Science.gov

Sample records for consumption rates

  1. Quantifying consumption rates of dissolved oxygen along bed forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2016-04-01

    Streambed interfaces represent hotspots for nutrient transformations because they host different microbial species, and the evaluation of these reaction rates is important to assess the fate of nutrients in riverine environments. In this work we analyze a series of flume experiments on oxygen demand in dune-shaped hyporheic sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions. We employ a new modeling code to quantify oxygen consumption rates from observed vertical profiles of oxygen concentration. The code accounts for transport by molecular diffusion and water advection, and automatically determines the reaction rates that provide the best fit between observed and modeled concentration values. The results show that reaction rates are not uniformly distributed across the streambed, in agreement with the expected behavior predicted by hyporheic exchange theory. Oxygen consumption was found to be highly influenced by the presence of gaining or losing flow conditions, which controlled the delivery of labile DOC to streambed microorganisms.

  2. Metabolically Derived human ventilation rates: A revised approach based upon oxygen consumption rates (Final Report) 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen consumption rate. This revised approach will be used to update the ventilation rate information in the Exposure Factors Handbook, which serve as...

  3. Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

  4. Linking rates of diffusion and consumption in relation to resources.

    PubMed

    Avgar, Tal; Kuefler, Daniel; Fryxell, John M

    2011-08-01

    The functional response is a fundamental model of the relationship between consumer intake rate and resource abundance. The random walk is a fundamental model of animal movement and is well approximated by simple diffusion. Both models are central to our understanding of numerous ecological processes but are rarely linked in ecological theory. To derive a synthetic model, we draw on the common logical premise underlying these models and show how the diffusion and consumption rates of consumers depend on elementary attributes of naturally occurring consumer-resource interactions: the abundance, spatial aggregation, and traveling speed of resources as well as consumer handling time and directional persistence. We show that resource aggregation may lead to increased consumer diffusion and, in the case of mobile resources, reduced consumption rate. Resource-dependent movement patterns have traditionally been attributed to area-restricted search, reflecting adaptive decision making by the consumer. Our synthesis provides a simple alternative hypothesis that such patterns could also arise as a by-product of statistical movement mechanics. PMID:21750382

  5. Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Methods This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Results Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Conclusions Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions. PMID:22912776

  6. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  7. Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation

  8. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part I: Consumption Rates, Relationship with Chemical Composition, and Role of SO₂.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Carrascon, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ugliano, Maurizio; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación

    2015-12-30

    Fifteen Spanish red wines extensively characterized in terms of SO2, color, antioxidant indexes, metals, and polyphenols were subjected to five consecutive sensor-controlled cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Within each cycle, O2 consumption rates cannot be interpreted by simple kinetic models. Plots of cumulated consumed O2 made it possible to define a fast and highly wine-dependent initial O2 consumption rate and a second and less variable average O2 consumption rate which remains constant in saturations 2 to 5. Both rates have been satisfactorily modeled, and in both cases they were independent of Fe and SO2 and highly dependent on Cu levels. Average rates were also related to Mn, pH, Folin, protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PPAs), and polyphenolic profile. Initial rates were strong and negatively correlated to SO2 consumption, indicating that such an initial rate is either controlled by an unknown antioxidant present in some wines or affected by a poor real availability of SO2. Remaining unreacted SO2 is proportional to initial combined SO2 and to final free acetaldehyde. PMID:26654524

  9. Determining oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus using an improved respirometer chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Longwu; Jiang, Haifeng; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of oxygen consumption rates and asphyxiation points in fish is important to determine appropriate stocking and water quality management in aquaculture. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus were detected under laboratory conditions using an improved respirometer chamber. The results revealed that more accurate estimates can be obtained by adjusting the volume of the respirometer chamber, which may avoid system errors caused by either repeatedly adjusting fish density or selecting different equipment specifications. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of C. mongolicus increased with increasing water temperature and decreasing fish size. Changes in the C. mongolicus oxygen consumption rate were divided into three stages at water temperatures of 11-33°C: (1) a low temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 11-19°C, (2) the optimum temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 19-23°C, and (3) a high temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was > 27°C. The temperature quotients (Q10) obtained suggested that C. mongolicus preferred a temperature range of 19-23°C. At 19°C, C. mongolicus exhibited higher oxygen consumption rates during the day when the maximum values were observed at 10:00 and 14:00 than at night when the minimum occurred at 02:00.

  10. In situ oxygen consumption rates of cells in V-79 multicellular spheroids during growth

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, J.P.; Tustanoff, E.; Franko, A.J.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of consumption of oxygen by V-79 cells in multicellular spheroids was measeured as a function of the spheroid diameter. In situ consumption was equal to that of exponentially growing cells for spheroids less than 200 ..mu..m in diameter. The rate of oxygen consumption decreased for cells in spheroids between 200 and 400 ..mu..m diameter to a value one-fourth the initial, then remained constant with further spheroid growth. Comparison of consumption rates for spheroid-derived cells before and after dissociation from the spheroid structure indicated that the spheroid microenvironment accounted for only 20% of the change in oxygen consumption rate. Cell-cell contact, cell packing, and cell volume were not critical parameters. Plateau-phase cells had a fivefold lower rate of oxygen consumption than exponential cells, and it is postulated that the spheroid quiescent cell population accounts for a large part of the intrinsic alteration in oxygen consumption of cells in spheroids. Some other mechanism must be involved in the regulation of cellular oxygen consumption in V-79 spheroids to account for the remainder of the reduction obvserved in this system.

  11. Glucose consumption rate critically depends on redox state in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Uematsu, Kimio; Yamamoto, Shogo; Suda, Masako; Yukawa, Hideaki; Inui, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Rapid sugar consumption is important for the microbial production of chemicals and fuels. Here, we show that overexpression of the NADH dehydrogenase gene (ndh) increased glucose consumption rate in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen-deprived conditions through investigating the relationship between the glucose consumption rate and intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio in various mutant strains. The NADH/NAD(+) ratio was strongly repressed under oxygen deprivation when glucose consumption was accelerated by the addition of pyruvate or sodium hydrogen carbonate. Overexpression of the ndh gene in the wild-type strain under oxygen deprivation decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 0.32 to 0.13, whereas the glucose consumption rate increased by 27%. Similarly, in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc)- or malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh)-deficient strains, overexpression of the ndh gene decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 1.66 to 0.37 and 2.20 to 0.57, respectively, whereas the glucose consumption rate increased by 57 and 330%, respectively. However, in a lactate dehydrogenase gene (L-ldhA)-deficient strain, although the NADH/NAD(+) ratio decreased from 5.62 to 1.13, the glucose consumption rate was not markedly altered. In a tailored D-lactate-producing strain, which lacked ppc and L-ldhA genes, but expressed D-ldhA from Lactobacillus delbrueckii, overexpression of the ndh gene decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 1.77 to 0.56, and increased the glucose consumption rate by 50%. Overall, the glucose consumption rate was found to be inversely proportional to the NADH/NAD(+) ratio in C. glutamicum cultured under oxygen deprivation. These findings could provide an option to increase the productivity of chemicals and fuels under oxygen deprivation. PMID:25808520

  12. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  13. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  14. Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a draft report entitled, Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates, for independent external peer review and public comment. NCEA published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997. This comprehens...

  15. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  16. A New Approach for Measuring Single-Cell Oxygen Consumption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Molter, Timothy W.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Dragavon, Joseph M.; Anderson, Judith B.; Young, A. Cody; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel system that has enabled the measurement of single-cell oxygen consumption rates is presented. The experimental apparatus includes a temperature controlled environmental chamber, an array of microwells etched in glass, and a lid actuator used to seal cells in the microwells. Each microwell contains an oxygen sensitive platinum phosphor sensor used to monitor the cellular metabolic rates. Custom automation software controls the digital image data collection for oxygen sensor measurements, which are analyzed using an image-processing program to yield the oxygen concentration within each microwell versus time. Two proof-of-concept experiments produced oxygen consumption rate measurements for A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells of 5.39 and 5.27 fmol/min/cell, closely matching published oxygen consumption rates for bulk A549 populations. PMID:21057593

  17. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  18. Improving consumption rate estimates by incorporating wild activity into a bioenergetics model.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Stephanie; Taylor, Matthew D; Smith, James A; Suthers, Iain M; Gray, Charles A; Payne, Nicholas L

    2016-04-01

    Consumption is the basis of metabolic and trophic ecology and is used to assess an animal's trophic impact. The contribution of activity to an animal's energy budget is an important parameter when estimating consumption, yet activity is usually measured in captive animals. Developments in telemetry have allowed the energetic costs of activity to be measured for wild animals; however, wild activity is seldom incorporated into estimates of consumption rates. We calculated the consumption rate of a free-ranging marine predator (yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi) by integrating the energetic cost of free-ranging activity into a bioenergetics model. Accelerometry transmitters were used in conjunction with laboratory respirometry trials to estimate kingfish active metabolic rate in the wild. These field-derived consumption rate estimates were compared with those estimated by two traditional bioenergetics methods. The first method derived routine swimming speed from fish morphology as an index of activity (a "morphometric" method), and the second considered activity as a fixed proportion of standard metabolic rate (a "physiological" method). The mean consumption rate for free-ranging kingfish measured by accelerometry was 152 J·g(-1)·day(-1), which lay between the estimates from the morphometric method (μ = 134 J·g(-1)·day(-1)) and the physiological method (μ = 181 J·g(-1)·day(-1)). Incorporating field-derived activity values resulted in the smallest variance in log-normally distributed consumption rates (σ = 0.31), compared with the morphometric (σ = 0.57) and physiological (σ = 0.78) methods. Incorporating field-derived activity into bioenergetics models probably provided more realistic estimates of consumption rate compared with the traditional methods, which may further our understanding of trophic interactions that underpin ecosystem-based fisheries management. The general methods used to estimate active metabolic rates of free-ranging fish

  19. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. PMID:26768970

  20. Using consumption rate to assess potential predators for biological control of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pope, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Control of undesirable fishes is important in aquatic systems, and using predation as a tool for biological control is an attractive option to fishery biologists. However, determining the appropriate predators for biological control is critical for success. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of consumption rate as an index to determine the most effective predators for biological control of an invasive fish. Consumption rate values were calculated for nine potential predators that prey on white perch Morone americana in Branched Oak and Pawnee reservoirs, Nebraska. The consumption rate index provided a unique and insightful means of determining the potential effectiveness of each predator species in controlling white perch. Cumulative frequency distributions facilitated interpretation by providing a graphical presentation of consumption rates by all individuals within each predator species. Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, walleye Sander vitreus and sauger S. canadensis were the most efficient white perch predators in both reservoirs; however, previous attempts to increase biomass of these predators have failed suggesting that successful biological control is unlikely using existing predator species in these Nebraska reservoirs. ?? 2011 ONEMA.

  1. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  2. Effects of optical attenuation and consumption of a photobleaching initiator on local initiation rates in photopolymerizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, Guillermo ); Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2000-11-01

    Optical attenuation is important in many photopolymerization applications. For a photobleaching initiator, we develop an unsteady one-dimensional model accounting for initiator consumption and light intensity variation, and derive relationships for the spatial and temporal variation of the local initiator concentration and initiation rate.

  3. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  4. Rate of oxygen consumption in seasonal and non-seasonal depression.

    PubMed

    Pinchasov, Boris B; Grischin, Oleg V; Putilov, Arcady A

    2002-04-01

    Most depressives suffer from weight loss, anorexia and insomnia, while for winter depressives the typical symptoms are weight gain, carbohydrate craving, overeating, oversleeping and extreme lack of energy. It is important to know whether winter depressives differ from most other depressives on measures of energy regulation. In wintertime, we evaluated the rate of oxygen consumption in relationship to neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms in 92 Siberian women. The seated subjects underwent oxyspirography in the mid-morning (1.5 hours after a standard breakfast). It was found that the oxygen consumption rate was similar in non-depressed women (n = 25) and depressed women with non-seasonal depression (n = 27). The comparatively lower values were obtained in women with winter depression (n = 40). This finding supports the suggestion that the behaviour disturbances typical for winter depression may represent a physiological feedback loop to energy conservation. PMID:12479083

  5. Indoor Air Pollution, Nighttime Heart Rate Variability and Coffee Consumption among Convenient Store Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about the association of HRV at night with indoor air pollution and coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HRV indices with indoor air pollution, working time and coffee consumption. Methods We recruited 60 young healthy convenient store workers to monitor indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) exposures, coffee consumption (yes vs. no) and HRV indices during daytime (0700–1500 hours) and nighttime (2300-0700 hours). We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations of HRV indices with indoor PM2.5 exposures and coffee consumption. Results We observed the inverse association between indoor PM2.5 exposures and HRV indices, with a decrease in all HRV indices with increased indoor PM2.5 exposures. However, the decrease was most pronounced during nighttime, where a 1 interquartile range (IQR) increase in indoor PM2.5 at 4-hr time-weighted moving average was associated with a change of −4.78% 5-min standard deviation (SD) of normal-to-normal intervals for 5-min segment (SDNN) and −3.23% 5-min square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals for 5-min segment (r-MSSD). Effects of indoor PM2.5 were lowest for participants with coffee consumption during daytime. Conclusions Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased 5-min SDNN and 5-min r-MSSD, especially during nighttime. The effect of indoor PM2.5 on HRV indices may be modified by coffee consumption in young healthy convenient store workers. PMID:24312680

  6. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  7. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A. M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7 % of males and 4.3 % of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6 % and 6.1 % respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90 %), and many eat fish at restaurants (65 % and 48 %, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  8. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  9. Acetate enhances the specific consumption rate of toluene under denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Olguín, Eugenia J; Gómez, Jorge; Cuervo-López, Flor de María

    2009-11-01

    Toluene is usually present in the environment as a contaminant along with other carbon sources which may influence its removal. In this work we studied the effect of a readily consumable carbon source such as acetate on toluene mineralization under denitrifying conditions. Continuous and batch cultures with stabilized denitrifying sludge were carried out. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was fed with several ratios of acetate-C/toluene-C loading rates (mg C/L-day: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 0/100). Batch assays with different acetate-C/toluene-C ratios (10/70, 30/50, 50/30, and 65/20 mg C/L) were also done. As the acetate loading rate decreased in the culture, the carbon and nitrate consumption efficiency decreased by 40% and 34%, respectively. HCO(3) (-) and N(2) yields also decreased by 43%. Analysis of the denitrifying community using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique indicated that there was no clear relationship between its population profile and the metabolic pattern. In batch assays, when the acetate concentration was higher than that of toluene (65 mg acetate-C/L vs 20 mg toluene-C/L), the specific consumption rate of toluene (q(T)) was two times higher than in assays with 20 mg toluene-C/L as the sole electron source (0.006 mg C/mg volatile suspended solids-day). It is proposed that acetate can act by enhancing the growth of microbial populations and as a biochemical enhancer. The results show that acetate addition can be useful to improve the consumption rate of toluene in contaminated water. PMID:19387525

  10. Estimating streambed travel times and respiration rates based on temperature and oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen consumption is a common proxy for aerobic respiration and novel in situ measurement techniques with high spatial resolution enable an accurate determination of the oxygen distribution in the streambed. The oxygen concentration at a certain location in the streambed depends on the input concentration, the respiration rate, temperature, and the travel time of the infiltrating flowpath. While oxygen concentrations and temperature can directly be measured, respiration rate and travel time must be estimated from the data. We investigated the interplay of these factors using a 6 month long, 5-min resolution dataset collected in a 3rdorder gravel-bed stream. Our objective was twofold, to determine transient rates of hyporheic respiration and to estimate travel times in the streambed based solely on oxygen and temperature measurements. Our results show that temperature and travel time explains ~70% of the variation in oxygen concentration in the streambed. Independent travel times were obtained using natural variations in the electrical conductivity (EC) of the stream water as tracer (µ=4.1 h; σ=2.3 h). By combining these travel times with the oxygen consumption, we calculated a first order respiration rate (µ=9.7 d-1; σ=6.1 d-1). Variations in the calculated respiration rate are largely explained by variations in streambed temperature. An empirical relationship between our respiration rate and temperature agrees with the theoretical Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation. With this relationship, a temperature-based respiration rate can be estimated and used to re-estimate subsurface travel times. The resulting travel times distinctively resemble the EC-derived travel times (R20.47; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.32). Both calculations of travel time are correlated to stream water levels and increase during discharge events, enhancing the oxygen consumption for these periods. No other physical factors besides temperature were significantly correlated with the respiration

  11. Health Care Consumption among Elderly Patients in California: A Comprehensive 10-Year Evaluation of Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziol, James A.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Christiansen, Sandra C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This report examines health care rates, charges, and patterns of consumption from a comprehensive California hospitalization data set covering 1986-1995. An improved understanding of current trends in health care consumption would facilitate the development of future resource allocation models. Design and Methods: We obtained discharge…

  12. A microwell array device capable of measuring single-cell oxygen consumption rates

    PubMed Central

    Molter, Timothy W.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Suchorolski, Martin T.; Strovas, Tim J.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to interest in cell population heterogeneity, the development of new technology and methodologies for studying single cells has dramatically increased in recent years. The ideal single cell measurement system would be high throughput for statistical relevance, would measure the most important cellular parameters, and minimize disruption of normal cell function. We have developed a microwell array device capable of measuring single cell oxygen consumption rates (OCR). This OCR device is able to diffusionally isolate single cells and enables the quantitative measurement of oxygen consumed by a single cell with fmol/min resolution in a non-invasive and relatively high throughput manner. A glass microwell array format containing fixed luminescent sensors allows for future incorporation of additional cellular parameter sensing capabilities. To demonstrate the utility of the OCR device, we determined the oxygen consumption rates of a small group of single cells (12 to 18) for three different cells lines: murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, human epithelial lung cancer cell line A549, and human Barrett’s esophagus cell line CP-D. PMID:20084089

  13. Estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Kolus, Ahmet; Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Imbeau, Daniel; Labib, Richard; Dubeau, Denise

    2014-11-01

    In new approaches based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy systems (ANFIS) and analytical method, heart rate (HR) measurements were used to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2). Thirty-five participants performed Meyer and Flenghi's step-test (eight of which performed regeneration release work), during which heart rate and oxygen consumption were measured. Two individualized models and a General ANFIS model that does not require individual calibration were developed. Results indicated the superior precision achieved with individualized ANFIS modelling (RMSE = 1.0 and 2.8 ml/kg min in laboratory and field, respectively). The analytical model outperformed the traditional linear calibration and Flex-HR methods with field data. The General ANFIS model's estimates of VO2 were not significantly different from actual field VO2 measurements (RMSE = 3.5 ml/kg min). With its ease of use and low implementation cost, the General ANFIS model shows potential to replace any of the traditional individualized methods for VO2 estimation from HR data collected in the field. PMID:24793823

  14. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  15. The effect of submergence on heart rate and oxygen consumption of swimming seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Kooyman, G L; Croll, D A

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to swimming were examined in two species of pinniped, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). 1. Harbor seals remained submerged for 82-92% of the time at swimming speeds below 1.2 m.s-1. At higher speeds, including simulated speeds above 1.4 m.s-1, the percentage of time spent submerged decreased, and was inversely related to body weight. In contrast, the percentage of time spent submerged did not change with speed for sea lions swimming from 0.5 m.s-1 to 4.0 m.s-1. 2. During swimming, harbor seals showed a distinct breathhold bradycardia and ventilatory tachycardia that were independent of swimming speed. Average heart rate was 137 beats.min-1 when swimming on the water surface and 50 beats.min-1 when submerged. A bimodal pattern of heart rate also occurred in sea lions, but was not as pronounced as in the seals. 3. The weighted average heart rate (WAHR), calculated from measured heart rate and the percentage time spent on the water surface or submerged, increased linearly with swimming speed for both species. The graded increase in heart rate with exercise load is similar to the response observed for terrestrial mammals. 4. The rate of oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speed in both seals and sea lions. The minimum cost of transport calculated from these rates ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 J.m-1.kg-1, and was 2.5-4.0 times the level predicted for similarly-sized salmonids. Despite different modes of propulsion and physiological responses to swimming, these pinnipeds demonstrate similar transport costs. PMID:2045544

  16. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  17. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  18. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P < 0.05) were found between OCR measurements and Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement. Muscles with high mitochondrial OCR after 3 to 4 h and low nonmitochondrial oxygen consumption gave more tender meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P < 0.05) were identified in tender meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat PMID:26020220

  19. Tide-related biological rhythm in the oxygen consumption rate of ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea uncinata).

    PubMed

    Leiva, Félix P; Niklitschek, Edwin J; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-07-01

    The effects of tidal height (high and low), acclimation to laboratory conditions (days in captivity) and oxygen level (hypoxia and normoxia) were evaluated in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata We evaluated the hypothesis that N. uncinata reduces its OCR during low tide and increases it during high tide, regardless of oxygen level or acclimation. Additionally, the existence of an endogenous rhythm in OCR was explored, and we examined whether it synchronized with tidal, diurnal or semidiurnal cycles. Unexpectedly, high OCRs were observed at low tide, during normoxia, in non-acclimated animals. Results from a second, longer experiment under normoxic conditions suggested the presence of a tide-related metabolic rhythm, a response pattern not yet demonstrated for a burrowing decapod. Although rhythms persisted for only 2 days after capture, their period of 12.8 h closely matched the semidiurnal tidal cycle that ghost shrimp confront inside their burrows. PMID:27099365

  20. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. Methods 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Results Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Conclusions Caffeine exposure 12–24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing. PMID:26098883

  1. Detection of the oxygen consumption rate of migrating zebrafish by electrochemical equalization systems.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Koide, Masahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Abe, Ryoko; Shiku, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Fumio; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    A novel measurement system to determine oxygen consumption rates via respiration in migrating Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed. A signal equalization system was adapted to detect oxygen in a chamber with one fish, because typical electrochemical techniques cannot measure respiration activities for migrating organisms. A closed chamber was fabricated using a pipet tip attached to a Pt electrode, and a columnar Vycor glass tip was used as the salt bridge. Pt electrode, which was attached to the chamber with one zebrafish, and Ag electrode were immersed in 10 mM potassium iodide (KI), and both the electrodes were connected externally to form a galvanic cell. Pt and Ag electrodes act as the cathode and anode to reduce oxygen and oxidize silver, respectively, allowing the deposition of insoluble silver iodide (AgI). The AgI acts as the signal source accumulated on the Ag electrode by conversion of oxygen. The amount of AgI deposited on the Ag electrode was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The presence of zebrafish or its embryo led to a decrease in the stripping currents generated by a 10 min conversion of oxygen to AgI. The conversion of oxygen to AgI is disturbed by the migration of the zebrafish and allows the detection of different equalized signals corresponding to respiration activity. The oxygen consumption rates of the zebrafish and its embryo were estimated and determined to be ∼4.1 and 2.4 pmol·s(-1), respectively. The deposited AgI almost completely disappeared with a single stripping process. The signal equalization system provides a method to determine the respiration activities for migrating zebrafish and could be used to estimate environmental risk and for effective drug screening. PMID:24328209

  2. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  3. Rate-pressure product and myocardial oxygen consumption during surgery for coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P L; Moyers, J R; Ports, T; Chatterjee, K; Ullyott, D; Hamilton, W K

    1979-08-01

    Rate-pressure product (RPP) is a sensitive index of myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2) in awake people. We wished to determine whether this relationship persisted under anesthesia and in the face of concurrent large changes in myocardial contractility and left ventricular filling pressures. In 16 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass surgery, we inserted coronary sinus and Swan-Ganz catheters, and a central aortic catheter via the brachial artery, before induction of anesthesia with either morphine (2 mg/kg) or halothane, chosen in random order. We measured aortic, pulmonary, and venous pressures, cardiac output, systolic time intervals, and thermodilution coronary sinus flow. We calculated mVO2 as coronary sinus flow times myocardial arteriovenous oxygen content difference. We found significant correlations between mVO2 and heart rate (r = 0.57), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.52), the index delta /delta T (r = 0.53, and RPP (r = 0.78). Multiple regression of RPP and delta P/delta T against mVO2 increased their correlation (r = 0.86), while multiple regression of RPP and pulmonary wedge pressure against mVo2 did not significantly improve the correlation of RPP alone (r = 0.75). We conclude that hemodynamic changes anesthesia and surgery do not decrease the sensitivity of RPP as an index of mVO2. PMID:312708

  4. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  5. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Brown, Nathanael L; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥ 65/ha (or ≥ 1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination. PMID:24484490

  6. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  7. hydrochemistry of the Andeans and sub-andeans Amazon basins - Weathering and CO2 consumption rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Crave, Alain; Viers, Jérome; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Lagane, Christelle; Sven Lavado Casimiro, Waldo; Pombosa, Rodrigo; Noriega, Luis; Chavary, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Measuring mountain weathering rates, estimating their role on C cycle and identifying the parameters which control them are key to better constrain the knowledge of the continental-ocean-atmosphere interactions over geological timescale. The Andes, in contrast to the Himalaya, have received poor attention in terms of chemical weathering. Several authors have worked on the Amazon river basin, but it is difficult to assess the role of the Andes (10% of the surface area of the Amazon river basin) by only sampling the Amazon at mouth or sampling its largest tributaries. As shown by earlier works, the Upper-Amazon basins are the main matter source of the Amazon basin. The studied area participates at more than 70% of the Amazon weathering rates while it contributes to the total discharge on 30% for 27% of the total area. The studied area is comprised between latitude 0°47'N and 20°28'S and between longitude 79°36'W and 58°45'W and can be divided in three major hydrosystems (the Napo river at North, the Maranon-Ucayali rivers on the central part and the upper Madeira at south) which can be separated on Andes and sub-Andes parts. This work presents the results of the HYBAM research program (present-day hydro-geodynamics of the Amazon Basin) on the upper Amazon basin. The concentration of major elements was analyzed on a monthly basis, sampling at 26 gauging stations which include the Andean basins of the Amazon River and a part of the downstream catchment domain. The objectives of this work are i) calculate the major elements fluxes and their spatial distribution, ii) estimate the present-day rate of rock weathering, as well as the flux of atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption from total rock and silicate weathering, and iii) constrain the major environmental factor which controls the dissolved matter production using unique high temporal and spatial resolution data sampling. The main difficulty of studying large river geochemistry is to separate the main sources of the

  8. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; O'Neill, Marie S; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish may prevent sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: We examined whether high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish would be associated with beneficial changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Design: HRV variables were measured among 586 older men with 928 total observations from November 2000 to June 2007 in the Normative Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal study of aging. Dietary intake was evaluated with a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, intake of green leafy vegetables was positively associated with normalized high-frequency power and inversely associated with normalized low-frequency power (P for trend < 0.05). These significant associations were retained after further adjustment for healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and use of multivitamins. No significant association was seen between HRV measures and intakes of other fruit and vegetables, vitamin C, carotenoids, tuna and dark-meat fish, or n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. An effect modification of intake of noncitrus fruit by obesity and of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables by cigarette smoking was seen, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher intake of green leafy vegetables may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease through favorable changes in cardiac autonomic function. PMID:19158214

  9. Spontaneous variability in minute ventilation oxygen consumption and heart rate of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K; Kairam, R; Stefanski, M; Sciacca, R; Bateman, D; Dell, R; James, L S

    1981-08-01

    Continuous measurements of minute ventilation (VI), oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), activity, and temperature were made in eleven low birth weight infants during the interval between feedings. Significant increases in VI, VO2, and HR were noted between quiet and active sleep. (VI Active - VI Quiet/VI Quiet) X 100 = 18.4% VO2 Active - VO2 Quiet/VO2 Quiet) X 100 = 10.1% and HR Active - HR Quiet/HR Quiet) X 100 = 6.4%. Significant differences were also noted within epochs of the same state of sleep: mean slope VI versus time in epoch (t) = -156 ml/kg . min/hr, VO2 versus t. = 1.49 ml/kg . min/hr and HR versus t = -15.0 beats/min/hr. Differences between successive epochs of the same state of sleep were also observed: VI, +5.9 to 46.6%; VO2, 4.7 to 24.6%; HR, 1.0 to 9.7%. These differences were related to the length of time after feeding. These data indicate that steady state conditions do not occur in growing low birth weight infants and that the design of studies of respiration and metabolism in these infants should include continuous assessment of the state of sleep or activity and time after feeding to ensure that experimental and control periods are truly comparable. PMID:7267185

  10. System for measuring oxygen consumption rates of mammalian cells in static culture under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Miyahara, Hirotaka; Ota, Yuri; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of mammalian cells in hypoxic environments is essential for designing and developing a three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system. However, OCR measurements under hypoxic conditions are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we developed a system for measuring OCRs at low oxygen levels. The system injects nitrogen gas into the environment and measures the oxygen concentration by an optical oxygen microsensor that consumes no oxygen. The developed system was applied to HepG2 cells in static culture. Specifically, we measured the spatial profiles of the local dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium, then estimated the OCRs of the cells. The OCRs, and also the pericellular oxygen concentrations, decreased nonlinearly as the oxygen partial pressure in the environment decreased from 19% to 1%. The OCRs also depended on the culture period and the matrix used for coating the dish surface. Using this system, we can precisely estimate the OCRs of various cell types under environments that mimic 3-D culture conditions, contributing crucial data for an efficient 3-D culture system design. PMID:26558344

  11. Predicting diet and consumption rate differences between and within species using gut ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Mosblack, Hallie

    2011-07-01

    1. Rapid environmental changes and pressing human needs to forecast the consequences of environmental change are increasingly driving ecology to become a predictive science. The need for effective prediction requires both the development of new tools and the refocusing of existing tools that may have previously been used primarily for purposes other than prediction. One such tool that historically has been more descriptive in nature is ecomorphology (the study of relationships between ecological roles and morphological adaptations of species and individuals). 2. Here, we examine relationships between diet and gut morphology for 15 species of brachyuran crabs, a group of pervasive and highly successful consumers for which trophic predictions would be highly valuable. 3. We show that patterns in crab stomach volume closely match some predictions of metabolic theory and demonstrate that individual diet differences and associated morphological variation reflect, at least in some instances, individual choice or diet specialization. 4. We then present examples of how stomach volume can be used to predict both the per cent herbivory of brachyuran crabs and the relative consumption rates of individual crabs. PMID:21418211

  12. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p < 0.05). VO2 responses were as follows: pliés (17.6 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)); tendus and adage were not significantly greater than VT1; rond de jambes (21.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1)); fondus and jetés were higher than VT1 and the previous exercises; grand battements (25.8 ± 2.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) was greater than all the other exercises and VT1; and VT2 was significantly higher than all ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and

  13. Coffee consumption and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates in healthy young adults: results of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masafumi; Nemoto, Tohru; Tobimatsu, Satoshi; Ebata, Midori; Le, Yulan; Nakajima, Kei

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is higher in habitual coffee consumers than in noncoffee consumers. However, the causality remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of coffee consumption on kidney function. Nineteen asymptomatic nonsmokers aged 21-27 years old participated in this study. They consumed coffee (18 g coffee beans/450 mL per day) or green tea as a comparator for 2 weeks in a crossover design. Although creatinine-based eGFR was not affected after consuming either beverage, all cystatin-C-based eGFRs determined using five different equations were significantly increased after coffee consumption (means: 5.0-7.7%), but not after green tea consumption (means: 0.1-1.6%). Serum adiponectin and magnesium levels increased significantly after coffee consumption (means: 13.6% and 4.3%, resp.), but not after green tea consumption. These findings suggest that even a short period of coffee consumption may increase cystatin-C-based eGFR, along with favorable changes in serum adiponectin, in healthy young adults. PMID:21773013

  14. Oxygen consumption rate of early pre-antral follicles from vitrified human ovarian cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Takayuki; KYOYA, Toshihiko; NAKAMURA, Yusuke; SATO, Eimei; TOMIYAMA, Tatsuhiro; KYONO, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The study of human ovarian tissue transplantation and cryopreservation has advanced significantly. Autotransplantation of human pre-antral follicles isolated from cryopreserved cortical tissue is a promising option for the preservation of fertility in young cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effect of vitrification after low-temperature transportation of human pre-antral follicles by using the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Cortical tissues from 9 ovaries of female-to-male transsexuals were vitrified after transportation (6 or 18 h). The follicles were enzymatically isolated from nonvitrified tissue (group I, 18 h of transportation), vitrified-warmed tissue (group II, 6 and 18 h of transportation) and vitrified-warmed tissue that had been incubated for 24 h (group III, 6 and 18 h of transportation). OCR measurement and the LIVE/DEAD viability assay were performed. Despite the ischemic condition, the isolated pre-antral follicles in group I consumed oxygen, and the mean OCRs increased with developmental stage. Neither the transportation time nor patient age seemed to affect the OCR in this group. Meanwhile, the mean OCR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group II but was comparable to that of group I after 24 h of incubation. The integrity of vitrified-warmed primordial and primary follicles was clearly corroborated by the LIVE/DEAD viability assay. These results demonstrate that the OCR can be used to directly estimate the effect of vitrification on the viability of primordial and primary follicles and to select the viable primordial and primary follicles from vitrified-warmed follicles. PMID:25262776

  15. Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR) Dose Predicts Insulin Independence in Clinical Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Papas, Klearchos K.; Bellin, Melena D.; Sutherland, David E. R.; Suszynski, Thomas M.; Kitzmann, Jennifer P.; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S.; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Mueller, Kathryn R.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Colton, Clark K.; Koulmanda, Maria; Weir, Gordon C.; Wilhelm, Josh J.; Qian, Dajun; Niland, Joyce C.; Hering, Bernhard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reliable in vitro islet quality assessment assays that can be performed routinely, prospectively, and are able to predict clinical transplant outcomes are needed. In this paper we present data on the utility of an assay based on cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in predicting clinical islet autotransplant (IAT) insulin independence (II). IAT is an attractive model for evaluating characterization assays regarding their utility in predicting II due to an absence of confounding factors such as immune rejection and immunosuppressant toxicity. Methods Membrane integrity staining (FDA/PI), OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA), islet equivalent (IE) and OCR (viable IE) normalized to recipient body weight (IE dose and OCR dose), and OCR/DNA normalized to islet size index (ISI) were used to characterize autoislet preparations (n = 35). Correlation between pre-IAT islet product characteristics and II was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Preparations that resulted in II had significantly higher OCR dose and IE dose (p<0.001). These islet characterization methods were highly correlated with II at 6–12 months post-IAT (area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.94 for IE dose and 0.96 for OCR dose). FDA/PI (AUC = 0.49) and OCR/DNA (AUC = 0.58) did not correlate with II. OCR/DNA/ISI may have some utility in predicting outcome (AUC = 0.72). Conclusions Commonly used assays to determine whether a clinical islet preparation is of high quality prior to transplantation are greatly lacking in sensitivity and specificity. While IE dose is highly predictive, it does not take into account islet cell quality. OCR dose, which takes into consideration both islet cell quality and quantity, may enable a more accurate and prospective evaluation of clinical islet preparations. PMID:26258815

  16. Oxygen consumption rate of early pre-antral follicles from vitrified human ovarian cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takayuki; Kyoya, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sato, Eimei; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Kyono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The study of human ovarian tissue transplantation and cryopreservation has advanced significantly. Autotransplantation of human pre-antral follicles isolated from cryopreserved cortical tissue is a promising option for the preservation of fertility in young cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effect of vitrification after low-temperature transportation of human pre-antral follicles by using the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Cortical tissues from 9 ovaries of female-to-male transsexuals were vitrified after transportation (6 or 18 h). The follicles were enzymatically isolated from nonvitrified tissue (group I, 18 h of transportation), vitrified-warmed tissue (group II, 6 and 18 h of transportation) and vitrified-warmed tissue that had been incubated for 24 h (group III, 6 and 18 h of transportation). OCR measurement and the LIVE/DEAD viability assay were performed. Despite the ischemic condition, the isolated pre-antral follicles in group I consumed oxygen, and the mean OCRs increased with developmental stage. Neither the transportation time nor patient age seemed to affect the OCR in this group. Meanwhile, the mean OCR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group II but was comparable to that of group I after 24 h of incubation. The integrity of vitrified-warmed primordial and primary follicles was clearly corroborated by the LIVE/DEAD viability assay. These results demonstrate that the OCR can be used to directly estimate the effect of vitrification on the viability of primordial and primary follicles and to select the viable primordial and primary follicles from vitrified-warmed follicles. PMID:25262776

  17. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively. PMID:26285591

  18. Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bland

    2000-07-31

    This calculation produces standard statistical data on the consumption of locally produced food and tap water. The results of this calculation provide input parameters for the GENII-S (Leigh et al. 1993) computer code to support calculation of Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF) for the nominal performance (groundwater contamination) scenario and the volcanic eruption (contamination of soil by volcanic ash deposition) scenario. The requirement and parameters for these data are identified in ''Identification Of The Critical Group (Consumption Of Locally Produced Food And Tap Water)'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Development Plan for Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b).

  19. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, Luis F.; da Silva, Ana R. Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I.; Aguilella, M.; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (pO2) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors.1 Methods Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Results Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low pO2) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Conclusion Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. PMID:25649636

  20. Development, consumption rates and reproductive biology of Orius albidipennis reared on various prey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive biology and feeding consumption of Orius albidipennis fed on eggs of Anagasta (Ephestia) kuehniella, Tetranychus urticae, and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and larvae of Gynaikothrips ficorum were investigated under 26±1°C, 60±10 % RH and 16:8 L/D photoperiod in laboratory. Results ind...

  1. Changes in heart rate variability associated with acute alcohol consumption: current knowledge and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Bostwick, John M; Mrazek, David A; Karpyak, Victor M

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a broad array of physiologic and behavioral effects including changes in heart rate. However, the physiologic mechanisms of alcohol effects and the reasons for individual differences in the cardiac response remain unknown. Measuring changes in resting heart rate (measured as beats/min) has not been found to be as sensitive to alcohol's effects as changes in heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is defined as fluctuations in interbeat interval length which reflect the heart's response to extracardiac factors that affect heart rate. HRV allows simultaneous assessment of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and the interplay between them. Increased HRV has been associated with exercise and aerobic fitness, while decreased HRV has been associated with aging, chronic stress, and a wide variety of medical and psychiatric disorders. Decreased HRV has predictive value for mortality in general population samples and patients with myocardial infarction and used as an indicator of altered autonomic function. A significant inverse correlation was found between HRV and both the severity of depression and the duration of the depressive episode. HRV analysis provides insights into mechanisms of autonomic regulation and is extensively used to clarify relationships between depression and cardiovascular disease. This article will review the methodology of HRV measurements and contemporary knowledge about effects of acute alcohol consumption on HRV. Potential implications of this research include HRV response to alcohol that could serve as a marker for susceptibility to alcoholism. At present however there is almost no research data supporting this hypothesis. PMID:21332532

  2. Substantial energy expenditure for locomotion in ciliates verified by means of simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption rate and swimming speed.

    PubMed

    Katsu-Kimura, Yumiko; Nakaya, Fumio; Baba, Shoji A; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2009-06-01

    In order to characterize the energy expenditure of Paramecium, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate, using an optic fluorescence oxygen sensor, and the swimming speed, which was evaluated by the optical slice method. The standard metabolic rate (SMR, the rate of energy consumption exclusively for physiological activities other than locomotion) was estimated to be 1.18x10(-6) J h(-1) cell(-1) by extrapolating the oxygen consumption rate into one at zero swimming speed. It was about 30% of the total energy consumed by the cell swimming at a mean speed of 1 mm s(-1), indicating that a large amount of the metabolic energy (about 70% of the total) is consumed for propulsive activity only. The mechanical power liberated to the environment by swimming Paramecium was calculated on the basis of Stokes' law. This power, termed Stokes power, was 2.2x10(-9) J h(-1) cell(-1), indicating extremely low efficiency (0.078%) in the conversion of metabolic power to propulsion. Analysis of the cost of transport (COT, the energy expenditure for translocation per units of mass and distance) revealed that the efficiency of energy expenditure in swimming increases with speed rather than having an optimum value within a wide range of forced swimming, as is generally found in fish swimming. These characteristics of energy expenditure would be unique to microorganisms, including Paramecium, living in a viscous environment where large dissipation of the kinetic energy is inevitable due to the interaction with the surrounding water. PMID:19482999

  3. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability. PMID:26642748

  4. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  5. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  6. The Virgin River Tamarisk Defoliation by Diorhabda carinulata: It's Effects on Evapotranspiration Rates and Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueki, S.; Healey, J. M.; Acharya, K.

    2013-12-01

    Saltcedar (tamarisk; Tamarix spp) has become the most widespread invasive plant species in the western United States. Waterways and their corridors have evolved into mono-species stands of saltcedar. Chemical and mechanical methods of tamarisk eradication have been partially effective and prove to be expensive and cause irrepressible damage to natural resources. In the late 1960s, biological control program began in order to reduce the risk of damaging native plants. In 2001, Diorhabda elongate (leaf beetles) was released for open field tests followed by other releases in several locations in the western United States. One of the successful releases occurred in St. George, UT along the Virgin River in 2006. The last few years has seen establishment of large scale populations in the lower Virgin River. Eddy covariance (EC) tower including groundwater monitoring well was set up along the Virgin River near Mesquite, NV in 2010 to monitor effects of tamarisk defoliation on evapotranspiration (ET). Initial 2010 data (pre-beetle) established a baseline for characterization of tamarisk ET and groundwater consumption prior to defoliation of tamarisk. The beetles arrived at the site in late 2010 and established a healthy population at the growing season of 2011. 2010 data compared to the episodic herbivore events, observed at the site in 2011 and 2012, clearly show the direct impact of tamarisk defoliation. The results show that the post-defoliation ET values along with magnitude of diurnal fluctuations, found in the water level record, decreased compared to the pre-defoliation values. However, magnitude of the effects of defoliation seemed to be dependent on growth stage of tamarisk at the time of defoliation. Also, the defoliation periods are short lived as tamarisk quickly recovered and establish new growth. In 2012, the defoliation occurred twice since tamarisk re-foliated quickly after the first defoliation by late summer before beetles started overwintering

  7. Chemical weathering rate, denudation rate, and atmospheric and soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; dos Santos, Carolina Mathias; de Souza Sardinha, Diego; Navarro, Guillermo Rafael Beltran; Godoy, Letícia Hirata

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in the Preto Stream basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated using major elements as natural tracers. Surface and rain water samples were collected in 2006, and analyses were performed to assess pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), including SO42-, NO3-, PO43 -, HCO3-, Cl-, SiO2, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+. Fresh rocks and C horizon samples were also collected, taking into account their geological context, abundance and spatial distribution, to analyze major elements and mineralogy. The Preto Stream, downstream from the city of Ribeirão Preto, receives several elements/compounds as a result of anthropogenic activities, with only sulfate yielding negative flux values. The negative flux of SO42 - can be attributed to atmospheric loading that is mainly related to anthropogenic inputs. After corrections were made for atmospheric inputs, the riverine transport of dissolved material was found to be 30 t km- 2 y- 1, with the majority of the dissolved material transported during the summer (wet) months. The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption were 6 m/Ma and 0.4 · 106 mol km- 2 y- 1, respectively. The chemical weathering rate falls within the lower range of Paraná flood basalt denudation rates between 135 and 35 Ma previously inferred from chronological studies. This comparison suggests that rates of basalt weathering in Brazil's present-day tropical climate differ by at most one order of magnitude from those prevalent at the time of hothouse Earth. The main weathering process is the monosiallitization of anorthoclase, augite, anorthite and microcline. Magnetite is not weathered and thus remains in the soil profile.

  8. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V˙O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V˙O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). The rBF and rV˙O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V˙O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  9. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  10. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V̇O(2)) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V̇O(2) in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO(2)], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (S(t)O(2)), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV̇O(2)). The rBF and rV̇O(2) signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V̇O(2) obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  11. Methods for Individualized Determination of Methylmercury Elimination Rate and De-Methylation Status in Humans Following Fish Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rand, Mathew D; Vorojeikina, Daria; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Jackson, Brian P; Scrimale, Thomas; Zareba, Grazyna; Love, Tanzy M; Myers, Gary J; Watson, Gene E

    2016-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure via fish in the diet remains a priority public health concern. Individual variation in response to a given MeHg exposure and the biotransformation of MeHg that follows complicate our understanding of this issue. MeHg elimination from the human body occurs slowly (elimination rate (kel) approximately 0.01 day(-1) or approximately 70 days half-life [t1/2]) and is a major determinant of the Hg body burden resulting from fish consumption. The underlying mechanisms that control MeHg elimination from the human body remain poorly understood. We describe here improved methods to obtain a MeHg elimination rate via longitudinal Hg analysis in hair using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We measured MeHg elimination rates in eight individuals following the consumption of 3 fish meals in two 75-day trials separated by a 4-month washout period. In addition, since MeHg biotransformation to inorganic Hg (I-Hg) is associated with Hg excretion, we speciated Hg in feces samples to estimate individual MeHg de-methylation status. We observed a wide range of MeHg elimination rates between individuals and within individuals over time (kel = 0.0163-0.0054 day(-1); estimated t1/2 = 42.5-128.3 days). The ratio of MeHg and I-Hg in feces also varied widely among individuals. While the %I-Hg in feces was likely influenced by dental amalgams, findings with subjects who lacked amalgams suggest that faster MeHg elimination is associated with a higher %I-Hg in feces indicating more complete de-methylation. We anticipate these methods will contribute to future investigations of genetic and dietary factors that influence MeHg disposition in people. PMID:26572661

  12. Mandated recycling rates: Impacts on energy consumption and municipal waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite its comprehensive solid waste legislation the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging, materials and newsprint. In this paper, we compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts associated with alternative methods of disposition to determine, the optimal method for each material. Alternative paths for material disposition include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfilling. The recovery rates considered during RCRA reauthorization are summarized. Combustion was specifically excluded by Congress to meet recovery goals. This exclusion is probably based on the idea that combustion is a form of disposal and therefore wastes resources and has negative environmental effects. Our paper does not make that assumption. A report by Gaines and Stodolsky, from which this paper is derived, offers a more complete discussion of energy and S impacts.

  13. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    PubMed

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( < 0.05). Regardless of the method used, efficient steers had lower DMI ( < 0.05). The initial LM area was indirectly related to RFI and RFI ( < 0.05); however, the final muscle area was related to only RFI. Oxygen consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( < 0.05). Blood parameters were not related to RFI and RFI ( > 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( < 0

  14. Induction of microcin B17 formation in Escherichia coli ZK650 by limitation of oxygen and glucose is independent of glucose consumption rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Q.; Fang, A.; Demain, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the consumption of glucose from the media in which Escherichia coli ZK650 was grown. This organism, which produces the polypeptide antibiotic microcin B17 best under conditions of limiting supplies of glucose and air, was grown with a low level of glucose (0.5 mg/ml) as well as a high level (5.0 mg/ml) under both high and low aeration. Glucose consumption rates were virtually identical under both high and low aeration. Thus, glucose consumption rate is not a regulating factor in microcin B17 formation.

  15. Deep-sea echinoderm oxygen consumption rates and an interclass comparison of metabolic rates in Asteroidea, Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sarah Jane Murty; Ruhl, Henry A; Hawkins, Lawrence E; Hauton, Chris; Boorman, Ben; Billett, David S M

    2011-08-01

    Echinoderms are important components of deep-sea communities because of their abundance and the fact that their activities contribute to carbon cycling. Estimating the echinoderm contribution to food webs and carbon cycling is important to our understanding of the functioning of the deep-sea environment and how this may alter in the future as climatic changes take place. Metabolic rate data from deep-sea echinoderm species are, however, scarce. To obtain such data from abyssal echinoderms, a novel in situ respirometer system, the benthic incubation chamber system (BICS), was deployed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) at depths ranging from 2200 to 3600 m. Oxygen consumption rates were obtained in situ from four species of abyssal echinoderm (Ophiuroidea and Holothuroidea). The design and operation of two versions of BICS are presented here, together with the in situ respirometry measurements. These results were then incorporated into a larger echinoderm metabolic rate data set, which included the metabolic rates of 84 echinoderm species from all five classes (Asteroidea, Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea). The allometric scaling relationships between metabolic rate and body mass derived in this study for each echinoderm class were found to vary. Analysis of the data set indicated no change in echinoderm metabolic rate with depth (by class or phylum). The allometric scaling relationships presented here provide updated information for mass-dependent deep-sea echinoderm metabolic rate for use in ecosystem models, which will contribute to the study of both shallow water and deep-sea ecosystem functioning and biogeochemistry. PMID:21753044

  16. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  17. Geomicrobiological linkages between short-chain alkane consumption and sulfate reduction rates in seep sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Arpita; Rogers, Daniel R.; Adams, Melissa M.; Joye, Samantha B.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are ecosystems that are rich in methane, and, in some cases, short-chain (C2–C5) and longer alkanes. C2–C4 alkanes such as ethane, propane, and butane can be significant components of seeping fluids. Some sulfate-reducing microbes oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically, and may play an important role in both the competition for sulfate and the local carbon budget. To better understand the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain n-alkanes coupled with sulfate-reduction, hydrocarbon-rich sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) were amended with artificial, sulfate-replete seawater and one of four n-alkanes (C1–C4) then incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. Measured rates of alkane oxidation and sulfate reduction closely follow stoichiometric predictions that assume the complete oxidation of alkanes to CO2 (though other sinks for alkane carbon likely exist). Changes in the δ13C of all the alkanes in the reactors show enrichment over the course of the incubation, with the C3 and C4 incubations showing the greatest enrichment (4.4 and 4.5‰, respectively). The concurrent depletion in the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) implies a transfer of carbon from the alkane to the DIC pool (−3.5 and −6.7‰ for C3 and C4 incubations, respectively). Microbial community analyses reveal that certain members of the class Deltaproteobacteria are selectively enriched as the incubations degrade C1–C4 alkanes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that distinct phylotypes are enriched in the ethane reactors, while phylotypes in the propane and butane reactors align with previously identified C3–C4 alkane-oxidizing sulfate-reducers. These data further constrain the potential influence of alkane oxidation on sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments, provide insight into their contribution to local carbon cycling, and illustrate the extent to which short-chain alkanes can serve as electron donors and govern microbial

  18. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption rates from attached and unattached cells in a reversibly sealed, diffusionally isolated sample chamber

    PubMed Central

    Strovas, Timothy J.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Nandakumar, Vivek; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen consumption is a fundamental component of metabolic networks, mitochondrial function, and global carbon cycling. To date there is no method available that allows for replicate measurements on attached and unattached biological samples without compensation for extraneous oxygen leaking into the system. Here we present the Respiratory Detection System, which is compatible with virtually any biological sample. The RDS can be used to measure oxygen uptake in microliter-scale volumes with a reversibly sealed sample chamber, which contains a porphyrin-based oxygen sensor. With the RDS, one can maintain a diffusional seal for up to three hours, allowing for the direct measurement of respiratory function of samples with fast or slow metabolic rates. The ability to easily measure oxygen uptake in small volumes with small populations or dilute samples has implications in cell biology, environmental biology, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:21546993

  19. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    PubMed Central

    Grung, Bjørn; Hansen, Anita L.; Berg, Mari; Møen-Knudseth, Maria P.; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Dahl, Lisbeth; Thayer, Julian F.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 22) were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60). The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t-tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72). In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and physical

  20. In vitro measurements of oxygen consumption rates in hTERT-RPE cells exposed to low levels of red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light induces an adaptive response against a lethal pulse of 2.0 μm laser radiation in hTERT-RPE cells in vitro, but not in a knockdown mutant for vascular endothelial growth factor c (VEGF-C). The generally accepted initiation sequence for photobiomodulation is that absorption of red light by cytochome c oxidase (CCOX) of the electron transport chain increases the binding affinity of CCOX for O2 vs. nitric oxide (NO). This results in displacement of NO by O2 in the active site of CCOX, thereby increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. We've previously reported that red-light exposure induces a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in NO levels in these cells. But the relative importance of NO and oxidative phosphorylation is unclear because little is known about the relative contributions of NO and ATP to the response. However, if NO dissociation from CCOX actually increases oxidative phosphorylation, one should see a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. A Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in normal and mutant cells as a proxy for oxidative phosphorylation. Both basal respiration and maximum respiration rates in normal cells are significantly higher than in the mutant. The normal cells have a significant amount of "excess capacity," whereas the VEGF-C(KD) have little or none. The OCR in exposed normal cells is lower than in unexposed cells when measured immediately after exposure. The exposures used for these experiments had no effect on the OCR in mutant cells.

  1. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Estimation of the rate of oxygen consumption of the common eider duck (Somateria mollissima), with some measurements of heart rate during voluntary dives.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, P A; Butler, P J; Woakes, A J; Speakman, J R

    2000-09-01

    The relationship between heart rate (f(H)) and rate of oxygen consumption (V(O2)) was established for a marine diving bird, the common eider duck (Somateria mollissima), during steady-state swimming and running exercise. Both variables increased exponentially with speed during swimming and in a linear fashion during running. Eleven linear regressions of V(O2) (ml kg(-1 )min(-1)) on f(H) (beats min(-1)) were obtained: five by swimming and six by running the birds. The common regression was described by V(O2)=10.1 + 0.15f(H) (r(2)=0.46, N=272, P<0.0001). The accuracy of this relationship for predicting mean V(O2) was determined for a group of six birds by recording f(H) continuously over a 2-day period and comparing estimated V(O2) obtained using the common regression with (i) V(O2) estimated using the doubly labelled water technique (DLW) and (ii) V(O2) measured using respirometry. A two-pool model produced the most accurate estimated V(O2) using DLW. Because of individual variability within mean values of V(O2) estimated using both techniques, there was no significant difference between mean V(O2) estimated using f(H) or DLW and measured V(O2) values (P>0.2), although individual errors were substantially less when f(H) was used rather than DLW to estimate V(O2). Both techniques are, however, only suitable for estimating mean V(O2) for a group of animals, not for individuals. Heart rate and behaviour were monitored during a bout of 63 voluntary dives by one female bird in an indoor tank 1.7 m deep. Tachycardia occurred both in anticipation of and following each dive. Heart rate decreased before submersion but was above resting values for the whole of the dive cycle. Mean f(H) at mean dive duration was significantly greater than f(H) while swimming at maximum sustainable surface speeds. Heart rate was used to estimate mean V(O2) during the dive cycle and to predict aerobic dive limit (ADL) for shallow dives. PMID:10952881

  3. Direct estimation of cardiac reserve through analysis of relation between oxygen consumption and heart rate during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, H; Honda, S; Yoshii, K; Mizoguchi, Y; Fukuda, S; Iwao, H

    1985-12-01

    In order to elucidate fundamental relationship between exercise and cardiac reserve, we investigated the parameters of regression equation (VO2 = A X HR + B) between oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/min) and heart rate (HR) during exercise test (Bruce). 62 male children were divided into 3 groups based on history and clinical evaluation. HR related linearly with VO2 (average r = 0.967, range 0.90-0.993). Both of the parameters A and [B] were significantly high in Athlete (A = 0.465 +/- 0.043, [B] = 36 +/- 6.07), low in Failed (0.297 +/- 0.055, 17.4 +/- 6.1) and middle in Ordinary group (0.366 +/- 0.078, 23.5 +/- 8.6) (p less than 0.005). Based on our result of linear VO2-HR relation, and on the previously reported studies that cardiac output linearly and consistently relates with VO2, we considered the meaning of the parameters as follows; A determines the possible maximum stroke volume (SV), and B determines the HR where SV reaches plateau. In conclusion, since the SV is considered as a measure of cardiac function, measuring the parameters of VO2-HR relation allows us to isolate cardiac functional reserve through the exercise tolerance test. PMID:3831400

  4. Physiological significance of the slope of the regression equation between oxygen consumption and heart rate in exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, H; Honda, S; Mizoguchi, Y; Yoshii, K; Iwao, H

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) was studied in 62 male children. Based on clinical evaluation and history, they were divided into three groups, i.e., athlete, ordinary and failed. There was a high linear correlation between HR and VO2 in each individual. The averaged values of the slope and standard deviations were 2.09 +/- 0.189 in the athlete group (n = 17), 2.60 +/- 0.140 in the ordinary group (n = 16) and 3.17 +/- 0.591 in the failed group (n = 29). The statistical differences were confirmed among the groups (p less than 0.005). The results suggested that the slope of the HR vs. VO2 relation was related to an inotropic state of cardiac function. We concluded that the slope was a more suitable and more direct evaluation of cardiac function during exercise. Moreover, the method was non-invasive and safe because it required no potentially hazardous maximum work load for the patients. PMID:6512949

  5. Quantification of Low-Level Drug Effects Using Real-Time, in vitro Measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    PubMed

    Neal, Adam; Rountree, Austin M; Philips, Craig W; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Williams, Dominic P; Newham, Peter; Khalil, Gamal; Cook, Daniel L; Sweet, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    There is a general need to detect toxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening. We propose that increased sensitivity of xenobiotics toxicity combined with improved in vitro physiological recapitulation will more accurately assess potentially toxic perturbations of cellular biochemistry that are near in vivo pharmacological exposure levels. Importantly, measurement of such cytopathologies avoids activating mechanisms mediating toxicity at suprapharmacologic levels not relevant to in vivo effects. We present a sensitive method to measure changes in oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a well-established parameter reflecting a potential hazard, in response to exposure to pharmacologic levels of drugs using a flow culture system and state of the art oxygen sensing system. We tested metformin and acetaminophen on rat liver slices to illustrate the method. The features of the method include continuous and very stable measurement of OCR over the course of 48 h in liver slices in a continuous flow chamber with the ability to resolve changes as small as 0.3%/h. Kinetic modeling of metformin inhibition of OCR over a wide range of concentrations revealed both a slow and fast mechanism, where the fast mechanism activated only at concentrations above 0.6 mM. For both drugs, small amounts of inhibition were reversible, but higher decrements were irreversible. Overall the study highlights the advantages of measuring low-level toxicity so as to avoid the common extrapolations made about drug toxicity based on effects of drugs tested at suprapharmacologic levels. PMID:26396153

  6. River geochemistry, chemical weathering, and atmospheric CO2 consumption rates in the Virunga Volcanic Province (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2015-09-01

    We report a water chemistry data set from 13 rivers of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) (Democratic Republic of Congo), sampled between December 2010 and February 2013. Most parameters showed no pronounced seasonal variation, whereas their spatial variation suggests a strong control by lithology, soil type, slope, and vegetation. High total suspended matter (289-1467 mg L-1) was recorded in rivers in the Lake Kivu catchment, indicating high soil erodibility, partly as a consequence of deforestation and farming activities. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) were lower in rivers from lava fields, and higher in nonvolcanic subcatchments. Stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C) of POC and DOC mean δ13C of -22.5‰ and -23.5‰, respectively, are the first data to be reported for the highland of the Congo River basin and showed a much higher C4 contribution than in lowland areas. Rivers of the VVP were net sources of CH4 to the atmosphere (4-5052 nmol L-1). Most rivers show N2O concentrations close to equilibrium, but some rivers showed high N2O concentrations related to denitrification in groundwaters. δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon suggested magmatic CO2 inputs to aquifers/soil, which could have contributed to increase basalt weathering rates. This magmatic CO2-mediated basalt weathering strongly contributed to the high major cation concentrations and total alkalinity. Thus, chemical weathering (39.0-2779.9 t km-2 yr-1) and atmospheric CO2 consumption (0.4-37.0 × 106 mol km-2 yr-1) rates were higher than previously reported in the literature for basaltic terrains.

  7. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30–35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. PMID:26647379

  8. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C; Fernyhough, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30-35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. PMID:26647379

  9. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  10. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students

    PubMed Central

    SCHEER, KRISTA S.; SIEBRANT, SARAH M.; BROWN, GREGORY A.; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2014-01-01

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a “physically active” home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system. PMID:27182399

  11. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite. PMID:26619790

  12. Myocardial energy production and consumption remain balanced during positive inotropic stimulation when coronary flow is restricted to basal rates in rabbit heart.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R C; Nash, W W; Bersohn, M M; Wong, G A

    1987-01-01

    The effect on myocardial energy balance of increasing oxygen demand without altering basal myocardial perfusion rate was assessed in isolated, isovolumic, retrograde blood perfused rabbit hearts. Myocardial energy requirements were increased with paired stimulation. The capacity of rapid paired stimulation to increase mechanical energy consumption was demonstrated in the presence of increased perfusion with the rate X pressure product and oxygen consumption increasing 86 and 148%, respectively, compared with control values. In contrast, rapid paired stimulation under constant, basal flow conditions did not alter the rate X pressure product, while oxygen extraction and consumption increased only 40% relative to control. Myocardial ATP, creatine-phosphate, and lactate content were identical under control and constant flow-paired stimulation conditions. The results of this study indicate that no detectable energy imbalance was produced by rapid paired stimulation with flow held constant at basal rates. These results suggest that the myocardium does not increase mechanical energy expenditure in response to inotropic or rate stimulation in the presence of restricted flow reserve and are inconsistent with the concept of "demand-induced" or "relative" myocardial ischemia. PMID:3654976

  13. Temporal changes and spatial variation of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification rates in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Svensson, J. M.; Carrer, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal and spatial patterns of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification, denitrification and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. In the salt marsh, intact soil cores including overlying water were collected monthly at high tide from April to October in salt marsh creeks and in areas covered by the dominant vegetation, Limonium serotinum. In May, cores were also collected in areas with vegetation dominated by Juncus maritimus and Halimione portulacoides. In laboratory incubations at in situ temperature in the dark, flux rates of oxygen and DIN were monitored in the overlying water of the intact cores. 15N-nitrate was added to the overlying water and nitrification and denitrification were measured using isotope-dilution and -pairing techniques. The results show that highest soil oxygen consumption coincided with the highest water temperature in June and July. The highest denitrification rates were recorded in spring and autumn coinciding with the highest nitrate concentrations. Soil oxygen consumption and nitrification rates differed between sampling sites, but denitrification rates were similar among the different vegetation types. The highest rates were recorded in areas covered with L. serotinum. Burrowing soil macrofauna enhanced oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification in April and May. The data presented in this study indicate high temporal as well as spatial variations in the flux of oxygen and DIN, and nitrogen transformations in the tidal salt marshes of the Venice lagoon during the growth season. The results identify the salt marshes of the Venice lagoon as being metabolically very active ecosystems with a high capacity to process nitrogen.

  14. Comparisons of pollen substitute diets for honey bees: consumption rates by colonies and effects on brood and adult populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available pollen substitute diets for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for consumption and colony growth (brood and adult populations) and compared with pollen cake and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two trials were conducted; the first for 3 months during the fall and w...

  15. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  16. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool. PMID:24237351

  17. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  18. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  19. A refined method for quantification of myocardial oxygen consumption rate using mean transit time with carbon-11-acetate and dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; Huang, S C; Hawkins, R A; Hoh, C K; Krivokapich, J; Buxton, D B; Armbrecht, J J; Sun, K T; Phelps, M E; Schelbert, H R

    1993-11-01

    The utility of the mean transit time equation was investigated for estimation of the myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate, which is proportional to myocardial oxygen consumption rates. The mean transit time approach was also employed to generate parametric images of the clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate with dynamic PET imaging in 20 normal human studies. Input function delays and cutoff errors due to the truncation of the myocardial tissue time-activity curve at a finite time were corrected. The clearance rate constants estimated by mean transit time correlated well with the estimates by conventional monoexponential fitting (15 min (truncation time): Y = 0.01 + 0.94X, correlated coefficient (r) = 0.99; 16 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.94X, r = 0.98; 20 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.84X, r = 0.99). The clearance rate constants estimated by the mean transit time approach also correlated well (r = 0.94) with the measured rate-pressure products. The quality and noise level of parametric images of the clearance rate constants generated by mean transit time are improved over those generated by monoexponential fitting. Additional advantages of the mean transit time approach compared to the standard monoexponential fitting method for estimating myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate include ease of input function delay correction, less sensitivity to the shape of the input function and elimination of subjective data selection of the linear portion of the clearance data on a semilog plot. Thus, this approach is expected to facilitate objective quantitative analysis of indices of myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:8229256

  20. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. PMID:26116459

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  2. The Optimal Capital Stock and Consumption Evolution for Non Zero Consumers Growth Rate in the Framework of Ramsey Model on Finite Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonchiş, N.; Balint, Şt.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the Ramsey optimal growth of the capital stock and consumption on finite horizon is analyzed when the growth rate of consumers is strictly positive. The main purpose is to establish the dependence of the optimal capital stock and consumption evolution on the growth rate of consumers. The analysis reveals: for any initial value k0≥0 there exists a unique optimal evolution path of length N+1 for the capital stock; if k0 is strictly positive then all the elements of the optimal capital stock evolution path are strictly positives except the last one which is zero; the optimal capital stock evolution of length N+1 starting from k0≥0 satisfies the Euler equation; the value function VN is strictly increasing, strictly concave and continuous on R+. The family of functions {VN-T}T = 0…N-1 satisfies the Bellman equation and it is the unique solution of this equation which is both continuous and satisfies the transversality condition. The Mangasarian Lemma is also satisfied. For N tending to infinity the optimal evolution path of length N of the capital stock tends to those on the infinite time horizon. For any k0>0 the value function in k0 decreases when the consumers growth rate increases.

  3. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.; Dury, M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH), we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2 - decreases in both end members (south and north) of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north-south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower

  4. Modeling the Oxygen Consumption Rates in Pacific Salmon and Steelhead: An Assessment of Current Models and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Geist, David R.; Welch, David W.

    2004-03-01

    Bioenergetic models of fish have been used to study a large number of processes. Like most models, bioenergetic models require the estimation of numerous parameters. As a consequence, they have often relied on parameters borrowed from other species or values extrapolated from other life stages or size-classes. The magnitude of the biases associated with these practices remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not metabolic rates could be extrapolated between closely related species and life stages. We focused on Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss, as the metabolic rates of these species have been well documented. Our analyses showed that models derived from closely related species did not accurately predict the metabolic rates of salmon, indicating that the practice of "species borrowing" should be avoided in assessing fish metabolic rates. Our work also showed that allometric equations of metabolic rates were not stable when measured over small size ranges and that biases could be introduced when these models are extrapolated to smaller or larger fish. In addition, we found that, except for steelhead, published models of Pacific salmon metabolic rate were inaccurate. Mean bias ranged from close to 0% to over 200% depending on size and water temperature, with about two-thirds of the bias values exceeding 20%. These biases could have large impacts on bioenergetic model predictions. Increased funding and scientific recognition of the need for additional basic research will be necessary to build more accurate bioenergetic models for Pacific salmon, especially models applied to the ocean phase of the life cycle.

  5. Greater absolute rates of N2O production and consumption with soil warming dwarf variations in denitrification enzyme temperature sensitivities across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Investigators appreciate the important role that nitrate (NO3-) and soil moisture availability can play in governing net N2O production from soils. However, a large knowledge gap remains surrounding the drivers of soil N2O consumption and the role of microbial adaptation to changing environmental conditions in governing both N2O production and consumption. Net N2O soil efflux can be correlated with temperature, but little is known about the influence of temperature on gross rates of N2O production vs. consumption. Further, we do not understand how microbial communities responsible for these processes adapt or acclimate to soil warming. To investigate whether temperature alters the denitrifier-mediated fate of NO3- lost via N2O or N2, and if any such effect changes across seasons, we incubated soil collected in three seasons at four temperatures with and without 15N-enriched nitrate for 26 hours. Incubations were conducted in an anaerobic environment flushed with helium to permit detection of N2O and N2, and those gases’ δ15N. Temperature positively influenced CO2 production resulting from anaerobic processes. Maximum values of net N2O production were positively influenced by incubation and seasonal temperature, and the maximum rate of net N2O production occurred relatively early at warmer incubation temperatures. We also observed greater N2O:N2 ratios early in the incubations at warmer incubation temperatures. Isotope data are consistent with these trends. For those soils receiving the 15N label, differences in δ15N2O between early and late in the incubations were increasingly negative, and differences in δ15N2 increasingly positive, as temperature increased. Q10 values for N2O production and consumption exhibited increasing similarities as seasons progressed, with June N2O production and consumption Q10 values being nearly identical. These data provide convincing evidence that: a) increasing temperatures can induce denitrifying communities to perform complete

  6. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.

    2012-08-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH) we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the South but decreases strongly in the North. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2-decreases due to its retrograde solubility in both end members (South and North) of the transect. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the North-South transect show that dolomite weathering will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower lysocline expected in

  7. Caura River basin: Weathering rates, CO2 consumption, and chemistry of major and trace elements in an Orinoco River tributary coming from the Precambrian Guayana Shield, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Abrahan; Alfonso, Juan A.; Baquero, Juan Carlos; Balza, Laura; Pisapia, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the geochemistry of dissolved elements in the Caura River and gives information about weathering rates and associated CO2 consumption in an Orinoco River subbasin. Physicochemical variables (pH, conductivity, HCO3-, dissolved O2, and temperature), dissolved elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cr), total suspended sediments (TSS), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured monthly from June 2007 to August 2008 in the Caura River. Major element concentrations (Na, Ca, Mg, and Si) showed an inverse correlation with discharge, whereas K showed high concentration values during the rising waters, probably due to biogenic sources. All these elements are provided mainly from weathering of plagioclases and K feldspars. The weathering rate (riverine flux of dissolved major cations and SiO2 derived from weathering per unit area) and the CO2 consumption rate in the Caura basin (15.4 tons km-2 yr-1 and 1.1 × 105 mol km-2 yr-1, respectively) were higher than those reported for the Orinoco basin and other black water river basins. This fact can be due to several factors such as lithology (volcanic rocks), high runoff, and the presence of organic acids, which can enhance the chemical weathering. The variability of the trace elements showed a different behavior than major elements. Fe and Al concentrations were correlated with DOC. Dissolved Mn content was correlated with pH, whereas the low concentrations of Cu and Cr are possibly associated with the low content of small size organic colloids. The high values of Zn observed during the decreasing stage suggest biogenic input of Zn to river waters.

  8. ATP Consumption by SR Ca2+ Pumps Accounts for 50% of Resting Metabolic Rate in Mouse Fast and Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Sarah Michelle; Bombardier, Eric; Smith, Ian Curtis; Vigna, Chris; Tupling, Allan Russell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to directly quantify the relative contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate in mouse fast (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow (soleus, SOL) twitch skeletal muscle. Resting oxygen consumption of isolated muscles (VO2, μL/g wet weight/s) measured polarographically at 30°C was ~25% higher in SOL (0.61 ± .03) than EDL (0.46 ± .03). In order to quantify the specific contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a highly specific inhibitor of sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs), was added to the bath at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 μM). There was a concentration-dependent effect of CPA on oxygen consumption with increasing CPA concentrations up to 10 μM resulting in progressively greater reductions in muscle VO2. There were no differences between 10 and 15 μM CPA indicating that 10 μM CPA induces maximal inhibition of SERCAs in isolated muscle preparations. The relative (%) reduction in muscle VO2 in response to CPA was nearly identical in EDL (1 μM, 10.6 ± 3.0; 5 μM, 33.2 ± 3.4; 10 μM, 49.2 ± 2.9; 15 μM, 50.9 ± 2.1) and SOL (1 μM, 11.2 ± 1.5; 5 μM, 37.7 ± 2.4; 10 μM, 50.0 ± 1.3; 15 μM, 49.9 ± 1.6). The results indicate that ATP consumption by SERCAs is responsible for ~50% of resting metabolic rate in both mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles at 30°C. Thus, SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle could represent an important control point for energy balance regulation and a potential target for metabolic alterations to oppose obesity. PMID:20018953

  9. Consumption of residue containing cucurbitacin feeding stimulant and reduced rates of carbaryl insecticide by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Behle, R W

    2001-12-01

    Application of insecticide at a reduced rate with a cucurbitacin-based feeding stimulant is a viable alternative to a broadcast insecticide application for control of adult western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, LeConte. Because of the small amount of material applied, it is conceivable that a high density of beetles could consume all of the spray residue before economic control is achieved. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the amount of cucurbitacin-based spray residue consumed by beetles. Dried residue of four treatments were exposed to three groups of 10 rootworm beetles for 1 h each. Treatments consisted of a cucurbitacin-based adjuvant (Cidetrak CRW, Trécé, Salinas, CA) with carbaryl insecticide (Sevin XLR Plus, Rhone Poulenc, Research Triangle Park, NC) mixed at 0, 0.12, 1.2, and 12 g (AI)/liter. For the treatment with cucurbitacin adjuvant only (no insecticide), beetles consumed 0.029 mg beetle(-1) h(-1) of exposure. Approximately 54% of the beetles were recorded as feeding at any given time during the 60-min feeding period. However, when the spray residue contained carbaryl, no weight loss of treatment residue was measured, though the beetles were observed to feed from the residue during the first few minutes of exposure. When residue included insecticide, beetles quickly ceased feeding (within 20 min), and toxicity behavior was observed 30 min after initial exposure for up to 75% of the beetles, which were classified as moribund (unable to stand upright). Beetle mortality was recorded 24 h after exposure and demonstrated that male beetles (53% dead for three insecticide treatments) were more susceptible to carbaryl toxicity than female beetles (28% dead for three insecticide treatments). Regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between mortality of female beetles and ovarian development. Based on the measurements of this experiment, it is unlikely that realistic beetle densities would consume

  10. The Online Morphology Control and Dynamic Studies on Improving Vitamin B12 Production by Pseudomonas denitrificans with Online Capacitance and Specific Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Shi, Hui-Lin; Wang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphological character of Pseudomonas denitrificans and vitamin B12 synthesis based on real-time capacitance measurement and online specific oxygen consumption rate (Q O2) control was established for enhancing vitamin B12 production. Results demonstrated that the threshold Q O2 value lower than 2.0 mmol/gDCW/l would greatly stimulate the state transfer from the cell number growth phase to the cell elongation phase and promote rapid vitamin B12 biosynthesis, while the vitamin B12 biosynthesis rate could also be inhibited when the rate of cell's length-to-width ratio (ratio-LW) was higher than 10:1. Furthermore, the optimal morphology controlling strategy was achieved based on online Q O2 control, which increases the appropriate active cell numbers at the former phase, and then control the elongation of ratio-LW no more than 10:1 at the vitamin B12 biosynthesis phase. The maximal vitamin B12 production reached 239.7 mg/l at 168 h, which was improved by 14.7 % compared with the control (208 mg/l). This online controlling strategy would be effectively applied for improving industrial vitamin B12 fermentation. PMID:27022751

  11. Influence of ozone air pollution on plant-herbivore interactions. Part 2: Effects of ozone on feeding preference, growth and consumption rates of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    Bolsinger, M; Lier, M E; Hughes, P R

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ozone fumigation of Asclepias curassavica L. and A. syriaca L. on feeding preference, growth, development, and nutritional indices of monarch larvae were investigated in conjunction with changes in specific leaf metabolites. While foliar chemistry was quite variable, fumigation generally decreased sugars and proteins, and increased amino acids and phenolics in A. curassavica. Effects were similar in A. syriaca except that sugars were generally increased while amino acids were usually not affected. On A. curassavica, 3rd instar larvae preferred ozone-treated leaves while 4th instars showed no preference; conversely, on A. syriaca, 3rd instars showed no preference while 4th instars preferred control leaves. Relative growth rate and relative consumption rate of 5th instars were greater on fumigated plants of both species, but other nutritional indices were unaffected. Larvae developed more rapidly on intact fumigated plants of both species than on the respective controls. The results suggest that enhanced feeding stimulation may be the primary cause of the altered behavior and performance on ozone-fumigated plants. PMID:15091975

  12. The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gabrielle Aparecida; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Cesar, Marcelo de Castro; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario

    2013-02-01

    Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1 green tea; group 2 placebo; group 3 green tea plus resistance training; group 4 placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength. PMID:23140132

  13. Development of a new oxygen consumption rate assay in cultures of Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Lobosea) and its application to evaluate viability and amoebicidal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Criado-Fornelio, A; Soliveri, J; Díaz-Martín, J A; Matilla-Fuentes, J; Sánchez-Arias, J A; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2015-08-01

    A new fluorometric method has been developed for measuring the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of Acanthamoeba cultures in microplates and for screening molecules with amoebicidal activity against this microorganism. The use of a biofunctional matrix (containing an oxygen-sensitive fluorogenic probe) attached to the microplate wells allowed continuous measurement of OCR in the medium, hence assessment of amoebic growth. The new OCR method applied to cell viability yielded a linear relationship and monitoring was much quicker than with indirect viability assays previously used. In addition, two drugs were tested in a cytotoxicity assay monitored by the new OCR viability test. With this procedure, the standard amoebicidal drug chlorhexidine digluconate showed an IC50 of 3.53 + 1.3 mg/l against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and 3.19 + 1.2 mg/l against Acanthamoeba castellanii, whereas a cationic dendrimer [G1Si(NMe3+)4] showed an IC50 of 6.42 + 1.3 mg/l against A. polyphaga. These data agree with previous studies conducted in our laboratory. Therefore, the new OCR method has proven powerful and quick for amoebicidal drug screening and is likely to be applied in biochemical studies concerning protozoa respiration and metabolism. PMID:25956947

  14. Use of glucose consumption rate (GCR) as a tool to monitor and control animal cell production processes in packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, F; Papp, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-01

    For animal cell cultures growing in packed-bed bioreactors where cell number cannot be determined directly, there is a clear need to use indirect methods that are not based on cell counts in order to monitor and control the process. One option is to use the glucose consumption rate (GCR) of the culture as an indirect measure to monitor the process in bioreactors. This study was done on a packed-bed bioreactor process using recombinant CHO cells cultured on Fibra-Cel disk carriers in perfusion mode at high cell densities. A key step in the process is the switch of the process from the cell growth phase to the production phase triggered by a reduction of the temperature. In this system, we have used a GCR value of 300 g of glucose per kilogram of disks per day as a criterion for the switch. This paper will present results obtained in routine operations for the monitoring and control of an industrial process at pilot-scale. The process operated with this GCR-based strategy yielded consistent, reproducible process performance across numerous bioreactor runs performed on multiple production sites. PMID:16153735

  15. Optimal Consumption When Consumption Takes Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norman C.

    2009-01-01

    A classic article by Gary Becker (1965) showed that when it takes time to consume, the first order conditions for optimal consumption require the marginal rate of substitution between any two goods to equal their relative full costs. These include the direct money price and the money value of the time needed to consume each good. This important…

  16. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (P<0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow. PMID:23566074

  17. Assessment of the inhibition of Dengue virus infection by carrageenan via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yi-Syun; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device combined with a light modulation system was developed to assess the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on Dengue virus (DENV) infection via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). Measuring cellular OCRs, which can reflect cellular metabolic activity, enabled us to monitor the process of viral infection in real time and to rapidly determine the antiviral activity of potential drugs/chemical compounds. The time variation of the cellular OCR of single cells that were infected in situ by DENV at different multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) values was first successfully measured within a microfluidic device. The influence of the timing of carrageenan treatment on DENV infection was then examined by real-time monitoring of cellular OCRs in three groups. Cells that were pre-treated with carrageenan and then infected with DENV served as a pre-treatment group, cells to which carrageenan was added simultaneously with DENV served as a virucide group, and cells that were pre-infected with DENV and then treated with carrageenan served as a post-treatment group. By monitoring cellular OCRs, we could rapidly evaluate the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on DENV infection, obtaining a result within 7 h and showing that carrageenan had strong and effective anti-DENV activity in the three groups. In particular, a strong inhibitory effect was observed in the virucide group. Moreover, once the virus enters host cells in the post-treatment group, the immediate treatment with carrageenan for the infected cells has higher efficiency of antiviral activity. Our proposed platform enables to perform time-course or dose-response measurements of changes in cellular metabolic activity caused by diseases, chemical compounds, and drugs via monitoring of the cellular OCR, with rapid and real-time detection. This approach provides the potential to study a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery

  18. Estimation of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption with proton detected 17O MRI during precision 17O2 inhalation in swine

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Eric A.; Beesam, R. Shashank; Baumgardner, James E.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Witschey, Walter R.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of metabolic disturbances in many diseases, there are currently no clinically used methods for the detection of oxidative metabolism in vivo. To address this deficiency, 17O MRI techniques are scaled from small animals to swine as a large animal model of human inhalation and circulation. The hemispheric cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) is estimated in swine by detection of metabolically produced H217O by rapid T1ρ-weighted proton magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner. The 17O is delivered as oxygen gas by a custom, minimal-loss, precision-delivery breathing circuit and converted to H217O by oxidative metabolism. A model for gas arterial input is presented for the deeply breathing large animal. The arterial input function for recirculation of metabolic water is measured by arterial blood sampling and high field 17O spectroscopy. It is found that minimal metabolic water “wash-in” occurs before 60 seconds. A high temporal resolution pulse sequence is employed to measure CMRO2 during those 60 seconds after delivery begins. Only about one tidal volume of 17O enriched oxygen gas is used per measurement. Proton measurements of signal change due to metabolically produced water are correlated with 17O in vivo spectroscopy. Using these techniques, the hemispheric CMRO2 in swine is estimated to be 1.23 ± 0.26 μmol/g/min, consistent with existing literature values. All of the technology used to perform these CMRO2 estimates can easily be adapted to clinical MR scanners, and it is hoped that this work will lead to future studies of human disease. PMID:19428508

  19. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind. PMID:15768676

  20. Consumption bomb.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken. PMID:12295543

  1. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  2. Caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Barone, J J; Roberts, H R

    1996-01-01

    Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake. PMID:8603790

  3. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Mendell, Mark J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Dutton, Spencer M.; Berkeley, Pam M.; Spears, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  4. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. PMID:25556026

  5. A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Romu, Thobias; Dahlqvist-Leinhard, Olof; Borga, Magnus; Leandersson, Per; Nystrom, Fredrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fruit has since long been advocated as a healthy source of many nutrients, however, the high content of sugars in fruit might be a concern. Objectives To study effects of an increased fruit intake compared with similar amount of extra calories from nuts in humans. Methods Thirty healthy non-obese participants were randomized to either supplement the diet with fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg bodyweight/day for two months. Major endpoints were change of hepatic fat content (HFC, by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), basal metabolic rate (BMR, with indirect calorimetry) and cardiovascular risk markers. Results Weight gain was numerically similar in both groups although only statistically significant in the group randomized to nuts (fruit: from 22.15±1.61 kg/m2 to 22.30±1.7 kg/m2, p = 0.24 nuts: from 22.54±2.26 kg/m2 to 22.73±2.28 kg/m2, p = 0.045). On the other hand BMR increased in the nut group only (p = 0.028). Only the nut group reported a net increase of calories (from 2519±721 kcal/day to 2763±595 kcal/day, p = 0.035) according to 3-day food registrations. Despite an almost three-fold reported increased fructose-intake in the fruit group (from 9.1±6.0 gram/day to 25.6±9.6 gram/day, p<0.0001, nuts: from 12.4±5.7 gram/day to 6.5±5.3 gram/day, p = 0.007) there was no change of HFC. The numerical increase in fasting insulin was statistical significant only in the fruit group (from 7.73±3.1 pmol/l to 8.81±2.9 pmol/l, p = 0.018, nuts: from 7.29±2.9 pmol/l to 8.62±3.0 pmol/l, p = 0.14). Levels of vitamin C increased in both groups while α-tocopherol/cholesterol-ratio increased only in the fruit group. Conclusions Although BMR increased in the nut-group only this was not linked with differences in weight gain between groups which potentially could be explained by the lack of reported net caloric increase in the fruit group. In healthy non-obese individuals an increased fruit intake seems safe from cardiovascular risk perspective, including

  6. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Townsend, J

    1996-01-01

    Progressive increases in cigarette tax rates provide a powerful contribution to policy for reducing cigarette consumption and generate extra government revenue. The policy has been most effective in groups for whom health publicity effects have been least so, but special provision may be necessary to avoid hardship to poor families. PMID:8746302

  7. Population growth and consumption.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development. PMID:12319715

  8. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  9. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Darvishi, Leila; Ghasemi, Shekoofe; Hariri, Mitra; Hajishafiei, Maryam; khorvash, Fariborz; Iraj, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women) and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women). Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex. PMID:23961286

  10. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  11. Predicting Consumption Poverty Using Non-Consumption Indicators: Experiments Using Indonesian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarto, Sudarno; Suryadarma, Daniel; Suryahadi, Asep

    2007-01-01

    Household consumption expenditure data is crucial for calculating important welfare measures such as poverty headcount rate. However, collecting such data is difficult and cumbersome. As an alternative, we experiment with three methods--consumption correlates model, poverty probability model, and wealth index principal components analysis…

  12. Alcohol consumption and gender in rural Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Shawn S; Small, Christian R; Lauilefue, Tui Agaapapalagi; Bennett, Jillian; Yamada, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and aims There are significant gender differences in alcohol consumption throughout the world. Here we report the results of an alcohol consumption survey on the rural island of Savaii, in the Pacific nation of Samoa. Design and methods Eleven villages were selected for sampling using a randomized stratified cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1049 inhabitants over the age of 40 years (485 males and 564 females) were surveyed about alcohol consumption over the past year, and a 72.2% participation rate was achieved. Results A significant gender difference in alcohol consumption was found: 97.3% of women and 59.4% of men reported no alcohol consumption over the past year. This is one of the most significant gender differences in alcohol consumption in the world. No significant difference between genders was seen in those who consume only 1–5 alcoholic drinks per week (P = 0.8454). However, significantly more males than females consumed 6–25 drinks per week (P < 0.0001), 26–75 drinks per week (P < 0.0001), and 75+ drinks per week (P < 0.0001). Discussion and conclusion This extreme gender difference in alcohol consumption is attributed to several factors, both general (alcoholic metabolism rates, risk-taking behaviors, general cultural taboos, etc) and specific to Samoa (church influence, financial disempowerment, and Samoan gender roles). PMID:24474849

  13. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  14. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  15. Determining residential firewood consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsinko, Allan P. C.; Phillips, Douglas R.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1984-07-01

    Household firewood use has become increasingly popular in the United States over the past few years. Significant problems remain in estimating firewood consumption. Methods of determining the amount of wood consumed vary from state to state. Units used for measuring firewood vary, but the cord remains the researcher's favorite. Factors used for converting other units, such as pickup truck loads to cords also vary. People who do not use firewood are less likely to respond to mailed surveys, resulting in potential overestimates of statewide consumption. This paper identifies some problems associated with estimating household firewood consumption and recommends methods of dealing with them.

  16. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 1: use of a procalcitonin algorithm to guide antimicrobial therapy in COPD exacerbations can reduce antibiotic consumption with no increase in rates of treatment failure or mortality.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Brandon; Riley, Brad

    2015-06-01

    A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether a procalcitonin-guided algorithm could safely reduce antibiotic consumption for patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending the emergency department. Four randomised controlled trials were found directly relevant to the three-part question, combined within a later systematic review and meta-analysis. A further prospective cohort study was also found relevant to the three-part question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that a procalcitonin algorithm appears to be a useful strategy to guide initiation and duration of antibiotics and can reduce consumption without conferring additional risk. However, no cost effectiveness data are available as yet and further validation studies are required prior to widespread recommendation. PMID:25991774

  17. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Marks, Kristin A; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-06-01

    Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2) in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27014733

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  19. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  20. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt. PMID:23863754

  1. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  2. User views on supervised methadone consumption.

    PubMed

    Stone, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Keron

    2003-03-01

    To assess the views of opiate-dependent individuals about supervised methadone consumption. Three groups of opinions were sought: (i). new patients referred for assessment and treatment, using rating scales; (ii). the consensus view of the Methadone Alliance (a national users' forum); and (iii). the consensus view of a local service users' forum. All three groups expressed the view that supervised consumption has an important place in methadone treatments. Users understand the need for daily supervision of methadone and are generally willing to accept it. Users' views provide support for the introduction of flexible methadone prescribing regimes incorporating supervised consumption. Privacy in pharmacies and the possibility of moving away from supervision are important elements in an acceptable programme. Supervised consumption is an important component of safe, effective and responsible methadone prescribing. PMID:12745415

  3. Externalities from grain consumption: a survey.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) publishes their MyPyramid plan as a recommended eating model for all Americans. As part of this model, grain consumption is emphasized. This grain consumption has the potential to generate positive externalities, such as reduced rates of obesity, diabetes and other chronic diseases. Such positive externalities can potentially produce tangible economic benefits in terms of public health. In contrast, newer nutritional research shows that grain consumption may have negative effects on health for certain population groups. Celiac disease is four times as common as it was 50 years ago and is often under-diagnosed. Other population groups exhibit gluten sensitivity which can impact the development of asthma, allergies and neurological difficulties. This survey intends to provide a comprehensive description of both the positive and negative externalities associated with grain consumption and the resulting impact on human health. PMID:22082016

  4. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate. PMID:23715675

  5. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  6. Consumption patterns and why people fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-10-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of many people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the New York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons for angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing for food. PMID:12483803

  7. Amtrak fuel consumption study

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC). A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations.

  8. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  9. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  10. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  11. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  12. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  13. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  14. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  15. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  16. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  17. TLR3 deficiency increases voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yujin; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Jong-Hwan; Han, Seung-Yun; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2016-03-23

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immunity-related receptors. Many studies have indicated the involvement of TLRs in neurophysiology and neuropathology. One study showed that TLR3 regulates hippocampal memory and is highly expressed in the mesolimbic dopamine system, suggesting that TLR3 signaling may regulate alcohol consumption. The present study assessed the potential role of TLR3 in alcohol intake pattern. We used adult BalbC wild-type mice and TLR3 knockout mice and tested two-bottle alcohol preference over 15 days and one-bottle 2 or 4 h drinking in the dark over 4 consecutive days. The 10% alcohol consumption rate of TLR3 knockout mice increased on the 24 h free-choice test. Our findings support a potential regulatory role of TLR3 in alcohol consumption. PMID:26885867

  18. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  19. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone. PMID:9251979

  20. Energy consumption in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy sources, in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, solar or nuclear power, are global commodities, and as demand is projected to rise in the coming decades, so will costs. As such, an understanding of the energy needs of manufacturing processes and the ability to reduce the energy and carbon footprints are essential for sustainability reasons. Energy source effects are quantified in a number of measures. Models of energy needs by manufacturing processes are then examined, along with models incorporating the use of ancillary equipment such as pumps, filters, blowers, lighting, etc. Finally, the successful application of the tribological principles to influence energy consumption is discussed.

  1. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  2. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  3. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption. PMID:22536112

  4. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis. PMID:17593758

  5. Male suicides and alcohol consumption in the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1994-05-01

    A significant decline (34.5%) in the suicide rate occurred in 1984-1988 throughout the USSR. The decline was observed shortly after the introduction of strict restrictions on the sale of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that the restrictive alcohol policy in the first years of perestroika (June 1985) caused the fall in suicide rates in the former USSR. Data on alcohol consumption, violent death caused by external injury and poisoning (n = 916,315), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 77,837), suicide (n = 192,305) and death undetermined whether accidentally or purposely (n = 54,253) were analyzed for all former Soviet republics for 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1990. Men were chosen for the analysis, since men are more prone to abuse alcohol than women. Regression analysis with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and suicide rates and violent death rates as dependent variables shows that suicide and alcohol consumption were positively correlated as were violet death and alcohol consumption. In the republics with high alcohol consumption (Slavic and Baltic), suicide rates were also high. In the Caucasian republics, low alcohol consumption was associated with low suicide rates. For most republics, alcohol seems to explain more than 50% of suicides. Alcohol also has considerable explanatory value for violent death. Thus, a restrictive alcohol policy might be a way to reduce suicide and violent death. PMID:8067268

  6. Plant resistance reduces the strength of consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on aphids.

    PubMed

    Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    1. The impact of predators on prey has traditionally been attributed to the act of consumption. Prey responses to the presence of the predator (non-consumptive effects), however, can be as important as predation itself. While plant defences are known to influence predator-prey interactions, their relative effects on consumptive vs. non-consumptive effects are not well understood. 2. We evaluated the consequences of plant resistance and predators (Hippodamia convergens) on the mass, number of nymphs, population growth, density and dispersal of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). We tested for the effects of plant resistance on non-consumptive and consumptive effects of predators on aphid performance and dispersal using a combination of path analysis and experimental manipulation of predation risk. 3. We manipulated plant resistance using genetically modified lines of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that vary incrementally in the expression of the jasmonate pathway, which mediates induced resistance to insects and manipulated aphid exposure to lethal and risk predators. Predation risk predators had mandibles impaired to prevent killing. 4. Plant resistance reduced predation rate (consumptive effect) on high resistance plants. As a consequence, predators had no impact on the number of nymphs, aphid density or population growth on high resistance plants, whereas on low resistance plants, predators reduced aphid density by 35% and population growth by 86%. Path analysis and direct manipulation of predation risk showed that predation risk rather than predation rate promoted aphid dispersal and varied with host plant resistance. Aphid dispersal in response to predation risk was greater on low compared to high resistance plants. The predation risk experiment also showed that the number of aphid nymphs increased in the presence of risk predators but did not translate into increased population growth. 5. In conclusion, the consumptive and non-consumptive components of predators

  7. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  8. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  9. Consumption of atmospheric methane by desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; McConnaughey, T.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Weeks, E.P.; Woodward, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC concentrations of methane, a greenhouse gas, are increasing at a rate of about 1% yr-1 (refs 1-4). Oxidation by methylotrophic bacteria in soil is the largest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4, and is estimated to consume about 30?? 1012 g CH4 yr-1 (refs 4-6). Spatial and temporal variability in the rate of soil CH4 consumption are incompletely understood6-19, as are the apparent inhibitory12,13,18 or enhancing20 effects of changes in land use. Dry deserts, which constitute 20% of total land surface, are not currently included in global soil uptake estimates. Here we describe measurements of the rate of uptake of atmospheric CH4 by undisturbed desert soils. We observed rates as great as 4.38 mg CH4 m-2 day-1; 50% of the measured rates were between 0.24 and 0.92 mg CH4 m2 d-1. Uptake of CH4 by desert soil is enhanced by rainfall after an initial soil-drainage period - opposite to the response of temperate forest soils12. Methane is consumed to a depth of about 2 m, allowing for deep removal of atmospheric CH4 if near-surface conditions are unfavourable for consumption. On the basis of an annual average CH4 consumption rate of 0.66 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, we estimate that the global CH4 sink term needs to be increased by about 7 ?? 1012 g yr-1 to account for the contribution of desert soils.

  10. Dynamic simulation of energy consumption in mixed traffic flow considering highway toll station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zeng, Jun-Wei; Shao, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Neng

    2015-01-01

    An improved model of energy consumption including toll station is presented in this paper. Using the model, we study the influences of mixed ratio, the idling energy consumption of vehicle, vehicle peak velocity, dwell time and random deceleration probability on energy consumption of Electronic Toll Collection or Manual Toll Collection mixed traffic flow on single lane under periodic condition. Simulating results indicate that the above five parameters are all increasing functions of total energy consumption, in which the idling energy consumption represents the major amounts with the increase of mixed ratio and occupancy rate. Thus, the existence of toll station has significant effect on the energy consumption of mixed traffic flow.

  11. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  12. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  13. Increasing vegetable consumption in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that diets rich in vegetables may protect against many chronic diseases and overweight. Despite these benefits, consumption in children and adolescents is well below recommended levels. Finding methods to increase vegetable consumption in adolescents is important. Our objec...

  14. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  15. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  16. Student Discount Rates, Consumption Loans, and Subsidies to Professional Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Keith B.; Lindsay, Cotton M.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes alternative, efficiency-based explanation of subsidies to medical training and medical care. The authors conclude that either excessive resources are being devoted to training physicians or factors other than capital market imperfections justify subsidies to this market. (CT)

  17. Optimal investment, consumption and retirement choice problem with disutility and subsistence consumption constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Byung Hwa; Shin, Yong Hyun; Choi, U. Jin

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we consider a general optimal consumption-portfolio selection problem of an infinitely-lived agent whose consumption rate process is subject to subsistence constraints before retirement. That is, her consumption rate should be greater than or equal to some positive constant before retirement. We integrate three optimal decisions which are the optimal consumption, the optimal investment choice and the optimal stopping problem in which the agent chooses her retirement time in one model. We obtain the explicit forms of optimal policies using a martingale method and a variational inequality arising from the dual function of the optimal stopping problem. We treat the optimal retirement time as the first hitting time when her wealth exceeds a certain wealth level which will be determined by a free boundary value problem and duality approaches. We also derive closed forms of the optimal wealth processes before and after retirement. Some numerical examples are presented for the case of constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility class.

  18. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  19. Soy consumption during menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, S.; Bracke, M.; Depypere, H.

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2α- and E2β-equivalents (i.e. 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ERα and ERβ, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2β-equivalents exceeded on average 21 ± 4 and 40 ± 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2α/E2 ratios were 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ERβ agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone

  20. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  1. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  2. Factors associated with caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Brice, Carolyn F; Smith, Andrew P

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to identify factors that were related to caffeine consumption. From this investigation it can be concluded that coffee is the main source of caffeine and that consumption varies with time of day. Individuals may be utilising the arousing effects of caffeine by consuming it at times when arousal is low for instance to counteract sleep inertia or a post-lunch dip in alertness. There is, however, very little evidence to suggest that psychological characteristics such as personality traits or psychosocial factors are important in influencing caffeine consumption, although smoking was found to be related to the amount of caffeine consumed. PMID:11820098

  3. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  4. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).« less

  5. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  6. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  7. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.« less

  8. Global energy consumption and production in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, E. L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reilly, J.

    1981-02-01

    This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped.

  9. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  10. Development of a model to determine oxygen consumption when crawling

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, J.P.; Heberger, J.R.; Dempsey, P.G.

    2016-01-01

    During a mine disaster or emergency, underground air can quickly become contaminated. In these circumstances, all underground mine workers are taught to don breathable air supply units at the first sign of an emergency. However, no contemporary oxygen consumption data is available for the purposes of designing breathing air supply equipment specifically for mine escape. Further, it would be useful to quantify the oxygen requirements of breathing air supply users for various escape scenarios. To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. These models can be used by manufacturers of breathing air supply equipment to aid in the design of devices that would be capable of producing sufficient on-demand oxygen to allow miners to perform self-escape. PMID:26997858

  11. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154

  12. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  13. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  14. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 41713, July 19... operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the efficacy factors of the following covered...

  15. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health issue. It is estimated that about 500,000 Americans per year are diagnosed with HF. Despite advanced medical and surgical treatments for HF, mortality after the onset of HF is still high, thereby underscoring the importance of primary prevention. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, alcohol consumption appears to play a role in the development of HF. Although excessive drinking has been known to lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy and light-to-moderate drinking may confer some cardiovascular benefits, recent studies suggest it is not only the quantity, but also drinking patterns and genetic factors, that may influence the relation between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews current evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and HF. PMID:18417065

  17. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  18. Oxygen consumption in subseafloor basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor basalts has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) basaltic crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within basaltic crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool basaltic crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.

  19. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  20. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  1. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  2. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. PMID:27342124

  3. Food choice and food consumption frequency for Uruguayan consumers.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present work were to study motives underlying Uruguayan consumers' food choice behaviour and to study the consumption frequency of some selected food items. A modification of the Food Choice Questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire was administered to a group of 200 Uruguayan consumers. Feeling good and safety, sensory appeal and health and nutrient content were rated as the most important factors, while familiarity was rated as the least important. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, three clusters with different choice patterns were identified. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, and whole cereals, increased as the importance attributed to health and nutrition increased; consumption of fatty foods decreased. PMID:17852481

  4. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  5. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  6. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. PMID:25845259

  7. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  8. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  9. Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Chan, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study examined the effects of aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose on hunger and food intake. Twenty normal adults consumed a standard breakfast followed 3 h later by 200 mL of either water or a sweetened drink. One hour later, subjects' ad libitum consumption of a standardized lunch was measured. Subjects recorded self-assessments of hunger-related indices every half hour on visual analogue scales (VAS). ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant effect of drink type on VAS scores 15 and 45 min after drinks were consumed but not for other times or for lunch consumption. Hunger-related ratings after drink consumption were generally highest for water, lower for noncaloric sweeteners (NCSs), and lowest for sugar. Pairwise comparisons of means showed that only the ratings for sugar and water were significantly different. The results show that, under the conditions of this study, NCSs do not increase hunger or food intake. PMID:2021127

  10. [Overpopulation is bad, but excessive consumption is worse].

    PubMed

    Susuki, D

    1993-12-01

    The notion that consumption in developed countries is the main cause of ecological deterioration and planetary contamination is contested by many who assert that overpopulation in the developing world is the main factor. But the great disparity in income and consumption between rich and poor countries cannot be ignored. Each Canadian consumes 16 to 20 times more than an inhabitant of India or China and 60 to 70 times more than an inhabitant of Bangladesh. Consequently, the 1.1 billion inhabitants of industrialized countries cause ecological effects equivalent to what would be produced by 17 to 70 billion inhabitants of developing countries. The planet could not support 5.5 billion persons consuming at the rate of the 1.1 billion in the developed world. Consumption has been encouraged by the government and businesses in the U.S. and is an important factor in the health of the economy. But increases in consumption are not sustainable indefinitely. Much of current consumption results from inefficiency and waste. The life style of the developed countries has a high price in violence, alienation, alcoholism, vandalism, loneliness, pollution, and disturbance of the family and neighborhood. Becoming content with less consumption and striving for a future based on communities with greater self-confidence and self-sufficiency is a reasonable goal from both ecological and social points of view. PMID:12287896

  11. A Fish Consumption Survey of the Nez Perce Tribe

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report culminates two years of work—preceded by years of discussion—to characterize the current and heritage fish consumption rates and fishing-related activities of the Nez Perce Tribe. The report contains three volumes in one document. Volume I is concerned with heritage r...

  12. A Fish Consumption Survey of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report culminates two years of work—preceded by years of discussion—to characterize the current and heritage fish consumption rates and fishing-related activities of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. The report contains three volumes in one document. Volume I is concerned with h...

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  14. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Huh, Young Eun; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2010-12-10

    The consumption of a food typically leads to a decrease in its subsequent intake through habituation--a decrease in one's responsiveness to the food and motivation to obtain it. We demonstrated that habituation to a food item can occur even when its consumption is merely imagined. Five experiments showed that people who repeatedly imagined eating a food (such as cheese) many times subsequently consumed less of the imagined food than did people who repeatedly imagined eating that food fewer times, imagined eating a different food (such as candy), or did not imagine eating a food. They did so because they desired to eat it less, not because they considered it less palatable. These results suggest that mental representation alone can engender habituation to a stimulus. PMID:21148388

  15. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M-1s-1 ± 0.708 M-1s-1 (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration. PMID:26930281

  16. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times

  17. Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

  18. Contaminated fish consumption in California's Central Valley Delta.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Fraser; White, Aubrey; Lippert, Lucas; Lubell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Extensive mercury contamination and angler selection of the most contaminated fish species coincide in California's Central Valley. This has led to a policy conundrum: how to balance the economic and cultural impact of advising subsistence anglers to eat less fish with the economic cost of reducing the mercury concentrations in fish? State agencies with regulatory and other jurisdictional authority lack sufficient data and have no consistent approach to this problem. The present study focused on a critical and contentious region in California's Central Valley (the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers Delta) where mercury concentrations in fish and subsistence fishing rates are both high. Anglers and community members were surveyed for their fish preferences, rates of consumption, the ways that they receive health information, and basic demographic information. The rates of fish consumption for certain ethnicities were higher than the rates used by state agencies for planning pollution remediation. A broad range of ethnic groups were involved in catching and eating fish. The majority of anglers reported catching fish in order to feed to their families, including children and women of child-bearing age. There were varied preferences for receiving health information and no correlation between knowledge of fish contamination and rates of consumption. Calculated rates of mercury intake by subsistence anglers were well above the EPA reference dose. The findings here support a comprehensive policy strategy of involvement of the diverse communities in decision-making about education and clean-up and an official recognition of subsistence fishers in the region. PMID:20176346

  19. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  20. Spermatophore consumption in a cephalopod.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Benjamin J; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Norman, Mark D; Wong, Bob B M

    2013-08-23

    An individual's gametes can represent a nourishing food source for a manipulative mate. Here, we provide evidence of ejaculate and sperm consumption in a cephalopod. Through labelling male spermatophores with (14)C radiolabel, we found that female squid, Sepiadarium austrinum, consumed the spermatophores of their partners and directed the nutrients received into both somatic maintenance and egg production. We further show that in this species-where fertilization occurs externally in the female's buccal cavity-sperm storage is short-term (less than 21 days). The combination of female spermatophore consumption and short-term external sperm storage has the potential to exert strong selection on male ejaculates and reproductive strategies. PMID:23740295

  1. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Spermatophore consumption in a cephalopod

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Benjamin J.; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Norman, Mark D.; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2013-01-01

    An individual's gametes can represent a nourishing food source for a manipulative mate. Here, we provide evidence of ejaculate and sperm consumption in a cephalopod. Through labelling male spermatophores with 14C radiolabel, we found that female squid, Sepiadarium austrinum, consumed the spermatophores of their partners and directed the nutrients received into both somatic maintenance and egg production. We further show that in this species—where fertilization occurs externally in the female's buccal cavity—sperm storage is short-term (less than 21 days). The combination of female spermatophore consumption and short-term external sperm storage has the potential to exert strong selection on male ejaculates and reproductive strategies. PMID:23740295

  3. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  4. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area. PMID:21877009

  5. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  6. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  7. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  8. Effect of Acute Dietary Nitrate Consumption on Oxygen Consumption During Submaximal Exercise in Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Carriker, Colin R; Mermier, Christine M; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Johnson, Kelly E; Beltz, Nicholas M; Vaughan, Roger A; McCormick, James J; Cole, Nathan H; Witt, Christopher C; Gibson, Ann L

    2016-08-01

    Reduced partial pressure of oxygen impairs exercise performance at altitude. Acute nitrate supplementation, at sea level, may reduce oxygen cost during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic response during exercise at altitude following acute nitrate consumption. Ten well-trained (61.0 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min) males (age 28 ± 7 yr) completed 3 experimental trials (T1, T2, T3). T1 included baseline demographics, a maximal aerobic capacity test (VO2max) and five submaximal intensity cycling determination bouts at an elevation of 1600 m. A 4-day dietary washout, minimizing consumption of nitrate-rich foods, preceded T2 and T3. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, subjects consumed either a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PL) or ~12.8 mmol nitrate rich (NR) beverage 2.5 hr before T2 and T3. Exercise at 3500 m (T2 and T3) via hypobaric hypoxia consisted of a 5-min warm-up (25% of normobaric VO2max) and four 5-min cycling bouts (40, 50, 60, 70% of normobaric VO2max) each separated by a 4-min rest period. Cycling RPM and watts for each submaximal bout during T2 and T3 were determined during T1. Preexercise plasma nitrite was elevated following NR consumption compared with PL (1.4 ± 1.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 uM respectively; p < .05). There was no difference in oxygen consumption (-0.5 ± 1.8, 0.1 ± 1.7, 0.7 ± 2.1, and 1.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min) at any intensity (40, 50, 60, 70% of VO2max, respectively) between NR and PL. Further, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen saturation, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were not different at any submaximal intensity between NR and PL either. Blood lactate, however, was reduced following NR consumption compared with PL at 40 and 60% of VO2max (p < .0.05). Our findings suggest that acute nitrate supplementation before exercise at 3500 m does not reduce oxygen cost but may reduce blood lactate accumulation at lower intensity workloads. PMID:26630309

  9. Estimating production and consumption of solid reactive Fe phases in marine sediments from concentration profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments, but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and product...

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  11. Fuelwood consumption and deforestation in african countries

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Fishwick, R.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of recent reports (mostly unpublished) on the rate of fuelwood consumption in Africa and its growth, and on the ecological, economic and possible micro-climatic effects of consequent deforestation. A discussion is given of the economic and operational aspects of policies open to governments: (a) to encourage fuelwood conservation; (b) to facilitate the substitution of commercial energy for fuelwood, where desirable on grounds of relative costs; (c) in developing the traditional functions of the forestry services in maintaining the forest reserves and undertaking plantings in watersheds and shelterbelts; and (d) in promoting the practice of agro-forestry, i.e. the planting and maintenance of trees in copses and around farms by the farm families themselves. Policy (d) is considered particularly promising, and the research, education, training and other requirements of this policy are discussed. 55 references.

  12. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  13. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption. PMID:20360173

  14. [Data quality in surveys on alcohol consumption among university students].

    PubMed

    Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Different survey modalities have been developed to assess alcohol consumption and related problems. Research that compares data quality between survey modalities is scarce in Latin America. The aim of this study was to assess data quality in three survey modalities on alcohol consumption: self-administered online, self-administered hard-copy, and face-to-face interviews. Data were obtained from three probabilistic samples of students (n = 60 each) from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina, using the same questionnaire. Data quality was measured for each modality by overall response rate, item response rate, and accuracy. Data accuracy was evaluated as the percentage of self-reported binge drinking, positive results on AUDIT, and internal consistency of AUDIT for each modality. The overall and item response rates were lower in the online modality and similar between the other two. No differences were found between modalities in the accuracy of responses. PMID:25715290

  15. A model for oxygen transport and consumption in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Christensen, T. H.; Ammentorp, H. C.

    1991-12-01

    An oxygen transport and consumption model has been developed as a submodel to a general numerical model for solute transport in the unsaturated zone. The model comprises diffusive and convective transport of oxygen in soil air, convective transport and oxygen consumption in free water, and diffusive transport and a constant-rate oxygen consumption in the water-saturated soil crumbs. The model also estimates the anaerobic fraction of the water-saturated crumbs where no oxygen consumption takes place. The model dynamics and applicability are illustrated using the examples of the operation of a waste water infiltration plant and of anaerobic zones in the soil of importance for modelling denitrification.

  16. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  17. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  18. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole. PMID:27039369

  19. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  20. Giffen Behavior and Subsistence Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the first real-world evidence of Giffen behavior, i.e., upward sloping demand. Subsidizing the prices of dietary staples for extremely poor households in two provinces of China, we find strong evidence of Giffen behavior for rice in Hunan, and weaker evidence for wheat in Gansu. The data provide new insight into the consumption behavior of the poor, who act as though maximizing utility subject to subsistence concerns. We find that their elasticity of demand depends significantly, and nonlinearly, on the severity of their poverty. Understanding this heterogeneity is important for the effective design of welfare programs for the poor. (JEL D12, O12) PMID:21031158

  1. Sociological Ambivalence and Funeral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on Hillcoat-Nallétamby and Phillips’ (2011) conceptualization of sociological ambivalence within the relational framework to examine a particular consumption practice, the funeral. We develop understanding of social, cultural and relational issues that arise from the experience associated with funeral-arranging. This is not a voluntary behaviour but one engaged with through force of circumstance and which involves commercial and relational decisions. Drawing on data from 10 interviews from a larger UK study, we focus on ambivalence surrounding choice and its impact on relations, showing how sentiments including love, obligation, regret and revenge evolve and transform past and future relationships. PMID:26236046

  2. Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour models.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G; Partridge, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen levels in cancerous tissue can have a significant effect on treatment response: hypoxic tissue is both more radioresistant and more chemoresistant than well-oxygenated tissue. While recent advances in medical imaging have facilitated real-time observation of macroscopic oxygenation, the underlying physics limits the resolution to the millimetre domain, whereas oxygen tension varies over a micrometre scale. If the distribution of oxygen in the tumour micro-environment can be accurately estimated, then the effect of potential dose escalation to these hypoxic regions could be better modelled, allowing more realistic simulation of biologically adaptive treatments. Reaction-diffusion models are commonly used for modelling oxygen dynamics, with a variety of functional forms assumed for the dependence of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) on cellular status and local oxygen availability. In this work, we examine reaction-diffusion models of oxygen consumption in spherically and cylindrically symmetric geometries. We consider two different descriptions of oxygen consumption: one in which the rate of consumption is constant and one in which it varies with oxygen tension in a hyperbolic manner. In each case, we derive analytic approximations to the steady-state oxygen distribution, which are shown to closely match the numerical solutions of the equations and accurately predict the extent to which oxygen can diffuse. The derived expressions relate the limit to which oxygen can diffuse into a tissue to the OCR of that tissue. We also demonstrate that differences between these functional forms are likely to be negligible within the range of literature estimates of the hyperbolic oxygen constant, suggesting that the constant consumption rate approximation suffices for modelling oxygen dynamics for most values of OCR. These approximations also allow the rapid identification of situations where hyperbolic consumption forms can result in significant differences from constant

  3. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  4. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  5. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  6. Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindl, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

  7. Microbial Consumption of Atmospheric Isoprene in a Temperate Forest Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, C. C.; Yavitt, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3 butadiene) is a low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by vegetation and plays a large role in regulating atmospheric chemistry. Until now, the atmosphere has been considered the only significant sink for isoprene. However, in this study we performed both in situ and in vitro experiments with soil from a temperate forest near Ithaca, N.Y., that indicate that the soil provides a sink for atmospheric isoprene and that the consumption of isoprene is carried out by microorganisms. Consumption occurred rapidly in field chambers (672.60 ± 30.12 to 2,718.36 ± 86.40 pmol gdw−1 day−1) (gdw is grams [dry weight] of soil; values are means ± standard deviations). Subsequent laboratory experiments confirmed that isoprene loss was due to biological processes: consumption was stopped by autoclaving the soil; consumption rates increased with repeated exposure to isoprene; and consumption showed a temperature response consistent with biological activity (with an optimum temperature of 30°C). Isoprene consumption was diminished under low oxygen conditions (120 ± 7.44 versus 528.36 ± 7.68 pmol gdw−1 day−1 under ambient O2 concentrations) and showed a strong relationship with soil moisture. Isoprene-degrading microorganisms were isolated from the site, and abundance was calculated as 5.8 × 105 ± 3.2 × 105 cells gdw−1. Our results indicate that soil may provide a significant biological sink for atmospheric isoprene. PMID:16349477

  8. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  9. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  10. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal.