impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Results Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0–62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the ‘very-pessimistic’ through ‘ideal’ scenarios. Conclusions Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world. PMID:26111965

  19. Snacking is associated with overall diet quality among adults.

    PubMed

    Zizza, Claire A; Xu, Beibei

    2012-02-01

    Snacking occasions are considered to contribute little more than energy to the diet; however, few studies have examined the role of snacking on overall diet quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and overall diet quality. This study included 11,209 adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 were used to assess snacking frequency and diet quality. Diet quality was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). To adjust for confounding variables, multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the association between snacking frequency and HEI-2005 score, whereas the relationship between snacking frequency and HEI-2005 component scores were examined with Tobit regression models. Contrary to expectation, snacking was modestly associated (P<0.001) with higher total HEI-2005 scores (49.3±0.5, 49.9±0.3, 50.9±0.3, 51.9±0.4, and 51.6±0.6 for snacking zero, one, two, three, and four or more times per day, respectively). Total fruit (P<0.001), whole fruit (P<0.001), whole grains (P<0.001), milk (P<0.001), oils (P<0.001), and sodium (P<0.001) component scores were positively associated with snacking frequency. Inverse associations between snacking frequency and total vegetables (P=0.009); meat and beans (P=0.045); and the energy from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugars (P=0.007) components were observed. Although the magnitude of the association between snacking and overall diet quality was modest, snacking was associated with a more nutrient-dense diet. Focusing on the contribution snacking may have on single nutrient intakes may overlook its total nutritional impact. PMID:22741170

  20. Examining energy density: comments on diet quality, dietary advice, and the cost of healthy eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a research editorial which analyzes a paper on the dietary quality of low-energy-dense diets. The editorial critically evaluates the article, providing comments on diet quality, dietary advice, and the cost of healthy eating....

  1. Maternal diet during early childhood, but not pregnancy, predicts diet quality and fruit and vegetable acceptance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Hure, Alexis J; Jensen, Megan; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Studies have identified prenatal flavour exposure as a determinant of taste preferences in infants; however, these studies have focused on relatively small samples and limited flavours. As many parents struggle with getting children to accept a variety of nutritious foods, a study of the factors influencing food acceptance is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to a wider variety of fruit and vegetables and overall higher diet quality in utero results in acceptance of a greater variety of these foods and better diet quality for offspring during childhood. This study is a secondary data analysis of pregnant women (n = 52) and their resulting offspring recruited for the Women and Their Children's Health study in NSW, Australia. Dietary intake of mothers and children was measured using food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and vegetable and fruit variety were calculated using the Australian Recommended Food Score and the Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score. Associations between maternal and child diet quality and variety were assessed using Pearson's correlations and the total effect of in utero maternal pregnancy diet on childhood diet was decomposed into direct and indirect effect using mediation analysis. Maternal pregnancy and post-natal diet were both correlated with child diet for overall diet quality and fruit and vegetable variety (P < 0.001). Mediation analyses showed that the indirect effect of maternal pregnancy diet on child diet was mediated through maternal post-natal diet, particularly for fruit (P = 0.045) and vegetables (P = 0.055). Nutrition intervention should therefore be aimed at improving diet quality and variety in mothers with young children, in order to subsequently improve eating habits of offspring. PMID:25294406

  2. [Data quality in surveys on alcohol consumption among university students].

    PubMed

    Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Different survey modalities have been developed to assess alcohol consumption and related problems. Research that compares data quality between survey modalities is scarce in Latin America. The aim of this study was to assess data quality in three survey modalities on alcohol consumption: self-administered online, self-administered hard-copy, and face-to-face interviews. Data were obtained from three probabilistic samples of students (n = 60 each) from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina, using the same questionnaire. Data quality was measured for each modality by overall response rate, item response rate, and accuracy. Data accuracy was evaluated as the percentage of self-reported binge drinking, positive results on AUDIT, and internal consistency of AUDIT for each modality. The overall and item response rates were lower in the online modality and similar between the other two. No differences were found between modalities in the accuracy of responses. PMID:25715290

  3. Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Paweł; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Smol, Ewelina; Pilis, Tomasz; Pilis, Wiesław; Sadowska-Krepa, Ewa; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Nauman, Janusz; Stańczak, Kinga; Langfort, Józef

    2008-12-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted diets have been recommended for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but their long-term effects have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (>1 year) consumption of a low-CHO high-fat diet ("The optimal diet," developed by Dr Kwaśniewski referenced herein) on lipid profile, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects. Of 31 "optimal" dieters enrolled in the study (17 women and 14 men, aged 51.7+/-16.6 years), 22 declared adherence to the diet for more than 3 years. Average energy intake and principal nutrients consumed were assessed from 6-day dietary records provided by the participants. In most dieters, concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol exceeded the upper limits of the reference ranges for nonstarved subjects. The metabolic profiles of most subjects were positive for several indicators, including relatively low concentrations of triacylglycerols, high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and normal ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C. In most subjects, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, homocysteine, glycerol, and C-reactive protein were within reference ranges. Notably, in all but one subject, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance remained below the threshold for diagnosis of insulin resistance. These results indicate that long-term (>1 year) compliance with a low-CHO high-fat "optimal diet" does not induce deleterious metabolic effects and does not increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by maintenance of adequate glycemic control and relatively low values for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:19083495

  4. The association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet and diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Stea, Tonje Holte; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Andersen, Lene Frost; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported a positive association between scoring on healthy Nordic diet scales and the intake of healthy foods and nutrients, and also with higher intake of meat, sweets, cakes, and energy in general. These studies have used the same food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses for constructing the diet score as for calculating intakes of foods and nutrients. Thus, it is not clear whether the coexistence of healthy and less healthy dietary aspects among adherers to Nordic diets would occur even though separate methods were applied for exploring these relations. Objective To assess the association between adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND), derived from an FFQ, and diet quality, determined from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Design In total, 65 parents of toddlers in Southern Norway answered the NND FFQ and two 24-h dietary recall interviews. NND adherence was determined from the FFQ and categorized into low, medium, and high adherence. The two 24-h recalls provided data for the intake of specific foods and nutrients, selected on the basis of the Norwegian food-based guidelines as an indicator of a healthy diet. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for assessing differences in food and nutrient intake across NND groups. Results High NND adherence derived from FFQ was associated with a high intake of fruits (p=0.004) and fiber (p=0.02), and a low intake of meat (p=0.004) and margarines (p=0.05), derived from recalls. A larger proportion of high NND adherers (68%) complied with the national dietary recommendation targeting meat intake compared with low NND adherers (29%) (p=0.04). Conclusion The present study showed that higher NND adherence measured with FFQ was associated with a higher intake of selected healthy foods and nutrients, measured with recalls. However, a higher intake of meat, sweets, and energy, as earlier reported, was not observed. PMID:27257844

  5. Optimism and diet quality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Tindle, Hilary A; Tinker, Lesley; Seguin, Rebecca A; Rosal, Milagros C; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2014-07-01

    Diet quality has not been well studied in relation to positive psychological traits. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between optimism and diet quality in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (OS) and clinical trials (CTs), and to determine whether optimism was associated with diet change after a 1-year dietary intervention. Diet quality was scored with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and optimism assessed with the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Baseline characteristics were compared across AHEI quintiles or optimism tertiles using regression models with each variable of interest as a function of quintiles or tertiles (OS, n=87,630; CT, n=65,360). Association between optimism and baseline AHEI and change in AHEI over 1 year were tested using multivariate linear regression (CT, n=13,645). Potential interaction between optimism and trial arm and demographic/lifestyle factors on AHEI change was tested using likelihood ratio test (CT intervention, n=13,645; CT control, n=20,242). Women reporting high AHEI were non-Hispanic white, educated, physically active, past or never smokers, hormone therapy users, had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and were less likely to have chronic conditions. In the CT intervention, higher optimism was associated with higher AHEI at baseline and with greater change over 1 year (P=0.001). Effect modification by intervention status was observed (P=0.014), whereas control participants with highest optimism achieved threefold greater AHEI increase compared with those with the lowest optimism. These data support a relationship between optimism and dietary quality score in postmenopausal women at baseline and over 1 year. PMID:24556429

  6. Predicting diet and consumption rate differences between and within species using gut ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Mosblack, Hallie

    2011-07-01

    1. Rapid environmental changes and pressing human needs to forecast the consequences of environmental change are increasingly driving ecology to become a predictive science. The need for effective prediction requires both the development of new tools and the refocusing of existing tools that may have previously been used primarily for purposes other than prediction. One such tool that historically has been more descriptive in nature is ecomorphology (the study of relationships between ecological roles and morphological adaptations of species and individuals). 2. Here, we examine relationships between diet and gut morphology for 15 species of brachyuran crabs, a group of pervasive and highly successful consumers for which trophic predictions would be highly valuable. 3. We show that patterns in crab stomach volume closely match some predictions of metabolic theory and demonstrate that individual diet differences and associated morphological variation reflect, at least in some instances, individual choice or diet specialization. 4. We then present examples of how stomach volume can be used to predict both the per cent herbivory of brachyuran crabs and the relative consumption rates of individual crabs. PMID:21418211

  7. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  8. Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Epel, Elissa S; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Crawford, Patricia B; Laraia, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Food insecurity acts as a chronic stressor independent of poverty. Food-insecure adults may consume more highly palatable foods as a coping mechanism, leading to poorer diet quality and increased risks of chronic disease over time. Using data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, this study aimed to examine the cross-sectional differences in dietary intake and diet quality by household food security among 8,129 lower-income adults (≤300% of the federal poverty level). Food insecurity was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-hour recalls and diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010. Relative mean differences in dietary outcomes by household food security were estimated using linear regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Lower-income food-insecure adults reported higher consumption of some highly palatable foods, including high-fat dairy products (P trend<0.0001) and salty snacks (P trend=0.01) compared with lower-income food-secure adults. Food insecurity was also associated with more sugar-sweetened beverages (P trend=0.003); more red/processed meat (P trend=0.005); more nuts, seeds, and legumes (P trend=0.0006); fewer vegetables (P trend<0.0001); and fewer sweets and bakery desserts (P trend=0.0002). No differences were observed for intakes of total energy and macronutrients. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower Healthy Eating Index-2005 (P trend<0.0001) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (P trend<0.0001). Despite no macronutrient differences, food insecurity was associated with characteristics of poor diet quality known to increase chronic disease risk. PMID:25091796

  9. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  10. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Study Selection: Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Data Extraction: Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Data Synthesis: Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. PMID:26307238

  11. Diet Quality of Young Adults Enrolling in TXT2BFiT, a Mobile Phone-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    McGeechan, Kevin; Wong, Annette TY; Partridge, Stephanie R; Balestracci, Kate; Roy, Rajshri; Hebden, Lana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adulthood is associated with poor dietary habits and vulnerability to weight gain. Population studies have revealed that inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, excessive sugar-sweetened beverages, and frequent takeaway food consumption are dietary habits requiring intervention. Objective The aim was to examine the dietary patterns and diet quality of overweight young adults on enrollment into a mobile phone–based healthy lifestyle (mHealth) intervention, TXT2BFiT. Methods Baseline diets were analyzed using the online Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies version 2. The Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA) based on the 2013 Dietary Guidelines, was used to rate individual diets according to intake of core foods and deleterious nutrients including sugar, sodium, saturated fat, and alcohol. Findings were compared with the 2011 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). Gender differences were assessed with t tests and chi-square tests. ANOVA models were used to determine linear trends of core and noncore food intake and nutrients across quartiles of HEIFA scores. Associations between HEIFA score, sugar-sweetened beverages, and takeaway food consumption were assessed using linear regression analysis. Results Diets of 230 participants (females: n=141; males: n=89; body mass index: mean 27.2, SD 2.5 kg/m2) were analyzed. The mean diet quality score was 45.4 (SD 8.8, range 21.7-77.0) out of 100 points, with no significant difference between genders. Compared with the NNPAS data for adults aged 19-30 years, this cohort had a lower intake of some core foods and higher intake of alcohol and saturated fat. Better quality diets were associated with higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and wholegrains (P<.001). Takeaway food (P=.01) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (P<.001) were negatively associated with diet quality. Conclusions Overweight young adults had poorer diets compared with the reference

  12. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  13. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  14. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  15. The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability.

    PubMed

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Symondson, William O C; Broders, Hugh; Fabianek, François; Fraser, Erin E; MacKenzie, Alistair; Boughen, Andrew; Hamilton, Rachel; Willis, Craig K R; Martinez-Nuñez, Felix; Menzies, Allyson K; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Brigham, Mark; Poissant, Joseph; Rintoul, Jody; Barclay, Robert M R; Reimer, Jesika P

    2014-08-01

    Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural monoculture farms, and in urban and unmodified areas. We recognized nearly 600 distinct species of prey, of which ≈30% could be identified using reference sequence libraries. We found a higher than expected use of lepidopterans, which comprised a range of dietary richness from ≈35% early in the summer to ≈55% by late summer. Diptera were the second largest prey group consumed, representing ≈45% of dietary diversity early in the summer. We observed extreme local dietary variability and variation among seasons and years. Based on the species of insects that were consumed, we observed that two locations support prey species with extremely low pollution and acidification tolerances, suggesting that these are areas without environmental contamination. We conclude that there is significant local population variability in little brown bat diet that is likely driven by seasonal and geographical changes in insect diversity, and that this prey may be a good indicator of environment quality. PMID:24274182

  16. A prospective study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Grove, J S; Stemmermann, G N; Severson, R K

    1990-02-01

    From 1965 to 1968 in Hawaii, 7990 American men of Japanese ancestry were interviewed and examined in a cohort study. The intake of 20 separate foods in a food frequency questionnaire and the intake of carbohydrate and other nutrients, based on a 24-h diet recall history, were recorded. Since then, 150 incident cases of stomach cancer have been identified. Although men with stomach cancer (cases) consumed pickles and ham/bacon/sausages more often and fruits and fried vegetables less often than men without cancer (noncases), none of the differences was statistically significant. Current cigarette smokers had an increased risk (relative risk = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.8 to 4.1) compared with nonsmokers, but there was no dose-response effect with heavier cigarette smoking. The consumption of alcohol, either from beer, spirits, or wine, did not affect the incidence of stomach cancer. The failure to detect an association with dietary foods in this study may be due to the omission of many oriental foods in the questionnaire and the limitations of the 24-h diet recall history. PMID:2297702

  17. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  18. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories. PMID:25765134

  19. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  20. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands

  1. [Diet quality and mortality in elderly people living in Warsaw Region].

    PubMed

    Frackiewicz, Joanna; Roszkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Anna; Kałuza, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indicators of diet quality and all-cause mortality in a group of elderly people. The study was carried out among 411 participants aged 75-80 years (190 men and 221 women). During this study 78 men (42%) and 79 women (36.6%) died. Quality of diet was evaluated using following indicators: Greek Mediterranean Diet Score (GMDS), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Diet Quality Index (DQI), and Diet Quality Index-Revised (DQI-R). Among men there were not significant relationships between all-cause mortality and diet quality measured by the indicators. While the risk of all-cause mortality was statistically significantly lower in women with lower HDI (RR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.37-0.99) and DQI-R (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37-0.96) compared to women with higher quality of diet. A similar tendency was shown for MDS indicator (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40-1.05). It was concluded that indicators used to assessment of diet quality were not good predictors of mortality in Polish population. Therefore to continue study in this field it is necessary to create new diet quality indicator more suitable to nutritional habits in Poland. PMID:20499672

  2. Influences on the quality of young children's diets: the importance of maternal food choices.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Catherine M; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    It is recognised that eating habits established in early childhood may track into adult life. Developing effective interventions to promote healthier patterns of eating throughout the life course requires a greater understanding of the diets of young children and the factors that influence early dietary patterns. In a longitudinal UK cohort study, we assessed the diets of 1640 children at age 3 years using an interviewer-administered FFQ and examined the influence of maternal and family factors on the quality of the children's diets. To describe dietary quality, we used a principal components analysis-defined pattern of foods that is consistent with healthy eating recommendations. This was termed a 'prudent' diet pattern and was characterised by high intakes of fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread, but by low intakes of white bread, confectionery, chips and roast potatoes. The key influence on the quality of the children's diets was the quality of their mother's diets; alone it accounted for almost a third of the variance in child's dietary quality. Mothers who had better-quality diets, which complied with dietary recommendations, were more likely to have children with comparable diets. This relationship remained strong even after adjustment for all other factors considered, including maternal educational attainment, BMI and smoking, and the child's birth order and the time spent watching television. Our data provide strong evidence of shared family patterns of diet and suggest that interventions to improve the quality of young women's diets could be effective in improving the quality of their children's diets. PMID:20807465

  3. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  4. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources. PMID:26244601

  5. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  6. Early consumption of blueberry diet protects against sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss in adult female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of blueberry consumption in early development on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats later in life. Weanling female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder from PND 21 to PND34 (short-term group), or PND21 to PND81 (chro...

  7. Comparisons of pollen substitute diets for honey bees: consumption rates by colonies and effects on brood and adult populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available pollen substitute diets for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for consumption and colony growth (brood and adult populations) and compared with pollen cake and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two trials were conducted; the first for 3 months during the fall and w...

  8. Effects of dietary consumption of cranberry powder on metabolic parameters in growing rats fed high fructose diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary consumption of a cranberry powder (CP) containing increased amounts of procyanidins and other phytochemicals on metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome was investigated in growing rats fed a high fructose diet. Dietary treatments were control (starch based), hig...

  9. Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Methods: Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Results: Dietary quality was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. Conclusions: The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while foods of the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks, were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. PMID:26122208

  10. Neighborhood availability of convenience stores and diet quality: findings from 20 years of follow-up in CARDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between neighborhood convenience stores and diet outcomes over 20 years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS We used dietary data from CARDIA exam years 1985–6, 1992–3, and 2005–6 (n=3,299) and geographically and temporally matched neighborhood-level food resource (Dun & Bradstreet) and US Census data. We used random-effects repeated measures regression to estimate associations between availability of neighborhood convenience stores with diet outcomes, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, greater availability of neighborhood convenience stores was associated with lower diet quality (mean score=66.3, SD=13.0) for participants with lower (versus higher) individual-level income (β, −2.40; 95% CI: −3.30, −1.51); associations at higher individual-level income were weaker. We observed similar associations with whole grain consumption across time, but no statistically significant associations with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, snacks, processed meats, fruits, or vegetables. CONCLUSIONS Convenience stores may promote lower quality diets. Furthermore, low-income individuals may be most sensitive to convenience store availability, and thus may benefit most from improvements to the food environment. PMID:25790410

  11. A cohort study on diet and the risk of Parkinson's disease: the role of food groups and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Sääksjärvi, K; Knekt, P; Lundqvist, A; Männistö, S; Heliövaara, M; Rissanen, H; Järvinen, R

    2013-01-28

    Previous studies on individual foods and nutrients and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk have been inconsistent. Furthermore, only one study has examined the association between the quality of diet and PD. We investigated the prediction of food groups and diet quality on PD in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Survey (1966-72). The population comprised 4524 individuals, aged 40-79 years and free from PD at baseline. Data collection included health examinations, a questionnaire and a 1-year dietary history interview. A modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index was formed to assess diet quality. Statistical analyses were based on Cox's model. During a 41-year follow-up, eighty-five incident cases of PD occurred. No statistically significant associations were found between PD incidence and most of the food groups examined. A few exceptions were fruits and berries in men and milk in women, which showed positive associations. An inverse association between the intake of meat products and PD was found in women. The diet quality index did not predict PD, the adjusted relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles being 1.83 (95 % CI 0.65, 5.18) in men and 0.97 (95 % CI 0.38, 2.48) in women. The present study suggests that since most of the single food groups or the quality of diet did not predict PD occurrence, the role of diet is apparently rather modest. PMID:22716925

  12. The Nutrient Balance Concept: A New Quality Metric for Composite Meals and Diets

    PubMed Central

    Fern, Edward B; Watzke, Heribert; Barclay, Denis V.; Roulin, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background Combinations of foods that provide suitable levels of nutrients and energy are required for optimum health. Currently, however, it is difficult to define numerically what are ‘suitable levels’. Objective To develop new metrics based on energy considerations—the Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC)—for assessing overall nutrition quality when combining foods and meals. Method The NBC was developed using the USDA Food Composition Database (Release 27) and illustrated with their MyPlate 7-day sample menus for a 2000 calorie food pattern. The NBC concept is centered on three specific metrics for a given food, meal or diet—a Qualifying Index (QI), a Disqualifying Index (DI) and a Nutrient Balance (NB). The QI and DI were determined, respectively, from the content of 27 essential nutrients and 6 nutrients associated with negative health outcomes. The third metric, the Nutrient Balance (NB), was derived from the Qualifying Index (QI) and provided key information on the relative content of qualifying nutrients in the food. Because the Qualifying and Disqualifying Indices (QI and DI) were standardized to energy content, both become constants for a given food/meal/diet and a particular consumer age group, making it possible to develop algorithms for predicting nutrition quality when combining different foods. Results Combining different foods into composite meals and daily diets led to improved nutrition quality as seen by QI values closer to unity (indicating nutrient density was better equilibrated with energy density), DI values below 1.0 (denoting an acceptable level of consumption of disqualifying nutrients) and increased NB values (signifying complementarity of foods and better provision of qualifying nutrients). Conclusion The Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC) represents a new approach to nutrient profiling and the first step in the progression from the nutrient evaluation of individual foods to that of multiple foods in the context of meals and total

  13. Mangoes are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies assessing mango consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. This study assessed these associations using a nationally representative sample of children 2-18 years old (n=11,974; 50% female) and adults 19+ years (n=17,568; 48.8% femal...

  14. Deleterious effects in mice of fish-associated methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Western populations' average fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Fujimura, Masatake; Laclau, Muriel; Sawada, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. Only a few contradictory epidemiological studies are currently available examining the impact of fish consumption on human populations. In the present study, we wanted to address whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Western populations could result in observable adverse effects in mice, and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of MeHg, if any. In Europe and the United States, fish consumption varies widely between countries, from 11 to 100 g fish/day. A mid-range value of 25 g fish/day corresponds to a fish contribution to the total diet of 1.25% on a dry weight basis. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mouse diet with 1.25% of lyophilized salmon flesh (SAL diet), or 1.25% of a blend of lyophilized cod, tuna, and swordfish (CTS diet). Total mercury contents were 1.15±0.15, 2.3±0.1 and 35.75±0.15 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control, SAL and CTS diets, respectively. After two months feeding, the CTS diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and SAL diets, encompassing decreased body growth, altered behavioral performance and increased anxiety level, modification of mitochondrial respiratory protein subunit concentrations in kidney and brain structures, modified gene expression patterns in kidneys, liver and muscles, and a decrease of dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus and striatum. Our findings have health implications, firstly because 1.25% of CTS flesh in the diet corresponds to an average exposure to MeHg below the WHO provisory tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (1.6 μg MeHg/kg of body weight/week), and secondly because many people in Western populations, among them women of child-bearing age, are exceeding the PTWI value (for instance, 35% of the French population inhabiting the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). PMID

  15. Effect of diet quality on mussel biomarker responses to pollutants.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Lacroix, Camille; Paul-Pont, Ika; Le Grand, Fabienne; Albentosa, Marina; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Campillo, Juan A; Hegaret, Helene; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the quality of two microalgal species on select biological and biochemical responses used as indicators of pollution were assessed. Mussels were conditioned for 6 weeks with the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra, chosen for being two clearly different types of primary production quality that differ in both biometric and biochemical characteristics. After dietary conditioning, the mussels were exposed to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLU), for 1 week followed by 1 week of depuration. Results showed higher FLU accumulation in mussels fed on C. neogracile compared to those fed on H. triquetra. Concomitantly, a greater impact of this toxicant was observed in the biomarker responses of mussels fed on C. neogracile. These mussels showed an increase in the percentage of dead hemocytes, an activation of phagocytosis and ROS production of hemocytes after exposure. Some enzymatic activities also increased upon FLU exposure (superoxide dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, and glutathione reductases -GR-) and after depuration (glutathione-s-transferase -GST-). Results suggest that FLU exposure as well as food quality influence biomarker responses, with higher values of SOD, CAT and GR in non-exposed mussels fed on C. neogracile. In addition, upon exposure to the same FLU concentration, GR response varied according to dietary conditioning, suggesting that diet could act as a confounding factor in biomarker responses to pollution. Consequently, trophic conditions should be considered in marine pollution monitoring programs for a better interpretation of biomarker responses. PMID:27300503

  16. Consumption of Clarified Grapefruit Juice Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Weight Gain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L.; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25–50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13–17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  17. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  18. Diet-Quality Scores and Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population Study Using Proton-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an alternative approach to examine the association between diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the association of two diet-quality scores, namely Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with NAFLD prevalence. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (332 male, 465 female) aged 18 years or above were recruited through a population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. DQI-I and MDS, as well as major food group and nutrient intakes were calculated based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at ≥5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each diet-quality score or dietary component and prevalent NAFLD with adjustment for potential lifestyle, metabolic and genetic factors. A total of 220 subjects (27.6%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. DQI-I but not MDS was associated with the prevalence of NAFLD. A 10-unit decrease in DQI-I was associated with 24% increase in the likelihood of having NAFLD in the age and sex adjusted model (95% CI: 1.06–1.45, p = 0.009), and the association remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other lifestyle factors, metabolic and genetic factors [OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54), p = 0.027]. Multivariate regression analyses showed an inverse association of the intake of vegetables and legumes, fruits and dried fruits, as well as vitamin C with the NAFLD prevalence (p<0.05). In conclusion, a better diet quality as characterized by a higher DQI-I and a higher consumption of vegetables, legumes and fruits was associated with a reduced likelihood of having NAFLD in Hong Kong Chinese. PMID:26418083

  19. Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood. Methods At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR. Results Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF. Conclusion These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection. PMID:20920272

  20. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  1. Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  2. Development of a diet quality index with special reference to micronutrient adequacy for adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tupe, Rama

    2010-06-01

    Recent dietary guidelines emphasize micronutrient sufficiency by giving importance to consumption of whole grains and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to identify a measure of micronutrient quality of diets in adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet. Data were collected on the nutritional status of 630 schoolgirls (ages 10 to 16 years) from Pune city, India, in a cross-sectional survey during 2006-2007. Dietary intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Indian nutritive value databases. Micronutrient adequacy was expressed as a ratio of observed intake to reference intake. An Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) was formulated using the Indian and the recent US dietary guidelines. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma levels of vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc. The average energy intake of the majority of the girls was below the Indian recommended dietary intakes, whereas micronutrient intakes were 50% to 70% lower than recommended dietary intakes. The mean AMQI score was 41.5+/-9.4. The age of subjects as well as mother's education and occupation were significantly associated with the AMQI. The AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and the ratio of observed intake to reference intake (P<0.01) after controlling for energy intake and sociodemographic factors. Higher AMQI scores were associated with higher concentrations of plasma vitamin C (r=0.26), beta carotene (r=0.34), and zinc (r=0.12). The AMQI is a useful measure of the dietary adequacy and micronutrient quality of the diets of adolescent girls consuming lacto-vegetarian diets. PMID:20497784

  3. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  4. Diet Quality Is Low among Female Food Pantry Clients in Eastern Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Patricia; Zizza, Claire; Jacoby, Jocelynn; Tayie, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine diet quality, food security, and obesity among female food pantry clients. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A food pantry in Lee County, Alabama. Participants: Fifty-five female food pantry clients between 19 and 50 years of age. Main Outcome Measure(s): Diet quality using United States (US) Department of Agriculture…

  5. Childhood Obesity and Association with Lower Diet Quality in US Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While overweight children consume adequate calories, little is known regarding the quality of their diets. We sought to compare the diet quality of children in the US by their weight status and identify other correlates of dietary inadequacy. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a nationally r...

  6. Vegetable variety is a key to improved diet quality in low-income women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include recommendations for quantity and quality of vegetable intake. The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between variety of vegetable intake and measures of diet quality and diet cost in a sample of low-income women in Califor...

  7. DIET QUALITY SCORES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the mechanisms linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between several diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Diet-quality scores on the Healthy Eating Index (H...

  8. Diet quality and the nighttime eating habits of breakfast skippers: Does stress play a role?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Previous studies suggest that eating breakfast is associated with better diet quality, but reasons underlying this relationship are not clear. Objective. Our objective was to assess diet quality of women with established breakfast habits and determine if stress or cognitive function cont...

  9. Chronic coffee consumption in the diet-induced obese rat: impact on gut microbiota and serum metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Theresa E; Palmnäs, Marie S A; Yang, Jaeun; Bomhof, Marc R; Ardell, Kendra L; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Shearer, Jane

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological data confirms a strong negative association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Coffee is initially absorbed in the stomach and small intestine but is further fermented in the colon by gut microbiota. The bioavailability, production and biological activity of coffee polyphenols is modulated, in part, by gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic coffee consumption could mitigate negative gut microbiota and metabolomic profile changes induced by a high-fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to chow (12% kcal fat) or high-fat (60% kcal fat) diet. Each group was further divided into water or caffeinated coffee for 10 weeks. Coffee consumption in high-fat-fed rats was associated with decreased body weight, adiposity, liver triglycerides and energy intake. Despite a more favorable body composition, rats displayed profound systemic insulin resistance, likely due to caffeine. Coffee consumption attenuated the increase in Firmicutes (F)-to-Bacteroidetes (B) ratio and Clostridium Cluster XI normally associated with high-fat feeding but also resulted in augmented levels of Enterobacteria. In the serum metabolome, coffee had a distinct impact, increasing levels of aromatic and circulating short-chain fatty acids while lowering levels of branched-chain amino acids. In summary, coffee consumption is able to alter gut microbiota in high-fat-fed rats although the role of these changes in reducing diabetes risk is unclear given the increased insulin resistance observed with coffee in this study. PMID:24629912

  10. Vitamin D3: A Role in Dopamine Circuit Regulation, Diet-Induced Obesity, and Drug Consumption123

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B.; Wickham, Robert J.; Maldonado-Aviles, Jaime; de Araujo, Ivan E.; Addy, Nii A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The influence of micronutrients on dopamine systems is not well defined. Using mice, we show a potential role for reduced dietary vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in promoting diet-induced obesity (DIO), food intake, and drug consumption while on a high fat diet. To complement these deficiency studies, treatments with exogenous fully active vitamin D3 (calcitriol, 10 µg/kg, i.p.) were performed. Nondeficient mice that were made leptin resistant with a high fat diet displayed reduced food intake and body weight after an acute treatment with exogenous calcitriol. Dopamine neurons in the midbrain and their target neurons in the striatum were found to express vitamin D3 receptor protein. Acute calcitriol treatment led to transcriptional changes of dopamine-related genes in these regions in naive mice, enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in both naive mice and rats, and increased locomotor activity after acute amphetamine treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Alternatively, mice that were chronically fed either the reduced D3 high fat or chow diets displayed less activity after acute amphetamine treatment compared with their respective controls. Finally, high fat deficient mice that were trained to orally consume liquid amphetamine (90 mg/L) displayed increased consumption, while nondeficient mice treated with calcitriol showed reduced consumption. Our findings suggest that reduced dietary D3 may be a contributing environmental factor enhancing DIO as well as drug intake while eating a high fat diet. Moreover, these data demonstrate that dopamine circuits are modulated by D3 signaling, and may serve as direct or indirect targets for exogenous calcitriol. PMID:27257625

  11. Lower fat and better quality diet therapy for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Rim; Kim, Heung Dong

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established, effective, nonpharmacologic treatment for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the KD is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, it is too restrictive and is associated with serious complications; therefore, alternative lower-fat diets, including a modified Atkins diet and low-glycemic index diet, have been developed. Recent ongoing clinical evidence suggests that other dietary therapies have an efficacy almost comparable to that of the KD. In addition, a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to increase the efficacy of diet therapy and reduce the complications of a high-fat diet. Here, we review the systematic information about lower-fat diets and better-quality dietary therapies and the current clinical status of each of these dietary approaches. PMID:24019842

  12. Lower fat and better quality diet therapy for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Rim; Kim, Heung Dong; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2013-08-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established, effective, nonpharmacologic treatment for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the KD is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, it is too restrictive and is associated with serious complications; therefore, alternative lower-fat diets, including a modified Atkins diet and low-glycemic index diet, have been developed. Recent ongoing clinical evidence suggests that other dietary therapies have an efficacy almost comparable to that of the KD. In addition, a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to increase the efficacy of diet therapy and reduce the complications of a high-fat diet. Here, we review the systematic information about lower-fat diets and better-quality dietary therapies and the current clinical status of each of these dietary approaches. PMID:24019842

  13. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (beta = -0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 +/- 25 kcal, NP 541 +/- 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 +/- 25 kcal, NP 506 +/- 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  14. The Effect of Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Overall Diet: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Sharon L; McKinley, Michelle C; Young, Ian S; Cardwell, Chris R; Woodside, Jayne V

    2016-04-01

    Increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with reduced risk of major diseases. However, it is unclear if health benefits are related to increased micronutrient intake or to improvements in overall diet profile. This review aimed to assess if increasing FV consumption had an impact on diet profile. In the systematic review, 12 studies revealed increases in micronutrient intakes, whilst the meta-analysis confirmed macronutrient findings from the systematic review showing no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in energy (kcals) in seven studies (mean difference = 1 kcals [95% CI = -115, 117]; p = 0.98), significant decreases in total fat (% energy) in five studies (Mean difference = -4% [95% CI = -5, -3]; p = < 0.00001) and significant increases in fiber in six studies (Mean difference = 5.36 g [95% CI = 4, 7]; p = < 0.00001) and total carbohydrate (% energy) in four studies (Mean = 4% [95% CI= 2, 5]; p = < 0.00001). In conclusion, results indicate that increased FV consumption increases micronutrient, carbohydrate and fiber intakes and possibly reduces fat intake, with no overall effect on energy intake. Therefore health benefits may act through an improvement in overall diet profile alongside increased micronutrient intakes. PMID:25118067

  15. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  16. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  17. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  18. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  19. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  20. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.; Reed, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus)) or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length) and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is common following

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  2. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.

    2002-01-01

    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  3. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  4. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  5. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low-quality diets.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Hernandez, G; Wallace, J D; Holechek, J L; Galyean, M L; Cardenas, M

    1991-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, four wether lambs (BW = 26.8 kg) and four wether Angora goats (BW = 31.7 kg) were used in two simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares to study the influence of condensed tannins (CT) on nutrient usage and concentrations of serum urea N, somatotropin (GH), and insulin (INS) when the animals were fed low-quality diets containing mountain mahogany (MM; Cercocarpus montanus) leaves. Diets were 8% CP and contained 25% or 50% MM (with hay or straw, respectively), either untreated or treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight 3,350) to reduce total reactive CT. Diets treated with PEG and 25% MM diets had less (P less than .05) CT than diets without PEG or those with 50% MM. Diets containing 50% MM resulted in greater N balance and lower serum urea N (P less than .01) than 25% MM diets. Concentrations of GH and INS were similar in animals fed the 25% and 50% MM diets. Reducing CT by adding PEG did not affect N balance or improve nutrient digestion by lambs or goats fed low-quality diets. In Exp. 2, four wether lambs (BW = 28.4 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed the same diets as animals in Exp. 1 to study the influence of CT on ruminal fermentation and digesta kinetics. Dietary PEG treatment did not affect digesta kinetics except for a 30% increase in ruminal volume; 50% MM diets had faster particulate passage rates (P less than .05) than 25% MM diets. Ruminal ammonia N was greater (P less than .01) in lambs fed PEG-containing or 25% MM diets; however, rate of in situ NDF disappearance was not reduced by the lower ammonia N in the latter diets. PMID:1648064

  6. Effects of high-fat diet on salivary α-amylase, serum parameters and food consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lénia; Mouta, Raquel; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Pereira, Alfredo; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia M; Lamy, Elsa

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-amylase, a major protein in saliva, has been described as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity, hence for metabolic energy balance. In this context, its expression in overweight and obesity is of interest. Rats fed with a diet enriched with sunflower oil differentially gained weight yielding two subgroups according to their susceptibility (OP) or resistance (OR) to obesity. Elevated plasmatic levels of leptin in the OP subgroup and altered plasmatic lipid profiles (lower triglycerides and higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio compared to controls) in the OR subgroup were observed. Animals from the OP subgroup presented higher α-amylase expression and activity even prior to the dietary treatment, suggesting that this salivary protein may constitute a putative indicator of susceptibility for fat tissue accumulation. After 18 weeks of high-fat diet consumption, salivary α-amylase levels did not significantly change in the OP subgroup, but increased 3-fold in the OR subgroup. The increase in α-amylase levels for the latter might represent an adaptation to lower starch intake. These results suggest that salivary α-amylase secretion might be useful to predict susceptibility for weight gain induced by high-fat diet consumption. PMID:25795283

  7. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment. PMID:22709773

  8. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Waring, Molly E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Mann, Devin M.; Ockene, Ira S.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight loss settings and predicts poor weight loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day (MET-hrs/d) were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=−.26, SE=.11, p=.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=.07, SE=.05, p=.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=.20, p<.01), saturated fat (r=.21, p<.01), and sodium (r=.22, p<.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality, and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment. PMID:22709773

  9. Effects of soybean fortification on protein quality of tortilla-based diets produced from regular and quality protein maize.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Alanis-Guzman, Maria Guadalupe; Serna Saldívar, Sergio O

    2004-01-01

    The physiological development of laboratory rats fed with a typical indigenous tortilla diet was studied for two generations. The experiment compared casein control diet and five different types of diets: (1) a diet of tortillas obtained from fresh masa (FM); (2) regular tortillas produced from enriched dry masa flour containing vitamins B1, B2, niacin, folic acid, and the microminerals iron and zinc (REDMF); (3) tortillas produced from enriched dry masa flour fortified with 6% defatted soybean meal (FEDMF); (4) tortillas produced from enriched quality protein maize flour (EQPM); and (5) and, tortillas produced from enriched quality protein maize flour fortified with 3% defatted soybean meal (FEQPM). The growth of rats fed FEDMF and FEQPM diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both generations than their counterparts fed EQPM, REDMF, or FM diet. Animals fed quality protein maize (QPM) tortilla had the highest protein digestibility, but the FEQPM and FEDMF diets had the highest biological value (BV), net protein utilization (NPU), and protein-digestibility-corrected EAA scores (PDCEAAS). The difference among treatments was more evident in the second-generation rats. The pregnancy rate, number of newborns/litter, litter weight, and newborn survival rate was also higher for rats fed FEDMF, EQPM, and FEQPM diets than their counterparts fed REDMF and FM. PMID:15678750

  10. Diet Quality Varies by Race/Ethnicity of Head Start Mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the key role that women from limited income families play as family food providers and their high risk for diet-related chronic diseases, there is a paucity of data about their diet quality and how it might vary by race/ethnicity. Our objective was to compare nutrient and food intakes of mu...

  11. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development. PMID:26633475

  12. Self-control, diet concerns and eater prototypes influence fatty foods consumption of adolescents in three countries.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Joanne H; O'Hara, Ross E; Piko, Bettina F; Gibbons, Frederick X; de Ridder, Denise T D; Keresztes, Noémi; Kamble, Shanmukh V; de Wit, John B F

    2010-12-01

    As adolescent overweight has become a widespread problem in the developed world, it is timely to understand commonalities underlying dietary practices across countries. This study examines whether consumption of fruits and vegetables and fatty foods among adolescents in different countries is related to the same individual difference and social influence factors-in particular, adolescents' self-control, diet concerns and perceptions of typical (un)healthy eating peers (prototypes). We included 511 normal weight and overweight adolescents (14-19 years) from the United States, the Netherlands and Hungary, who completed a survey during class hours. After controlling for country and demographics, an additional 8% of the variance in the consumption of fatty foods was explained by self-control, diet concerns and prototypes of unhealthy eaters. Only 3% of fruit and vegetable consumption was explained by these factors, and only the association with self-control was significant. This study demonstrates that the same individual difference and social influence factors may influence adolescents' dietary practices in different countries. In addition to highlighting country differences in dietary practices and the prevalence of overweight, exploring common factors that may shape dietary practices across countries is important for future research. These commonalities may advance conceptual understanding and inform prevention across developed countries. PMID:20861154

  13. Establishing a food list for a Total Diet Study: how does food consumption of specific subpopulations need to be considered?

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; De Henauw, S; Dofkova, M; Ruprich, J; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M C; Pinchen, H; Blume, K; Lindtner, O; Brantsaeter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Sioen, I

    2015-01-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and analysing commonly consumed foods to obtain concentration data of different chemical compounds in foods as eaten. A TDS food list summarises the most consumed foods and represents the dietary habits of the general population of the country under study. The work reported here investigated whether TDS food lists that were initially designed for the whole population of the country under study also sufficiently cover the dietary pattern of specific subpopulations that are extra vulnerable for certain contaminants. The work was performed using data of three European countries: the Czech Republic, France and the UK. Each national food consumption database was combined with the corresponding national TDS food list (containing 336, 212 and 119 food items for the Czech Republic, France and the UK, respectively). The data were aggregated on the highest level of hierarchy of FoodEx-1, a pan-European food classification system, including 20 main FoodEx-1 groups. For the group 'milk and dairy products', the coverage of the consumption by the food list was investigated for more refined subgroups. For each food group or subgroup and country, the average percentage of coverage of the diet by the national TDS food list was calculated for different subpopulations, including children versus adults, women versus men, vegetarians versus non-vegetarians, and women of child-bearing age versus older women. The average diet of the different subpopulations was sufficiently covered by the food list of the Czech Republic and France. For the UK the average coverage was low due to a different food-coding approach and because food lists were not derived directly from national food consumption data. At the level of the 20 main food groups, differences between the subpopulations with respect to the average coverage of consumption by the TDS food list were minimal. The differences were more pronounced when looking in detail at the

  14. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352

  15. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352

  16. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  17. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001), regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg). Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these

  18. A priori-defined Diet Quality Indexes and Risk of Type 2 diabetes: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Simone; Harmon, Brook E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Morimoto, Yukiko; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kröger, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Aim Dietary patterns have been associated with type 2 diabetes incidence, but little is known about the impact of ethnicity on this relation. This study evaluated the association of four a priori dietary quality indexes and type 2 diabetes risk among whites, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Methods After excluding participants with prevalent diabetes and missing values, the analysis included 89,185 participants (11,217 cases). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire designed for use in the relevant ethnic populations. Sex- and ethnicity-specific hazard ratios were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Results We observed significant inverse associations between higher scores of the DASH index and type 2 diabetes risk in white men and women, as well as in Japanese American women and Native Hawaiian men with respective risk reductions of 37, 31, 19 and 21% (highest compared to lowest index category). A higher adherence to the AHEI-2010 and aMED diet was related to a 13–28% lower type 2 diabetes risk in white participants but not in other ethnic groups. No significant associations with type 2 diabetes risk were observed for the HEI-2010 index. Conclusions The small ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk associated with scores of a priori-defined dietary patterns may be due to different consumption patterns of food components and the fact that the original indexes were not based on Asians and Pacific Islanders. PMID:25319012

  19. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. RESULTS The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P < 0.05). Malay respondents (mean = 36.9 ± 8.7%) had poorer diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P < 0.05). Age (r = 0.123, P < 0.05), self-efficacy for healthy eating (r = 0.129, P < 0.05), and availability of healthy foods (r = 0.159, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. CONCLUSIONS In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents. PMID:26425281

  20. Developmental Biology and Effects of Adult Diet on Consumption, Longevity, and Fecundity of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J.

    2015-01-01

    The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090

  1. Developmental Biology and Effects of Adult Diet on Consumption, Longevity, and Fecundity of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-01-01

    The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090

  2. Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

  3. Consumption of Diet Drinks in the United States, 2009‒2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons consumed diet drinks compared with non-Hispanic black and Hispanic persons. From 1999‒2000 through 2009‒2010, the percentage ... 2009‒2010 †Significantly different from non-Hispanic black and Hispanic persons. SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination ...

  4. Nutritional Adequacy and Diet Quality in Colorectal Cancer Patients Postsurgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Lertxundi, Iker; Alvarez, Maider; Rocandio, Ana M; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that an unhealthy diet is associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and death among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aims of this study were to assess nutritional adequacy and diet quality in a group of CRC patients postsurgery and to identify possible associations between dietary and nutritional aspects and environmental factors and weight status. This was an observational study conducted on a random sample of 74 patients, aged 50-69 years. Dietary intake was evaluated utilizing a validated frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was evaluated utilizing the Healthy Eating Index for Spanish Diet and the MedDietScore. Data regarding socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyles, dietary supplements use, and body mass index were collected. Subjects followed a diet characterized by a low carbohydrate intake (94% of the cases), excessive protein (48%), high fat intake (67%), and some micronutrient deficiencies. The inadequacy of some nutrients was associated with male gender, overweight/obesity, smoking, and low educational level; and low adherence to the MedDiet was identified in those with a low educational level (adjusted odds ratio = 4.16, P < 0.05). Therefore, such patients should be an important target group when applying educational programs and giving individualized nutritional advice to improve their quality of life. PMID:27144653

  5. Effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in Barbary macaques.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Nelly; Motsch, Peggy; Delahaye, Alexia; Saintvanne, Alice; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dupé, Sandrine; Vallet, Dominique; Qarro, Mohamed; Tattou, Mohamed Ibn; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. In all three sites, diet varied seasonally. Heavy grazing led to a significant decrease in herbaceous production and species richness. As a consequence, the monkeys' diet in this poor habitat showed a decreased plant species richness. Moreover, it incorporated fewer above-ground herbaceous resources, and a greater proportion of subterranean resources (especially hypogeous fungi and subterranean invertebrates such as earthworms, eggs and adults of earwigs, and ant's larvae) than the diet of monkeys inhabiting ungrazed forest. Cedar bark, cedar strobiles, earthworms, and earwigs were part of the monkeys' diet only in grazed forest. Monkeys in heavily grazed forest compensated for a lack of herbaceous foods by eating subterranean foods preferentially to tree and shrub products. The foods they consumed take longer to harvest and process than the seeds or leaves consumed by Barbary macaques in less heavily grazed forest habitats. Our results suggest that monkeys do differ in their diets according to the degree of habitat change induced by human activities. They also highlight the dietary flexibility of Barbary macaques as a key element that allows them to cope with degraded habitats. We later compare the dietary adjustments of Barbary macaques facing environmental change to dietary strategies of other macaques and temperate-zone primates. PMID:24573596

  6. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. PMID:27170447

  7. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  8. Mediterranean Diet and Health-Related Quality of Life in Two Cohorts of Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In older adults, the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but its association with health-related quality of life (HRQL) is still uncertain. This study assessed the association between the Mediterranean diet and HRQL in 2 prospective cohorts of individuals aged ≥60 years in Spain. Methods The UAM-cohort (n = 2376) was selected in 2000/2001 and followed-up through 2003. At baseline, diet was collected with a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to develop an 8-item index of Mediterranean diet (UAM-MDP). The Seniors-ENRICA cohort (n = 1911) was recruited in 2008/2010 and followed-up through 2012. At baseline, a diet history was used to obtain food consumption. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured with the PREDIMED score and the Trichopoulou’s Mediterranean Diet Score (MSD). HRQL was assessed, at baseline and at the end of follow-up, with the physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS) of the SF-36 questionnaire in the UAM-cohort, and the SF-12v.2 questionnaire in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Analyses were conducted with linear regression, and adjusted for the main confounders including baseline HRQL. Results In the UAM-cohort, no significant associations between the UAM-MDP and the PCS or the MCS were found. In the Seniors-ENRICA cohort, a higher PREDIMED score was associated with a slightly better PCS; when compared with the lowest tertile of PREDIMED score, the beta coefficient (95% confidence interval) for PCS was 0.55 (-0.48 to 1.59) in the second tertile, and 1.34 (0.21 to 2.47) in the highest tertile. However, the PREDIMED score was non-significantly associated with a better MCS score. The MSD did not show an association with either the PCS or the MCS. Conclusions No clinically relevant association was found between the Mediterranean diet and HRQL in older adults in Spain. PMID:27008160

  9. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. PMID:25516334

  10. The Gluten-Free Diet: Safety and Nutritional Quality

    PubMed Central

    Saturni, Letizia; Ferretti, Gianna; Bacchetti, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives). Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects. PMID:22253989

  11. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity. PMID:26091353

  12. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  13. Food costs, diet quality and energy balance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrea; Frazão, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The high obesity rates and poor diet quality in the United States, particularly among low income populations, are often attributed to low income, low food access, and high food prices of healthy foods. This paper discusses these associations and questions some of the metrics used to measure food prices. The paper argues that 1. On average, Americans consume diets that need improvement and there is only a very limited relationship between income and diet quality; 2. The way the food price is measured makes a difference in the perception of how expensive healthy and less healthy food is; 3. The way Americans allocate their food budgets between healthy and less healthy foods is not in line with healthy diets; and 4. At any food spending level there are households that purchase healthy (and unhealthy) diets, including budgets at or below the maximum allotment for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which provides a means for low-income households to purchase food. Our key finding is that healthy foods and diets are affordable, but policy makers, nutrition educators, researchers and the media need to focus on promoting this message, and providing additional guidance on making the changes for Americans to switch to a healthy and affordable diet. PMID:24631301

  14. Association between diet, social resources and oral health related quality of life in edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, P F

    2005-09-01

    To assess whether there was an association between diet, oral health related quality of life and social resources in a population of older edentulous adults, and, to assess the impact of provision of new complete replacement dentures. This study was carried out at Cork University Dental Hospital in Ireland. In this prospective clinical study, 35 edentulous adults who requested new complete dentures completed pre-treatment questionnaires which included validated oral health status, social resources and nutritional assessment questionnaires. New dentures were provided and the impact of treatment on oral health related quality of life, diet and ability to chew food was assessed. Satisfaction with dentures and oral health related quality of life improved following provision of new dentures. However, food choice remained similar to pre-treatment choice, and subjects were rated as medium risk for poor nutritional status on the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Oral health related quality of life and diet were not correlated. Three quarters of the sample felt they had no nutritional problems. However, approximately 70% reported that they had changed their food choices because of dental problems and that financial cost was a barrier to dental treatment. Food selection among the group studied was not ideal, and not improved by the provision of new dentures. There was no association between diet and oral health related quality of life. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between oral health and diet. PMID:16102073

  15. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  16. From yellow perch to round goby: A review of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption at three St. Lawrence River colonies, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F; Klindt, Rodger M; Mazzocchi, Irene; Mathers, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The number of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the upper St. Lawrence River has increased markedly since the early 1990s. In 1999, a binational study was initiated to examine the annual diet composition and fish consumption of cormorants at colonies in the upper river. Since 1999, 14,032 cormorant pellets, collected from May through September each year, have been examined from St. Lawrence River colonies to estimate fish consumption and determine temporal and spatial variation in diet. Seasonal variation in diet composition within a colony was low. Prior to 2006 yellow perch was the primary fish consumed by cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River. Round goby were first observed in cormorant diets in 2003 and by 2006 were the main fish consumed at two of the three colonies. The time interval it took from the first appearance of round goby in the diet at a colony to when goby were the dominant prey species varied by island, ranging from two to five years. Daily fish consumption at each cormorant colony increased significantly from the pre-round goby to post-round goby period. The mean annual biomass of yellow perch consumed decreased significantly during the post-round goby period at the three colonies. Reduced consumption of yellow perch by cormorants may alleviate suspected localized impacts on perch near some of the larger river colonies.

  17. The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Pomerleau, Joceline; Causer, Louise; Altmann, Dan R.; McKee, Martin

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We estimated the global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables, an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and compared its impact with that of other major risk factors for disease. METHODS: The burden of disease attributable to suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables was estimated using information on fruit and vegetable consumption in the population, and on its association with six health outcomes (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, stomach, oesophageal, colorectal and lung cancer). Data from both sources were stratified by sex, age and by 14 geographical regions. FINDINGS: The total worldwide mortality currently attributable to inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables is estimated to be up to 2.635 million deaths per year. Increasing individual fruit and vegetable consumption to up to 600 g per day (the baseline of choice) could reduce the total worldwide burden of disease by 1.8%, and reduce the burden of ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke by 31% and 19% respectively. For stomach, oesophageal, lung and colorectal cancer, the potential reductions were 19%, 20%, 12% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows the potentially large impact that increasing fruit and vegetable intake could have in reducing many noncommunicable diseases. It highlights the need for much greater emphasis on dietary risk factors in public health policy in order to tackle the rise in noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and suggests that the proposed intersectoral WHO/FAO fruit and vegetable promotion initiative is a crucial component in any global diet strategy. PMID:15744402

  18. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour. PMID:23980738

  19. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001-0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32-0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  20. The influence of diet, consumption and lipid use on recruitment of white bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmayer, W.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of white bass (Morone chrysops) in Lake Erie has declined in recent years, sparking interest in mechanisms influencing its recruitment. We evaluate two mechanisms affecting recruitment: diet and the potential for competition, and storage of lipid energy reserves and the relationship to overwinter survival. The fish in our study were characteristic of white bass in the northern portion of their range, feeding predominantly on zooplankton. Only the largest age-0 white bass ate fish as a significant portion of their diet. Over the summer sampling period, we found decreasing ration sizes, expressed as a percentage of maximum ration, as the summer progressed with a concomitant decrease in the relative amount of lipid storage. In laboratory experiments, age-0 white bass held at 5??C and given food ad libitum did feed, but at rates that were insufficient to maintain body weight. Loss in weight was accompanied with a loss in lipids at a rate of 2.8 mg of lipids per gram of body weight per day. Based on our data, we concluded that age-0 white bass in Lake Erie were food-limited. Food limitation resulted in reduced growth rates, presumably related to competition with other planktivorous fishes. Reduced growth results in increased mortality and, ultimately, low recruitment through increased risk of predation by larger piscivorous fishes, reduced ability for white bass to switch to more energetically profitable piscivory and the increased likelihood of higher overwinter mortality because of reduced lipid stores.

  1. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  2. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  3. Retinal-image quality and night-vision performance after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Castro, José J; Pozo, Antonio M; Rubiño, Manuel; Anera, Rosario G; Jiménez Del Barco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  4. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-08-01

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, "NuAge" (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range. PMID:26247965

  5. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    PubMed Central

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range. PMID:26247965

  6. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  7. Assessment of the effects of six standard rodent diets on binge-like and voluntary ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, S. Alex; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Harrison, Langston K.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Herfel, Tina M.; Thiele, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years much attention has been given to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research, particularly in pre-clinical animal studies. This is a problem that also plagues the alcohol research field, particularly in consistent consumption in animal models of alcohol use disorders. One often overlooked factor that could affect reproducibility is the maintenance diet used in pre-clinical studies. Methods Herein, two well-established models of alcohol consumption, the “drinking in the dark” (DID) procedure and the continuous two-bottle choice paradigm (C2BC), were employed to determine the effects of diet on ethanol consumption. Male C57BL/6J were given one of six standard rodent-chow diets obtained from Purina LabDiet®, Inc. [St. Louis, MO; Prolab® RMH 3000] or Harlan Laboratories Inc. [Indianapolis, IN; Teklad Diets T.2916, T.2918, T.2920X, T.7912, or T.8940]. A separate group of animals were used to test dietary effects on ethanol pharmacokinetics and behavioral measures following intraperitoneal (IP) injections of various doses of ethanol. Results Mice eating Harlan diets T.2916 (H2916) and T.2920X (H2920) consumed significantly less ethanol and exhibited lower blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during DID; however, during C2BC animals maintained on Harlan T.7912 (H7912) consumed more ethanol and had a higher ethanol preference than the other diet groups. Ethanol consumption levels did not stem from changes in alcohol pharmacokinetics, as a separate group of animals administered ethanol IP showed no difference in BECs. However, animals on Harlan diet T.2920X (H2920) were more sensitive to alcohol-induced locomotor activity in an open-field task. No diet dependent differences were seen in alcohol-induced sedation as measured with loss of righting reflex. Conclusions Although these data do not identify a specific mechanism, together they clearly show that the maintenance diet impacts ethanol consumption. It is incumbent upon the research

  8. The influence of diet quality on clutch size and laying pattern in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, J.L.; Krapu, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the effect of diet quality on variation in the seasonal pattern of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) reproduction. Twenty wild-strain hens, consisting of 10 sibling pairs, were maintained in captivity. One sib of each pair was fed an enriched diet, and the other was fed wheat. The wheat diet resulted in reduced clutch size, egg size, laying rate, number of nesting attempts, and total eggs laid. Diet did not affect laying initiation, duration, or the seasonal pattern of change in clutch and egg size with each renest. We believe the variation and pattern observed are adaptations to a highly variable prairie environment where the probability of reproductive success decreases as the season progresses.

  9. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  10. Diet Quality and Survival After Ovarian Cancer: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Tracy E.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Li, Wenjun; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Basen-Engquist, Karen M.; Zhou, Yang; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is poor. Given the high mortality in these patients, efforts to identify modifiable lifestyle behaviors that could influence survival are needed. Earlier evidence suggests a protective role for vegetables, but no prior studies have evaluated overall dietary quality and ovarian cancer survival. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the role of prediagnosis diet quality in ovarian cancer survival. Methods We identified 636 centrally adjudicated cases of ovarian cancer within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study or Clinical Trials of 161808 postmenopausal women followed from 1995 to 2012. Dietary quality was assessed for the Healthy Eating Index (2005) using a food frequency questionnaire, covariables were obtained from standardized questionnaires, and adiposity was measured by clinic-based measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference. The association between diet quality and mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by waist circumference, physical activity level, and diabetes status. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Overall, higher diet quality was associated with lower all-cause mortality after ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for highest vs lowest tertile = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.97, P trend = .03). The effect was strongest among women with waist circumference of 88cm or less and with no history of diabetes (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Physical activity level did not modify the association between diet quality and survival. Conclusion Our results suggest that overall higher prediagnosis diet quality may protect against mortality after ovarian cancer. PMID:25335480

  11. The Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire. Psychometric properties and relationship with consumption, dieting, disinhibition and thought suppression.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Soetens, Barbara; Raes, Filip; Griffith, James W

    2014-05-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ), comparing the original three-factor model to a later-suggested two-factor model. We evaluated the construct validity of the ACQ by investigating the associations between the resulting factors and other eating-related questionnaires such as the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Food Thought Suppression Inventory. Finally, we compared the scores on several scales regarding eating behavior between different groups (men versus women, dieters versus non-dieters and cravers versus non-cravers). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Dutch ACQ indicated the best global fit indices for the two-factor model, with the resulting factors being "Negative consequences and Guilt" and "Craving and emotional eating". Both factors were associated with other eating-related dimensions. However, craving seemed to be uniquely associated with the amount of chocolate consumed per week, whereas guilt correlated strongly with restraint. Finally, women scored higher on nearly all scales, but there was no significant gender difference with regard to chocolate consumption. Dieters reported more disinhibition, restraint, food-thought suppression and guilt, but they did not significantly differ from non-dieters with regards to their levels of craving, hunger nor consumption. PMID:24530692

  12. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  13. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet.

    PubMed

    Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom; Huybrechts, Inge; Deriemaeker, Peter; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Keyzer, Willem; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality. After analysis of the diet questionnaire and the FFQ, 1475 participants were classified as vegans (n = 104), vegetarians (n = 573), semi-vegetarians (n = 498), pesco-vegetarians (n = 145), and omnivores (n = 155). The most restricted diet, i.e., the vegan diet, had the lowest total energy intake, better fat intake profile, lowest protein and highest dietary fiber intake in contrast to the omnivorous diet. Calcium intake was lowest for the vegans and below national dietary recommendations. The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS. Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat) contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians) differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores. PMID:24667136

  14. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  15. Plasma Ascorbic Acid, A Priori Diet Quality Score, and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, David R.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other’s predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and white adults (43% black, mean age 35 years) initially hypertension-free in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (study year 10, 1995–1996). Plasma ascorbic acid was assessed at year 10 and the diet quality score at year 7. Eight-hundred-and-forty cases of hypertension were documented between years 10 and 25. After multiple adjustments, each 12-point (1 SD) higher diet quality score at year 7 related to mean 3.7 μmol/L (95% CI 2.9 to 4.6) higher plasma ascorbic acid at year 10. In separate multiple-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio of hypertension per 19.6-μmol/L (1 SD) higher ascorbic acid was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79–0.92) and per 12-points higher diet score 0.86 (95% CI 0.79–0.94). These hazard ratios changed little with mutual adjustment of ascorbic acid and diet quality score for each other, or when adjusted for anthropometric variables, diabetes, and systolic blood pressure at year 10. Intake of dietary vitamin C and several food groups high in vitamin C content were inversely related to hypertension, whereas supplemental vitamin C was not. In conclusion, plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score independently predict hypertension. This suggests that hypertension risk is reduced by improving overall diet quality and/or vitamin C status. The inverse association seen for dietary but not for supplemental vitamin C suggests that vitamin C status is preferably improved by eating foods rich in vitamin C, in addition to not smoking and other dietary habits that prevent ascorbic acid from depletion. PMID:26683190

  16. Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy causes perturbations in the serotonergic system and increased anxiety-like behavior in nonhuman primate offspring.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Grayson, Bernadette; Takahashi, Diana; Robertson, Nicola; Maier, Adriane; Bethea, Cynthia L; Smith, M Susan; Coleman, Kristine; Grove, Kevin L

    2010-03-10

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of behavioral/psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, poor learning, and attention deficient disorder. As the majority of women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese and consume a diet high in dietary fat, it is critical to examine the consequences of maternal overnutrition on the development of brain circuitry that regulates offspring behavior. Using a nonhuman primate model of diet-induced obesity, we found that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused perturbations in the central serotonergic system of fetal offspring. In addition, female infants from HFD-fed mothers exhibited increased anxiety in response to threatening novel objects. These findings have important clinical implications as they demonstrate that exposure to maternal HFD consumption during gestation, independent of obesity, increases the risk of developing behavioral disorders such as anxiety. PMID:20220017

  17. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic response to chronic high-fat diet consumption.

    PubMed

    Morselli, E; Frank, A P; Palmer, B F; Rodriguez-Navas, C; Criollo, A; Clegg, D J

    2016-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the observations that, following chronic high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, male mice have higher levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and total sphingolipids, whereas lower amounts of polyunsaturated FAs in the central nervous system (CNS) than females. Furthermore, males, when compared with female mice, have higher levels of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus following exposure to HFD. The increase in markers of inflammation in male mice is possibly due to the reductions in proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is not recapitulated in female mice. Consistently, hypothalamic inflammation is induced both in male and female ERα total-body knockout mice when exposed to a HFD, thus confirming the key role of ERα in the regulation of HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Finally, the HFD-induced depletion of hypothalamic ERα is associated with dysregulation in metabolic homeostasis, as evidenced by reductions in glucose tolerance and decrements in myocardial function. PMID:26073655

  18. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design: Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting:…

  19. Effects of breed and diet on beef quality characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progeny (n=63) from six grandsire breeds were utilized to evaluate grandsire, sex, and postweaning management effects on sensory characteristics and quality of steaks from forage-fed with short-fed finishing (SF) vs. conventional concentrate (CC) finished cattle. Fatty acid (FA) profiles, Warner-Br...

  20. Factorial validity of the Delta Healthy Eating Attitudes Scale related to diet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish factorial validity of decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE) and social support (SS) psychosocial constructs and convergent validity related to diet quality. A sample (N=319) of predominantly African American women from the Mississippi Communities fo...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE DIET QUALITY OF U.S. ADULTS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of diet quality is important in policy making, monitoring service outcomes, and designing sustainable nutritional interventions for specific populations. The Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) is a high at-risk region for nutritionally related diseases, and this study assessed the overall qual...

  2. Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

  3. Self-Concept as a Factor in the Quality of Diets of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, G. Kathleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated effect of self-concept on quality of diets of 160 adolescent girls by obtaining scores for self-concept and fat area values. Fat area values were correlated negatively with Physical Self scores. Significant predictors of mean dietary adequacy ratio values below 80 percent were Total Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Family Self, Identity,…

  4. The Self-Concept as a Factor in Diet Selection and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a study of the relationship between self-concept and food behavior. Results indicate: (1) Women with a positive self-concept tend to have better quality diets and to be influenced by nutrition information; and (2) Self-concepts are not related to acceptance of nutrition information from other persons. (Author/MA)

  5. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  6. DIET QUALITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RISK OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that diet quality indices may serve as prognostic indicators of disease. However, the ability of these indices to predict breast cancer risk has not been evaluated previously. We assessed the association between several diet quality scores and the risk of breast cancer in ...

  7. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    PubMed

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  8. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?123

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. Design: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2–18 y from NHANES 2007–2010. Cluster analysis identified 2 dietary patterns for the non–fast food remainder of intake: Western (50.3%) and Prudent. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined the association between fast food consumption and dietary pattern for the remainder of intake and estimated their independent associations with overweight/obesity and dietary outcomes. Results: Half of US children consumed fast food: 39.5% low-consumers (≤30% of energy from fast food) and 10.5% high-consumers (>30% of energy). Consuming a Western dietary pattern for the remainder of intake was more likely among fast food low-consumers (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.85) and high-consumers (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.05) than among nonconsumers. The remainder of diet was independently associated with overweight/obesity (β: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), whereas fast food consumption was not, and the remainder of diet had stronger associations with poor total intake than did fast food consumption. Conclusions: Outside the fast food restaurant, fast food consumers ate Western diets, which might have stronger associations with overweight/obesity and poor dietary outcomes than fast food consumption itself. Our findings support the need for prospective studies and randomized trials to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:24153348

  9. A High Diet Quality Based on Dietary Recommendations Is Not Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mandalazi, Emmanuel; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality index based on Swedish nutrition recommendations has previously been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this diet quality index was associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes. Of 26,868 participants (44-74 years) in the MDC cohort study, 3838 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. A diet quality index (from a modified diet history method) was constructed based on adherence to the recommended intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fish, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed no significant association between the diet quality index and type 2 diabetes risk. The HR for the highest vs. lowest index category was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.20; p-trend = 0.56). Because of the protective associations shown for cardiovascular disease and mortality, the specific dietary components that were chosen to represent adherence to the recommendations may be less applicable to type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:27338354

  10. A High Diet Quality Based on Dietary Recommendations Is Not Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mandalazi, Emmanuel; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality index based on Swedish nutrition recommendations has previously been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this diet quality index was associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes. Of 26,868 participants (44–74 years) in the MDC cohort study, 3838 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. A diet quality index (from a modified diet history method) was constructed based on adherence to the recommended intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fish, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed no significant association between the diet quality index and type 2 diabetes risk. The HR for the highest vs. lowest index category was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.20; p-trend = 0.56). Because of the protective associations shown for cardiovascular disease and mortality, the specific dietary components that were chosen to represent adherence to the recommendations may be less applicable to type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:27338354

  11. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships. PMID:24463063

  12. Early oxidative shifts in mouse skeletal muscle morphology with high‐fat diet consumption do not lead to functional improvements

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melissa M.; Trajcevski, Karin E.; Coleman, Samantha K.; Jiang, Maggie; Di Michele, Joseph; O'Neill, Hayley M.; Lally, James S.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Hawke, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Short‐term consumption of a high‐fat diet (HFD) can result in an oxidative shift in adult skeletal muscle. However, the impact of HFD on young, growing muscle is largely unknown. Thus, 4‐week‐old mice were randomly divided into sedentary HFD (60% kcal from fat), sedentary standard chow (control), or exercise‐trained standard chow. Tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles were examined for morphological and functional changes after 3 weeks. HFD consumption increased body and epididymal fat mass and induced whole body glucose intolerance versus control mice. Compared to controls, both HFD and exercise‐trained TA muscles displayed a greater proportion of oxidative fibers and a trend for an increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content. The soleus also displayed an oxidative shift with increased SDH content in HFD mice. Despite the aforementioned changes, palmitate oxidation rates were not different between groups. To determine if the adaptive changes with HFD manifest as a functional improvement, all groups performed pre‐ and postexperiment aerobic exercise tests. As expected, exercise‐trained mice improved significantly compared to controls, however, no improvement was observed in HFD mice. Interestingly, capillary density was lower in HFD muscles; a finding which may contribute to the lack of functional differences seen with HFD despite the oxidative shift in skeletal muscle morphology. Taken together, our data demonstrate that young, growing muscle exhibits early oxidative shifts in response to a HFD, but these changes do not translate to functional benefits in palmitate oxidation, muscle fatigue resistance, or whole body exercise capacity. PMID:25247768

  13. Diet quality improves for parents and children when almonds are incorporated into their daily diet: a randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Alyssa M; Zitt, Michelle A; Rowe, Cassie C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Mai, Volker; Nieves, Carmelo; Ukhanova, Maria; Christman, Mary C; Dahl, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of nuts may, in part, be due to the fiber that provides substrate for the maintenance of a healthy and diverse microbiota. We hypothesized that consuming almonds would benefit immune status through improving diet quality and modulation of microbiota composition in parents and their children, while improving gastrointestinal function. In a crossover trial, 29 parents (35 ± 0.6 years) and their children (n = 29; 4 ± 0.2 years; pairs) consumed 1.5 and 0.5 oz, respectively, of almonds and/or almond butter or control (no almonds) for 3 weeks followed by 4-week washouts. Parents completed daily questionnaires of stool frequency and compliance with nut intake. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Response Scale was administered weekly. Participants provided stools for microbiota analysis and saliva for secretory immunoglobulin A. Serum antioxidant/proinflammatory balance was determined in parents. From weekly dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall), nutrient and energy intake were assessed and Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores were calculated. Consuming almonds increased total Healthy Eating Index score from 53.7 ± 1.8 to 61.4 ± 1.4 (parents) and 53.7 ± 2.6 to 61.4 ± 2.2 (children; P < .001). Minimal changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and no change in stool frequency were noted with the almond intervention. Microbiota was stable at the phylum and family level, but genus-level changes occurred with nut intake, especially in children. No differences were observed for immune markers. Although higher intakes of almonds or longer interventions may be needed to demonstrate effects on immune status, a moderate intake of almonds improves diet quality in adults and their young children and modulates microbiota composition. PMID:26773784

  14. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiEun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  15. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  16. Trophic Niche in a Raptor Species: The Relationship between Diet Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Territory Quality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reports that many populations of species showing a wide trophic niche (generalists) are made up of both generalist individuals and individuals with a narrow trophic niche (specialists), suggesting trophic specializations at an individual level. If true, foraging strategies should be associated with individual quality and fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals will select the most favourable habitats for feeding. In addition, the “landscape heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts a higher number of species in more diverse landscapes. Thus, it can be predicted that individuals with a wider realized trophic niche should have foraging territories with greater habitat diversity, suggesting that foraging strategies, territory quality and habitat diversity are inter-correlated. This was tested for a population of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus. Diet diversity, territory occupancy (as a measure of territory quality) and habitat diversity of territories were measured over an 8-year period. Our results show that: 1) territory quality was quadratically correlated with habitat diversity, with the best territories being the least and most diverse; 2) diet diversity was not correlated with territory quality; and 3) diet diversity was negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Our study suggests that niche generalist foraging strategies are based on an active search for different prey species within or between habitats rather than on the selection of territories with high habitat diversity. PMID:26047025

  17. Diet Quality and Risk of Melanoma in an Italian Population123

    PubMed Central

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Agnoli, Claudia; Crespi, Catherine M; Fiorentini, Chiara; Farnetani, Francesca; Longo, Caterina; Ricci, Cinzia; Albertini, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Anna; Veneziano, Leonardo; Virgili, Annarosa; Pagliarello, Calogero; Santini, Marcello; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Dika, Emi; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Pellacani, Giovanni; Vinceti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some results from laboratory and epidemiologic studies suggest that diet may influence the risk of melanoma, but convincing evidence for a role of single nutrients or food items is lacking. Diet quality, which considers the combined effect of multiple food items, may be superior for examining this relation. Objective: We sought to assess whether diet quality, evaluated with the use of 4 different dietary indexes, is associated with melanoma risk. Methods: In this population-based case-control study, we analyzed the relation between 4 diet quality indexes, the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index, Greek Mediterranean Index (GMI), and Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI), and melanoma risk in a northern Italian community, with the use of data from 380 cases and 719 matched controls who completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: In the overall sample, we found an inverse association between disease risk and the HEI-2010 and DASH index, but not the Mediterranean indexes, adjusting for potential confounders (skin phototype, body mass index, energy intake, sunburn history, skin sun reaction, and education). However, in sex stratified analyses, the association appeared only in women (P-trend: 0.10 and 0.04 for the HEI-2010 and DASH index, respectively). The inverse relations were stronger in women younger than age 50 y than in older women, for whom the GMI and IMI scores also showed an inverse association with disease risk (P-trend: 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that diet quality may play a role in cutaneous melanoma etiology among women. PMID:26108541

  18. The relationship between different diet quality indices and severity of airflow obstruction among COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Leila; Paknahad, Zamzam; Moosavi, Ali Javad; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Zaker, Mohammad Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Smoking is the number one cause of COPD; however, genetic, environmental and dietary factors contribute to the etiology of this disease. In this study, we assessed the association between three diet quality indices -the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MED)- and the severity of disease in COPD patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at Rasul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran on 121 COPD patients with the mean age of (SD) of 66.1(10.9) years. A pulmonary specialist diagnosed all participants based on a spirometry test. They were categorized into four groups (1, 2, 3, 4 stages of disease). Three diet quality indices, spirometry test and determination of disease severity were performed for all the participants. ANCOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess the relationship between dietary quality indices and severity of the disease. The relationship between HEI-2010, HEI-2005, MED score, their components and lung function was assessed using a multiple linear regression analysis. All analyses were done using SPSS 18. Results: Reduction of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and MED score were observed along with the increase in disease severity, but they were not significant. The relationship between the three diet quality indices and lung function showed a significant association between MED score and Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), The Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (β=2.9, 95% CI (1.1, 4.8), p=0.002), (β=2.8, 95% CI (0.9, 4.8), p=0.007), respectively. Conclusion: Mediterranean dietary pattern and obtaining a better score on HEI-2010 diet were associated with a better lung function test. PMID:27493924

  19. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I—but not on the aMed—showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001–0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32–0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33–0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30–0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  20. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Englemann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  1. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

  2. Feeding frequency has diet-dependent effects on plasma hormone concentrations but does not affect oocyte quality in dairy heifers fed fibre- or starch-based diets.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Ainslie, A; Watt, R G; Alink, F M; McEvoy, T G; Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2008-09-01

    The post-fertilisation developmental capacity of bovine oocytes recovered by ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration (ovum pick-up, OPU) is influenced by diet-induced changes in hormone and metabolite concentrations. The objectives of this experiment were first to determine whether post-prandial changes in hormone concentrations, induced by changing the frequency of feeding, influenced oocyte quality and second whether changes in plasma glucagon concentration were associated with oocyte quality. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, Holstein heifers (six per treatment) were fed either fibre- or starch-based diets containing either 189 or 478 g starch/kg dry matter. The diets were offered in either two or four equal meals per day and supplied twice the maintenance energy requirement. Blood samples were obtained both at weekly intervals (three samples per heifer, collected before feeding) during the experiment and throughout an entire 24-h period (15 or 17 samples per heifer for twice or four times daily-fed heifers, respectively). Each heifer underwent six sessions of OPU (twice weekly) beginning 25 days after introduction of the diets. Oocyte quality was assessed by development to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal fluid following in vitro fertilisation. Mean weekly plasma insulin concentrations did not differ between diets, but plasma glucagon concentrations were greatest when heifers were fed the starch-based diet twice daily compared with the other diets. When heifers were offered four meals per day, there were no meal-related changes in hormone concentrations. However, when heifers were offered two meals per day, plasma insulin concentration increased after feeding the starch-based, but not the fibre-based diet. Plasma glucagon concentration increased after meals when heifers were fed twice daily and the increase was substantially greater when the starch-based diet was fed. Treatments did not influence (overall mean with mean ± s.e.) ovarian

  3. Diet Quality and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ashley J; Neuhouser, Marian L; George, Stephanie M; Thomson, Cynthia A; Ho, Gloria Y F; Rohan, Thomas E; Kato, Ikuko; Nassir, Rami; Hou, Lifang; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-07-01

    Diet quality index scores on Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), Alternative HEI-2010, alternative Mediterranean Diet Index, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index have been inversely associated with all-cause and cancer-specific death. This study assessed the association between these scores and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence as well as CRC-specific mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1993-2012), a US study of postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.4 years of follow-up, there were 938 cases of CRC and 238 CRC-specific deaths. We estimated multivariate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for relationships between quintiles of diet scores (from baseline food frequency questionnaires) and outcomes. HEI-2010 score (hazard ratios were 0.81, 0.77, and 0.73 with P values of 0.04, 0.01, and <0.01 for quintiles 3-5 vs. quintile 1, respectively) and DASH score (hazard ratios were 0.72, 0.74, and 0.78 with P values of <0.01, <0.01, and 0.03 for quintiles 3-5 vs. quintile 1, respectively), but not other diet scores, were associated with a lower risk of CRC in adjusted models. No diet scores were significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality. Closer adherence to HEI-2010 and DASH dietary recommendations was inversely associated with risk of CRC in this large cohort of postmenopausal women. PMID:27267948

  4. Diet, health and the nutrition transition: some impacts of economic and socio-economic factors on food consumption patterns in the Kingdom of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mike; Sinclair, Robert C; Fusimalohi, Caroline; Liava'a, Viliami

    2002-09-01

    An essential element of the "health transition" is the emergence of disease patterns associated with changes in dietary regimes. The consumption of nutritionally poor (imported) foods in the Pacific is associated with increasing rates of diet related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). An oft-made assumption is that changes in consumption patterns are related to food preference (specifically preferences for high fat and/or dense carbohydrate foods). Recent work in the Kingdom of Tonga suggests that the "common-sense" association between food preference and food consumption is incorrect. The results of a large survey (n=430) indicate availability is the key factor in consumption, and that food preference, knowledge of the nutritional values of foods, and frequency of consumption are not correlated. Further analysis shows there are significant differences in consumption patterns between persons of higher and lower socio-economic status; perception of availability and frequency of consumption are a function of economic and social position--specifically access to cash. These results underline the salience of economic factors; the rise in NCDs is correlated with the increasing importance of the cash economy (not cultural values or ignorance of nutritional issues). In the absence of economic solutions, current consumption patterns will continue. PMID:14736120

  5. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P < 0.001) increased with increasing yucca level up to 100 mg/kg diet. Dietary supplementation of yucca exhibited a positive impact on albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Comparing to the control group, yucca addition to laying hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0. 010) decrease in blood ammonia-N and urea-N, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in serum were quadratically improved in yucca groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased with yucca addition in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, yucca supplemented up to 100 mg/kg diet can be used as effective feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens. PMID:26662788

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRITIONAL TREATMENT ASSESSED BY THE QUALITY OF THE DIET IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Dilui; Moraes, Glaucia; Rosa, Glorimar; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional treatment is important protective factor for the prevention of recurrences of cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of nutritional treatment and to know the eating pattern and the quality of an adjuvant diet for optimized clinical treatment in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD). This is a clinical trial with a three-month duration conducted with 116 patients of both sexes with (CCAD) in secondary prevention. The patients underwent nutritional treatment and blood pressure, anthropometric, biochemical and dietetic (24-hour recall) measures were collected. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R) was calculated for assessing diet quality. The average age was 62.5 ± 7.8 years. The nutritional treatment reduced: weight -1.5 ± 2.3 kg; p < 0.01; body mass index -0.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2; p < 0.01; waist circumference -2.0 ± 0.1cm; p < 0.01; neck circumference -0.8 ± 0.1; p < 0.01 cm; concentrations of plasma insulin -1.3 ± 0.5mU/ mL p < 0.03, glycated hemoglobin -0.4 ± 0.1 mg/dL; p < 0.01 (- 0,004 mmol/L), and HOMA-IR (-0.8 ± 3.9; p < 0.03); and increased insulin sensitivity 6.64 ± 23,9 x10-3; p < 0.01. The nutritional treatment increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients who adhered to the diet after BHEI-R control 1.7 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04 (0,04 mmol/L). Three-month nutritional treatment promoted reduction of saturated fats consumption (-1.9 ± 0.5%; p=<0.01), cholesterol (-67.7 ± 18.6 mg/d; p < 0.01), and sodium(815.2 ± 146.5 mg/d; p < 0.01); and 20.7% of the patients finished the study with a healthy diet. The intensive nutritional treatment was effective in reducing anthropometric measures and improving glycemic control. PMID:26319859

  7. Little variation in diet cost across wide ranges of overall dietary quality among youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja; Haynie, Denise; Lipsky, Leah; Mehta, Sanjeev; Laffel, Lori

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association of diet quality with diet cost in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom diet is an important component of medical management. Differences in food group spending by diet quality were also examined to identify potential budgetary reallocation to improve overall diet quality. Families of 252 youth with type 1 diabetes aged 8 to 18 years completed 3-day youth diet records. Cost of each food reported was calculated based on the average price obtained from two online grocery stores. Diet cost was estimated as average daily cost of foods consumed. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI2005), Nutrient Rich Foods Index version 9.3, and Whole Plant Food Density scores were evaluated. Differences in mean daily diet cost across tertiles of HEI2005, Nutrient Rich Foods Index version 9.3, and Whole Plant Food Density were modest, with none reaching statistical significance. Those in the upper tertile of HEI2005 spent more on whole fruit, whole grains, lean meat, and low-fat dairy, and less on high-fat meat and high-fat dairy compared with those in the lower tertiles. Higher-quality diets can be obtained at comparable costs to lesser-quality diets, suggesting that cost need not be an insurmountable barrier to more healthful eating. Reallocation of spending may increase overall quality without substantially increasing overall spending. Findings suggest potential strategies for assisting families of youth with type 1 diabetes in identifying cost-effective ways to achieve a more healthful diet. PMID:25266245

  8. A faecal index of diet quality that predicts reproductive success in a marsupial folivore.

    PubMed

    Windley, Hannah R; Wallis, Ian R; DeGabriel, Jane L; Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Christopher N; Foley, William J

    2013-09-01

    Estimating the nutritional value of a herbivore's diet is difficult because it requires knowing what the animal eats, the relative quality of each component and how these components interact in relation to animal physiology. Current methods are cumbersome and rely on many assumptions that are hard to evaluate. We describe a new method for estimating relative diet quality directly from faeces that avoids the problems inherent in other methods. We combine this method with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyse many samples and thus provide a technique with immense value in ecological studies. The method stems from the correlation between the concentrations of dietary and faecal nitrogen in herbivores eating a tannin-free diet, but a weaker relationship in browsers that ingest substantial amounts of tannins, which form complexes with proteins. These complexes reduce the availability of nitrogen and may increase faecal nitrogen concentrations. Using the tannin-binding compound, polyethylene glycol, we showed that tannin-bound nitrogen is a significant and variable part of faecal nitrogen in wild common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). We developed a technique to measure faecal available nitrogen and found that it predicted the reproductive success of female brushtail possums in northern Australia. Faecal available nitrogen combined with NIRS provides a powerful tool for estimating the relative nutritional value of the diets of browsing herbivores in many ecological systems. It is a better indicator of diet quality than other commonly used single-nutrient measures such as faecal nitrogen and foliage analysis paired with observed feeding behaviour. PMID:23443356

  9. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21-2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  10. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  11. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Ayettey, Rockiy; Petraro, Paul; Treu, Judith A; Katz, David L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their energy density, walnuts can be included in the diet without adverse effects on weight or body composition. The effect of habitual walnut intake on total calorie intake is not well studied. Effects on overall diet quality have not been reported. Methods Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design study with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of the 2 possible sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (providing 366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants were assessed for diet quality, body composition, and cardiac risk measures. Results When compared with a walnut-excluded diet, a walnut-included diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (9.14±17.71 vs 0.40±15.13; p=0.02 and 7.02±15.89 vs -5.92±21.84; p=0.001, respectively). Endothelial function, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol improved significantly from baseline in the walnut-included diet. Body mass index, percent body fat, visceral fat, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and blood pressure did not change significantly. Conclusions The inclusion of walnuts in an ad libitum diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake, significantly improved diet quality, endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol, but had no effects on anthropometric measures, blood glucose level, and blood pressure. Trial registration number: NCT02330848 PMID:26688734

  12. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  13. Diet quality is associated with circulating C-reactive protein but not irisin levels in humans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Zaichenko, Lesya; Peter, Patricia; Davis, Cynthia R.; Crowell, Judith A.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adherence to a healthy diet has been shown to decrease the incidence of obesity and associated comorbidities. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established inflammatory marker and irisin was recently identified as a molecule which may play a role in energy regulation and obesity but whether diet alters irisin levels remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin, leptin, and CRP levels and dietary quantity and quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Materials/Methods The study evaluated dietary data and biomarker levels of 151 participants between 2009 and 2011 (71 male vs. 80 female, over 35 years old, obese 43.7%). AHEI and aMED scores were calculated based on data derived from self-administered 110-item food-frequency questionnaires estimating usual nutrient intake over the past year. Cross-sectional associations between dietary quantity, quality, body composition by bioelectric impedance, and biomarker levels including irisin, leptin, and CRP after fasting were assessed. Results CRP, but not irisin, was negatively correlated with AHEI (r = −0.34) and aMED (r = −0.31). Irisin was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.22), fat mass (r = 0.21), waist circumference (r = 0.24), waist-hip ratio (r = 0.20), leptin (r = 0.32), and CRP (r = 0.25). Participants with the highest AHEI scores tended to have 11.6% lower concentrations of irisin (P for trend =0.09), but they were not significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Better diet quality was associated with lower CRP concentrations (P for trend=0.02) in multivariate model. Percentage of energy from carbohydrate was inversely associated with CRP. Conclusions Unlike CRP, irisin is not associated with dietary quality or quantity. PMID:24315778

  14. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  15. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  16. Diet quality in a wild grazer declines under the threat of an ambush predator

    PubMed Central

    Barnier, Florian; Valeix, Marion; Duncan, Patrick; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Barre, Philippe; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Macdonald, David W.; Fritz, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Predators influence prey populations not only through predation itself, but also indirectly through prompting changes in prey behaviour. The behavioural adjustments of prey to predation risk may carry nutritional costs, but this has seldom been studied in the wild in large mammals. Here, we studied the effects of an ambush predator, the African lion (Panthera leo), on the diet quality of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. We combined information on movements of both prey and predators, using GPS data, and measurements of faecal crude protein, an index of diet quality in the prey. Zebras which had been in close proximity to lions had a lower quality diet, showing that adjustments in behaviour when lions are within short distance carry nutritional costs. The ultimate fitness cost will depend on the frequency of predator–prey encounters and on whether bottom-up or top-down forces are more important in the prey population. Our finding is the first attempt to our knowledge to assess nutritionally mediated risk effects in a large mammalian prey species under the threat of an ambush predator, and brings support to the hypothesis that the behavioural effects of predation induce important risk effects on prey populations. PMID:24789903

  17. Diet quality influences isotopic discrimination among amino acids in an aquatic vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-05-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids (δ (15)NAA) has recently been employed as a powerful tool in ecological food web studies, particularly for estimating the trophic position (TP) of animal species in food webs. However, the validity of these estimates depends on the consistency of the trophic discrimination factor (TDF; - Δδ (15)NAA at each shift of trophic level) among a suite of amino acids within the tissues of consumer species. In this study, we determined the TDF values of amino acids in tadpoles (the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus) reared exclusively on one of three diets that differed in nutritional quality. The diets were commercial fish-food pellets (plant and animal biomass), bloodworms (animal biomass), and boiled white rice (plant carbohydrate), representing a balanced, protein-rich, and protein-poor diet, respectively. The TDF values of two "source amino acids" (Src-AAs), methionine and phenylalanine, were close to zero (0.3-0.5‰) among the three diets, typifying the values reported in the literature (∼0.5‰ and ∼0.4‰, respectively). However, TDF values of "trophic amino acids" (Tr-AAs) including alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and glutamic acid varied by diet: for example, the glutamic acid TDF was similar to the standard value (∼8.0‰) when tadpoles were fed either the commercial pellets (8.0‰) or bloodworms (7.9‰), but when they were fed boiled rice, the TDF was significantly reduced (0.6‰). These results suggest that a profound lack of dietary protein may alter the TDF values of glutamic acid (and other Tr-AAs and glycine) within consumer species, but not the two Src-AAs (i.e., methionine and phenylalanine). Knowledge of how a nutritionally poor diet can influence the TDF of Tr- and Src-AAs will allow amino acid isotopic analyses to better estimate TP among free-roaming animals. PMID:26045955

  18. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in low-income Hispanic Children – The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of nutrient adequacy and diet quality in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. Epidemiological studies have suggested that low-cost, energy dense diets high in grains, added sugars, and fat contribute to the development of obesity, especially in low-income groups. The spec...

  19. Maternal diet quality and nutrient intake in the gestational period: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A woman’s diet while pregnant can play an important role in her reproductive health as well as the health of her unborn child. Diet quality and nutrient intake amongst pregnant women residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is strikingly inadequate. The Delta H...

  20. Statistical and Biological Gene-Lifestyle Interactions of MC4R and FTO with Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity: New Effects on Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Covas, M. Isabel; Carrasco, Paula; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Martí, Amelia; Coltell, Oscar; Ordovás, Jose M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01–1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/−SE: −0.57+/−0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion Statistical and biological

  1. Relationship between diet quality and cognition depends on socioeconomic position in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Matthew D; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine; Payette, Hélène; Morais, José A; Belleville, Sylvie; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E

    2013-11-01

    Both diet quality and socioeconomic position (SEP) have been linked to age-related cognitive changes, but there is little understanding of how the socioeconomic context of dietary intake may shape its cognitive impact. We examined whether equal adherence to "prudent" and "Western" dietary patterns, identified by principal components analysis, was associated with global cognitive function [Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS)] in independently living older adults with different SEPs (aged 68-84 y; n = 1099). The interaction of dietary pattern adherence with household income, educational attainment, occupational prestige, and a composite indicator of SEP combining all 3 was examined in multiple-adjusted mixed models over 3 y of follow-up in participants of the NuAge study (Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging). Adherence to the prudent pattern (vegetables, fruits, fish, poultry, and lower-fat dairy products) was related to higher 3MS scores at recruitment only in the upper categories of income [parameter estimate (B): 0.56; 95% CI: 0.11, 1.01], education (B: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.080, 0.80), or composite SEP (B: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.70). High prudent pattern adherence was associated with less cognitive decline only in those with low composite SEP (B: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.0094, 0.50). Conversely, adherence to the Western pattern (meats, potatoes, processed foods, and higher-fat dairy products) was associated with more cognitive decline (B: -0.23; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.032) only in those with low educational attainment. In summary, among individuals with equivalent diet quality, the magnitude and characteristics of the diet-cognition relationship depended on their socioeconomic circumstances. These results suggest that interventions promoting retention of cognitive function through improved diet quality would provide maximum benefit to those with relatively low SEP. PMID:23986363

  2. Dietary quality differs by consumption of meals prepared at home vs. outside in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating out has been reported to have negative effects on nutritional status. However, eating out can include meals prepared at home and eaten outside. Conversely, meals eaten at home can be brought from outside, as take-out and home deliveries have become common in Korea. Thus, we tested whether or not meal preparation location influences daily diet quality. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009, 4,915 Korean adults (20-64 years) were classified into two groups: home-made meal group (HMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared at home (n = 4,146), and non-home-made meal group (NHMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared outside home (n = 769). Daily diet quality was determined by energy intake, nutrient intake, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Diet Diversity Score (DDS). RESULTS Compared to the HMG, the NHMG was more likely to consist of men, single, employed, educated and of a higher economic status (all, P < 0.01). The NHMG showed higher energy intakes (1,776 vs. 2,116 kcal/day) with higher percentages of energy from protein (15 vs. 23%) and fat (14 vs. 16%) and lower intakes of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, niacin, and vitamin C (all, P < 0.01) than the HMG, with some variations among age groups. The NHMG tended to consume foods prepared by frying and grilling and had more one-dish meals such as bibimbap, noodles, and dumplings but also showed higher dietary diversity. CONCLUSIONS It should be noted that home-made meals do not necessarily guarantee a healthy diet, and the effects of meal preparation location on nutritional status might vary depending on socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:27247726

  3. Effect of hydrocolloids on the energy consumption and quality of frozen noodles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Li; Ai, Zhi-Lu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Xiu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Effects of hydrocolloids such as Sodium polyacrylate, xanthan gum and sodium alginate on the energy consumption and quality of frozen cooked noodles were investigated. Results showed that gelatinization temperature (GT) shortened significantly and texture properties (hardness, firmness, break strength) of frozen cooked noodle were significantly improved by adding different hydrocolloid additives (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences of glass-transition temperature between hydrocolloid fortified and non fortified frozen cooked noodles. Moreover, the hydrocolloids improved quality of cooked noodle and increased energy consumption, however, xanthan gum showed the best results. The optimized constituents were: sodium polyacrylate 0.13 %, xanthan gum 0.86 %, sodium alginate 0.18 % with predicted sensory scores of 90.30. The study showed that hydrocolloids could be used as modifying agents in frozen cooked noodle process. PMID:27407208

  4. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems. PMID:22699411

  5. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  6. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  7. Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  8. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  9. Television Watching, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity and Diabetes among Three Ethnicities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  10. [Social inequalities influence the quality and diversity of diet in Brazilian children 6 to 36 months of age].

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dietary patterns in Brazilian children and factors associated with better diet. The authors used data for 2,477 children 6 to 36 months of age from the Brazilian National Survey of Demographic and Health in 2006-2007. Diet was assessed and classified using a composite index. The results showed that 28.2% of the children received a high-quality diet and 20% had a diversified diet. Children from socioeconomically underprivileged families or with serious food insecurity were approximately 40% less likely to have high-quality diets. Children living in homes with food insecurity were 71% less likely to have diversified diets, and those whose mothers had limited education were 43% less likely. Children residing in the North of Brazil were less likely to have diversified and high-quality diets. The dietary quality of Brazilian children is inadequate, and social vulnerability is closely associated with this adverse dietary situation. PMID:26840820

  11. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  12. Effects of long-term consumption of low doses of resveratrol on diet-induced mild hypercholesterolemia in pigs: a transcriptomic approach to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Ortuño, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María J; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; Vallejo, Fernando; Pallarés, Francisco J; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María-Teresa; Espín, Juan C

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have risen to alarming proportions, and there is a need for therapeutic and preventive measures. The polyphenol resveratrol (RES) protects against CVDs, but in vivo molecular mechanisms responsible for protection are not yet understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders. The identification of PBMNCs genes responding to dietary compounds might help to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of polyphenols. We determined gene expression differences between PBMNCs from pigs fed a high-fat diet manifesting a mild increase of cholesterol and pigs fed a high-fat diet containing low doses of RES. Although the consumption of RES did not modify the levels of cholesterol, microarray analyses indicated that some of the differentially expressed genes, collagens (COL1A, COL3A), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty-acid binding proteins (FABPs) involved in CVDs and lipid metabolism were up-regulated by the high-fat diet and down-regulated by RES. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed that RES and RES-containing grape extract prevented the induction of FABP4 in PBMNCs in female pigs fed a high-fat diet. Low micromolar concentrations of RES and its metabolite dihydroresveratrol exerted a minor but significant reducing effect on the induction of FABP4 expression in human macrophages treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Our results show that the consumption of low doses of RES modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders that are affected by a high-fat diet and suggest that some of the circulating RES metabolites may contribute to these effects. PMID:21852083

  13. Evaluation of a screener to assess diet quality in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Lee, Linde; Feskens, Edith J M; Meijboom, Saskia; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; van't Veer, Pieter; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Geelen, Anouk

    2016-02-14

    Generally, there is a need for short questionnaires to estimate diet quality in the Netherlands. We developed a thirty-four-item FFQ--the Dutch Healthy Diet FFQ (DHD-FFQ)--to estimate adherence to the most recent Dutch guidelines for a healthy diet of 2006 using the DHD-index. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the DHD-index derived from the DHD-FFQ by comparing it with the index based on a reference method and to examine associations with participant characteristics, nutrient intakes and levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Data of 1235 Dutch men and women, aged between 20 and 70 years, participating in the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study were used. The DHD-index was calculated from the DHD-FFQ and from a reference method consisting of a 180-item FFQ combined with a 24-h urinary Na excretion value. Ranking was studied using Spearman's correlations, and absolute agreement was studied using a Bland-Altman plot. Nutrient intakes derived from the 180-item FFQ were studied according to quintiles of the DHD-index using DHD-FFQ data. The correlation between the DHD-index derived from the DHD-FFQ and the reference method was 0·56 (95% CI 0·52, 0·60). The Bland-Altman plot showed a small mean overestimation of the DHD-index derived from the DHD-FFQ compared with the reference method. The DHD-index score was in the favourable direction associated with most macronutrient and micronutrient intakes when adjusted for energy intake. No associations between the DHD-index score and cardiometabolic risk factors were observed. In conclusion, the DHD-index derived from the DHD-FFQ was considered acceptable in ranking but relatively poor in individual assessment of diet quality. PMID:26628073

  14. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (...

  15. The adverse effect of obesity/high fat diet on oocyte quality and metabolism is not reversible with resumption of regular diet in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kasey A; Boudoures, Anna L; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Wang, Qiang; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which affects over one-third of reproductive-age women, has negative effects on reproduction and results in oocyte defects in both mice and humans. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine whether the adverse effects of an obesogenic diet, specifically abnormal oocyte spindle formation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid accumulation, can be reversed by return to normal weight and metabolic profile. Female C57BL6/J mice were placed on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 35.8% fat and 20.2% protein by nutritional content) or an isocaloric control diet (CD; 13% fat and 25% protein) for six weeks. All mice were then maintained on CD for eight weeks. We found that whereas metabolic parameters (weight, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol levels) of the HFD mice returned to normal after this “diet reversal” period, several oocyte defects were not reversible. Oocytes from the diet reversal mice demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of abnormal meiotic spindles than those from control mice. The HFD diet reversal GV oocytes also had lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower levels of ATP and citrate, and higher percentages of abnormal lipid accumulation and distribution and abnormally distributed mitochondria than oocytes from control mice. Thus, despite normalization of weight, glucose utilization, and cholesterol levels eight weeks after switching from a high fat to a regular chow, oocytes from diet reversal mice exhibited significantly higher rates of meiotic spindle, lipid, and mitochondrial defects than found in mice maintained on regular chow. These results suggest that the negative effects of an obesogenic diet on oocyte quality are not as reversible as the overall metabolic parameters. These data may provide better insight when counseling obese women regarding reproductive options and success. PMID:25775080

  16. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research. PMID:27007254

  17. Foods with a high fat quality are essential for healthy diets.

    PubMed

    Zevenbergen, H; de Bree, A; Zeelenberg, M; Laitinen, K; van Duijn, G; Flöter, E

    2009-01-01

    Fat is generally a highly valued element of the diet to provide energy, palatability to dry foods or to serve as a cooking medium. However, some foods rich in fat have a low fat quality with respect to nutrition, i.e., a relative high content of saturated (SFA) as compared to unsaturated fatty acids, whereas others have a more desirable fat quality, i.e., a relative high content of unsaturated fatty acids as compared to SFA. High-fat dairy products and fatty meats are examples of foods with low fat quality, whereas vegetable oils (tropical oils such as palm and coconut oil excluded) are products with a generally high fat quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the nutritional impact of products made of vegetable oils, e.g. margarines and dressings, and how they can be designed to contribute to good health. Since their first industrial production, the food industry has endeavored to improve products like margarines, including their nutritional characteristics. With evolving nutrition science, margarines and cooking products, and to a lesser extent dressings, have been adapted to contain less trans fatty acids (TFA), less SFA and more essential (polyunsaturated, PUFA) fatty acids. This has been possible by using careful fat and oil selection and modification processes. By blending vegetable oils rich in the essential PUFAs alpha-linolenic acid (vegetable omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6), margarines and dressings with both essential fatty acids present in significant quantities can be realized. In addition, full hydrogenation and fat rearrangement have enabled the production of cost-effective margarines virtually devoid of TFA and low in SFA. Dietary surveys indicate that vegetable oils, soft margarines and dressings are indeed often important sources of essential fatty acids in people's diets, whilst providing negligible amounts of TFA and contributing modestly to SFA intakes. Based on empirical and epidemiological data, the public health benefit of switching

  18. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  19. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate

  20. Diet of Mysis diluviana reveals seasonal patterns of omnivory and consumption of invasive species in offshore Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, Brian P.; Bunnell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in Lake Michigan’s lower trophic levels were hypothesized to have influenced the diet of omnivorous Mysis diluviana. In this study, the stomach contents of Mysis were examined from juvenile and adults collected monthly (April–October) from a 110-m bottom depth site to describe their seasonal diet in LakeMichigan during 2010. Diatoms were the most common prey item ingested, followed by calanoid copepods, and chrysophytes. Dreissenid veligers were documented in mysid diets for the first time in the Great Lakes, and Cercopagis pengoi were not only consumed but even preferred by adults in summer. Diet proportions by weight were dominated by calanoids, although diets showed a marked shift toward cladocerans in autumn. Juvenile and adult Mysis selected primarily for cladoceran prey but also selected for some calanoid copepod taxa. Comparing available Mysis diet data from 1985 to 2010 indicated generally fewer cladocerans and rotifers per gut and less consistent differences in copepods and Peridinium consumed. The seasonal composition of phyto- and zooplankton prey documented herein should be useful to those seeking to understand the trophic role of Mysis in offshore food webs, but caution should be expressed when generalizing similarities in Mysis diets across other lakes because Lake Michigan’s population seems relatively more herbivorous.

  1. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.86, p < 0.001) and older adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.90, p < 0.001), and an inverse association between dietary energy density and nine of twelve revised Brazilian Health Eating Index components in adult and/or older adults groups. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. PMID:26626824

  2. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

  3. Healthy dietary habits score as an indicator of diet quality in New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Parnell, Winsome R

    2014-06-01

    Adoption of optimal dietary habits during adolescence is associated with better health outcomes later in life. However, the associations between a pattern of healthy dietary habits encapsulated in an index and sociodemographic and nutrient intake have not been examined among adolescents. This study aimed to develop a behavior-based diet index and examine its validity in relation to sociodemographic factors, nutrient intakes, and biomarkers in a representative sample of New Zealand (NZ) adolescents aged 15-18 y (n = 694). A 17-item Healthy Dietary Habits Score for Adolescents (HDHS-A) was developed based on dietary habits information from the 2008/2009 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey. Post hoc trend analyses were used to identify the associations between HDHS-A score and nutrient intakes estimated by single 24-h diet recalls and selected nutritional biomarkers. Being female, not of Maori or Pacific ethnicity, and living in the least-deprived socioeconomic quintile were associated with a higher HDHS-A score (all P < 0.001). HDHS-A tertile was associated positively with intake of protein, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and lactose and negatively with sucrose. Associations in the expected directions were also found with most micronutrients (P < 0.05), urinary sodium (P < 0.001), whole blood (P < 0.05), serum (P < 0.01), and RBC folate (P < 0.05) concentrations. This suggests that the HDHS-A is a valid indicator of diet quality among NZ adolescents. PMID:24744308

  4. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in

  5. Diet quality influences isotopic discrimination among amino acids in an aquatic vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids (δ15NAA) has recently been employed as a powerful tool in ecological food web studies, particularly for estimating the trophic position (TP) of animal species in food webs. However, the validity of these estimates depends on the consistency of the trophic discrimination factor (TDF; - Δδ15NAA at each shift of trophic level) among a suite of amino acids within the tissues of consumer species. In this study, we determined the TDF values of amino acids in tadpoles (the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus) reared exclusively on one of three diets that differed in nutritional quality. The diets were commercial fish-food pellets (plant and animal biomass), bloodworms (animal biomass), and boiled white rice (plant carbohydrate), representing a balanced, protein-rich, and protein-poor diet, respectively. The TDF values of two “source amino acids” (Src-AAs), methionine and phenylalanine, were close to zero (0.3–0.5‰) among the three diets, typifying the values reported in the literature (∼0.5‰ and ∼0.4‰, respectively). However, TDF values of “trophic amino acids” (Tr-AAs) including alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and glutamic acid varied by diet: for example, the glutamic acid TDF was similar to the standard value (∼8.0‰) when tadpoles were fed either the commercial pellets (8.0‰) or bloodworms (7.9‰), but when they were fed boiled rice, the TDF was significantly reduced (0.6‰). These results suggest that a profound lack of dietary protein may alter the TDF values of glutamic acid (and other Tr-AAs and glycine) within consumer species, but not the two Src-AAs (i.e., methionine and phenylalanine). Knowledge of how a nutritionally poor diet can influence the TDF of Tr- and Src-AAs will allow amino acid isotopic analyses to better estimate TP among free-roaming animals. PMID:26045955

  6. Dietary consumption of advanced glycation end products and pancreatic cancer in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study12345

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Duan, Zhigang; Chen, Liang; Kahle, Lisa; Risch, Adam; Subar, Amy F; Cross, Amanda J; Hollenbeck, Albert; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds present in uncooked foods as well as in foods cooked at high temperatures. AGEs have been associated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in patients with diabetes. Dietary AGEs are an important contributor to the AGE pool in the body. Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) AGE is one of the major biologically and chemically well-characterized AGE markers. The consumption of red meat, which is CML-AGE rich, has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer in men. Objectives: With the use of a published food CML-AGE database, we estimated the consumption of CML AGE in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and evaluated the association between CML-AGE consumption and pancreatic cancer and the mediating effect of CML AGE on the association between red meat consumption and pancreatic cancer. Design: Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for pancreatic cancer. Results: During an average of 10.5 y of follow-up, we identified 2193 pancreatic cancer cases (1407 men and 786 women) from 528,251 subjects. With the comparison of subjects in the fifth and the first quintiles of CML-AGE consumption, we observed increased pancreatic cancer risk in men (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.93, P-trend = 0.003) but not women (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.72, P-trend = 0.42). Men in the highest quintile of red meat consumption had higher risk of pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.70), which attenuated after adjustment for CML-AGE consumption (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.53). Conclusion: Dietary CML-AGE consumption was associated with modestly increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men and may partially explain the positive association between red meat and pancreatic cancer. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:25527756

  7. Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

  8. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Background Raw food diets are popular among some dog owners, even though there are concerns regarding the infectious disease risk and public health implications. Hence, the two aims of this study were to investigate the hygiene quality of raw food diets for dogs in the Swedish market and if Escherichia coli with transferable resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) was present in such products. Methods Samples of raw food diets were suspended and further diluted in 0.9% saline. Appropriate dilutions were 1) cultured on Petrifilm™SEC to quantify the amount of E. coli in the samples and 2) mixed with cefotaxime to a final concentration of 1 mg/L and cultured on Petrifilm™SEC to quantify the amount of ESC-resistant E. coli in the samples. Furthermore, undiluted suspensions were mixed 1:1 with double strength MacConkey broth with cefotaxime, enriched overnight and finally cultured on MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Suspected ESC-resistant E. coli were screened by PCR for genes encoding extended spectrum beta lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC and their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials was performed by broth microdilution using VetMIC GN-mo. Results Escherichia coli was isolated from all samples (n=39) and ESC-resistant E. coli was isolated from nine samples (23%). All ESC-resistant E. coli were PCR-positive for the bla CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection. PMID:26490763

  9. The Effect of Diet Quality and Wing Morph on Male and Female Reproductive Investment in a Nuptial Feeding Ground Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Bussière, Luc F.; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A common approach in the study of life-history trade-off evolution is to manipulate the nutrient content of diets during the life of an individual in order observe how the acquisition of resources influences the relationship between reproduction, lifespan and other life-history parameters such as dispersal. Here, we manipulate the quality of diet that replicate laboratory populations received as a thorough test of how diet quality influences the life-history trade-offs associated with reproductive investment in a nuptial feeding Australian ground cricket (Pteronemobius sp.). In this species, both males and females make significant contributions to the production of offspring, as males provide a nuptial gift by allowing females to chew on a modified tibial spur during copulation and feed directing on their haemolymph. Individuals also have two distinct wing morphs, a short-winged flightless morph and a long-winged morph that has the ability to disperse. By manipulating the quality of diet over seven generations, we found that the reproductive investment of males and females were affected differently by the diet quality treatment and wing morph of the individual. We discuss the broader implications of these findings including the differences in how males and females balance current and future reproductive effort in nuptial feeding insects, the changing nature of sexual selection when diets vary, and how the life-history trade-offs associated with the ability to disperse are expected to differ among populations. PMID:18927614

  10. Dietary Intake Patterns and Diet Quality in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women With and Without Severe Headache or Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E. Whitney; Lipton, Richard B.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Raynor, Hollie A.; Thomas, J. Graham; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Pavlovic, Jelena; Wing, Rena R.; Bond, Dale S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background The role of diet in migraine is not well understood. We sought to characterize usual dietary intake patterns and diet quality in a nationally representative sample of women with and without severe headache or migraine. We also examined whether the relationship between migraine and diet differs by weight status. Methods In this analysis, women with migraine or severe headache status was determined by questionnaire for 3069 women, ages 20-50 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, 1999-2004. Women who experienced severe headaches or migraines were classified as migraine for the purposes of this analysis. Dietary intake patterns (micro- and macronutrient intake and eating frequency) and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index, 2005, were determined using one 24-hour dietary recall. Results Dietary intake patterns did not significantly differ between women with and without migraine. Normal weight women with migraine had significantly lower diet quality (Healthy Eating Index, 2005 total scores) than women without migraine (52.5 ± 0.9 vs 45.9 ± 1.0; P < .0001). Conclusions Whereas findings suggest no differences in dietary intake patterns among women with and without migraine, dietary quality differs by migraine status in normal weight women. Prospective analyses are needed to establish how diet relates to migraine onset, characteristics, and clinical features in individuals of varying weight status. PMID:25758250

  11. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. PMID:25218636

  12. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides. PMID:22125684

  13. Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

    2002-04-01

    Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality. PMID:12020370

  14. [Evolution and quality of the diet of women with severe and morbid obesity undergoing gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Annabella; Basfi-fer, Karen; Rojas, Pamela; Codoceo, Juana; Inostroza, Jorge; Carrasco, Fernando; Ruz, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Evolution and quality of the diet of women with severe and morbid obesity undergoing gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of dietary intake and quality of the diet in patients undergoing gastric bypass. In forty-four women with severe and morbid obesity it was assessed their nutrient intakes before and 6, 12, and 18 months after gastric bypass by using three-day food records. Vitamin and mineral intakes from supplements were strictly controlled though personalized records. With the exceptions of calcium and vitamin A, energy and nutrient intakes were significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 18 month after bypass compared to the pre-surgery period. Dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, copper, folic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E were below 100% of adequacy from the 6th month after the surgery and thereafter. This situation is reverted when nutrient intakes supplied by supplements are taken into account. Although a "U" shape trend was observed in the nutrient intakes results during the experimental period, in most cases the differences between the observed values at month 12 and 18 were not significant. In conclusion, these patients had important reductions of their energy and nutrient intakes as result of gastric bypass. Routine supplements may correct this situation, nevertheless, the anatomical alterations inherent to this type of surgery may cause that total nutrient intakes reaching adequacy values slightly above 100%, may not necessarily be able to avoid the development of nutritional deficiencies. PMID:19480338

  15. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  16. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  17. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  18. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  19. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Marks, Kristin A; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-06-01

    Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2) in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27014733

  20. A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: implications for quality assurance systems.

    PubMed

    Huppatz, Clare; Munnoch, Sally A; Worgan, Tory; Merritt, Tony D; Dalton, Craig; Kelly, Paul M; Durrheim, David N

    2008-03-01

    Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with raw shellfish consumption. In Australia there have been several reports of norovirus outbreaks associated with oysters despite the application of regulatory measures recommended by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. This study describes an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis following the consumption of New South Wales oysters. In September 2007, OzFoodNet conducted a cohort study of a gastroenteritis outbreak amongst people that had dined at a Port Macquarie restaurant. Illness was strongly associated with oyster consumption, with all cases having eaten oysters from the same lease (RR undefined, p < 0.0001). Norovirus was detected in a faecal specimen. Although no pathogen was identified during the environmental investigation, the source oyster lease had been closed just prior to harvesting due to sewage contamination. Australian quality assurance programs do not routinely test oysters for viral contamination that pose a risk to human health. It is recommended that the feasibility of testing oysters for norovirus, particularly after known faecal contamination of oyster leases, be assessed. PMID:18522310

  1. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramírez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ∼7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  2. The Assessment of Diet Quality and Its Effects on Health Outcomes Pre-pregnancy and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julie C; Zhou, Shao J; Flynn, Angela C; Malek, Lenka; Greco, Rebecca; Moran, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity pre pregnancy or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal obstetric and fetal complications. Diet is one modifiable risk factor that women may be motivated to improve. General healthy eating guidelines, micronutrient sufficiency and macronutrient quantity and quality are important nutrition considerations pre and during pregnancy. With regards to specific nutrients, health authorities have recommendations for folate and/or iodine supplementation; but not consistently for iron and omega-3 despite evidence for their association with health outcomes. There are modest additional requirements for energy and protein, but not fat or carbohydrate, in mid-late pregnancy. Diet indices and dietary pattern analysis are additional tools or methodologies used to assess diet quality. These tools have been used to determine dietary intakes and patterns and their association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes pre or during pregnancy. Women who may unnecessarily resist foods due to fear of food contamination from listeriosis and methylmercury may limit their diet quality and a balanced approached is required. Dietary intake may also vary according to certain population characteristics. Additional support for women who are younger, less educated, overweight and obese, from socially disadvantaged areas, smokers and those who unnecessarily avoid healthy foods, is required to achieve a higher quality diet and optimal lifestyle peri conception. PMID:26886241

  3. The Comparative Validity and Reproducibility of a Diet Quality Index for Adults: The Australian Recommended Food Score

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Boggess, May M.; Watson, Jane F.; Guest, Maya; Duncanson, Kerith; Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed to reflect alignment with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and is modelled on the US Recommended Food Score. Dietary intakes of 96 adult participants (31 male, 65 female) age 30 to 75 years were assessed in two rounds, five months apart. Diet was assessed using a 120-question semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The ARFS diet quality index was derived using a subset of 70 items from the full FFQ. Reproducibility of the ARFS between round one and round two was confirmed by the overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90), which compared favourably to that for the FFQ at 0.85 (95% CI 0.80, 0.89). ARFS was correlated with FFQ nutrient intakes, particularly fiber, vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C (0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.67), and with mineral intakes, particularly calcium, magnesium and potassium (0.32, 95% CI 0.23–0.40). ARFS is a suitable brief tool to evaluate diet quality in adults and reliably estimates a range of nutrient intakes. PMID:25625814

  4. Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Maloney, Christopher A; Youngson, Neil A; Owens, Julie A; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-04-01

    We previously showed that paternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption programs β-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring, together with transcriptome alterations in islets. Here we investigated the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RpWAT) transcriptome using gene and pathway enrichment and pathway analysis to determine whether commonly affected network topologies exist between these two metabolically related tissues. In RpWAT, 5108 genes were differentially expressed due to a paternal HFD; the top 5 significantly enriched networks identified by pathway analysis in offspring of HFD fathers compared with those of fathers fed control diet were: mitochondrial and cellular response to stress, telomerase signaling, cell death and survival, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and cancer. A total of 187 adipose olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated. Interrogation against the islet transcriptome identified specific gene networks and pathways, including olfactory receptor genes that were similarly affected in both tissues (411 common genes, P<0.05). In particular, we highlight a common molecular network, cell cycle and cancer, with the same hub gene, Myc, suggesting early onset developmental changes that persist, shared responses to programmed systemic factors, or crosstalk between tissues. Thus, paternal HFD consumption triggers unique gene signatures, consistent with premature aging and chronic degenerative disorders, in both RpWAT and pancreatic islets of daughters. PMID:24421403

  5. Urine and serum metabolite profiling of rats fed a high-fat diet and the anti-obesity effects of caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Mee Youn; Park, Hye Min; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling. PMID:25689639

  6. Meat quality of lambs produced in the Mesopotamia region of Argentina finished on different diets.

    PubMed

    Perlo, F; Bonato, P; Teira, G; Tisocco, O; Vicentin, J; Pueyo, J; Mansilla, A

    2008-07-01

    The meat quality of Corriedale lambs (40kg live weight) produced in the Mesopotamia region (Argentina) was assessed. These lambs had different finishing diets: only native grass pasture, ground alfalfa and alfalfa-linseed pellet (70/30). Carcass yield, longissimus dorsi area, backfat thickness, marbling, pH, meat and subcutaneous fat color, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fat, protein and moisture content were determined. Lambs finished on alfalfa-linseed pellet had the highest carcasses yield and backfat thickness and their meat had a lighter color (higher L(∗) value), higher marbling and tenderness than meat from lambs reared on native grass pasture. Grass-based finishing can lead to the production of leaner meat, with a more reddish color (higher a(∗) value). The ground alfalfa finishing diet seems to be intermediate between native grass pasture and alfalfa-linseed pellet with respect to carcass yield, backfat and meat color. In addition, the animals fed on ground alfalfa showed the highest muscle area. PMID:22062919

  7. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  8. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:25204084

  9. Comparison of two indices of diet quality with acculturation factors and demographics in Haitian Americans.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Zarini, Gustavo G; Dixon, Zisca

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of language preference and length of stay in the United States and diet among 132 Haitian Americans aged ≥35, born in Haiti. Two dietary indices, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were used to assess dietary quality. Years in the United States (>15 years; B = 0.063, p = .012) and female gender (B = 5.63, p = .028) were positively associated with AHEI. Lower HEI scores were associated with speaking no English (B = -6.11, p = .026). Participants reporting an income under 20,000/yr had lower AHEI scores (B = -7.63, p = .014). Concurrent use of these indices would provide a screening tool for nutrition intervention. Public health programs targeting low-cost resources, such as community gardening, are recommended to reduce health disparities among this population. PMID:24437543

  10. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs. PMID:27126221

  11. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  12. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. PMID:27188905

  13. Effects of microwave - fluidized bed drying on quality, energy consumption and drying kinetics of soybean kernels.

    PubMed

    Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Darvishi, Hosain; Minaei, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Moisture content of soybean kernel at harvest time is too high for storage, and needs to be reduced. In this research, drying characteristics, quality and energy requirement for microwave-fluidized bed drying of soybean kernels were studied. The results showed that air temperature (80-140 °C), velocity (1.8-4.5 m/s) and microwave power (200-500 W) significantly influenced drying time, moisture diffusivity, rehydration capacity, cracking, and specific energy consumption (P ≤ 0.05). Among the applied models, Page's model has the best performance to estimate the microwave-fluidized bed drying behavior of the soybean kernels. Moisture diffusivity values increased (6.25 × 10(-10) to 42.14 × 10(-10) m(2)/s) as the air velocity decreased and air temperature and microwave power increased. Activation energy was foundto be between 3.33 and 17.70 kJ/mol. Minimum cracking percentage of soybean kernels (12.96 %) was obtained at 80 °C, 1.8 m/s and 200 W treatments. The increase in microwave power and decrease in air velocity level decreased the rehydration capacity. Specific energy consumption varied from 50.94 to 338.76 MJ/kg water and the lowest specific energy consumption were obtained at 80 °C, 4.5 m/s and 500 W. PMID:26243896

  14. Balancing virtual land imports by a shift in the diet. Using a land balance approach to assess the sustainability of food consumption. Germany as an example.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Christen, Olaf; Semler, Edmund; Jahreis, Gerhard; Voget-Kleschin, Lieske; Schrode, Alexander; Artmann, Martina

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is considered as one of the main drivers of global environmental change. Dietary patterns in particular, embedded in the international trade of foods and other biomass based commodities, determine the dimension of beneficial or harmful environmental impacts of the agri-food sector - both domestically and abroad. In this study we analysed different dietary scenarios from a virtual land flow perspective, based on representative consumption data for Germany in the years 2006 and 1985-89. Further we identified the consumer groups that would have to adapt most to balance Germany's virtual land import and analysed the impact reduced food wastage. For the study, official data sets concerning production, trade and consumption were used. We derived land use data from environmentally extended input-output data sets and FAO statistics. The conversion of agricultural raw products to consumed commodities is based on official processing and composition data. Subgroup-specific intake data from the last representative National Nutrition Survey in Germany were used. We analysed 42 commodities, aggregated into 23 product groups, seven land use types and six nutrition scenarios. The results show that in the baseline scenario the average nutrition in the year 2006 leads to a virtual land import of 707m(2)p(-1)a(-1), which represents 30% of the total nutrition-induced land demand of 2365m(2)p(-1)a(-1). On the other hand, the German agri-food sector exports virtual land, in the form of commodities, equivalent to 262m(2)p(-1)a(-1). In this paper we calculate that the resulting net import of virtual land could be balanced by way of a shift to an officially recommended diet and a reduction in the consumption of stimulants (cocoa, coffee, green/black tea, wine). A shift to an ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet would even lead to a positive virtual land balance (even with maintained consumption of stimulants). Moreover, we demonstrate that a shift in the average diet profile could

  15. The association of diet with quality of life, disability, and relapse rate in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hadgkiss, Emily J; Jelinek, George A; Weiland, Tracey J; Pereira, Naresh G; Marck, Claudia H; van der Meer, Dania M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between dietary factors including fat, fruit and vegetable intake, dairy and meat consumption, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), disability and relapse rate in a large international sample of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Participants with MS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic and clinical characteristics, HRQOL, disability, relapse rate, and the Diet Habits Questionnaire (DHQ). Results Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2087 (84.5%) provided complete data on their dietary habits (DHQ total score). Multivariate regression models demonstrated that every 10-point increase on the DHQ total score was associated with nearly a six-point and five-point increase in physical and mental HRQOL, respectively, and 30.0% reduced likelihood of a higher level of disability. After controlling for age and gender, and the other dietary covariates, ‘healthy’ consumption of fruit and vegetables and dietary fat predicted better quality of life and less likelihood of higher disability when compared to respondents with a ‘poor’ diet. For those with relapsing–remitting MS, the DHQ total significantly predicted a lower relapse rate and reduced odds of increasing disease activity, but the model fit was poor and the predicted change only marginal. Discussion This study supports significant associations of healthy dietary habits with better physical and mental HRQOL and a lower level of disability. Further research is urgently required to explore these associations including randomized controlled trials of dietary modification for people with MS. PMID:24628020

  16. Genetic ablation of carotene oxygenases and consumption of lycopene or tomato powder diets modulate carotenoid and lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nikki A; Elsen, Amy C; Erdman, John W

    2013-09-01

    Carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO-I) cleaves β-carotene to form vitamin A, whereas carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO-II) preferentially cleaves non-provitamin A carotenoids. Recent reports indicate that β-carotene metabolites regulate dietary lipid uptake, whereas lycopene regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression. To determine the physiologic consequences of carotenoids and their interactions with CMO-I and CMO-II, we characterized mammalian carotenoid metabolism, metabolic perturbations, and lipid metabolism in female CMO-I(-/-) and CMO-II(-/-) mice fed lycopene or tomato-containing diets for 30 days. We hypothesized that there would be significant interactions between diet and genotype on carotenoid accumulation and lipid parameters. CMO-I(-/-) mice had higher levels of leptin, insulin, and hepatic lipidosis but lower levels of serum cholesterol. CMO-II(-/-) mice had increased tissue lycopene and phytofluene accumulation, reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and cholesterol levels, but elevated liver lipids and cholesterol compared with wild-type mice. The diets did not modulate these genotypic perturbations, but lycopene and tomato powder significantly decreased serum insulin-like growth factor 1. Tomato powder also increased hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression, independent of genotype. These data point to the pleiotropic actions of CMO-I and CMO-II supporting a strong role of these proteins in regulating tissue carotenoid accumulation and the lipid metabolic phenotype as well as tomato carotenoid-independent regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24034573

  17. Genetic ablation of carotene oxygenases and consumption of lycopene or tomato powder diets modulates carotenoid and lipid metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nikki A.; Elsen, Amy C.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO-I) cleaves β-carotene to form vitamin A while carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO-II) preferentially cleaves non-provitamin A carotenoids. Recent reports indicate that beta-carotene metabolites regulate dietary lipid uptake while lycopene regulates peroxisome-proliferated activator receptor (PPAR) expression. To determine the physiologic consequences of carotenoids and their interactions with CMO-I and CMO-II, we characterized mammalian carotenoid metabolism, metabolic perturbations and lipid metabolism in female CMO-I−/− and CMO-II−/− mice fed lycopene or tomato-containing diets for 30 days. We hypothesized that there would be significant interactions between diet and genotype on carotenoid accumulation and lipid parameters. CMO-I−/− mice had higher levels of leptin, insulin and hepatic lipidosis, but lower levels of serum cholesterol. CMO-II−/− mice had increased tissue lycopene and phytofluene accumulation, reduced IGF-1 levels and cholesterol levels, but elevated liver lipids and cholesterol compared with WT mice. The diets did not modulate these genotypic perturbations, but lycopene and tomato powder did significantly decrease serum insulin-like growth factor-I. Tomato powder also reduced hepatic PPAR expression, independent of genotype. These data point to the pleiotropic actions of CMO-I and CMO-II supporting a strong role of these proteins in regulating tissue carotenoid accumulation and the lipid metabolic phenotype, as well as tomato carotenoid-independent regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24034573

  18. Evaluation of diet quality and weight status of children from a low socioeconomic urban environment supports "at risk" classification.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Denise D; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia; McKay, M Geraldine; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; Touger-Decker, Riva; Smith, Jeffrey K; Perlman, Adam

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated diet quality and weight status in 248 randomly selected low-income urban children, aged 7 to 13 years, who were participating in a larger study on the effectiveness of multivitamin supplementation on school performance. Food frequency questionnaires were used to determine intake of total calories and food groups, selected micronutrients, and amount and percent of calories from sweets. Results were compared to age-appropriate recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Height, weight, and ages obtained from current-year student health records were used to calculate body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) percentile for age. Of 193 participants with usable food frequencies and available weight, height, sex, and age, 22% (n=43) were at risk for overweight and 36% (n=69) were overweight. More than 75% of participants failed to meet recommended servings for grains, vegetables, dairy, and fruit groups, and mean intake of each of these food groups was significantly less than recommendations (P<0.001). Twenty-five percent or more of subjects did not meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for iron and folate. Mean intake of calcium was below the Adequate Intake for calcium and 76% of children 8 years old and younger and 93% of children 9 years old and older did not meet the Adequate Intake for calcium. Mean calorie intake was 1,723 kcal (standard deviation+/-924) and mean percent of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 57%, 13%, and 32%, respectively. No correlation was found between total calories, total dietary sugar, or percent of calories from sweets and body mass index. Results of this study suggest that these urban children may be "at risk," based on the high percentage who are overweight and have insufficient food group consumption and micronutrient intake. PMID:17964318

  19. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. PMID:26225739

  20. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = -0.33) and triglycerides (r = -0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional interventions

  1. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. PMID:25039653

  2. Self-Control, Diet Concerns and Eater Prototypes Influence Fatty Foods Consumption of Adolescents in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Joanne H.; O'Hara, Ross E.; Piko, Bettina F.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Keresztes, Noemi; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; de Wit, John B. F.

    2010-01-01

    As adolescent overweight has become a widespread problem in the developed world, it is timely to understand commonalities underlying dietary practices across countries. This study examines whether consumption of fruits and vegetables and fatty foods among adolescents in different countries is related to the same individual difference and social…

  3. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. PMID:26385288

  4. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  5. Effect of herbage depletion on short-term foraging dynamics and diet quality of steers grazing wheat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two complementary experiments were completed to assess short-term foraging dynamics, diet quality, and ruminal degradation kinetics of herbage consumed by steers with 3 level of herbage depletion. Experiment (Exp.) 1 was a behavioral study in which 3 ruminally cannulated steers were allocated to gra...

  6. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  7. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objec...

  8. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Results: A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Conclusion: Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26175764

  9. Measures of diet quality across calendar and holiday seasons among midlife women: A one-year longitudinal study using the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Systematic seasonal bias may confound efforts to estimate usual dietary intake and diet quality; little is known of dietary quality over the holiday season. Objectives: Test for differences in intakes of energy, percentage of energy from macronutrients, vegetables and fruits, and diet qu...

  10. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

  11. The combination of arginine and leucine supplementation of reduced crude protein diets for boars increases eating quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Lemos, J P C; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2014-05-01

    Fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace) from a commercial crossbred operation were used to investigate the effect of dietary Arg supplementation, protein reduction (PR), and Leu supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality. Pigs weighing 58.9 ± 1.6 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (n = 9). The 6 dietary treatments were normal CP diet (16% CP, NPD), reduced CP diet (13% CP, RPD), reduced CP diet with Leu addition to 2.0% (RPDL), normal CP diet supplemented with 1% Arg (16% CP, Arg-NPD), reduced CP diet supplemented with 1% Arg (13% CP, Arg-RPD), and reduced CP diet with Leu addition to 2.0% and supplemented with 1% Arg (13% CP, Arg-RPDL). Pigs were slaughtered at 91.7 ± 1.6 kg BW. Dietary Arg supplementation had no effect on intramuscular fat (IMF) content but produced meat off-flavor and increased meat tenderness and overall acceptability. The PR increased (P < 0.001) IMF content (45% to 48%) but negatively affected the growth performance of pigs. In addition, PR increased (P < 0.05) back fat thickness and decreased loin weight. Leucine addition did not affect IMF content, back fat thickness, or loin weight. There was an increase of juiciness with PR and Leu addition, which accompanied the increase of IMF content with the low-CP diet. The PR increased meat deposition of 18:1c9, SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, which were not correlated with any pork sensory trait. The main combined effect of Arg was an increased tenderness and overall acceptability of pork. In conclusion, it was confirmed that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs. PMID:24663178

  12. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  13. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  14. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference. PMID:25123207

  15. Intestinal Fluid and Glucose Transport in Wistar Rats following Chronic Consumption of Fresh or Oxidised Palm Oil Diet

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Agona O.; Owu, Daniel U.; Okwari, Obem O.; Antai, Atim B.; Osim, Eme E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil causes functional derangement of various tissues. This study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of chronic ingestion of thermoxidized and fresh palm oil diets on intestinal fluid and glucose absorption in rats using the everted sac technique. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats per group. The first group was the control and was fed on normal rat chow while the second (FPO) and third groups (TPO) were fed diet containing either fresh or thermoxidized palm oil (15% wt/wt) for 14 weeks. Villus height and crypt depth were measured. The gut fluid uptake and gut glucose uptake were significantly (P < .001) lower in the TPO group than those in the FPO and control groups, respectively. The villus height in the TPO was significantly (P < .01) lower than that in FPO and control. The villus depth in TPO was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in FPO and control groups, respectively. These results suggest that ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil and not fresh palm oil may lead to distortion in villus morphology with a concomitant malabsorption of fluid and glucose in rats due to its harmful free radicals. PMID:21991537

  16. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Although the water group had a greater reduction in grain intake at month 3 and a greater increase in fruit and vegetable intake at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05), the DB group had a greater reduction in dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Conclusions: Participants in both intervention groups showed positive changes in energy intakes and dietary patterns. The DB group showed decreases in most caloric beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  17. Effort-reward imbalance at work, over-commitment personality and diet quality in Central and Eastern European populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Wei; Peasey, Anne; Stefler, Denes; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Chan, Jen-Hui; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2016-04-14

    The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between work stress defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model and diet quality and to examine the potential role of over-commitment (OC) personality in ERI-diet relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted in random population samples of 6340 men and 5792 women (age 45-69 years) from the Czech Republic, Russia and Poland. Dietary data were collected using FFQ. The healthy diet indicator (HDI) was constructed using eight nutrient/food intakes (HDI components) to reflect the adherence to WHO dietary guideline. The extent of imbalance between effort and reward was measured by the effort:reward (ER) ratio; the effort score was the numerator and the reward score was multiplied by a factor adjusting for unequal number of items in the denominator. Logistic regression and linear regression were used to assess the associations between exposures (ER ratio and OC) and outcomes (HDI components and HDI) after adjustment for confounders and mediators. The results showed that high ER ratio and high OC were significantly associated with unhealthy diet quality. For a 1-SD increase in the ER ratio, HDI was reduced by 0·030 and 0·033 sd in men and women, and for a 1-SD increase in OC, HDI was decreased by 0·036 and 0·032 sd in men and women, respectively. The modifying role of OC in ERI-diet relationships was non-significant. To improve diet quality at workplace, a multiple-level approach combining organisational intervention for work stress and individual intervention for vulnerable personality is recommended. PMID:26867471

  18. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Amanda G.; Brooks, Alison S.; Piperno, Dolores R.

    2011-01-01

    The nature and causes of the disappearance of Neanderthals and their apparent replacement by modern humans are subjects of considerable debate. Many researchers have proposed biologically or technologically mediated dietary differences between the two groups as one of the fundamental causes of Neanderthal disappearance. Some scenarios have focused on the apparent lack of plant foods in Neanderthal diets. Here we report direct evidence for Neanderthal consumption of a variety of plant foods, in the form of phytoliths and starch grains recovered from dental calculus of Neanderthal skeletons from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, and Spy Cave, Belgium. Some of the plants are typical of recent modern human diets, including date palms (Phoenix spp.), legumes, and grass seeds (Triticeae), whereas others are known to be edible but are not heavily used today. Many of the grass seed starches showed damage that is a distinctive marker of cooking. Our results indicate that in both warm eastern Mediterranean and cold northwestern European climates, and across their latitudinal range, Neanderthals made use of the diverse plant foods available in their local environment and transformed them into more easily digestible foodstuffs in part through cooking them, suggesting an overall sophistication in Neanderthal dietary regimes. PMID:21187393

  19. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  20. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

  1. Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

  2. Fish consumption as a driver of risk-management decisions and human health-based water quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Judd, Nancy; Lowney, Yvette; Anderson, Paul; Baird, Suzanne; Bay, Steven M; Breidt, Jay; Buonanduci, Michele; Dong, Zhao; Essig, Don; Garry, Michael R; Jim, Rebecca C; Kirkwood, Gemma; Moore, Shelly; Niemi, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Rory; Ruffle, Betsy; Schaider, Laurel A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E

    2015-11-01

    The use and interpretation of fish consumption surveys and interviews, the application of fish consumption rates for sediment evaluation and cleanup, and the development of human health water quality criteria (HH WQC) are complex and interrelated issues. The present article focuses on these issues using examples from the United States, although the issues may be relevant for other countries. Some key considerations include the fact that there are many types of fish consumption surveys (e.g., 24-h recall surveys, food frequency questionnaires, creel surveys), and these surveys have different advantages and limitations. Identification of target populations for protection, identification of the species and quantities of fish consumed, and determination of bioaccumulation assumptions are important factors when developing water quality and sediment screening levels and standards. Accounting for the cultural importance of fish consumption for some populations is an even more complex element. Discussions about HH WQC often focus only on the fish consumption rate and may not have broad public input. Some states are trying to change this through extensive public participation efforts and use of probabilistic approaches to derive HH WQC. Finally, there are limits to what WQC can achieve. Solutions beyond the establishment of WQC that target toxics reduction from other sources may provide the greatest improvements to water quality and reductions in human health risks in the future. PMID:26496131

  3. Impact of the DASH diet on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Carol; Hayden, Janel; Sulo, Suela; Silver, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as a pathophysiologic mechanism in the progression of heart failure (HF). However, little attention has been given to the ability of dietary approaches to improve endothelial function. This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with chronic symptomatic (stage C) HF. Forty-eight patients were randomized to follow the DASH diet (n = 24) or the general HF dietary recommendations (n = 24). Endothelial function was assessed by measuring large and small arterial elasticity (LAE and SAE) at rest. Exercise capacity (measured with the 6-minute walk test) and quality of life (measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) at baseline and 3 months were also evaluated. Patients were older adults with an average HF duration of 5 years. LAE at 1 month improved significantly in the DASH diet group (P < 0.01). Overall LAE and SAE scores at 3 months also improved; however, the net changes were not statistically significant. The DASH group had better exercise capacity (292 m vs 197 m; P = 0.018) and quality of life scores (21 vs 39; P = 0.006) over time, while sodium intake levels at 1, 2, and 3 months were comparable between the groups. Adhering to the DASH diet improved arterial compliance initially and improved exercise capacity and quality of life scores at 3 months. The DASH diet may be an important adjunctive therapy for patients with symptomatic HF. PMID:25829641

  4. Consumption of a high glycemic load but not a high glycemic index diet is marginally associated with oxidative stress in young women.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Jakits, Holly E; Flood, Andrew; Thomas, William; Gross, Myron; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-01

    Research studies have suggested that chronic consumption of high glycemic index foods may lead to chronically high oxidative stress. This is important because oxidative stress is suspected to be an early event in the etiology of many disease processes. We hypothesized that dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were positively associated with oxidative stress assessed by plasma F2-isoprostanes in healthy, premenopausal women (body mass index [BMI] = 24.7 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) and age 25.3 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD). We measured plasma F2-isoprostanes in 306 healthy premenopausal women at the baseline visit for the Women In Steady Exercise Research study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dietary glycemic index and load were calculated from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire, and participants were divided into quartiles of dietary glycemic index and of glycemic load. Plasma F2-isoprostanes were compared across quartile groups of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load using linear regression models. Plasma F2-isoprostanes (pg/mL) increased with quartile of glycemic load (test for linear trend, P = .033), and also increased with quartile of glycemic index in participants with BMI ≥ 25 (P = .035) but not in those with BMI <25 (P = .924). After adjustment for BMI, alcohol consumption and total energy intake, both these positive trends remained marginally significant (P = .123 for quartiles of glycemic index and P = .065 for quartiles of glycemic load). PMID:25453541

  5. Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?

    PubMed

    Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner. PMID:20373191

  6. Consumption of coral propagules after mass spawning enhances larval quality of damselfish through maternal effects.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark I

    2003-06-01

    The synchronized spawning of corals in many parts of the Indo-Pacific represents a huge injection of biological material into the waters around reefs. Much of this material is consumed by fishes and filter-feeding invertebrates in the 5 or so days following spawning. The present study is the first to document the effect of the consumption of coral propagules on a population of facultatively planktivorous fish and the transference of physiological condition across generations. The study compares two populations of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis that fed to differing degrees on coral propagules for 5 days after the annual mass spawning of corals at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Wind blew coral slicks over the outer lagoon to the inner lagoon some 1.5 km away. While coral propagules were abundant in the water column in the windward location, they were scarce by the time the water mass reached the inner lagoon. Behavioral observations 2-5 days after coral spawning showed that a significantly higher proportion of P. amboinensis was feeding on coral propagules in the windward location than in the inner lagoon location. Windward location females consumed coral propagules almost exclusively and had fuller guts than females from the inner lagoonal location. Five days after the mass coral spawning, windward location females had a higher condition factor and a larger liver mass relative to body mass compared to females within the inner lagoon or females from both locations 2 months later. Fish eggs laid by the windward location females soon after coral spawning yielded larvae that had 25% larger yolk sacs and 100% larger oil globules than did larvae produced from the females from the inner lagoon location, or larvae produced at either location prior to or well after coral spawning in 2 previous years. Larger yolk sacs and oil globules have been shown to have direct survival benefits in the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding. A feeding

  7. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  8. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  9. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (P<0.05) in the slaughter weight and hot carcass weight and a quadratic effect (P<0.05) on the beef texture. No alterations occurred in the physicochemical characteristics of the longissimus thoracis; however, changes were observed (P<0.05) in the longissimus thoracis fatty acid profile. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  10. Quality assurance program for the determination of selenium in foods and diets by instrumental neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The biological essentially of selenium for animals was first evidenced in 1957. However, it was not until 1973 that an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase was proven to be a selenoenzyme. At present, selenium is known to be a normal component of several enzymes, proteins, and some aminoacryl transfer nucleic acids. A few selenium compounds have been reported to possess anticarcinogenic properties. There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of selenium in human nutrition and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed in several laboratories for the determination of total and species-specific selenium in whole blood, serum, urine, soft and hard tissues, food, water, proteins, etc. We have developed several instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using the, Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility for the determination of parts-per-billion levels of selenium. These methods include cyclic INAA (CINAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) using both conventional and anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. Considering the immense health significance, it is imperative that the selenium levels in foods and diets be measured under an extensive quality assurance program for routine monitoring purposes.

  11. Nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets consumed by scavenging hens and cocks across seasons.

    PubMed

    Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season on nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets that scavenging hens and cocks consume. Thirty hens and 30 cocks were purchased and slaughtered during each of the rainy, post rainy, cool dry and hot dry seasons. A total of 240 birds were used in the study. Fresh crop content weights were high (P < 0.05) during the cool dry season. Cereal grains, kitchen wastes, green materials, animal protein sources and inorganic materials were the main components of the crop contents. Crop contents varied with season and sex of bird (P < 0.05). The cereal grain weights were high during cool dry and hot dry seasons. Weights of animal protein sources (insects, locusts and termites) were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy and post rainy seasons. Hens contained more animal protein sources (P < 0.05) than cocks. Hens had a higher (P < 0.05) lysine content during the rainy season than cocks. Histidine, serine, arginine, threonine, cysteine and lysine contents varied with seasons (P < 0.05). Methionine did not vary with season and sex of the bird. Nutritional supplementation of village chickens should, therefore, vary with seasons. PMID:26936274

  12. Effects of diet quality on phenotypic flexibility of organ size and digestive function in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Sheng; Wang, De-Hua

    2007-07-01

    In the context of evolution and ecology, there is a trade-off between the benefits of processing food through a digestive system with specific phenotypic attributes and the cost of maintaining and carrying the digestive system. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that digestive modulations at several levels can match each other to meet the energy and nutrient demands of Mongolian gerbils, a small granivorous rodent species, by acclimating them to a high-quality diet diluted with alfalfa powder. Mongolian gerbils on the diluted diet maintained metabolizable energy intake by an integrated processing response (IPR), which included increases in dry matter intake, gut capacity and rate of digesta passage after 2-weeks of acclimation. Down-regulation of hydrolytic enzyme activity in the intestinal brush-border membrane supported the adaptive modulation hypothesis. The absence of up-modulation of summed enzyme hydrolytic capacity on the diluted diet indicated that greater mass of small intestine on a high-fibre diet is not a direct indicator of digestive or absorptive capacity. Changes in mass of vital organs and carcass suggested that the amount of energy allocated to various organs and hence physiological functions was regulated in response to diet shift. PMID:17333208

  13. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P < 0.05). The Longissimus muscle area (LMA) of pigs fed the LP + Leu diet was larger than those fed the LP + Ala diet (P = 0.05). In addition, drip loss and intramuscular fat of pigs fed the LP + Ala diet were higher than that of the others (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of leucine in low protein diet could stimulate protein deposition and improve the meat quality of finishing pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one. PMID:26597995

  14. Quality of life, sleep, mood and alcohol consumption: a complex interaction.

    PubMed

    Foster, J H; Peters, T J; Kind, P

    2002-01-01

    Socio-demographic information was collected from 52 (45 men, seven women) currently drinking moderately dependent alcohol misusers attending an outpatient clinic in South London for medical assessment and treatment. Assessments at baseline and 12-week follow-up included: (i) Severity of Alcohol Dependence (SADQ) (baseline only), (ii) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) Nottingham Health Profile sleep subscale (NHP) and (iv) the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). The main outcome measure was drinking at a "sensible level" at 12-week follow-up as recommended by the Royal College of Psychiatrists. There were significant interactions between sleeping badly, lying awake at night and HADS depression scores. The Health-related Quality of Life (HrQoL) of this group was poor compared to general population norms. Lower EQ-5D index scores were associated with poorer educational attainment and lower EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) patient ratings with greater baseline alcohol consumption. Clinician ratings on the EQ-5D VAS were consistently lower than the patient ratings. The correlations between patient self-assessment and clinician ratings (EQ-5D VAS) were not significant. The forty-seven subjects (90%) who were successfully followed-up showed a significant reduction in the total amount of alcohol consumed. Ten (21%) subjects returned to sensible drinking levels at 12 weeks but there was not a corresponding improvement in HrQoL, sleep, or affective status scores or biochemical measures in these subjects. PMID:11900623

  15. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1) collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2) collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3) compare the results with the international norms, 4) and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI). Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat) were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance. PMID:21992447

  16. CONSUMPTION OF A HIGH N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID DIET DURING GRADUAL MILD PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, KM; Grippo, AJ; Beltz, TG; Johnson, AK

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may be beneficial for anxiety and depression under stressful conditions. Studies however, typically utilise physical or sudden physiological stress, while gradual physiological stress is also relevant to human conditions. Using deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration to induce gradual physiological stress, this study investigated the impact of n-3PUFAs under gradual physiological stress in rats. Animals (aged 2 months) (N=8–12/group) received daily injections of DOCA or vehicle and were concurrently fed a high n-3PUFA or control diet for eight weeks. Behavioural measures were taken throughout. Behavioural tests and physiological measures were conducted after six and eight weeks respectively. DOCA administration decreased plasma renin, plasma proteins and relative adrenal weight, and increased water intake, relative kidney weight, and anxiety in the open field. These findings demonstrate disruptions to the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, a result of mild physiological stress, that also impact on anxiety behaviours. No effects of n-3PUFAs were found. PMID:25534694

  17. Consumption of a high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet during gradual mild physiological stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M; Grippo, A J; Beltz, T G; Johnson, A K

    2015-04-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may be beneficial for anxiety and depression under stressful conditions. Studies however, typically utilise physical or sudden physiological stress, while gradual physiological stress is also relevant to human conditions. Using deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration to induce gradual physiological stress, this study investigated the impact of n-3PUFAs under gradual physiological stress in rats. Animals (aged 2 months) (N=8-12/group) received daily injections of DOCA or vehicle and were concurrently fed a high n-3PUFA or control diet for eight weeks. Behavioural measures were taken throughout. Behavioural tests and physiological measures were conducted after six and eight weeks respectively. DOCA administration decreased plasma renin, plasma proteins and relative adrenal weight, and increased water intake, relative kidney weight, and anxiety in the open field. These findings demonstrate disruptions to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, a result of mild physiological stress, that also impact on anxiety behaviours. No effects of n-3PUFAs were found. PMID:25534694

  18. Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid to broiler diets: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michiels, J; Maertens, L; Buyse, J; Lemme, A; Rademacher, M; Dierick, N A; De Smet, S

    2012-02-01

    Creatine, (CREA) a central constituent in energy metabolism, is obtained from dietary animal protein or de novo synthesis from guanidinoacetic acid (GAA). Especially in all-vegetable diets, supplemental CREA or GAA may restore the CREA availability in tissues, and hence, improve performance. In this study, 768 one-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: negative control, all-vegetable corn-soybean-based; negative control supplemented with either 0.6 or 1.2 g of GAA per kilogram of feed; and positive control (60, 30, and 30 g/kg of fish meal in the starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively). Each treatment was replicated in 6 pens of 32 birds each. At the end of the grower period (d 26), 2 birds per pen were euthanized for metabolic measurements. Four broilers per pen were selected at slaughter age (d 39) to determine carcass characteristics and meat quality. Compared with the negative control, GAA supplementation resulted in an improved gain:feed ratio (P < 0.05) and ADG (P < 0.05; + 2.7 and + 2.2% for GAA at 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg, respectively) throughout the entire period. Breast meat yield was higher for the GAA diets compared with that of the negative control birds (P < 0.05; 30.6 vs. 29.4%) and was comparable with that of the positive control birds (30.2%). With regard to meat quality, lower ultimate pH values, higher cooking and press fluid losses, and higher color L* values were observed for the GAA diets compared with those of the negative control diet (P < 0.05). These effects were small, however. The GAA and CREA levels in breast meat were lower and higher, respectively, in GAA-fed birds compared with those of the control birds (P < 0.01). The diets did not affect plasma metabolic traits, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentrations were almost twice as high in animals fed 1.2 g/kg of GAA compared with those of all other treatments. The GAA included in all-vegetable diets improved animal performance for the whole

  19. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  20. Performance, egg quality, and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Catli, A U; Cinar, M; Bintas, E; Cöven, F

    2012-06-01

    In total, 432 thirty-six-week-old laying hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) or an essential oil mixture (EOM) from 36 to 51 wk of age. Hens were divided into 3 equal groups replicated 6 times with 24 hens per replicate. No significant difference was observed among the dietary treatments in terms of performance indices. Different from the dietary manipulation, high environmental temperatures negatively influenced all of the laying performance traits except the feed conversion ratio in association with the diminished feed consumption. The MOS, and particularly the EOM, tended to alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress on BW gain. Mortality was higher in MOS-fed hens than with other treatments. A supplementation diet with MOS or EOM provided increments in eggshell weight (P < 0.01). Relative albumen weight was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in response to EOM or MOS supplementation; however, this was not the case in the yolk weight rate. The MOS decreased albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). High environmental temperatures hampered entire egg quality characteristics except for the eggshell breaking strength and egg yolk weight. These results indicated that heat stress adversely affected both productive performance and egg quality. As for the results of this study, neither MOS nor EOM was efficacious in improving efficiency of egg production and stimulating humoral immune response in laying hens reared under moderate and hot climatic conditions. However, the ameliorative effect exerted by MOS and EOM on eggshell characteristics is conclusive. PMID:22582296

  1. [Physical activity and healthy diet, weight perception and stress in adult population in Chile: analysis of the second quality of life and health survey 2006].

    PubMed

    Pablo Zavala, Juan; Leraç, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Chile had a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition with an increase in risk factors for chronic diseases and obesity. Dietary changes have occurred, mostly an increase in consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and salt, as well as a decrease in physical activity. This has led to a marked increase in obesity rates. To learn more on these risk factors for chronic diseases, obesity and physical activity, the First Quality of Life and Health Survey (ECVS) was carried out in 2000, with a second version in 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze, from data collected by the 2006 survey, the relationship of physical activity with the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, weight perception and stress. The 2006 survey included 6.210 subjects with a 10.8% of active population and 89.2% of sedentary people. The relationship of activity was determined with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, weight perception and stress, by sex and socioeconomic levels. Results show that more than 50% of the active subjects consume fruits and vegetables, and 50% consume dairy products every day, with a higher probability of active persons of consuming healthy foods than the sedentary ones. Besides, sedentary people perceive themselves with more overweight and obesity than the active subjects. There was no relationship between physical activity and stress. People with a higher socioeconomic level are more active and consume more healthy products. These results permit to elaborate targeted policies and programs to improve diet and physical activity in the Chilean population. PMID:21866680

  2. Diet quality in obese/overweight individuals with/without metabolic syndrome compared to normal weight controls

    PubMed Central

    Yosaee, Somaye; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nazari Nasab, Mahdiyeh; Khosravi, Ahmad; Alinavaz, Mina; Hosseini, Banafshe; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a serious public health concern worldwide; however, the pathogenesis of this disease has not been yet cleared. This study aimed to compare diet quality in obese/overweight participants with/without metabolic syndrome with normal weight controls. Methods: This was a comparative study on 147 Iranian adults under treatment at the Endocrinology Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. They were assigned into three groups (normal weight, obese weight with/without MetS) according to the inclusion- exclusion criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP ATPIII consensus criteria. Healthy Eating Index Data were obtained from the validated FFQ to determine the diet quality index scores, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Results: Our findings demonstrated that FBS, TG, SBP, WC and weight were higher among MetS patients compared to the both weight matched and non-weight matched participants, while HDL-c was lowest in this group (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between healthy weight controls and obese/overweight participants with/without MetS in HEI-2010, and 9 of the 12 HEI-2010 components score (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study revealed that low diet quality was a risk factor in developing MetS PMID:27493920

  3. Physiological and microbial adjustments to diet quality permit facultative herbivory in an omnivorous lizard.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Brun, Antonio; Magallanes, Melisa; Brinkerhoff, Joshua; Laspiur, Alejandro; Acosta, Juan Carlos; Bordenstein, Seth R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2016-06-15

    While herbivory is a common feeding strategy in a number of vertebrate classes, less than 4% of squamate reptiles feed primarily on plant material. It has been hypothesized that physiological or microbial limitations may constrain the evolution of herbivory in lizards. Herbivorous lizards exhibit adaptations in digestive morphology and function that allow them to better assimilate plant material. However, it is unknown whether these traits are fixed or perhaps phenotypically flexible as a result of diet. Here, we maintained a naturally omnivorous lizard, Liolaemus ruibali, on a mixed diet of 50% insects and 50% plant material, or a plant-rich diet of 90% plant material. We compared parameters of digestive performance, gut morphology and function, and gut microbial community structure between the two groups. We found that lizards fed the plant-rich diet maintained nitrogen balance and exhibited low minimum nitrogen requirements. Additionally, lizards fed the plant-rich diet exhibited significantly longer small intestines and larger hindguts, demonstrating that gut morphology is phenotypically flexible. Lizards fed the plant-rich diet harbored small intestinal communities that were more diverse and enriched in Melainabacteria and Oscillospira compared with mixed diet-fed lizards. Additionally, the relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the small intestine significantly correlated with whole-animal fiber digestibility. Thus, we suggest that physiological and microbial limitations do not sensu stricto constrain the evolution of herbivory in lizards. Rather, ecological context and fitness consequences may be more important in driving the evolution of this feeding strategy. PMID:27307545

  4. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  5. Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. WIC-08-NH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nancy; Fox, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This report uses the most recently available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) to provide a comprehensive picture of the diets of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant children--the largest segment of the WIC population. The report examines nutrient intakes, diet quality, and food…

  6. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  7. Effects of a grape-supplemented diet on proliferation and Wnt signaling in the colonic mucosa are greatest for those over age 50 and with high arginine consumption.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Randall F; Martinez, Micaela; Planutis, Kestutis; Planutiene, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and a grape-derived compound, resveratrol, have been linked to a reduced incidence of colon cancer. In vitro and in vivo, resveratrol suppresses Wnt signaling, a pathway constitutively activated in over 85 % of colon cancers.Thirty participants were placed on a low resveratrol diet and subsequently allocated to one of three groups ingesting 1/3-to-1 lb (0.15-0.45 kg) of grapes per day for 2 weeks. Dietary information was collected via 24-h recall. Colon biopsies for biomarker analysis were obtained pre- and post-grape and evaluated for the expression of Wnt pathway target genes and for markers of proliferation by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Participants lost an average of 2 · 6 lb (1.2 kg, p = 0 · 0018) during the period of grape ingestion. The expression of CyclinD1 (p < 0 · 01), AXIN2, CD133 (p = 0 · 02) and Ki67 (p = 0 · 002) were all reduced after grape ingestion. Individuals over 50 years of age and those with high dietary arginine consumption had increased basal expression of CyclinD1, AXIN2, cMYC and CD133 (p value range 0 · 04 to <0 · 001) that, following grape ingestion, were reduced to levels seen in younger participants.The reduction in Wnt signaling and mucosal proliferation seen following short-term ingestion of 1/3-1 lb (0.15-0.45 kg) of grapes per day may reduce the risk of mutational events that can facilitate colon carcinogenesis. The potential benefit is most marked for high-risk older individuals and individuals whose diet is high in arginine intake. Dietary grape supplementation may play a role in colon cancer prevention for high-risk individuals. PMID:26085034

  8. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    PubMed Central

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass). PMID:25049524

  9. Food insecurity reported by children, but not by mothers, is associated with lower quality of diet and shifts in foods consumed.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Household food security shows little indication of nutrient inadequacy among children, according to reports made by parents. We examined the associations of food insecurity as reported by children and mothers with children's consumption of energy, macronutrients such as vitamin A, calcium, iron and zinc, and selected foods, and whether these associations differed by child's gender. This cross-sectional study had non-probabilistic 128 Venezuelan mother-child pairs. We assessed food insecurity and management strategies in children using 10- and nine-item instruments, respectively. Mothers' report of food insecurity came from a previously validated 12-item instrument. Nutrient intake of children was assessed with a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Comparisons were made using chi-square test for contingency tables and t-tests for trends (P < 0.05). Linear regression models were used for intakes of nutrients and selected foods. We tested for interactions with gender. Prevalence of child- and mother-reported food insecurity was 83.6 and 61.7%, respectively (P < 0.01). Greater food insecurity or management strategies reported by boys was associated with lower calcium, iron and zinc intake (P < 0.05), but reported intakes were low in girls who are even food secure. Rice and corn flour consumption was higher with higher food insecurity in children. Papaya and banana were less consumed by food-insecure children. We found shifts in 13 of 67 foods consumed, with less quality in those food insecure, as reported by children. Mother-reported food insecurity was associated only with rice intake of children. In contrast to mothers' reports, food insecurity reported by children was associated with children's lower quality of diet and shifts in foods consumed. PMID:26260139

  10. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids. PMID:25075808

  11. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636

  12. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  13. Diet Quality of Urban Older Adults Aged 60-99: The Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Morland, Kimberly B.; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data was from Black, White, and Hispanic adults ages 60-99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HEI-2005)>80. Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were below recommendations, while intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (Relative Risk, RR=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.07-1.75), caloric intake <~1500 calories/day (RR=1.93; 95%CI, 1.37-2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.02-1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95%CI, 1.04-1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95%CI, 1.10-1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005>80. Consuming at least restaurant one meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005>80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as Blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. PMID:24262516

  14. Relationship of participation in food assistance programs to the nutritional quality of diets.

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, L

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the participation of 76 low-income families in six food assistance programs, and analyzes their diets using 24-hour recalls collected weekly during one month. Larger families participated in more food assistance programs than smaller families but did not have diets with higher nutrient content. Although 71 per cent of the families participated in more than the Food Stamp Program (FSP), many did not consume nutrients supposedly available with the FSP alone. PMID:3592042

  15. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  16. Diet Quality among Preschool-Age Children of Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Pulgar, Camila A; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Dietary quality has been linked to obesity in children. Obesity among children of farmworker families exceeds that of other US Hispanic children. Knowledge of their dietary quality is needed to understand the origins and prevention of this obesity. Mothers (n = 237) of 3-year old children in farmworker families completed 3 24-hour recalls with trained interviewers using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). Output was used to calculate total and component scores of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Mean total score was 62 (range 36-86) of an optimal score of 90. Scores for total fat, total grains, excess juice and iron were >80 % of the optimum, but scores for added sugar, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables were considerably lower. Children in farmworker families have low overall dietary quality. Intervention targeted to specific food issues may be an efficient way to addressing the problem. PMID:26514151

  17. Diet Quality among Preschool-Age Children of Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Pulgar, Camila A.; Ip, Edward H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary quality has been linked to obesity in children. Obesity among children of farmworker families exceeds that of other US Hispanic children. Knowledge of their dietary quality is needed to understand the origins and prevention of this obesity. METHODS Mothers (n=237) of 3-year old children in farmworker families completed 3 24-hour recalls with trained interviewers using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). Output was used to calculate total and component scores of the Revised Children’s Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). RESULTS Mean total score was 62 (range 36–86) of an optimal score of 90. Scores for total fat, total grains, excess juice and iron were >80% of the optimum, but scores for added sugar, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables were considerably lower. DISCUSSION Children in farmworker families have low overall dietary quality. Intervention targeted to specific food issues may be an efficient way to addressing the problem. PMID:26514151

  18. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  19. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 Is a Valid and Reliable Measure of Diet Quality According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans123

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Patricia M.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Buckman, Dennis W.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Casavale, Kellie O.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the accompanying USDA Food Patterns. To assess the validity and reliability of the HEI-2010, exemplary menus were scored and 2 24-h dietary recalls from individuals aged ≥2 y from the 2003–2004 NHANES were used to estimate multivariate usual intake distributions and assess whether the HEI-2010 1) has a distribution wide enough to detect meaningful differences in diet quality among individuals, 2) distinguishes between groups with known differences in diet quality by using t tests, 3) measures diet quality independently of energy intake by using Pearson correlation coefficients, 4) has >1 underlying dimension by using principal components analysis (PCA), and 5) is internally consistent by calculating Cronbach’s coefficient α. HEI-2010 scores were at or near the maximum levels for the exemplary menus. The distribution of scores among the population was wide (5th percentile = 31.7; 95th percentile = 70.4). As predicted, men’s diet quality (mean HEI-2010 total score = 49.8) was poorer than women’s (52.7), younger adults’ diet quality (45.4) was poorer than older adults’ (56.1), and smokers’ diet quality (45.7) was poorer than nonsmokers’ (53.3) (P < 0.01). Low correlations with energy were observed for HEI-2010 total and component scores (|r| ≤ 0.21). Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.68, supporting the reliability of the HEI-2010 total score as an indicator of overall diet quality. Nonetheless, PCA indicated multiple underlying dimensions, highlighting the fact that the component scores are equally as important as the total. A comparable reevaluation of the HEI-2005 yielded similar results. This study supports the validity and the reliability of both versions of the HEI. PMID:24453128

  20. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying

  1. Using acceleration characteristics in air quality and energy consumption analyses. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, W.L.; Turner, S.M.; Benz, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of detailed speed and acceleration characteristics on energy consumption utilizing several fuel consumption models. The relationships between speed and acceleration characteristics, geometric characteristics (e.g., number of lanes, signal density, driveway density), and traffic flow variability for various roadways were also investigated. Finally, distributions were produced that summarize the operating characteristics of freeway and arterial streets in Houston, Texas using an electronic distance-measuring instrument (DMI) and the floating car technique.

  2. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor patients exhibit an increased peripheral demand of fatty acids and protein. Contrarily, tumors utilize glucose as their main source of energy supply. Thus, a diet supplying the cancer patient with sufficient fat and protein for his demands while restricting the carbohydrates (CHO) tumors thrive on, could be a helpful strategy in improving the patients' situation. A ketogenic diet (KD) fulfills these requirements. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of a KD and its influence on the quality of life of patients with advanced metastatic tumors. Methods Sixteen patients with advanced metastatic tumors and no conventional therapeutic options participated in the study. The patients were instructed to follow a KD (less than 70 g CHO per day) with normal groceries and were provided with a supply of food additives to mix a protein/fat shake to simplify the 3-month intervention period. Quality of life [assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 2)], serum and general health parameters were determined at baseline, after every two weeks of follow-up, or after drop out. The effect of dietary change on metabolism was monitored daily by measuring urinary ketone bodies. Results One patient did not tolerate the diet and dropped out within 3 days. Among those who tolerated the diet, two patients died early, one stopped after 2 weeks due to personal reasons, one felt unable to stick to the diet after 4 weeks, one stopped after 6 and two stopped after 7 and 8 weeks due to progress of the disease, one had to discontinue after 6 weeks to resume chemotherapy and five completed the 3 month intervention period. These five and the one who resumed chemotherapy after 6 weeks report an improved emotional functioning and less insomnia, while several other parameters of quality of life remained stable or worsened, reflecting their very advanced disease. Except for temporary constipation and fatigue, we found no severe adverse side effects, especially no

  3. The impact of dairy product consumption on nutrient adequacy and weight of head start mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the relationship of dairy product consumption on diet quality and weight of low-income women. This occurred in Head Start centers in Texas and Alabama, USA. A cross-sectional study was used with women divided into dairy consumption groups: less than or equal to 1, greater...

  4. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate three diets using four rabbit breeds. A total of 320 male weaned rabbits representing four breeds named V-line, Saudi-1, Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 were randomly distributed into three comparable dietary treatments. Three levels of indigenous feedstuffs (IFS) of 42.5%, 65% or 87.5% (alfalfa hay, barley and wheat bran) were substituted for the same levels of non-indigenous feedstuffs in the diet (corn grain, soybean, molasses, and limestone) to form three diets named D1, D2 and D3, respectively. These dietary treatments were used to evaluate post-weaning growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass and lean composition, and nutrients digestibility in four rabbit breeds. Partial replacement of IFS with non-indigenous feedstuffs attained significant increase in growth performance. The diet containing 87.5% IFS led to significant increase in daily weight gains by 8.4, 4.0, 8.1, 6.2 and 6.7 g at age intervals of 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 10–11 and 11–12 weeks compared to the control diet, respectively. The diet containing 87.5% IFS showed a significant reduction in feed conversion ratio compared to control diet during the experimental periods. The diet containing 65% IFS showed significant increases in pre-slaughter weight (112 g) and hot carcass weight (89 g), while dressing percent, offal weight and percent, and non-carcass weights and percentages (head, fur, legs + tail, viscera) were not significantly different. The diet containing 87.5% IFS gave an increase of 1.1%, 6.4%, 8.8%, 17.9%, 7.4%, and 19.6% in digestibility coefficients of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NFD), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemi-cellulose (HC) and cellulose (C) compared to control diet, respectively. Feed intakes were moderate and ranged from 69 to 124 g for V-line, 77 to 128 g for Saudi-1, 79 to 130 g for Saudi-2, and 76 to 119 g for Saudi-3 along with moderate ratios of feed conversion ranging

  5. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Drake, Isabel; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Ericson, Ulrika; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Persson, Margaretha M.; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46–68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up. PMID:27171109

  6. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Drake, Isabel; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Ericson, Ulrika; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Persson, Margaretha M; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46-68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up. PMID:27171109

  7. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  8. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells. PMID:24570429

  9. Consumption of a high-fat diet abrogates inhibitory effects of methylseleninic acid on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with selenium (Se) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were fed the AIN93G diet or that diet modified with 45% calories from fat supplemented with or without 2.5 mg Se/4029 kCal ...

  10. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Singhal, Rohit; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Liu, Xiaoli; Hogue, William R; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2008-11-01

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth have been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI), WPH and RPI for 14 d on tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rapidly growing female rats relative to animals fed casein (CAS). The effects of estrogenic status on responses to SPI were also explored. Tibial peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) showed all three protein sources had positive effects on either BMD or BMC relative to CAS (P < 0.05), but SPI had greater effects in both intact and OVX female rats. SPI and E2 had positive effects on BMD and BMC in OVX rats (P < 0.05). However, trabecular BMD was lower in a SPI + E2 group compared to a CAS + E2 group. In OVX rats, SPI increased serum bone formation markers, and serum from SPI-fed rats stimulated osteoblastogenesis in ex vivo. SPI also suppressed the bone resorption marker RatLaps (P < 0.05). Both SPI and E2 increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression in bone, but only SPI decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and estrogen receptor gene expression (P < 0.05). These data suggest beneficial bone effects of a soy diet in rapidly growing animals and the potential for early soy consumption to increase peak bone mass. PMID:18703746

  11. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors. PMID:23710363

  12. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Leah C.; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Soto, Ileana; de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; John, Simon W. M.; Howell, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet and was further increased in APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet. This increase in glial responses was associated with increased plaque burden in the hippocampus. Interestingly, given recent studies highlighting the importance of TREM2 in microglia/monocytes in AD susceptibility and progression, B6 and APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet showed significant increases TREM2+ microglia/monocytes. Therefore, an increase in TREM2+ microglia/monocytes may underlie the increased risk from a western diet to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. This study lays the foundation to fully investigate the impact of a western diet on glial responses in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26888450

  13. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Leah C; Harder, Jeffrey M; Soto, Ileana; de Vries, Wilhelmine N; John, Simon W M; Howell, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet and was further increased in APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet. This increase in glial responses was associated with increased plaque burden in the hippocampus. Interestingly, given recent studies highlighting the importance of TREM2 in microglia/monocytes in AD susceptibility and progression, B6 and APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet showed significant increases TREM2+ microglia/monocytes. Therefore, an increase in TREM2+ microglia/monocytes may underlie the increased risk from a western diet to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This study lays the foundation to fully investigate the impact of a western diet on glial responses in aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26888450

  14. Reducing the energy consumption of the reliable design of IP/WDM networks with quality of protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantarci, Burak; Mouftah, Hussein T.

    2011-08-01

    Energy consumption of the telecommunication networks contributes to a large portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the global electricity consumption. Furthermore, backbone networks dominate the energy consumption of the telecommunication networks by high peak data rates. In this paper, we enhance our previously proposed energy-efficient availability design scheme for IP over WDM (IP/WDM) networks, i.e., Power-Aware Reliable Design (PARD).1 Here, PARD-QoP is proposed which incorporates Quality of Protection (QoP) with power-aware reliable IP/WDM Network design. According to the QoP concept, each connection demand specifies a working bandwidth capacity requirement and a minimum backup capacity requirement. We evaluate the performance of PARD-QoP under the 14-node NSFNET topology for six QoP classes that are uniformly distributed among the connection requests and for various demand sizes. The simulation results show that PARD-QoP enhances its predecessor PARD by 7%-12% in terms of Capital Expenditure (CAPEX), denoting the number of wavelength channels, and by 4%-8% in terms of Operational Expenditure (OPEX), denoting the energy consumption. Moreover, PARD-QoP is shown to differentiate the demands in three availability classes as 99.9%, 99.99% and 99.999% with respect to the backup bandwidth requirements.

  15. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Marie H.; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P.; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  16. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  17. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein; Chwalibog, Andre; Alstrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to test whether the digestive and metabolic characteristics of pseudo ruminants provide superior ability to utilise low-quality diets compared to true ruminants. A total of 18 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating female animals, including six llamas (Lama glama), six Danish Landrace goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg(0.75) was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP compared to HP diet. Llamas had lower daily energy expenditure (324 kJ · kg(-0.75)) than sheep (416 kJ · kg(-0.75)) and goats (404 kJ · kg(-0.75)) on the LP diet. Llamas in comparison with sheep and goats had lower methane emission (0.83 vs 1.34 and 1.24 l · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), lower MEm (328 vs 438 and 394 kJ · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05) and lower FEExp (246 vs 333 and 414 kJ · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, llamas had lower basal metabolic rate and hence maintenance requirements for energy. PMID:24870266

  18. THE QUALITY OF THE DIET IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN WITH KWASHIORKOR AND MARASMUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritionists have suggested that kwashiorkor is related to low dietary protein and/or antioxidant intake. This study explored the hypothesis that among Malawian children with severe malnutrition, those with kwashiorkor consume a diet with less micronutrient- and antioxidant-rich foods, such as fish...

  19. The role of yogurt in improving the quality of the American diet and meeting dietary guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend 3 daily servings of lowfat or nonfat dairy products, however, two-thirds of Americans do not meet that goal. Including lowfat or nonfat yogurt as part of an overall healthful diet can be a positive step towards meeting the DGA. Yogurt contains cal...

  20. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    PubMed

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (P<0.05), whereas CLA content had an inverse behavior, showing S1 (0.67%) and S2 (0.64%) higher concentrations than S3 (0.55%) and S4 (0.28%) (P<0.05). Diet based on pastures plus a low level of supplementation produced meat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  1. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  2. The interactive effects of high-fat, high-fiber diets and ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-10-01

    A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 mg/kg RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the HFF diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.001) ADG, G:F, and carcass yield (P = 0.061 than pigs not fed RAC. Jowl, backfat, belly, and leaf fat iodine value (IV) were lowest (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the CS diets, highest (P < 0.015) for those fed HFF diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had

  3. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  4. Growth performance and carcass quality of crossbreds pigs from two Pietrain sire lines fed isoproteic diets varying in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Coma, J; López-Bote, C J; Mateos, G G

    2016-04-01

    The effects of net energy (NE) content of isoproteic diets on growth performance and carcass and meat quality traits were studied in crossbreds from Landrace×Large White females and two Pietrain sire lines (PIC L62 vs. German Pietrain). Feed intake (FI) decreased (Lineal, P<0.001) and feed efficiency improved (Lineal, P<0.001) as the NE content of the diet increased. Crossbreds from PIC L62 had greater (P<0.001) FI and average daily gain (ADG) but were less efficient (P<0.01) than crossbreds from German Pietrain. German Pietrain crossbreds were leaner (P<0.001) and had higher shoulder yield (P<0.01) and less fat at m. Gluteus medius (P<0.001) than carcasses from PIC L62 crossbreds. In summary, an increase in the NE concentration of the diet improved feed efficiency but did not affect ADG. Crossbreeds from PIC L62 sires grew faster and had fatter carcasses than crossbreds from German Pietrain. PMID:26741851

  5. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  6. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  7. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ivey, Chris D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeastþcereal leafþtrout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatomsþTetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20]¼13 mg/L and 15mg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 mg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test—and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model–normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7mg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 mg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes.

  8. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ivey, Chris D; Brumbaugh, William G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeast + cereal leaf + trout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatoms + TetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20] = 13 μg/L and 15 μg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 µg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test-and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model-normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7 μg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 μg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1825-1834. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc

  9. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  10. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority. PMID:23715736

  11. High diet quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-05-01

    Although diet quality is implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, few studies have investigated the relation between diet quality and the risks of CVD and mortality in older adults. This study examined the prospective associations between dietary scores and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in older British men. A total of 3328 men (aged 60-79 y) from the British Regional Heart Study, free from CVD at baseline, were followed up for 11.3 y for CVD and mortality. Baseline food-frequency questionnaire data were used to generate 2 dietary scores: the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), based on WHO dietary guidelines, and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), based on a Mediterranean-style dietary intake, with higher scores indicating greater compliance with dietary recommendations. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses assessed associations between quartiles of HDI and EDI and risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CVD events, and coronary heart disease (CHD) events. During follow-up, 933 deaths, 327 CVD deaths, 582 CVD events, and 307 CHD events occurred. Men in the highest compared with the lowest EDI quartile had significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), CVD mortality (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), and CHD events (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97; P-trend = 0.05) but not CVD events (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.05; P-trend = 0.16) after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular risk factors. The HDI was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. The EDI appears to be more useful than the HDI for assessing diet quality in relation to CVD and morality risk in older men. Encouraging older adults to adhere to the guidelines inherent in the EDI criteria may have public health benefits. PMID:24572037

  12. Interplay between metabolic rate and diet quality in the South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sergio I; Jaksic, Fabian M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    We studied the metabolic costs associated with the ingestion of peppertree fruits (Schinus molle) in the culpeo fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus, the second largest canid in South America. Throughout its range of distribution, this fox feeds on rodents and other small vertebrates, and also on peppertree fruits, which represent 98% of total fruits consumed in semiarid Chile. Peppertree contains a high diversity of phytochemicals. Foxes feeding on diets containing rats and peppertree fruits (mixed diets) exhibited a 98.9% increase in basal rate of metabolism when compared to rat-acclimated foxes. Thus, acute ingestion of chemically defended fruits has an energetic cost for the fox, reflected in higher values of basal metabolism. Increased metabolic rates may be associated with increased protein synthesis for detoxification and for tissue repair, including the production of biotransformation enzymes. PMID:14720588

  13. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  14. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  15. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  16. A health promotion intervention can affect diet quality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; McNaughton, Sarah A; Lioret, Sandrine; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2013-10-01

    Initiatives to promote children's nutrition and prevent childhood obesity are vital. Dietary patterns are a useful way to characterize whole diets, though no previous early childhood health promotion trial to our knowledge has assessed intervention impact using this approach. This research aimed to assess the effect of a healthy eating and physical activity intervention on young children's dietary patterns. The Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program was a health promotion, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 542 families. Child diets were assessed by multiple 24-h recalls postintervention at ~18 mo of age. An Obesity Protective Dietary Index (OPDI) was created and dietary patterns were also assessed by principal components analysis (PCA). These outcomes were used to compare intervention and control participants to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Children in the intervention arm scored higher (15.6 ± 5.9) than those in the control arm (14.5 ± 6.7) for the OPDI (scores out of 30, P = 0.01). Three dietary patterns were identified by PCA; however, the scores did not substantially differ between the intervention and control arms. In conclusion, this paper presents novel results in both the evaluation of an early childhood health promotion intervention and the assessment of child dietary patterns. The results highlight the capacity for such an initiative to improve child diets and the need for further research in this area. PMID:23966329

  17. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  18. [Quality of the diet of 18-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Cristina Bossle de; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the quality of the diet of adolescents according to sociodemographic and behavioral factors. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,959 eighteen-year-old adolescents belonging to the birth cohort of 1993 in Pelotas in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire with a recall period of 12 months. The diet quality was assessed using the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R). This index ranges from 0 to 100 points and the higher the score, the better the diet quality. The overall DQI-R mean score was 62.4 points (DP). The lowest rates were observed for dark green and orange vegetables (3.0), total vegetables (3.4) and dairy products (3.6). Non-Caucasian adolescents (63.1), from families in which the heads of the household had less schooling (63.6) and belonging to the lowest quintile of the asset index (64.7) had higher average scores in the DQI-R. Lower averages were found among adolescents who smoked (58.5) and who consumed alcoholic beverages (56.0). This study showed that diet quality of the adolescents assessed deserve attention, especially with regard to the intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products. PMID:26602709

  19. Household Size and the Cost of Nutrionally Equivalent Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Karen J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Food consumption survey data were analyzed to test the stability of household size adjustment factors used for estimating the household costs of U.S. Department of Agriculture food plans. Reported household scale factors varied slightly from former estimates, and were highly dependent on the diet quality measures incorporated in the analysis.…

  20. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    PubMed

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  1. [Various types of reducing diets].

    PubMed

    Giorgino, R; Scardapane, R; Lattanzi, V; Cignarelli, M

    1979-11-17

    It must be readily understood that the only possibility of fighting obesity is by bringing about a reversal in the energy balance so that inputs are smaller than outputs. At least theoretically, then, obesity's special quality is that it does not present any therapeutic problem. Restriction in food intake is currently the treatment of choice; to be effective, food intake must be cut so that the energy provided is below the obese person's daily consumption, on average below 1200 calories per day, while at the same time holding a comparatively high intake of indispensable elements (proteins, vitamins, certain minerals and oligo-elements). The physician has a choice of various possibilities represented by fasting, a variety of free or controlled diets, protein diets or diets with low carbohydrate content and with a variable fat content; dissociated, zig-zag, one food diets etc. Substantially all these tend to limit the total quantity of glycides and boost the feeling of satiety by increasing the total volume of good while keeping total calories unvaried. It is clear that each of them has specific indications and clear-cut contraindications. The aim is to produce a calory shortfall, not cause denutrition. The diet must therefore be suited to the individual directed during subsequent stages of weight loss in relation to the patient's specific requirements (number of meals, etc.). PMID:392336

  2. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect.

    PubMed

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel

    2016-08-01

    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity. PMID:27083909

  3. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Dorizas, Paraskevi Vivian; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2015-05-01

    The perception of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through questionnaires in conjunction with in-field measurements related to the indoor air quality (IAQ), the thermal comfort and the lighting environment were studied in nine naturally ventilated schools of Athens, Greece. Cluster analysis was carried out in order to determine the ranges of indoor air pollutants, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and ventilation rates at which the students were satisfied with the indoor environment. It was found that increased levels of particulate matter did not have a negative effect on students' perception while students seemed to link the degradation of IAQ with temperature variations. Statistically significant correlations were further found between measurement results and students' perception of the IEQ. Students' sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of schoolwork were also investigated as a function of the levels of indoor air pollutants and ventilation, and there were found significant positive correlations between particulate matter (PM) and certain health symptoms. Students' learning performance seemed to be affected by the ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations while certain health effects positively correlated to the levels of PM and CO₂. The energy consumption of schools was rather low compared to other national findings, and both the electricity and oil consumption for heating positively correlated to the levels of indoor air pollutants. PMID:25877649

  4. Motivations to eat are related to diet quality and food intake in overweight and obese, low-income women in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing

    2010-10-01

    Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity. PMID:20600414

  5. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with low physical activity and poor diet quality in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the association of obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) with physical activity, sedentariness, and diet quality. Data were taken from a cross-sectional study in 10,791 persons representative of the Spanish population who were ≥18 y of age in 2008-2010. The following self-reported information was collected on 12 OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, not deciding the amount of food on the plate, skipping breakfast, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, eating while watching television or seated on a sofa or an armchair, and taking a short time for meals. Analyses were performed with linear or logistic regression, as appropriate, and adjusted for the main confounders. In comparison to participants with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB performed less physical activity [β: -2.61 (95% CI: -4.44, -0.78); P-trend < 0.001] and spent more time watching television [β: 2.17 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.95); P-trend < 0.001]; furthermore, they had greater total energy intake [β: 160 (95% CI: 115, 210); P-trend < 0.001] and were less likely to follow a Mediterranean diet [OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.73); P-trend < 0.001]. In conclusion, the association between OREB and obesity is biologically plausible because OREB are associated with energy intake and poor accordance with the Mediterranean diet. Studies on the association between OREB and obesity should control for the confounding effect of physical activity and sedentariness. PMID:22623382

  6. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  7. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  8. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  9. Feeding Iberian × Duroc cross pigs with crude glycerine: Effects of diet and gender on carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Egea, M; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D; Madrid, J; Hernández, F

    2016-01-01

    Ninety (45 castrated males and 45 gilts) Iberian × Duroc pigs were used in this study. During the finishing period (95-160 kg body weight, 74 days) animals received conventional feed (control G0) or the same feed plus 5% (G5) or 10% (G10) of crude glycerine to partially replace wheat. In general, neither the diet nor gender affected ultrasound, carcass or meat quality parameters. The G10 had lower values of cooking loss and a* than the G5 and G0 groups. The fatty acids, C10:0, C12:0 and C18:3, in intramuscular fat were lower in both glycerine groups. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and 18:2 decreased and C20:0 increased at the subcutaneous fat of G10 animals. Castrated males produced carcasses with higher backfat thickness and fat content. Castrated males had a higher SFA content in subcutaneous fat than females (P<0.001). In conclusion, up to 10% crude glycerine could be used in the Iberian × Duroc diet. PMID:26343013

  10. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets.

    PubMed

    Cramer, K R; Greenwood, M W; Moritz, J S; Beyer, R S; Parsons, C M

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of various raw and rendered animal by-product meals commonly used in companion animal diets. Six freeze-dried raw animal meals (beef lungs, pork lungs, sheep lungs, pork livers, oceanfish, chicken necks) and 3 rendered animal meals (lamb meal, regular ash poultry by-product meal, and low ash poultry by-product meal) were fed in chick assays to determine Lys and TSAA bioavailability, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR). Each experimental diet was offered to 4 replicates of 5 chicks per pen in all growth assays. Furthermore, each animal by-product meal was fed to mature White Leghorn roosters for determination of true AA digestibility. All freeze-dried, raw animal meals were offered to 5 replicate roosters, and all rendered animal meals were offered to 4 replicate roosters. Most raw animal meals exhibited moderate to high protein quality. Lysine bio-availabilities ranged from 86 to 107% and 70 to 99% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Bio-availability of TSAA ranged from 64 to 99% and 61 to 78% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The PER values ranged from 2.83 to 4.03 and 2.01 to 3.34 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The NPR values ranged from 3.83 to 4.8 and 3.05 to 4.12 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Despite a numeric increase in NPR vs. PER values, the overall ranking of animal meals remained similar. Lamb meal had the poorest PER and NPR values, and pork lungs had the greatest values. Total essential AA digestibility and total AA digestibility ranged from 93.6 to 96.7 and 90.3 to 95.5%, respectively, for raw animal meals and 84.0 to 87.7 and 79.2 to 84.8%, respectively, for rendered animal meals. Rendered animal meals generally had lower protein quality than raw animal meals, with lamb meal consistently having the poorest protein quality and pork livers having the greatest protein quality. PMID:17609474

  11. Diet inequality prevails among consumers interested and knowledgeable in nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Andreas; Andersson, Håkan S.; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation. Objective Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition. Design Full open diet registrations of 330 students taking a basic university-level course in nutrition over a total of 780 days. Results The consumers with the highest daily average diet cost differ from the lowest cost quartile: The diets had higher micronutrient density, more fruits and vegetables, and lower energy density. The highest cost daily diet quartile had a significantly higher energy adjusted intake of the micronutrients that were on average consumed below the recommendation (vitamin D, folate, and iron for women). On the other hand, alcohol intake was significantly higher among the high diet cost group. The highest diet cost respondents consumed more fish, meat, coffee, and spreads, whereas the lowest diet cost respondents had a higher consumption of cereals, bread, jam, sausage, and milk. Conclusions Dietary differences prevail even in the above-average interested and knowledgeable group. The respondents did not use their higher level of knowledge to break this commonly observed relationship. This suggests that an increased minimum level of knowledge in nutrition may not by itself eliminate dietary inequality. PMID:26610274

  12. Associations of key diet-quality indexes with mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort: the Dietary Patterns Methods Project12345

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brook E; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Ettienne, Reynolette; Reedy, Jill; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns have been linked positively with health and longevity. However, prospective studies in diverse populations in the United States addressing dietary patterns and mortality are limited. Objective: We assessed the ability of the following 4 diet-quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] to predict the reduction in risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Design: White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino adults (n = 215,782) from the Multiethnic Cohort completed a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Scores for each dietary index were computed and divided into quintiles for men and women. Mortality was documented over 13–18 y of follow-up. HRs and 95% CIs were computed by using adjusted Cox models. Results: High HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, aMED, and DASH scores were all inversely associated with risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, and cancer in both men and women (P-trend < 0.0001 for all models). For men, the HEI-2010 was consistently associated with a reduction in risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.79), CVD (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.81), and cancer (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.83) when lowest and highest quintiles were compared. In women, the AHEI and aMED showed large reductions for all-cause mortality (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.82), the AHEI showed large reductions for CVD (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83), and the aMED showed large reductions for cancer (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76, 0. 92). Conclusion: These results, in a US multiethnic population, suggest that consuming a dietary pattern that achieves a high diet-quality index score is associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, and cancer in adult men and women. PMID:25733644

  13. Effect of muscle and intensity of finishing diet on meat quality of foals slaughtered at 15 months.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of muscle and intensity of finishing diet on meat quality of foals slaughtered at 15 months was study. For this work, a total of twenty one foals and six muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), triceps brachii (TB) and Psoas major & minor (PM) from two different intensities of finishing diet (1.5 vs. 3 kg/day) were analysed. Meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics, and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile and mineral composition were studied. In general the factor muscle had more effect on all traits measured in this study than finishing effect, especially in the fatty acids and mineral composition. SM muscle showed the highest percentage of protein in both finishing groups (22.34 and 21.74% for 3 and 1.5 kg of commercial feeding, respectively). The intramuscular fat content in the analysed muscles ranged between 0.15% (LD in 1.5 group) and 1.83% (PM in 3.0 group). The highest values of iron heme that were obtained in TB muscle (2.46 mg/100 g meat) are a considerable source of bioavailable iron content. The three most abundant fatty acids in both groups and for all muscles studied were oleic acid, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid. From a healthy point of view, muscles from foals finishing with a minor amount of commercial fodder were the best. The best nutritional value was reached for PM and ST with 14.73% of total omega 3 and the highest polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (1.10), respectively. Concerning amino acid profile, values of essential/non-essential ratio were significantly higher (P<0.001) in muscles of 1.5 diet group foals (0.856) than the other group (0.833). Finally, potassium (243 mg/100 g) and phosphorous (202 mg/100 g) were the two main minerals, followed by sodium (54 mg/100 g) and magnesium (26 mg/100 g). PMID:23933631

  14. Eating breakfast and dinner together as a family: Associations with sociodemographic characteristics and implications for diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Berge, Jerica M.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. Objectives This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. Additionally, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Design Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants/setting Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, public schools. Main outcome measures Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Results On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (SD=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (SD=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of Black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex; younger age; and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional

  15. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  16. Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Pestka, James J; Vines, Laura L; Bates, Melissa A; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune

  17. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  18. Persistent oral health problems associated with comorbidity and impaired diet quality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Ledikwe, Jenny Harris; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Mitchell, Diane C; Jensen, Gordon L

    2004-08-01

    Chewing, swallowing, and mouth pain (CSP) are identified as indicators of nutritional risk in older adults. Previous research has shown that oral health problems in community-living older rural adults were associated with increased hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to characterize older adults with self-reported persistent CSP problems at baseline and one-year follow-up. Participants were from the Geisinger Rural Aging Study, either with persistent oral problems (PCSP; n=22) or without problems (NCSP; n=125). Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were collected via home visit; diet information was assessed by five, 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. PCSP subjects reported almost twice the number of medications (4.2 vs 2.6, respectively, P=.008) and diseases (7.0 vs 4.2, respectively, P=.001), with higher occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcers/gastritis, and angina. PCSP participants had lower Healthy Eating Index scores (66.6 vs 70.6, respectively, P=.04), significantly lower intakes of vitamin A, and higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins B-6 and A. These results indicate that impaired intake of certain foods and nutrients is associated with persistent oral health problems. Oral status is an important component of overall health and should be monitored for intervention. PMID:15281046

  19. SUPPLEMENTAL METHIONINE AND UREA FOR GESTATING BEEF COWS CONSUMING LOW QUALITY FORAGE DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted to evaluate Met requirements for late gestating beef cows consuming low quality forages. Inadequate supply of metabolizable AA may limit protein accretion during pregnancy in beef cows. In Exp. 1, two ruminally cannulated non-gestating non- lactating cows were utilized in a flow s...

  20. Grazing Deferment Effects On Forage Diet Quality And Ewe Performance Following Summer Rangeland Fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete rest or grazing deferment is a general recommendation following fire in the western U.S. to encourage vegetative recovery. However, effects of grazing deferments on animal performance have not been determined. Forage quality and ewe performance were evaluated for grazing trials with deferme...

  1. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...

  2. Influence of Snowmelt Timing on the Diet Quality of Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica): Implications for Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Ricardo; Aldezabal, Arantza; Laskurain, Nere Amaia; Margalida, Antoni; Novoa, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica) is the southernmost subspecies of the species in Europe and is considered threatened as a consequence of changes in landscape, human pressure, climate change, and low genetic diversity. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the date of snowmelt and reproductive success in the Pyrenean ptarmigan. It is well established that birds laying early in the breeding season have higher reproductive success, but the specific mechanism for this relationship is debated. We present an explicative model of the relationship between snowmelt date and breeding success mediated by food quality for grouse in alpine environments. From microhistological analyses of 121 faecal samples collected during three years in the Canigou Massif (Eastern Pyrenees), and the assessment of the chemical composition of the main dietary components, we estimated the potential quality of individual diets. Potential dietary quality was correlated with free-urate faecal N, a proxy of the digestible protein content ingested by ptarmigan, and both were correlated with phenological stage of consumed plants, which in turn depends on snowmelt date. Our findings suggest that the average snowmelt date is subject to a strong interannual variability influencing laying date. In years of early snowmelt, hens benefit from a longer period of high quality food resources potentially leading to a higher breeding success. On the contrary, in years of late snowmelt, hens begin their breeding period in poorer nutrient condition because the peaks of protein content of their main food items are delayed with respect to laying date, hence reducing breeding performance. We discuss the possible mismatch between breeding and snowmelt timing. PMID:26849356

  3. Influence of Snowmelt Timing on the Diet Quality of Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica): Implications for Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    García-González, Ricardo; Aldezabal, Arantza; Laskurain, Nere Amaia; Margalida, Antoni; Novoa, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica) is the southernmost subspecies of the species in Europe and is considered threatened as a consequence of changes in landscape, human pressure, climate change, and low genetic diversity. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the date of snowmelt and reproductive success in the Pyrenean ptarmigan. It is well established that birds laying early in the breeding season have higher reproductive success, but the specific mechanism for this relationship is debated. We present an explicative model of the relationship between snowmelt date and breeding success mediated by food quality for grouse in alpine environments. From microhistological analyses of 121 faecal samples collected during three years in the Canigou Massif (Eastern Pyrenees), and the assessment of the chemical composition of the main dietary components, we estimated the potential quality of individual diets. Potential dietary quality was correlated with free-urate faecal N, a proxy of the digestible protein content ingested by ptarmigan, and both were correlated with phenological stage of consumed plants, which in turn depends on snowmelt date. Our findings suggest that the average snowmelt date is subject to a strong interannual variability influencing laying date. In years of early snowmelt, hens benefit from a longer period of high quality food resources potentially leading to a higher breeding success. On the contrary, in years of late snowmelt, hens begin their breeding period in poorer nutrient condition because the peaks of protein content of their main food items are delayed with respect to laying date, hence reducing breeding performance. We discuss the possible mismatch between breeding and snowmelt timing. PMID:26849356

  4. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  5. A simulation study of the potenial effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less...

  6. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  7. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutr...

  8. Diet quality is lower and energy intake greater on weekends than weekdays: A one-year longitudinal study of midlife women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To test differences in dietary intake by individual day and on weekends (Friday, Saturday, Sunday) compared to weekdays using energy and macronutrient intake, food groupings and Healthy Eating Index-2010 diet quality scores. Methods: Longitudinal design; 52 women ages 40-60 y completed o...

  9. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases. PMID:25749238

  10. Supplementation of Rosemary extract in the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: evaluation of the antioxidant properties on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Liotta, L; Chiofalo, V; D'Alessandro, E; Lo Presti, V; Chiofalo, B

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. dietary supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of Nero Siciliano pigs was examined. During the growing-fattening period, 32 Nero Siciliano pigs were allotted into two treatment groups consisting of 8 replicates with 2 pigs per pen. For 90 days, the animals received a basal diet: one group (CTR) was not dietary supplemented, whereas the other group received (1 g/kg) rosemary extract (ROX). Supplementation with rosemary extract significantly improved the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the meat, which showed higher values in the meat of the ROX group compared with the CTR group (P0.05). Color measurement performed in the present study on meat samples from the two dietary treatments showed that redness decreased (P=0.046) and hue values increased (P=0.036), indicating that a deterioration of the initial color occurred and that the rosemary extract was ineffective in preventing color deterioration. Nevertheless, the lightness, yellowness and chroma color descriptors showed similar values in relation to dietary treatment (P>0.05). Considering the nutritional value of meat as an important contributor to the overall quality, the results obtained in this study support the possibility of the dietary supplementation with R. officinalis L. extract in pigs as a functional additive in livestock feeding. PMID:25997531

  11. Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: −0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: −3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

  12. Effect of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) diet supplementation in rabbit nutrition on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Kovitvadhi, A; Gasco, L; Ferrocino, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou, S; Malfatto, V; Gai, F; Peiretti, P G; Falzone, M; Vignolini, C; Cocolin, L; Zoccarato, I

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 160 Hycole weaned rabbits (35 days old) were randomly divided into four groups of 40. The rabbits were studied throughout a 54-day experimentation period in order to determine the impact of dietary supplementation from herbs composed of 0.2%, 0.4% dry ground Lythrum salicaria leaves (LS) and 0.3% Cunirel(®) (CR; a commercial herb mixture containing LS as the main ingredient) on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality. The basal diet was given to the control group. No significant differences were found in performance, 10 rabbits from each group were selected for evaluation regarding apparent digestibility. The rabbits fed the control diet and the diet with the low level of LS had a higher level of CP digestibility than did the animals that were supplemented with the high LS levels and CR (85.7% and 84.9% v. 84.0% and 84.0%, respectively; P<0.05). The ether extract digestibility was lower in the treatment group with 0.4%LS addition and CR as compared with the control group (52.2% and 54.5% v. 62.6%, respectively; P<0.05). The slaughter process was performed on 89-day-old rabbits to study the carcass characteristics, meat quality, blood parameters, caecal contents and gut histology. The total leukocyte counts in the control animals were lower than they were in the rabbits fed 0.2%, 0.4%LS and CR (4.06 v. 8.25, 8.63 and 8.21×10(9)/l, respectively; P<0.05). For caecal fermentation, the caecal contents of the rabbits fed 0.4% of LS, showed higher concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA; 24.1 v. 18.9 mg/kg dry matter (DM); P<0.05) and acetic acid (18.3 v. 14.4 mg/kg DM; P<0.05), but lower ammonia levels (594 v. 892 mg/kg DM; P<0.05) as compared with the control group. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses were performed to evaluate the microbial community in hard faeces, collected at days 35, 42, 49, 56, 70 and 89, whereas the caecal contents were taken after slaughtering. The results demonstrated that between the

  13. Diet Quality and Physical Activity Outcome Improvements Resulting From a Church-Based Diet and Supervised Physical Activity Intervention for Rural, Southern, African American Adults: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Goodman, Melissa H; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and 2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of Southern, African American adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, eight self-selected, eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Mixed model regression analysis and McNemar's test were used to determine if within and between group differences were significant. Cohen's d effect sizes for selected outcomes also were computed and compared with an earlier, lower dose intervention. Retention rates were 84% (102/122) for control and 76% (219/287) for intervention participants. Diet quality components, including fruits, vegetables, discretionary calories, and total quality, improved significantly in the intervention group. Strength/flexibility physical activity also increased in the intervention group, while both aerobic and strength/flexibility physical activity significantly decreased in the control group. Effect sizes for selected health outcomes were larger in the current intervention as compared to an earlier, less intense iteration of the study. Results suggest that more frequent education sessions as well as supervised group physical activity may be key components to increasing the efficacy of behavioral lifestyle interventions in rural, Southern, African American adults. PMID:25603798

  14. South Louisiana crude oil or DDE in the diet of mallard hens: effects on egg quality

    SciTech Connect

    Vangilder, L.D.; Peterle, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    Egg quality must ultimately be measured in terms of survival of successfully hatched progeny. The size and composition of the egg are directly related to the size and composition of the hatchling and influence the hatchling's ability to survive, especially in precocial birds. In this paper, we examine the effects of two environmental pollutants, crude oil or DDE, on the size and composition of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs.

  15. Rumen degradability characteristics of normal maize stover and silage, and quality protein maize silage-based diets offered to cows.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Berhan; Gebrehawariat, Ephrem; Tegegne, Azage; Kortu, Mohammed Y

    2012-10-01

    Rumen degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) of normal maize (NM) stover (T1)-, NM silage (T2)- and quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3)-based diets were studied using three rumen-fistulated Boran × Friesian non-lactating cows (371 ± 32.00 kg) in 3 × 3 Latin Square Design. Cows were supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. In sacco degradability of DM and OM indicated that the (a) values of DM (128) and OM (114) for NM stover were lower (P < 0.001) than that for NM silage (268 and 253) and for QPM silage (323 and 303), respectively. The (a) value for CP was lower (P < 0.05) for QPM silage (286) than for NM stover (404) and NM silage (326). The (b) values of DM in NM stover (597) and NM silage (535) were higher (P < 0.05) than in QPM silage (499). The (b) value of CP in NM stover (372) was lower (P < 0.05) than in NM silage (655) and in QPM silage (608). Rate of degradation of OM in NM stover and NM silage, each with 0.03, was faster (P < 0.01) than in QPM silage (0.02). Moreover, QPM silage had higher potentially degradable fraction for DM (821) (P < 0.05) and OM (840) (P < 0.01) than DM (725) and OM (712) in NM stover. The mean rumen ammonia concentration (209 mg/l) of QPM silage was higher (P < 0.05) than that of NM stover (179 mg/l) and NM silage (170 mg/l). The average rumen pH (6.1) in cows fed QPM silage was lowest (P < 0.05) compared to pH (6.3) in cows fed either NM stover or silage. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (116 mmol/l) in the rumen of cows incubated with QPM silage was higher (P < 0.001) than in those incubated with NM stover (113 mmol/l) and NM silage (110 mmol/l). It was concluded that QPM silage-based diet was superior in DM and OM degradability, and had higher ammonia and VFA concentration than NM stover-based diet. No differences have been observed in all parameters measured between QPM and NM silages. PMID:22366928

  16. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

  17. Chemosensory Abilities in Consumers of a Western-Style Diet.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Boakes, Robert A; Oaten, Megan J; Yeomans, Martin R; Mahmut, Memhet; Francis, Heather M

    2016-07-01

    People vary in their habitual diet and also in their chemosensory abilities. In this study, we examined whether consumption of a Western-style diet, rich in saturated fat and added sugar, is associated with either poorer or different patterns of chemosensory perception, relative to people who consume a healthier diet. Participants were selected based on a food frequency questionnaire, which established whether they were likely to consume a diet either higher or lower in saturated fat and added sugar. Eighty-seven participants were tested for olfactory ability (threshold, discrimination, and identification), gustatory ability (PROP sensitivity, taste intensity, quality, and hedonics), and flavor processing (using dairy fat-sugar-odor mixtures). A Western-style diet was associated with poorer odor identification ability, greater PROP sensitivity, poorer fat discrimination, different patterns of sweetness taste enhancement, and hedonic differences in taste and flavor perception. No differences were evident for odor discrimination or threshold, in perception of taste intensity/quality (excluding PROP) or the ability of fats to affect flavor perception. The significant relationships were of small to moderate effect size, and would be expected to work against consuming a healthier diet. The discussion focuses on whether these diet-related differences precede adoption of a Western-style diet and/or are a consequence of it. PMID:27060104

  18. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations ...

  19. The APOB -516C/T polymorphism is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity in healthy males during the consumption of diets with different fat content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several apo B polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as markers for CHD in the population and for potential gene-diet interactions. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of the -516C/T polymorphism in the APOB gene promoter modifies insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. We...

  20. Effect of prior diet on consumption and digestion of prey and non-prey food by adults of the generalist predator Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleomegilla maculata adults fed on prey (Colorado potato beetle eggs) or non-prey (corn pollen) food following 7 days of feeding on a mixed diet, showed differences in ingestion, with females consuming greater quantities of pollen, and males consuming greater quantities of eggs, under no-choice con...

  1. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P < 0.05) by 10% guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P < 0.05) by 10% cellulose. The ileal digestibility of several AA was decreased (P < 0.05) by the test potatoes plus 8.5% guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein. PMID:23365378

  2. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  3. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    HE. Carcass conformation and HCW were less (P < 0.05) for HELM than for CTR. Although differences among treatments were observed in carcass fat cover, intramuscular fat did not differ among treatments. Limiting the amount of feed delivery per feeder visit in steers fed high-energy (fat) diets affected eating pattern, reduced total energy consumption and performance, and modified hormones related to intake compared with CTR and HE, but no effect on rib fat distribution and meat quality was observed. PMID:25006061

  4. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  5. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. PMID:26769161

  6. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  7. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  8. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  9. An Analysis of Diet Quality, How It Controls Fatty Acid Profiles, Isotope Signatures and Stoichiometry in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Schwarzinger, Bettina; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Soliban, Sharon; Madakacherry, Odessa; Aigner, Martina; Watzka, Margarete; Gilles, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a “production” orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA) profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. Conclusions/Significance Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet controlled teneral

  10. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. PMID:26703721

  11. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth has been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein i...

  12. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p < 0.001), dietary diversity score (DDS) (3.6 ± 0.9 versus 3.3 ± 1.1; p < 0.001) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) for Zn, Ca, vitamin C and B2. Individuals in the lowest tertile of GL had lower HEI, MAR and NARs for Zn, vitamin B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin D. Both GI and GL were positively related to dietary diversity score (DED) (p < 0.001). The inverse associations for GI and GL with diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices. PMID:26915989

  13. Diet and lung cancer risk from a 14-year population-based prospective study in Japan: with special reference to fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, Toshiro; Inoue, Manami; Kataoka, Hiroki; Ikeda, Syuhei; Yoshida, Miyako; Ohashi, Yoko; Tajima, Kazuo; Tominaga, Suketami

    2003-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil exhibit a variety of health benefits, and there is evidence that they can inhibit the development of human lung mucoepidermoid and other carcinomas. To examine the hypothesis that fish consumption reduces the risk of lung cancer, we conducted a population-based prospective study, following 5,885 residents for 14 yr. Person-years were used to calculate the relative risk (RR) by the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. A total of 51 incident lung cancer cases were observed, and we found linearly decreasing RRs for lung cancer with increased frequency of consumption of fish and shellfish (RRs = 1.00, 0.99, and 0.32, P for trend = 0.003) but not with intake of dried/salted fish. Decreased RRs were apparent with both broiling and boiling cooking methods, but reduction with raw and deep-fried fish consumption was not statistically significant. We conclude that frequent fresh fish consumption, irrespective of the cooking method, may reduce the risk of lung cancer. PMID:12881009

  14. The impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multi-ethnic population of head start mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of Head Start mothers. Using a cross sectional, secondary analysis, Black (43%), Hispanic-American (33%), and White (24%) women (n=609) were d...

  15. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  16. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  17. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  18. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Aurée; Hebel, Pascale; Braesco, Véronique; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). PMID:26213964

  19. Sleep Quality and Sleep Patterns in Relation to Consumption of Energy Drinks, Caffeinated Beverages and Other Stimulants among Thai College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality; and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Results Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1%. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0%). Stimulant use (OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-1.98) also had statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health. PMID:23239460

  20. Whole grain consumption in adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect that whole grain (WG) consumption has on diet quality and nutrient intake in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults: 19 to 51 years (n=7039), and 51+ years (n=6,237) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1999-2004 data. Participants ...

  1. Are Breakfast Consumption Patterns Associated with Weight Status and Nutrient Adequacy in African-American Children?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to assess whether weight status, nutrient intake and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of the US population was used in a secondary analysis of nutrient intake/diet quality and weight status by breakfa...

  2. Association between nutritional awareness and diet quality: evidence from the observation of cardiovascular risk factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Malan, Leoné; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18-69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS), dietary diversity score (DDS) and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI) were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02), positively with both dietary diversity (p < 0.0001), and adequacy to dietary recommendations (p < 0.0001), independent of demographic factors, weight status and SES. Further adjustment for household income in the EDS-related multivariable model, reduced the β coefficient by 47% for the "moderate importance" category and 36% for the "high importance" category. Likewise, the β coefficient decreased by 13.6% and 10.7% in the DDS-related model, and by 12.5%, and 7.1% in the RCI-related model, respectively, across awareness categories. Nutritional awareness has a direct effect on diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research. PMID:25875122

  3. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C