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Sample records for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

  1. Uses of serology for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R

    1995-09-01

    A serological test involves detection of specific changes, induced by a pathogen, in the properties or actions of serum of an infected host. The test may detect the presence in serum of either antibodies to the pathogen (produced by the host) or antigens (i.e. the infecting agent itself and/or its components). The many serological tests which have been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are classified into two groups on the basis of this distinction. To date, no single serological test is able to detect all stages of the disease. Thus the choice of serological test (or combination of tests) will depend on the specific aim of the investigation. Meanwhile, a sensitive, specific and simple 'pen-side' test for the diagnosis of all forms of CBPP is still lacking. PMID:8593394

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesis the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  4. Investigations into the role of carrier animals in the spread of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Masiga, W N

    1977-09-01

    An attempt was made to transmit contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) from 22 animals recovered from artificial infection to healthy animals. Despite close contact and the imposition of a number of stresses no disease was transmitted. An unsuccessful attempt was made to reactivate old CBPP lesions by corticosteroid treatment, and by splenectomy. Four animals recovered from artificial infection did not become reinfected when put in contact with acute disease. Seven animals were reinoculated with Mycoplasmamycoides sub-species mycoides by endobronchial intubation. No clinical disease resulted. It is concluded that sequestra do not break down easily and that it is difficult to reinfect recovered animals. It is suggested that in field outbreaks of obscure origin, investigation should be thorough before it is concluded that an animal with an old sequestrum was responsible. PMID:337429

  5. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  6. Challenges of controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa: a Zambian perspective.

    PubMed

    Muuka, Geoffrey; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease. In this study, we look at the challenges encountered in CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa from the Zambian perspective. In conducting this study, we reviewed scientific literature and reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and related animal institutions, and also made interviews with experts and key government officials involved in CBPP control in Zambia. Among the challenges identified for the successful control of CBPP were as follows: failure in the delivery of veterinary services, lack of a cattle identification system, natural phenomenon, livestock husbandry systems in the traditional sector, human movements, traditional practices among cattle farmers and cattle marketing systems. It was seen that the epidemiology of CBPP in Zambia is influenced by both ecological and anthological factors. Therefore, design and implementation of any control or eradication programme should be area/regional-dependent taking into account the different factors influencing disease transmission and maintenance. PMID:22843213

  7. Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and

  8. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk. PMID:26427634

  9. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and risk factors in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Garuma; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tuli, Getachew; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. At the livestock farm of the Bako Agricultural Research Center, an outbreak of respiratory disease of cattle occurred in May 2011, and many animals were affected and died before the disease was diagnosed. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CBPP antibodies in selected districts of Western Oromia Region and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. A crosssectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in three selected districts of Western Oromia Region. A total of 386 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony (MmmSC), using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The risk factors that were evaluated in this study were geographical location, age, sex, breed and body condition. The overall seroprevalence in this study was 28.5%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony antibodies at the district level was 40.3%, 19.0% and 5.7% in Gobbu Sayyo, BakoTibbe and Horro districts, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation ( p < 0.05) in the prevalence of antibodies amongst the districts. However, animal-related risk factors, such as age, sex, breed and body condition, were not significantly associated ( p > 0.05) with the serological status of the animal. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP in Western Oromia Zones was high. This warrants the implementation of appropriate preventive and control measures to minimise the economic losses associated with the disease. PMID:27247066

  10. Isothermal loop-mediated amplification (lamp) for diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is the most important chronic pulmonary disease of cattle on the African continent causing severe economic losses. The disease, caused by infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is transmitted by animal contact and develops slowly into a chronic form preventing an early clinical diagnosis. Because available vaccines confer a low protection rate and short-lived immunity, the rapid diagnosis of infected animals combined with traditional curbing measures is seen as the best way to control the disease. While traditional labour-intensive bacteriological methods for the detection of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides have been replaced by molecular genetic techniques in the last two decades, these latter approaches require well-equipped laboratories and specialized personnel for the diagnosis. This is a handicap in areas where CBPP is endemic and early diagnosis is essential. Results We present a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for M. mycoides subsp. mycoides detection based on isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) that is applicable to field conditions. The primer set developed is highly specific and sensitive enough to diagnose clinical cases without prior cultivation of the organism. The LAMP assay detects M. mycoides subsp. mycoides DNA directly from crude samples of pulmonary/pleural fluids and serum/plasma within an hour using a simple dilution protocol. A photometric detection of LAMP products allows the real-time visualisation of the amplification curve and the application of a melting curve/re-association analysis presents a means of quality assurance based on the predetermined strand-inherent temperature profile supporting the diagnosis. Conclusion The CBPP LAMP developed in a robust kit format can be run on a battery-driven mobile device to rapidly detect M. mycoides subsp. mycoides infections from clinical or post mortem samples. The stringent innate quality control allows a

  11. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be

  12. Willingness to pay for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination in Narok South District of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W.; Kaitibie, Simeon; Heffernan, Claire; Taylor, Nick M.; Gitau, George K.; Kiara, Henry; McKeever, Declan

    2014-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important trans-boundary cattle disease which affects food security and livelihoods. A conjoint analysis–contingent valuation was carried out on 190 households in Narok South District of Kenya to measure willingness to pay (WTP) and demand for CBPP vaccine and vaccination as well as factors affecting WTP. The mean WTP was calculated at Kenya Shillings (KSh) 212.48 (USD 3.03) for vaccination using a vaccine with the characteristics that were preferred by the farmers (preferred vaccine and vaccination) and KSh −71.45 (USD −1.02) for the currently used vaccine and vaccination. The proportion of farmers willing to pay an amount greater than zero was 66.7% and 34.4% for the preferred and current vaccine and vaccination respectively. About one third (33.3%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 1162.62 (USD 13.68) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the preferred vaccine and vaccination. About two-thirds (65.6%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 853.72 (USD 12.20) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the current vaccine and vaccination. The total amount of compensation would be KSh 61.39 million (USD 0.88 million) for the preferred vaccine and vaccination and KSh 90.15 million (USD 1.29 million) for the current vaccine and vaccination. Demand curves drawn from individual WTP demonstrated that only 59% and 27% of cattle owners with a WTP greater than zero were willing to pay a benchmark cost of KSh 34.60 for the preferred and current vaccine respectively. WTP was negatively influenced by the attitude about household economic situation (p = 0.0078), presence of cross breeds in the herd (p < 0.0001) and years since CBPP had been experienced in the herd (p = 0.0375). It was positively influenced by education (p = 0.0251) and the practice of treating against CBPP (p = 0.0432). The

  13. Development of an improved vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an African perspective on challenges and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Naessens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is an economically very important cattle disease in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP impacts animal health and poverty of livestock-dependent people through decreased animal productivity, reduced food supply, and the cost of control measures. CBPP is a barrier to trade in many African countries and this reduces the value of livestock and the income of many value chain stakeholders. The presence of CBPP also poses a constant threat to CBPP-free countries and creates costs in terms of the measures necessary to ensure the exclusion of disease. This opinion focuses on the biomedical research needed to foster the development of better control measures for CBPP. We suggest that different vaccine development approaches are followed in parallel. Basic immunology studies and systematic OMICs studies will be necessary in order to identify the protective arms of immunity and to shed more light on the pathogenicity mechanisms in CBPP. Moreover a robust challenge model and a close collaboration with African research units will be crucial to foster and implement a new vaccine for the progressive control of this cattle plague. PMID:24359340

  14. Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th) century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th) century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th) century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected. PMID:23071648

  15. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P < 0.05). Both at herd and individual level, the highest CBPP prevalence was recorded in herd size >1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was statistically significant (χ (2) = 23.73, df = 9, P = 0.005) difference of CBPP prevalence between months of the year. The present low prevalence of CBPP in the cattle feedlots indicates that the disease is decreasing progressively in Borena pastoral area, this might be associated with the ongoing mass vaccination campaign against economically important livestock diseases in pastoral areas. The decrease in the prevalence of CBPP offered a great opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties. PMID:25863957

  16. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  17. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID

  18. Characterization of Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type Isolated from Recent Outbreaks of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Botswana and Tanzania: Evidence for a New Biotype

    PubMed Central

    March, John B.; Clark, Jason; Brodlie, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) isolated from recent outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa have been investigated. One Botswanan strain, M375, displayed numerous and significant phenotypic differences from both contemporary field isolates and older field and vaccine strains (African, Australian, and European strains dating back to 1936). Differences include altered morphology, reduced capsular polysaccharide production, high sensitivity to MmmSC rabbit hyperimmune antisera in vitro, and unique polymorphisms following immunoblotting. While insertion sequence analysis using IS1634 clearly indicates a close evolutionary relationship to west African strains, hybridization with IS1296 shows the absence of a band present in all other strains of MmmSC examined. The data suggest that a deletion has occurred in strain M375, which may explain its altered phenotype, including poor growth in vitro and a relative inability to cause septicemia in mice. These characteristics are also exhibited by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia [CCPP]), against which M375 antiserum exhibited some activity in vitro (unique among the various MmmSC antisera tested). These findings may have evolutionary implications, since CCPP is believed to be lung specific and without a septicemic phase (unlike CBPP). Since M375 was isolated from a clinical case of CBPP, this novel biotype may be fairly widespread but not normally isolated due to difficulty of culture and/or a potentially altered disease syndrome. Bovine convalescent antisera (obtained from contemporary naturally infected cattle in Botswana) were active against strain M375 in an in vitro growth inhibition test but not against any other strains of MmmSC tested. There exists the possibility therefore, that strain M375 may possess a set of protective antigens different from those of other strains of MmmSC (including

  19. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  20. Morphological characterization and immunohistochemical detection of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-17A, and TNF-α in lung lesions associated with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sterner-Kock, Anja; Haider, Wolfram; Sacchini, Flavio; Liljander, Anne; Meens, Jochen; Poole, Jane; Guschlbauer, Maria; Heller, Martin; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease, is characterized by massive inflammation of the lung especially during the acute clinical stage of infection. Tissue samples from cattle, experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Afadé, were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination in order to provide insight into innate immune pathways that shape inflammatory host responses. Lung lesions were characterized by vasculitis, necrosis, and increased presence of macrophages and neutrophils, relative to uninfected animals. The presence of three cytokines associated with innate inflammatory immune responses, namely, IL-1β, IL-17A, and TNF-α, were qualitatively investigated in situ. Higher cytokine levels were detected in lung tissue samples from CBPP-affected cattle compared to samples derived from an uninfected control group. We therefore conclude that the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, which are prevalent in the acute phase of infections, play a role in the inflammatory response seen in the lung tissue in CBPP. IL-17A gets released by activated macrophages and attracts granulocytes that modulate the acute phase of the CBPP lesions. PMID:26837619

  1. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  2. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania: current status.

    PubMed

    Msami, H M; Ponela-Mlelwa, T; Mtei, B J; Kapaga, A M

    2001-02-01

    CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January 1995, CBPP was observed in Morogoro region, south of the central railway line. Thereafter, the disease spread through western Tanzania. More recently, further disease has occurred in the Southern Highlands and Central regions. The contaminated area now stretches roughly between latitudes 1 degree and 9 degrees S and longitudes 30 degrees and 37 degrees E, with a cattle population of about 10 million. The direct losses incurred as a result of animal mortality, and vaccination campaign and disease surveillance costs have been assessed at over US$11 million. Indirect losses resulting from chronic disease are much more difficult to assess but are believed to be even higher. Control of the disease has been through restricting animal movements and a mass vaccination campaign. Uncontrolled animal movement during transhumance, trade, cattle thefts and vaccination breakthroughs facilitated the spread of the disease. PMID:11234189

  3. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  4. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from 19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Accordingly, the prevalence estimate for samples collected at abattoir was 39.2%, while that of samples collected at field level was 22.4%. In the final model, type of study population fitted the multivariable meta-regression model accounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings

  5. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9%, Kajiado Central was 48.6%, while Pokot East was 29.2% which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  6. Multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP. PMID:21756321

  7. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination

  8. Effect of bovine apo-lactoferrin on the growth and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Luna-Castro, Sarahí; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Samaniego-Barrón, Luisa; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; de la Garza, Mireya

    2014-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes porcine pleuropneumonia, leading to economic losses in the swine industry. Due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, new treatments for this disease are currently being sought. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an innate immune system glycoprotein of mammals that is microbiostatic and microbicidal and affects several bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine iron-free Lf (BapoLf) has an effect on the growth and virulence of App. Two serotype 1 strains (reference strain S4074 and the isolate BC52) and a serotype 7 reference strain (WF83) were analyzed. First, the ability of App to grow in iron-charged BLf was discarded because in vivo, BapoLf sequesters iron and could be a potential source of this element favoring the infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BapoLf was 14.62, 11.78 and 10.56 µM for the strain BC52, S4074 and WF83, respectively. A subinhibitory concentration (0.8 µM) was tested by assessing App adhesion to porcine buccal epithelial cells, biofilm production, and the secretion and function of toxins and proteases. Decrease in adhesion (24-42 %) was found in the serotype 1 strains. Biofilm production decreased (27 %) for only the strain 4074 of serotype 1. Interestingly, biofilm was decreased (60-70 %) in the three strains by BholoLf. Hemolysis of erythrocytes and toxicity towards HeLa cells were not affected by BapoLf. In contrast, proteolytic activity in all strains was suppressed in the presence of BapoLf. Finally, oxytetracycline produced synergistic effect with BapoLf against App. Our results suggest that BapoLf affects the growth and several of the virulence factors in App. PMID:24878848

  9. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M

    2014-08-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437

  10. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S.W.; Kiara, H.; Heffernan, C.; Kaitibie, S.; Gitau, G.K.; McKeever, D.; Taylor, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006–2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8–56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0–18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5–14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1–50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1–71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6–76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5–4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5–33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437

  11. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  12. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  13. High-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Clegg, S R; Angell, J W; Newbrook, K; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Bell, J; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Murray, R D; Evans, N J

    2015-05-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like," "Treponema phagedenis-like," and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD. PMID:25740778

  14. High-Level Association of Bovine Digital Dermatitis Treponema spp. with Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions and Presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, S. R.; Angell, J. W.; Newbrook, K.; Blowey, R. W.; Carter, S. D.; Bell, J.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Murray, R. D.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. “Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like,” “Treponema phagedenis-like,” and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD. PMID:25740778

  15. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992

  16. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-12-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thought to be based on the capacity for empathy. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees provides further evidence that these apes may possess advanced self-awareness and empathic abilities. PMID:15801606

  17. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  18. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hathroubi, S.; Hancock, M. A.; Langford, P. R.; Tremblay, Y. D. N.; Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  19. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? How Long Is Mono Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Long Is Mono Contagious? Print A A A Text ... so lots of people are confused about how long it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the ...

  20. The role of contagious disease in udder health

    PubMed Central

    Barkema, H. W.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.; Zadoks, R. N.

    2009-01-01

    Contagious diseases are a threat to animal health and productivity, both nationally and at the farm level. This makes implementation of biosecurity measures to prevent their introduction and spread within countries and farms a necessity. Mastitis is the most common and costly contagious disease affecting dairy farms in the western world. The major mastitis pathogens are endemic in most countries, and biosecurity measures to prevent introduction and transmission must therefore be implemented at farm level. The 40-yr-old mastitis control plan remains a solid foundation to prevent the spread of contagious intramammary infections. Contagious diseases that do not affect the mammary gland directly may have an indirect effect on mastitis. This is true for list A diseases such as foot and mouth disease, for which biosecurity measures may need to be taken at national level, and for other infections with nonmastitis pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Maintaining a closed herd decreases the risk of introduction of pathogens that affect udder health directly or indirectly. If animals are purchased, their udder health history should be evaluated and they should be examined and tested for contagious diseases. Transmission of infections by and to humans and nonbovine animals may occur. Contact with visitors and nonbovine animals should therefore be minimized. Because of globalization and heightened consumer awareness, the importance of biosecurity now supersedes individual farms, and increased pressure to control transmission of contagious diseases can be expected at industry or government levels in western countries and elsewhere. PMID:19762787

  1. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  2. Modulation of Gene Expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Abdul G.; Deslandes, Vincent; Nash, John H. E.; Jacques, Mario; MacInnes, Janet I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. Methods and Principal Findings Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets. PMID:19578537

  3. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2015-09-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components. PMID:26130517

  4. Lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind pig hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Bégin, C; Jacques, M

    1995-01-01

    A previous study indicated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind two low-molecular-mass proteins, of approximately 10 and 11 kDa, present in porcine respiratory tract secretions (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, and M. Jacques, Infect. Immun. 62:868-873, 1994). In the present study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of these two proteins, which revealed high homology with the alpha and beta chains of pig hemoglobin. Some isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were able to use hemoglobin from various animal species as well as other heme compounds as sole sources of iron for growth, while other isolates were unable to use them. Immunoelectron microscopy showed binding of pig hemoglobin at the surface of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates as well as labeling of outer membrane blebs. We observed, using Western blotting (immunoblotting), that the lipid A-core region of LPS of all isolates was binding pig hemoglobin. Furthermore, lipid A obtained after acid hydrolysis of LPS extracted from A. pleuropneumoniae was able to bind pig hemoglobin and this binding was completely abolished by preincubation of lipid A with polymyxin B but was not inhibited by preincubation with glucosamines. Fatty acids constituting the lipid A of A. pleuropneumoniae, namely, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid, were also binding pig hemoglobin. Our results indicate that LPS of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates tested bind pig hemoglobin and that lipid A is involved in this binding. Our results also indicate that some A. pleuropneumoniae isolates are, in addition, able to use hemoglobin for growth. Binding of hemoglobin to LPS might represent an important means by which A. pleuropneumoniae acquires iron in vivo from hemoglobin released from erythrocytes lysed by the action of its hemolysins. PMID:7822035

  5. Contagious Equine Metritis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M. D.; Garcia, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a highly contagious genital infection of mares, spread venereally, and was first described in 1977. Although most contagious equine metritis outbreaks involved Thoroughbreds, infection in other breeds has also occurred. The disease has been reported in Europe, Australia and the United States. In Canada, contagious equine metritis has been designated a reportable disease under the Animal Disease and Protection Act. Contagious equine metritis is characterized by an endometritis and infertility and infected mares show no signs of systemic infection. Clinical signs have not been observed in stallions. An asymptomatic carrier state exists in both mares and stallions. Infected mares respond clinically to the topical and parenteral administration of antibacterial drugs. However, a proportion of mares remain carriers of the contagious equine metritis organism. Treatment of stallions is successful. Haemophilus equigenitalis has been proposed as the species name of the Gram-negative, microaerophilic coccobacillus. Sample collection and laboratory methods for the diagnosis of contagious equine metritis are described. PMID:389400

  6. malT knockout mutation invokes a stringent type gene-expression profile in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in bronchoalveolar fluid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes contagious pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of commercially reared pigs throughout the world. To cause this disease, A. pleuropneumoniae must rapidly overcome porcine pulmonary innate immune defenses. Since bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) contains many of the innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined the gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after exposure to concentrated BALF for 30 min. Results In reverse transcription PCR differential display (RT-PCR DD) experiments, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 exposed to BALF up-regulated, among other genes, a gene predicted to encode LamB, an outer-membrane transport protein of the maltose regulon. To determine the role of the lamB and other genes of the maltose regulon in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae, knockout mutations were created in the lamB and malT genes, the latter being the positive transcriptional regulator of the maltose regulon. Relative to the lamB mutant and the wild type, the malT mutant had a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in growth rate and an increased sensitivity to fresh porcine serum and high concentrations (more than 0.5 M) of sodium chloride. In DNA microarray experiments, the BALF-exposed malT mutant exhibited a gene-expression profile resembling that of a stringent type gene-expression profile seen in bacteria facing amino acid or carbon starvation. Genes encoding proteins for protein synthesis, energy metabolism, and DNA replication were down-regulated, while genes involved in stringent response (e.g., relA), amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, DNA transformation, and stress response were up-regulated. Conclusion These results suggest that MalT may be involved in protection against some stressors and in the transport of one or more essential nutrients in BALF. Moreover, if MalT is directly or indirectly linked to the stringent response, an important

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genes expression in biofilms cultured under static conditions and in a drip-flow apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia. This respiratory infection is highly contagious and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of our study were to study the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms at different stages and to develop a protocol to grow an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm in a drip-flow apparatus. This biofilm reactor is a system with an air-liquid interface modeling lung-like environment. Bacteria attached to a surface (biofilm) and free floating bacteria (plankton) were harvested for RNA isolation. Labelled cDNA was hybridized to a microarray to compare the expression profiles of planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Results It was observed that 47 genes were differentially expressed (22 up, 25 down) in a 4 h-static growing/maturing biofilm and 117 genes were differentially expressed (49 up, 68 down) in a 6h-static dispersing biofilm. The transcriptomes of a 4 h biofilm and a 6 h biofilm were also compared and 456 genes (235 up, 221 down) were identified as differently expressed. Among the genes identified in the 4 h vs 6h biofilm experiment, several regulators of stress response were down-regulated and energy metabolism associated genes were up-regulated. Biofilm bacteria cultured using the drip-flow apparatus differentially expressed 161 genes (68 up, 93 down) compared to the effluent bacteria. Cross-referencing of differentially transcribed genes in the different assays revealed that drip-flow biofilms shared few differentially expressed genes with static biofilms (4 h or 6 h) but shared several differentially expressed genes with natural or experimental infections in pigs. Conclusion The formation of a static biofilm by A. pleuropneumoniae strain S4074 is a rapid process and transcriptional analysis indicated that dispersal observed at 6 h is driven by nutritional stresses. Furthermore, A. pleuropneumoniae can form a biofilm under low

  8. Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae outside the pig.

    PubMed

    Assavacheep, P; Rycroft, A N

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is primarily thought to be via direct transfer of mucus from pig to pig. For transfer between farms, the organism may need to persist in the wet or dried state to be carried on an inanimate surface. The survival of A. pleuropneumoniae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. In aqueous suspension, survival was improved by the presence of NaCl and mucin; it was prolonged at lower temperature. In dry state, it survived best on a hydrophobic surface either under desiccated conditions or saturated humidity. Detectable viability was maintained for 3-4 days. When frozen, A. pleuropneumoniae survived for more than 17 weeks at -20 °C, but the viability declined to 0.01% during that time. Survival at -70 °C was effective for long term storage. Results obtained from this investigation would be applicable for sampling method, transport techniques, epidemiological study, and biosecurity implementation. PMID:22892250

  9. Contagious Yawning in Autistic and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Molly S.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders…

  10. Random modelling of contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Hessami, H; Jannot, A S; Mintsa, J; Rachdi, M; Taramasco, C

    2013-03-01

    Modelling contagious diseases needs to include a mechanistic knowledge about contacts between hosts and pathogens as specific as possible, e.g., by incorporating in the model information about social networks through which the disease spreads. The unknown part concerning the contact mechanism can be modelled using a stochastic approach. For that purpose, we revisit SIR models by introducing first a microscopic stochastic version of the contacts between individuals of different populations (namely Susceptible, Infective and Recovering), then by adding a random perturbation in the vicinity of the endemic fixed point of the SIR model and eventually by introducing the definition of various types of random social networks. We propose as example of application to contagious diseases the HIV, and we show that a micro-simulation of individual based modelling (IBM) type can reproduce the current stable incidence of the HIV epidemic in a population of HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). PMID:23525763

  11. What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's ...

  12. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Michele; Merenda, Marianna; Barigazzi, Giuseppe; Garbarino, Chiara; Luppi, Andrea; Tognetti, Rosalba; Intorre, Luigi

    2012-04-23

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates and the trend in resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Italy from 1994 to 2009. A total of 992 A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents in a disk diffusion method. Resistance to 7 drugs (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, cotrimoxazole, penicillin G and tilmicosin) showed a significant increasing trend over the time, while for 2 drugs (gentamycin and marbofloxacin) a significant decrease was observed. Resistance to the remaining 14 antimicrobial agents tested did not change significantly over the study period. Most of the isolates retained high susceptibility to antimicrobials usually effective against A. pleuropneumoniae such as amphenicols, fluoroquinolones and ceftiofur. However, high rates of resistance were observed for potentiated sulfa drugs, tetracyclines and penicillins which are currently recommended antimicrobials for pig pleuropneumonia therapy. Our results suggest the importance of continued monitoring of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in order to choose the most appropriate treatment of infections and to control the increase of resistance to currently used antimicrobials. PMID:22104584

  14. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  15. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  16. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  17. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rachna B; Krupenye, Christopher; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Among some haplorhine primates, including humans, relaxed yawns spread contagiously. Such contagious yawning has been linked to social bonds and empathy in some species. However, no studies have investigated contagious yawning in strepsirhines. We conducted an experimental study of contagious yawning in strepsirhines, testing ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs (n = 24) in a paradigm similar to one that has induced contagious yawning in haplorhines. First, in a control experiment, we investigated whether lemurs responded to projected video content in general (experiment 1). We showed them two videos to which we expected differential responses: one featured a terrestrial predator and the other a caretaker holding food. Next, to test for yawn contagion, we showed individual lemurs life-size video projections of groupmates and conspecific strangers yawning, and control footage of the same individuals at rest (experiment 2). Then, to examine whether a group context might enhance or allow for contagion, we exposed subjects to the same videos in a group setting (experiment 3). Lemurs produced alarm vocalizations and moved upward while viewing the predator, but not the caretaker, demonstrating that they do perceive video content meaningfully. However, lemurs did not yawn in response to yawning stimuli when tested alone, or with their groupmates. This study provides preliminary evidence that lemurs do not respond to yawning stimuli similarly to haplorhines, and suggests that this behavior may have evolved or become more exaggerated in haplorhines after the two major primate lineages split. PMID:27075549

  18. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  19. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species. PMID:25162677

  20. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  1. Contagious equine metritis eradicated from Japan.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Toru; Kamada, Masanobu; Niwa, Hidekazu; Eguchi, Masashi; Nishi, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a contagious venereal disease of horses, invaded Japan in 1980 and spread in the Thoroughbred population of the Hidaka-Iburi district of Hokkaido. To eradicate CEM, we ran a program aimed at detecting Taylorella equigenitalis, the causal agent, in carrier horses by using the PCR test, followed by culling or treatment. In 2001, the first year of the program, 12,356 Thoroughbred racing stallions and mares were tested and 11 carriers were found. Four, two, one, and one carrier mares were detected in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, by application of the program at the same scale as in 2001. No PCR-positive horses were found from 2006 to 2010. These results strongly suggest that CEM was eradicated from Japan by 2010. PMID:22123306

  2. Secreted proteases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 degrade porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M

    1994-01-01

    It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8004545

  3. Educating Children and Youth To Prevent Contagious Disease. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Twenty-first century contagious diseases require more than basic health lessons to prevent transmission. This Digest examines ways to prevent disease transmission in school settings. Section 1 discusses key concepts in contagion education: all people are potentially contagious; germs that cause diseases are present on many parts of the body; hand…

  4. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M.; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings. PMID:27112374

  5. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  6. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  7. Contagiousness under antiretroviral therapy and stigmatization toward people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Jochen; Kleiber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Perceived contagiousness is a major dimension underlying HIV-related stigmatization. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can diminish contagiousness by reducing viral load levels in HIV-infected individuals. To test the assumption that reductions in contagiousness can lead to a decrease in stigmatizing reactions, we conducted an experimental online study. A sample of 752 participants (50.9% female) read a short vignette depicting an HIV-positive individual with either a high or a low viral load and were either given or not given information about the association between viral load and contagiousness. Subsequently, participants were asked to rate their willingness to stigmatize this individual by responding to two measures of social and physical distance. Differences between the low and the high viral load information groups and the combined no-information groups (forming a quasi-control group) were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for gender and baseline perceptions of contagiousness. The covariates, perceived contagiousness at baseline and gender, were associated with social and physical distancing, but the viral load/information factor was only significant in physical distancing. Planned contrast analyses confirmed that physical distancing in the informed group was lower in the low viral load condition compared to the high viral load condition and to the control group. We thus found evidence for the significant role of perceived contagiousness in the HIV-related stigma and were able to experimentally demonstrate the potential of ART to reduce HIV-related stigmatization by lowering viral load and contagiousness, when these changes are accompanied by a decreased perception of contagiousness. PMID:24779483

  8. Pathogenesis of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia: Part I. Effects of surface components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H; Potter, A A; Campos, M; Leighton, F A; Willson, P J; Yates, W D

    1998-01-01

    To understand the role of non-secreted components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in virulence, we investigated in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pulmonary changes in pigs due to various A. pleuropneumoniae (serotype 1) fractions. Following 1.5 h incubation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2 crude extracts and bacterial culture supernatant (BCS) at high concentrations were cytotoxic to porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes, neutrophils and a cultured porcine bone marrow cell line. Heat-killed bacteria were cytotoxic to PAM after 24 h incubation. The 2 crude extracts were prepared by shaking either intact bacteria after removing culture supernatants (crude surface extract, CSE), or whole bacterial culture (crude surface plus culture supernatant extract, CSSE) with glass beads in saline at 60 degrees C. Further experiments showed that proteins from the bacterial membrane were partially involved in cytotoxicities of these 2 extracts. Both BCS and CSSE caused multivocal hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration when inoculated into porcine lungs, but CSE did not. The lung:whole body weight ratios of the pigs treated with CSSE were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs treated with BCS, CSE, or control solution. It is concluded that beside the secreted proteins, bacterial surface components including LPS and non-secreted proteins were cytotoxic in vitro; and secreted and non-secreted components act synergistically to cause lung lesions. PMID:9553707

  9. Blood gas stability and hematological changes in experimentally-induced acute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Mirsky, M L; MacWilliams, P S; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1989-01-01

    Blood gas and hematological responses to acute, mild Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection of growing pigs was studied. Six pigs (average weight 10.1 kg) were experimentally infected intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. Four pigs served as controls. Rectal temperatures and arterial blood for gas analysis and hematology were taken at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection. All infected pigs became febrile showing clinical signs typical of mild to moderate porcine pleuropneumonia; controls remained asymptomatic. Neutrophilia with bands and lymphopenia were observed only in infected pigs. Arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2, and pH did not change in infected pigs. All pigs were killed after 72 h, and lungs were examined and cultured. Gross and microscopic lesions consistent with porcine pleuropneumonia were seen in 3/6 and 5/6 infected lungs, respectively. Control lungs were grossly normal with no histological evidence of pleuropneumonia. We conclude that in mild, acute porcine pleuropneumonia as established experimentally, a leukogram typical of acute inflammation and stress is seen; however, hypoxemia and alveolar hypoventilation are not features of this form of the disease. PMID:2914231

  10. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines directed against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W; Kadis, S

    1992-08-01

    Conjugate vaccines were prepared in an attempt to protect pigs against swine pleuropneumonia induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (SPAP). Two subunit conjugates were prepared by coupling the A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 serotype 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP) to the hemolysin protein (HP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the HP. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a spacer to facilitate the conjugation in a carbodiimide-mediated reaction. The CP and the LPS were found to be covalently coupled to the HP in the conjugates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detergent gel chromatography analyses. Following a booster vaccination, pigs exhibited significantly high (P less than 0.05) immunoglobulin G antibodies against CP, LPS, and HP. The anti-CP and anti-LPS immunoglobulin G antibodies were found to function as opsonins in the phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas antibodies to the HP neutralized the cytotoxic effect of the HP on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed when the effects of the antibodies were tested in the presence of complement. Thus, polysaccharide-protein A. pleuropneumoniae conjugates elicit significant antibody responses against each component of each conjugate, which could be instrumental in protecting swine against SPAP. PMID:1639471

  11. High-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharides are involved in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae adherence to porcine respiratory tract cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, S E; Dubreuil, D; Rioux, S; Gottschalk, M; Jacques, M

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. The major adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae has been identified as the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, J. Harel, C. Girard, and M. Jacques, Infect. Immun. 58:3523-3530, 1990). Using immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry, we showed in the present study that LPSs were well exposed at the surface of this encapsulated microorganism. Immunolocalization with porcine lung and tracheal frozen sections showed that extracted LPS bound to the lung mesenchyme and vascular endothelium and to the tracheal epithelium, respectively. Inhibition of adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae with extracted LPS was also performed with lung and tracheal frozen sections. Acid hydrolysis of LPS revealed that the active component of LPS was not lipid A but the polysaccharides. LPSs from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 2 were separated by chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 SF, in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, according to their molecular masses. The adherence-inhibitory activity was found in the high-molecular-mass fractions. These high-molecular-mass fractions contained 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and neutral sugars, and they were recognized by a monoclonal antibody directed against A. pleuropneumoniae O antigen but not recognized by a monoclonal antibody against capsular antigen. Images PMID:8039902

  12. Serodiagnosis of pleuropneumonia using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with capsular polysaccharide antigens of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7.

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, J T; Johnson, R P; Rosendal, S

    1990-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharide antigens of serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to test sera from experimentally infected and field pigs. Specific reactions were found in sera of experimental pigs with antigens of serotypes 1, 5 and 7 whereas the serotype 2 antigen was cross-reactive. A 1:200 serum dilution was used for testing of 300 sera from 21 swine herds in southern Ontario. Cases of pleuropneumonia had occurred in 11 of these herds, but not in the others. The negative cut-off value was the mean optical density at 405 nm (OD405) + three standard deviations (SD) for 16 negative reference sera. Sera from four pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus suis were tested and found to react to varying degrees with each of the antigens. Therefore a second cut-off value was determined as the mean OD405 + 2 SD for the A. suis sera. Sera which, in the ELISA produced OD readings above the latter cut-off were considered positive for antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae; those which were lower than the former cut-off were considered negative. Readings between the two cut-off values may have been due to low positive titers or cross-reactivity, possibly with A. suis, and could not be used to predict pleuropneumonia. Of the pleuropneumonia-free herds, none had positive reactors to serotypes 5 or 7, whereas one and two herds had positive reactors to serotypes 1 and 2, respectively. Of the pleuropneumonia positive herds, six had positive reactors to serotype 1, one to serotype 2, four to serotype 5, and eight to serotype 7. PMID:2249177

  13. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing. PMID:26012708

  14. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. PMID

  15. New plasmid tools for genetic analysis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other pasteurellaceae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Durham, Andrew L; Rycroft, Andrew N; Kroll, J Simon; Langford, Paul R

    2009-10-01

    We have generated a set of plasmids, based on the mobilizable shuttle vector pMIDG100, which can be used as tools for genetic manipulation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other members of the Pasteurellaceae. A tandem reporter plasmid, pMC-Tandem, carrying promoterless xylE and gfpmut3 genes downstream of a multiple-cloning site (MCS), can be used for identification of transcriptional regulators and conditions which favor gene expression from different cloned promoters. The ability to detect transcriptional regulators using the tandem reporter system was validated in A. pleuropneumoniae using the cloned rpoE (sigma(E)) promoter (P). The resulting plasmid, pMCrpoEP, was used to identify a mutant defective in production of RseA, the negative regulator of sigma(E), among a bank of random transposon mutants, as well as to detect induction of sigma(E) following exposure of A. pleuropneumoniae to ethanol or heat shock. pMCsodCP, carrying the cloned sodC promoter of A. pleuropneumoniae, was functional in A. pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parasuis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Two general expression vectors, pMK-Express and pMC-Express, which differ in their antibiotic resistance markers (kanamycin and chloramphenicol, respectively), were constructed for the Pasteurellaceae. Both plasmids have the A. pleuropneumoniae sodC promoter upstream of the gfpmut3 gene and an extended MCS. Replacement of gfpmut3 with a gene of interest allows complementation and heterologous gene expression, as evidenced by expression of the Haemophilus ducreyi nadV gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, rendering the latter NAD independent. PMID:19666733

  16. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-01-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

  17. Hitting is contagious: experience and action induction.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-03-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing stimuli on batting performance for more-experienced (ME) and less-experienced (LE) baseball players. Three types of inducing stimuli were compared with a no-induction condition: action (a simulated ball traveling from home plate into left, right, or center field), outcome (a ball resting in either left, right, or center field), and verbal (the word "left", "center", or "right"). For both ME and LE players, fewer pitchers were required for a successful hit in the action condition. For ME players, there was a significant relationship between the inducing stimulus direction and hit direction for both the action and outcome prompts. For LE players, the prompt only had a significant effect on batting performance in the action condition, and the magnitude of the effect was significantly smaller than for ME. The effect of the inducing stimulus decreased as the delay (i.e., no. of pitches between prompt and hit) increased, with the effect being eliminated after roughly 4 pitches for ME and 2 pitches for LE. It is proposed that the differences in the magnitude and time course of action induction as a function of experience occurred because ME have more well-developed perceptual-motor representations for directional hitting. PMID:21443380

  18. Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Genes Preferentially Expressed During Infection Using In Vivo-Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yangyi; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Sanjie

    2015-10-01

    Porcine pleuropneumonia is an infectious disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The identification of A. pleuropneumoniae genes, specially expressed in vivo, is a useful tool to reveal the mechanism of infection. IVIAT was used in this work to identify antigens expressed in vivo during A. pleuropneumoniae infection, using sera from individuals with chronic porcine pleuropneumonia. Sequencing of DNA inserts from positive clones showed 11 open reading frames with high homology to A. pleuropneumoniae genes. Based on sequence analysis, proteins encoded by these genes were involved in metabolism, replication, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. Moreover, three function-unknown proteins were also indentified in this work. Expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that most of the genes tested were up-regulated in vivo relative to their expression levels in vitro. IVI (in vivoinduced) genes that were amplified by PCR in different A. pleuropneumoniae strains showed that these genes could be detected in almost all of the strains. It is demonstrated that the identified IVI antigen may have important roles in the infection of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26059519

  19. PCR-based identification of serotype 2 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biovars I and II.

    PubMed

    Hüssy, Daniela; Schlatter, Yvonne; Miserez, Raymond; Inzana, Thomas; Frey, Joachim

    2004-04-19

    A genetic typing method utilizing PCR for the identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 isolates has been developed based on the in vitro amplification of a 1.4 kb DNA segment of the serotype 2 capsular polysaccharide genes cps2AB. The assay was tested with all serotype reference strains and a collection of 92 different A. pleuropneumoniae strains of all 15 serotypes of both biovars I and II, originating from 18 different countries worldwide. The cps2 based PCR identified the serotype 2 reference strain and all 12 serotype 2 collection strains contained in this set. DNA was not amplified from the remaining A. pleuropneumoniae reference and collection strains, indicating the PCR assay was highly specific. Furthermore, the PCR method detected all 31 A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 field isolates from diseased pigs that were identified in parallel as serotype 2 by agar gel diffusion. The serotype 2 PCR assay proved to be highly specific and reliable for the identification of serotype 2 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:15066734

  20. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Michael T.; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; LeMay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. PMID:23785362

  1. Contagious cancer: lessons from the devil and the dog.

    PubMed

    Belov, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Cancer is generally defined as uncontrollable growth of cells caused by genetic aberrations and/or environmental factors. Yet contagious cancers also occur. The recent emergence of a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils has reignited interest in transmissible cancers. Two naturally occurring transmissible cancers are known: devil facial tumour disease and canine transmissible venereal tumour. Both cancers evolved once and have then been transmitted from one individual to another as clonal cell lines. The dog cancer is ancient; having evolved more than 6,000 years ago, while the devil disease was first seen in 1996. In this review I will compare and contrast the two diseases focusing on the life histories of the clonal cell lines, their evolutionary trajectories and the mechanisms by which they have achieved immune tolerance. A greater understanding of these contagious cancers will provide unique insights into the role of the immune system in shaping tumour evolution and may uncover novel approaches for treating human cancer. PMID:22383221

  2. β-D-Glucoside utilization by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: possible involvement in the control of cytotoxicity towards bovine lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M; Correia, Ivone; Ferronha, M Helena; Bischof, Daniela F; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Background Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC) is among the most serious threats for livestock producers in Africa. Glycerol metabolism-associated H2O2 production seems to play a crucial role in virulence of this mycoplasma. A wide number of attenuated strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC are currently used in Africa as live vaccines. Glycerol metabolism is not affected in these vaccine strains and therefore it does not seem to be the determinant of their attenuation. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the bgl gene coding for the 6-phospho-β-glucosidase (Bgl) has been described recently. The SNP differentiates virulent African strains isolated from outbreaks with severe CBPP, which express the Bgl isoform Val204, from strains to be considered less virulent isolated from CBPP outbreaks with low mortality and vaccine strains, which express the Bgl isoform Ala204. Results Strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC considered virulent and possessing the Bgl isoform Val204, but not strains with the Bgl isoform Ala204, do trigger elevated levels of damage to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells upon incubation with the disaccharides (i.e., β-D-glucosides) sucrose and lactose. However, strains expressing the Bgl isoform Val204 show a lower hydrolysing activity on the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPbG) when compared to strains that possess the Bgl isoform Ala204. Defective activity of Bgl in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not lead to H2O2 production. Rather, the viability during addition of β-D-glucosides in medium-free buffers is higher for strains harbouring the Bgl isoform Val204 than for those with the isoform Ala204. Conclusion Our results indicate that the studied SNP in the bgl gene is one possible cause of the difference in bacterial virulence among strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. Bgl does not act as a direct virulence

  3. Supreme Court Holds That Contagious Diseases Are Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a complex case involving termination of a third-grade teacher with recurrent tuberculosis. The United States Supreme Court upheld a circuit court's ruling that the teacher's condition satisfied section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act protecting handicapped persons against discrimination. Since contagiousness was not addressed, the…

  4. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  5. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and the time…

  6. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  7. Combination of medical and surgical therapy for pleuropneumonia in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Dechan, J

    1997-01-01

    Medical management was unable to prevent the development of an extrapulmonary abscess in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with anaerobic pleuropneumonia. Intercostal thoracostomy achieved drainage of the abscess. Resolution of the abscess and subsequent bronchopleural fistulas was monitored by ultrasonography and video-endoscopy. The horse returned to training 4 mo after discharge. PMID:9262860

  8. A model aerosol exposure system for induction of porcine Haemophilus pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Sebunya, T N; Saunders, J R; Osborne, A D

    1983-01-01

    One group of six pigs and another group of three pigs were separately exposed in a polyethylene enclosed chamber for ten minutes, respectively, to Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and Bacillus subtilis aerosols generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer. Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and B. subtilis were deposited throughout the lungs immediately following aerosol exposure. The number of H. pleuropneumoniae and B. subtilis deposited varied within and between lungs in each group. The mean numbers of both organisms deposited in the posterior (caudal and accessory) lobes were significantly greater than those in the anterior (cranial and middle) lobes (P less than 0.001). The four principals that received H. pleuropneumoniae aerosols and the two contact controls developed fatal fibrinous pneumonia which simulated that seen in natural infections. Since this exposure system consistently resulted in clinical disease it has good potential as a model for the study of pathogenesis of the disease and more specifically for the evaluation of vaccines. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6403208

  9. Proteins found within porcine respiratory tract secretions bind lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Dubreuil, D; Jacques, M

    1994-01-01

    Affinity for porcine respiratory tract secretions was found in some isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and involved lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (M. Bélanger, S. Rioux, B. Foiry, and M. Jacques, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 97:119-126, 1992). In the present study, the affinity for a crude preparation of porcine respiratory tract mucus of isolates of the Pasteurellaceae family, i.e., Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella spp., and of some unrelated gram-negative bacteria was examined. Affinity for crude porcine respiratory tract mucus was not a property shared by all Pasteurellaceae isolates tested. Furthermore, affinity for the porcine crude mucus preparation was not unique to the Pasteurellaceae group and did not seem to be restricted to bacteria originating from pigs. Different surface properties of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates in relation to their adherence to crude mucus were examined. The capsular layer seemed to mask the adhesin and interfered with adherence to crude mucus. Two poorly capsulated isolates, which had a more hydrophobic surface and bound Congo red, were also heavily labeled by gold particles coated with polymyxin, which is known to interact with the lipid A-core region of LPS, and adhered strongly to respiratory tract secretions. Tetramethylurea, charged polymers, divalent cations, chelators, monosaccharides and amino sugars, or lectins were unable to inhibit adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae to the crude mucus preparation. To identify the receptor(s) recognized by the lipopolysaccharidic adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae, affinity chromatography was used. Two bands, which were proteinaceous in nature, of 10 and 11 kDa were recovered. Our results suggest that two low-molecular-mass proteins present in porcine respiratory tract secretions bind A. pleuropneumoniae LPS. Images PMID:8112857

  10. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ciro C; Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A; Gould, Kate A; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise M S

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  11. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  12. [Construction and immunogenicity of an attenuated mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by insertional inactivation of apxIC].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Zhou; Shi, Ai-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Bing; Wang, Jin-Luo

    2007-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. Apx toxin, an exotoxin secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae, is one of the most important virulence factors. To construct an avirulent mutant strain by inactivation of ApxI toxin, the apxIC gene of A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 10 was inactivated by inserting a chloramphenicol resistance gene cassette into the downstream XhoI site of the apxIC gene for constructing the transfer plasmid. The transfer plasmid was introduced into the electrocompetent A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 10 for homologous recombination by electroporation. The mutant strain was obtained and identified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mutant strain was phenotypically identical to the parent strain except that it showed no haemolytic activity. The mutant strain was also able to secret the same ApxI toxin as the parent strain. In the intra-peritoneal mouse model, the virulence of the mutant strain decreased at least 100 fold compared with the parent strain. The mutant was evaluated as a potential vaccine using a vaccination-challenge trial in which pigs were given two intra-nasal doses of the mutant with 14 days' interval and then challenged 14 days after the last vaccination with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 and serovar 10 reference strains respectively. The death number and lung lesion score in the vaccinated pigs given the serovar 1 challenge were obviously lower than those in the unvaccinated pigs. And the lower lung lesion score was also observed in the vaccinated pigs challenged with serovar 10. And the positive numbers of A. pleuropneumoniae re-isolation and PCR detection showed the same consistency. The vaccination-challenge trial suggested that the mutant strain could offer partial cross-protection as a live attenuated vaccine against A . pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:18062275

  13. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin binds cyclophilin D on bovine neutrophil mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Aulik, Nicole A; Hellenbrand, Katrina M; Kisiela, Dagmara; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important member of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex that causes fibrinous and necrotizing pleuropneumonia in cattle. BRD is characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration into the alveoli and fibrin deposition. The most important virulence factor of M. haemolytica is its leukotoxin. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that the leukotoxin is able to enter into and traffic to the mitochondria of a bovine lymphoblastoid cell line (BL-3). In this study, we evaluated the ability of LKT to be internalized and travel to mitochondria in bovine neutrophils. We demonstrate that LKT binds bovine neutrophil mitochondria and co-immunoprecipitates with TOM22 and TOM40, which are members of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial (TOM) membrane family. Upon entry into mitochondria, LKT co-immunoprecipitates with cyclophilin D, a member of the mitochondria permeability transition pore. Unlike BL-3 cells, bovine neutrophil mitochondria are not protected against LKT by the membrane-stabilizing agent cyclosporin A, nor were bovine neutrophil mitochondria protected by the permeability transition pore antagonist bongkrekic acid. In addition, we found that bovine neutrophil cyclophilin D is significantly smaller than that found in BL-3 cells. Bovine neutrophils were protected against LKT by protein transfection of an anti-cyclophilin D antibody directed at the C-terminal amino acids, but not an antibody against the first 50 N-terminal amino acids. In contrast, BL-3 cells were protected by antibodies against either the C-terminus or N-terminus of cyclophilin. These data confirm that LKT binds to bovine neutrophil mitochondria, but indicate there are distinctions between neutrophil and BL-3 mitochondria that might reflect differences in cyclophilin D. PMID:21220005

  14. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.; Consortium, the BRaDP1T

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  15. [Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: epidemiology, diagnosis and control].

    PubMed

    Bergonier, D; Poumarat, F

    1996-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which affects mainly the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The principal causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. These infections are chronic in animals and in flocks. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. Associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, these insidious infections are difficult to diagnose and control. The sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance are the main modes of transmission between flocks, while transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control. PMID:9527414

  16. Trichophyton mentagrophytes cause underestimated contagious zoophilic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor Alexander; Lam, Phi-Anh

    2013-05-01

    Trichophytia infection, paraphrased cuddly toy mycosis, occurs primarily in prepubertal children, occasionally in infants and adults. The presented case shows the highly contagious infection of four family members with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Effective treatment requires detailed diagnostic: identifying the dermatophyte, finding the infection source, treating the infection carriers. Tinea must be treated systemically and topically because of infectivity and ignitability. Systemic terbinafine or fluconazole treatment and topical fixed combination isoconazole nitrate/diflucortolone valerate are recommended. PMID:23574024

  17. Transportation in commerical aircraft of passengers having contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Perin, M

    1976-10-01

    Most airlines refuse to board passengers known or believed to have contagious diseases. Such rigor can scarcely be justified by reference to either laws or regulations. It introduces the risk of arbitrary, mistaken, or prejudiced conduct in areas in which international organizations recommend the greatest liberalization, and it can cause serious harm to certain patients. Finally, it does not seem logical, for airlines learn about only a small fraction of the contagious persons who travel, and public health is much more greatly endangered by unknown contagious persons. Normal hygienic conditions aboard planes suppress the risks of contagion concerning most diseases transmitted by insects or through contact with the skin, with mucuous membranes, with the faeces, or with urine. Airlines should continue to refuse to transport only those passengers having diseases which are characterized by vomiting or serious diarrhoea or which are transmitted through the air if it is impossible by simple means to avoid the risk of contaminating other travellers and any members of the flight crew who might be receptive. PMID:985288

  18. Evaluation and Field Validation of PCR Tests for Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Subclinically Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Broes, André; Harel, Josée; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Eight PCR tests were evaluated for their abilities to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine tonsils. At first they were compared regarding their specificities by using A. pleuropneumoniae and related bacterial species and their analytical sensitivities by using tonsils experimentally infected in vitro. PCRs were carried out both directly with tonsil homogenates (direct PCR) and after culture of the sample (after-culture PCR). Most tests demonstrated good specificities; however, some tests gave false-positive results with some non-A. pleuropneumoniae species. High degrees of variation in the analytical sensitivities among the tests were observed for the direct PCRs (109 to 102 CFU/g of tonsil), whereas those of most of the after-culture PCRs were similar (102 CFU/g of tonsil). In a second phase, the effects of sample storage time and storage conditions were evaluated by using tonsils from experimentally infected animals. Storage at −20°C allowed the detection of the organism for at least 4 months. Finally, the omlA PCR test described by Savoye et al. (C. Savoye et al., Vet. Microbiol. 73:337-347, 2000) and the commercially available Adiavet App PCR test were further validated with field samples. Their effectiveness was compared to those of standard and immunomagnetic separation-based methods of bacterial isolation. In addition, a comparison of tonsil biopsy specimens (from living animals) and whole tonsils (collected at the slaughterhouse) was also conducted. A. pleuropneumoniae was neither isolated nor detected by PCR from a herd serologically negative for A. pleuropneumoniae. PCR was more sensitive than the standard isolation method with whole tonsils from three infected herds. After-culture PCR offered the highest degree of sensitivity (93 and 83% for the omlA and Adiavet App PCRs, respectively). The PCR detection rate was higher with whole tonsils than with tonsil biopsy specimens. Good agreement (κ = 0.65) was found between the presence of A

  19. Use of recombinant ApxIV in serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, development and prevalidation of the ApxIV ELISA.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Schaller, A; Nivollet, S; Segers, R P A M; Kobisch, M; Mieli, L; Soerensen, V; Hüssy, D; Miserez, R; Zimmermann, W; Inderbitzin, F; Frey, J

    2004-04-19

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which causes worldwide severe losses in pig farming. The virulence of the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae is mainly determined by the three major RTX toxins ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII, which are secreted by the different serotypes in various combinations. A fourth RTX toxin, ApxIV, is produced by all 15 serotypes only during infection of pigs, but not under in vitro conditions. Pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae show specific antibodies directed against ApxIV. In contrast, antibodies against the other three toxins ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII are also found in pigs free of A. pleuropneumoniae. The antibodies to the three latter might result from other, less pathogenic Actinobacillus species such as A. rossii and A. suis. We used a recombinant protein based on the N'-terminal part of ApxIV to serologically detect A. pleuropneumoniae infections in pigs by immunoblot analysis. The analysis of sera of experimentally infected pigs revealed that ApxIV-immunoblots detected A. pleuropneumoniae infections in the second to third week post infection. We developed an indirect ELISA based on the purified recombinant N'-terminal moiety of ApxIV. The analysis of sera from pigs that were experimentally or naturally infected by A. pleuropneumoniae, and of sera of pigs that were free of A. pleuropneumoniae, revealed that the ELISA had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.8%. The pre-validation study of the ApxIV-ELISA revealed that the latter was able to detect A. pleuropneumoniae-positive herds, even when clinical and pathological signs of porcine pleuropneumonia were not evident. Pigs vaccinated with a subunit vaccine Porcilis App were serologically negative in the ApxIV-ELISA. PMID:15066725

  20. Capsular polysaccharide antigens for detection of serotype-specific antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, J T; Johnson, R P; Rosendal, S

    1990-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae were obtained from 18 h culture supernatants by precipitation with hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (Cetavlon) followed by extraction with sodium chloride and reprecipitation in ethanol. These crude extracts, and portions purified further by phenol extraction to remove contaminating proteins, were evaluated as antigens for the detection of serotype-specific antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae in sera from immunized rabbits and swine by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The crude extracts reacted strongly with homologous antisera, but except for serotype 1 showed considerable cross-reactivity with antisera to other serotypes. Phenol extraction greatly improved the serospecificity of the antigens from serotypes 1, 7 and, to a lesser extent, 5. The serotype 2 CPS antigen showed poor reactivity following phenol extraction, and did not appear as useful for detection of serotype-specific antibodies. PMID:2379111

  1. Identification of dfrA14 in two distinct plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M.; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Methods Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. Results A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. Conclusions This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. PMID:25957382

  2. Structural analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI) operon.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, R; Briaire, J; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L; Smits, M A

    1993-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI), an important virulence factor, is secreted by serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11 of A. pleuropneumoniae. However, sequences homologous to the secretion genes apxIBD of the ApxI operon are present in all 12 serotypes except serotype 3. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the structures of the ApxI operons of the 12 A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. We focused on the nucleotide sequence comparison of the ApxI-coding genes, the structures of the ApxI operons, and the transcription of the ApxI operons. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the toxin-encoding apxICA genes of serotype 9 and found that the gene for the structural toxin, apxIA, was almost identical to the apxIA gene of serotype 1. The toxin-encoding genes of the other serotypes are also similar for the main part; nevertheless, two variants were identified, one in serotypes 1, 9, and 11 and one in serotypes 5 and 10. The two apxIA variants differ mainly within the distal 110 nucleotides. Structural analysis demonstrated that intact ApxI operons, consisting of the four contiguous genes apxICABD, are present in serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11. ApxI operons with a major deletion in the apxICA genes are present in serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Serotype 3 does not contain ApxI operon sequences. We found that all ApxI operons are transcriptionally active despite the partial deletion of the operon in some serotypes. The implications of these data for the expression and secretion of ApxI and the other Apx-toxins, ApxII and ApxIII, as well as for the development of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae will be discussed. Images PMID:8359891

  3. Cloning and expression of a transferrin-binding protein from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, G F; Anderson, C; Potter, A A; Klashinsky, S; Willson, P J

    1992-01-01

    An expression library was constructed from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. Escherichia coli transformants expressing recombinant proteins were identified by immunoscreening with porcine convalescent serum. One transformant expressing a 60-kDa protein (60K protein) in aggregated form was identified. Serum raised against the recombinant protein recognized a polypeptide with an indistinguishable electrophoretic mobility in the A. pleuropneumoniae wild type after iron-restricted growth only. The recombinant protein bound transferrin after blotting onto nitrocellulose. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the specificity of this binding for the amino-terminal half of iron-saturated porcine transferrin was established. Also, the 60K wild-type protein bound hemin as assessed by hemin-agarose chromatography. Hemin could inhibit transferrin binding of the recombinant protein in the competitive ELISA, whereas hemoglobin and synthetic iron chelators failed to do so. Southern blot analysis of several other A. pleuropneumoniae strains indicated that highly homologous sequence is present in eight of eight isolates of serotype 7 and in some isolates of serotypes 2, 3, and 4. Images PMID:1541562

  4. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  5. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  6. Efficient detection of contagious outbreaks in massive metropolitan encounter networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact remains difficult to trace in large metropolitan networks, though it is a key vehicle for the transmission of contagious outbreaks. Co-presence encounters during daily transit use provide us with a city-scale time-resolved physical contact network, consisting of 1 billion contacts among 3 million transit users. Here, we study the advantage that knowledge of such co-presence structures may provide for early detection of contagious outbreaks. We first examine the "friend sensor" scheme--a simple, but universal strategy requiring only local information--and demonstrate that it provides significant early detection of simulated outbreaks. Taking advantage of the full network structure, we then identify advanced "global sensor sets", obtaining substantial early warning times savings over the friends sensor scheme. Individuals with highest number of encounters are the most efficient sensors, with performance comparable to individuals with the highest travel frequency, exploratory behavior and structural centrality. An efficiency balance emerges when testing the dependency on sensor size and evaluating sensor reliability; we find that substantial and reliable lead-time could be attained by monitoring only 0.01% of the population with the highest degree. PMID:24903017

  7. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as "contagious". In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population? PMID:26375495

  8. Transcriptional Portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Acute Disease - Potential Strategies for Survival and Persistence in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Friis, Carsten; Jensen, Tim K.; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms behind the efficient

  9. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co

  10. Genomic insights into a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca; Belov, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to a contagious cancer. Genetic and genomic technologies revealed that the disease arose in a Schwann cell of a female devil. Instead of dying with the original host, the tumour was passed from animal to animal, slipping under the radar of the immune system. Studying the genomes of the devil and the cancer has driven our understanding of this unique disease. From characterising immune genes and immune responses to studying tumour evolution, we have begun to uncover how a cancer can be 'caught' and are using genomic data to manage an insurance population of disease-free devils for the long-term survival of the species. PMID:26027792

  11. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    PubMed

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  12. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  13. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  14. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge in swine: Comparison of computed tomographic and radiographic findings during disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In pigs, diseases of the respiratory tract like pleuropneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection have led to high economic losses for decades. Further research on disease pathogenesis, pathogen-host-interactions and new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are needed. In most studies, a large number of experimental animals are required to assess lung alterations at different stages of the disease. In order to reduce the required number of animals but nevertheless gather information on the nature and extent of lung alterations in living pigs, a computed tomographic scoring system for quantifying gross pathological findings was developed. In this study, five healthy pigs served as control animals while 24 pigs were infected with App, the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, in an established model for respiratory tract disease. Results Computed tomographic (CT) findings during the course of App challenge were verified by radiological imaging, clinical, serological, gross pathology and histological examinations. Findings from clinical examinations and both CT and radiological imaging, were recorded on day 7 and day 21 after challenge. Clinical signs after experimental App challenge were indicative of acute to chronic disease. Lung CT findings of infected pigs comprised ground-glass opacities and consolidation. On day 7 and 21 the clinical scores significantly correlated with the scores of both imaging techniques. At day 21, significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT scores and lung lesion scores. In 19 out of 22 challenged pigs the determined disease grades (not affected, slightly affected, moderately affected, severely affected) from CT and gross pathological examination were in accordance. Disease classification by radiography and gross pathology agreed in 11 out of 24 pigs. Conclusions High-resolution, high-contrast CT examination with no overlapping of organs is superior to radiography in the

  15. Combination fibrinolytic therapy in the treatment of chronic septic pleuropneumonia in a Thoroughbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Rendle, D I; Armstrong, S K; Hughes, K J

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the treatment of a case of chronic pleuropneumonia in a 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding. A recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tenecteplase) and a recombinant deoxyribonucleic acidase (alphadornase) were infused into the pleural cavity as adjunctive therapy in the early stages of treatment. Instillation of fibrinolytic drugs was associated with a subjective reduction in the amount of fibrin deposition and decreased fluid accumulation within the pleural cavities. Fibrinolytic therapy may be a useful adjunctive therapy in selected cases of intrapleural disease in horses. PMID:22928684

  16. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received an equivalent volume of saline. Clinical signs were recorded over seven days, and mortality rates and pathological lesions were analyzed using analysis of variance. Serum oxytetracycline levels were compared 48 and 72 h postinjection. All pigs developed clinical disease following experimental infection. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from 42% of experiment 1 pigs and all of experiment 2 pigs. The data showed that both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline-LA given at the same dose protected pigs against experimental infection when given 24 h prior to challenge, and there was no difference between the efficacy of the two drugs in this experiment. When administered 48 h prior to challenge, only oxytetracycline-LA reduced the clinical signs and pathological changes following A. pleuropneumoniae challenge. Between 48 and 72 h postinjection, oxytetracycline-LA blood levels were significantly greater compared to oxytetracycline-treated pigs. PMID:2531629

  17. Construction of a broad host range shuttle vector for gene cloning and expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other Pasteurellaceae.

    PubMed

    Frey, J

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a pair of broad host range expression vectors, pJFF224-NX and pJFF224-XN, based on plasmid RSF1010, which enable cloning and efficient expression of genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica and in Escherichia coli. The vectors consist of the minimal autonomous replicon of the broad host range plasmid RSF1010 and a type II chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene for chloramphenicol resistance selection. In addition, they contain a gene expression cassette based on the E. coli bacteriophage T4 gene 32 promoter region and a transcription stop signal, which are separated by a segment of multiple cloning sites in both orientations. Electroporation and subsequent selection for chloramphenicol resistance was used for the introduction of the vectors in A. pleuropneumoniae and P. haemolytica. A promoterless xy/E gene from the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid was cloned onto pJFF224-NX. This plasmid enabled efficient expression of active catechol2,3oxygenase in A. pleuropneumoniae and P. haemolytica. It was stably maintained in A. pleuropneumoniae without antibiotic selection, showing less than 0.1% loss after 100 generations, while native RSF1010 and other RSF1010-based vectors were unstable in this host. PMID:1448612

  18. Characterization of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae seeder pig challenge-exposure model.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, K F; Shryock, T R; Moore, G

    1994-12-01

    Five strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 were used to intranasally infect 5 groups of pigs. Using each bacterial strain, infected pigs (termed seeder pigs) were commingled for 48 hours with 5 groups of noninfected test pigs, then were removed. Seeder and test pigs were maintained in isolation and were observed for 14 days. Seeder pigs had mortality that was threefold greater than that of test pigs (24% vs 8%). Rectal temperature in excess of 40.3 C was achieved for 84% of test pigs and 88% of seeder pigs. Neither of these 2 variables was statistically different between the 2 groups of pigs. Clinical impression scores > or = 2 (on a 0 to 3 scale) were three-fold (64% vs 20%) greater for seeder than for test pigs (P < 0.05). The total number of bacterial isolations or nonrecoverable isolates was tabulated for test and seeder pigs' lungs at necropsy, irrespective of the amount of lesions. The number of A pleuropneumoniae isolations was not statistically different between test and seeder pig populations. Recovery of Pasteurella multocida or other bacteria was greater from the seeder pigs (P < 0.05), whereas the number of non-recoverable isolates was greater from test pigs than from seeder pigs (P < 0.05). Assessment of lung lesions at necropsy by either visual estimation or on a weight basis were in agreement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887514

  19. The ClpP Protease Is Required for the Stress Tolerance and Biofilm Formation in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Li, Gang; Zhou, Long; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai

    2013-01-01

    In the respiratory tract and lung tissue, a balanced physiological response is essential for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to survive various types of challenges. ClpP, the catalytic core of the Clp proteolytic complex, is involved in various stresses response and regulation of biofilm formation in many pathogenic bacteria. To investigate the role of ClpP in the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, the clpP gene was deleted by homologous recombination, resulting in the mutant strain S8ΔclpP. The reduced growth of S8ΔclpP mutant at high temperatures and under several other stress conditions suggests that the ClpP protein is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Interestingly, we observed that the S8ΔclpP mutant exhibited an increased ability to take up iron in vitro compared to the wild-type strain. We also found that the cells without ClpP displayed rough and irregular surfaces and increased cell volume relative to the wild-type strain using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the S8ΔclpP mutant showed decreased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the wild type S8 and the S8ΔclpP mutant strains of A. pleuropneumoniae using RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the expression of 16 genes was changed by the deletion of the clpP gene. The data presented in this study illustrate the important role of ClpP protease in the stress response, iron acquisition, cell morphology and biofilm formation related to A. pleuropneumoniae and further suggest a putative role of ClpP protease in virulence regulation. PMID:23326465

  20. Ingroup-Outgroup Bias in Contagious Yawning by Chimpanzees Supports Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew W.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control). The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health. PMID:21494669

  1. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  2. Legal briefing: coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Bughman, Heather Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease. Recent high profile court cases involving measles, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and especially Ebola, have thrust this topic back into the bioethics and public spotlights. This has reignited debates over how best to balance individual liberty and public health. For example, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues has officially requested public comments, held open hearings, and published a 90-page report on "ethical considerations and implications" raised by "U.S. public policies that restrict association or movement (such as quarantine)." Broadly related articles have been published in previous issues of The Journal of Clinical Ethics. We categorize recent legal developments on coerced treatment and involuntary confinement into the following six categories: 1. Most Public Health Confinement Is Voluntary 2. Legal Requirements for Involuntary Confinement 3. New State Laws Authorizing Involuntary Confinement 4. Quarantine Must Be as Least Restrictive as Necessary 5. Isolation Is Justified Only as a Last Resort 6. Coerced Treatment after Persistent Noncompliance. PMID:25794297

  3. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP. PMID:26351296

  4. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwit, Charles; Levey, Douglas, J.; Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.

    2004-05-03

    Kwit, Charles, D.J. Levey and Cathryn H. Greenberg. 2004. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences. Oikos. 107:303-308 A n hypothesized advantage of seed dispersal is avoidance of high per capita mortality (i.e. density-dependent mortality) associated with dense populations of seeds and seedlings beneath parent trees. This hypothesis, inherent in nearly all seed dispersal studies, assumes that density effects are species-specific. Yet because many tree species exhibit overlapping fruiting phenologies and share dispersers, seeds may be deposited preferentially under synchronously fruiting heterospecific trees, another location where they may be particularly vulnerable to mortality, in this case by generalist seed predators. We demonstrate that frugivores disperse higher densities of Cornus florida seeds under fruiting (female) I lex opaca trees than under non-fruiting (male) I lex trees in temperate hardwood forest settings in South Carolina, U SA . To determine if density of Cornus and/or I lex seeds influences survivorship of dispersed Cornus seeds, we followed the fates of experimentally dispersed Cornus seeds in neighborhoods of differing, manipulated background densities of Cornus and I lex seeds. We found that the probability of predation on dispersed Cornus seeds was a function of both Cornus and I lex background seed densities. H igher densities of I lex seeds negatively affected Cornus seed survivorship, and this was particularly evident as background densities of dispersed Cornus seeds increased. These results illustrate the importance of viewing seed dispersal and predation in a community context, as the pattern and intensity of density-dependent mortality may not be solely a function of conspecific densities.

  5. Construction of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors: expression of antibiotic-resistance genes.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Romero, M J; Regassa, L B; Zielinski, N A; Welch, R A

    1995-07-01

    We constructed several cloning vectors, designated pGZRS-18/19 and pGZRS-38/39, which were based on an endogenous Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Apl) 4.3-kb plasmid. They carry the lacZ alpha-complementation fragment and MCS from pUC18/19, and either the bla gene under the control of a putative Apl promoter or the KmR gene from Tn903. These vectors replicate in representative strains of Apl serotypes 1 and 7, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella haemolytica (Ph) and Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. We also found that Apl and Ph did not express genes under the control of the lacZ or bla promoters, suggesting that their RNA polymerases may not utilize these promoters. PMID:7628722

  6. Serotyping reanalysis of unserotypable Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates by agar gel diffusion test.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ayako; Shimazaki, Yoko; Uchiyama, Mariko; Suzuki, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We observed increasing unserotypable (UT) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates using agar gel diffusion (AGD) test. To reanalyze their serovar, we performed rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test and multiplex PCR for 47 UT isolates. Of these, 25 were serovar 1 (UT-serovar 1), 20 were serovar 2 (UT-serovar 2) and 2 were serovar 15 (UT-serovar 15). We examined serotyping antigen extraction temperature to determine heat influence. UT-serovar 1 and 15 were influenced by heat, because their precipitation lines were observed in the case of low antigen extraction temperature. To investigate the relationship between antigenicity and genotype, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis using UT-serovar 2 and 15. The predominant PFGE pattern of UT-serovar 2 was identical to that of serovar 2. PMID:26726101

  7. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127

  8. Serotyping reanalysis of unserotypable Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates by agar gel diffusion test

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Ayako; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; UCHIYAMA, Mariko; SUZUKI, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    We observed increasing unserotypable (UT) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates using agar gel diffusion (AGD) test. To reanalyze their serovar, we performed rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test and multiplex PCR for 47 UT isolates. Of these, 25 were serovar 1 (UT-serovar 1), 20 were serovar 2 (UT-serovar 2) and 2 were serovar 15 (UT-serovar 15). We examined serotyping antigen extraction temperature to determine heat influence. UT-serovar 1 and 15 were influenced by heat, because their precipitation lines were observed in the case of low antigen extraction temperature. To investigate the relationship between antigenicity and genotype, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis using UT-serovar 2 and 15. The predominant PFGE pattern of UT-serovar 2 was identical to that of serovar 2. PMID:26726101

  9. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  10. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  11. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs.

    PubMed

    Angen, Ø; Andreasen, M; Nielsen, E O; Stockmarr, A; Baekbo, P

    2008-10-11

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific pcr test on tonsil scrapings and they were divided into three groups. The pigs in group 1 were treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on day 0, the pigs in group 2 were treated with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on days 0 and 4, and the pigs in group 3 were left untreated as controls. The pigs were tested by pcr on tonsil scrapings on days 0, 4, 11 and 33, and on day 33 all the animals were euthanased. There were no significant differences between the numbers of PCR-positive animals in the three groups on any of the sampling dates. PMID:18849576

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

  13. Purification and characterization of a protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, an antigen common to all the serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M

    1998-01-01

    A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Images Figure 2A. Figure 2B. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. PMID:9684047

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of ptxA, the gene encoding the 120-kilodalton cytotoxin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, J; Rycroft, A N

    1992-07-01

    The genetic determinants of the 120-kDa cytotoxin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 were isolated from a lambda DNA library by a plaque immunoblot technique. Expression of the 120-kDa polypeptide was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis of infected Escherichia coli cell lysates, which were shown to be toxic for porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro. The genetic determinants of the toxin were subcloned into the plasmid vector pUC18. This plasmid (pPTX1) directed the synthesis and secretion of the active 120-kDa cytotoxin in E. coli. The recombinant toxin was indistinguishable from native cytotoxin from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 with respect to molecular size, reaction in Western blot analysis, heat lability, cytotoxic activity, and neutralization by serum antibody. A restriction endonuclease cleavage map of pPTX1 was prepared, and deletion mutants were used to locate the minimal region of DNA required for production of intracellular toxin; this gene was termed ptxA. Southern hybridization analysis with a 1.7-kb PvuII fragment located within the ptxA gene revealed sequences with a high degree of homology in serotype reference strains 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. Other reference strains did not contain sequences that were recognized by this probe. However, related sequences (greater than 71% homology) were detected in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and A. equuli. Weak hybridization was observed between the ptxA probe and pLKT5, which carries the lktAC genes of Pasteurella haemolytica, and between the ptxA probe and pAPH1, which carries the structural gene for type II hemolysin from A. pleuropneumoniae. The isolation of the genetic determinants of this cytotoxin will enable investigations of the structure and organization of the ptx DNA region and further analysis of its role in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia. PMID:1612740

  15. [The seroprevalence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Swiss pig breeding herds--a study with the ApxIV ELISA].

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, I; Miserez, R; Hüssy, D; Doherr, M G; Frey, J; Zimmermann, W

    2008-03-01

    At the end of the national eradication program for Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and Porcine Actinobacillosis (APP) in Switzerland (2003), A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is considered to have been eradicated. There is no current information about the distribution of the other serotypes available. The ApxIV ELISA detects antibodies against all serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, without cross-reaction with other bacterial species. The aim of this study was to achieve actual data concerning the seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae in breeding-herds and to validate the ApxIV ELISA under field conditions, especially for the diagnosis of latently infected breeding-herds without clinical signs, and to achieve more information about the role of herd book farms for the spread of the infectious agent. A total of 2068 serum samples from 96 pig herds in Switzerland were examinated. Over half of the examinated herd book farms showed positive results in this ELISA. 93% of the breeding herds were positive. On single animal level sensitivity was 96% and specifity 100%. Herd sensitivity ranged between 67% and 99%. Herd specifity was 100%. The results show that the ApxIV ELISA is a valuable tool for the detection of latently infected herds. PMID:18429500

  16. Construction and immunogenicity of a ∆apxIC/ompP2 mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Gong, Yuheng; Cao, Yuqin; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Cao, Sanjie

    2013-01-01

    The apxIC genes of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 5 (SC-1), encoding the ApxIactivating proteins, was deleted by a method involving sucrose counter-selection. In this study, a mutant strain of A. pleuropneumoniae (SC-1) was constructed and named DapxIC/ ompP2. The mutant strain contained foreign DNA in the deletion site of ompP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. It showed no haemolytic activity and lower virulence of cytotoxicity in mice compared with the parent strain, and its safety and immunogenicity were also evaluated in mice. The LD50 data shown that the mutant strain was attenuated 30-fold, compared with the parent strain (LD50 of the mutant strain and parent strain in mice were determined to be 1.0 × 10(7) CFU and 3.5 × 10(5) CFU respectively). The mutant strain that was attenuated could secrete inactivated ApxIA RTX toxins with complete antigenicity and could be used as a candidate live vaccine strain against infections of A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis. PMID:23718128

  17. Viability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in frozen pig lung samples and comparison of different methods of direct diagnosis in fresh samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C B; Rodriguez Barbosa, J I; Gonzalez, O R; Tascon, R I; Rodriguez Ferri, E F

    1992-04-01

    A comparative study on different methods of diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from both fresh and frozen pig lungs is described. A total of 196 lung tissues with pneumonic lesions were examined for culture isolation on chocolate blood agar, as well as for antigen detection by means of the coagglutination test, the immunodiffusion test and the indirect ELISA. These samples were subsequently frozen for 1 yr and then they were recultured. A. pleuropneumoniae was recovered from fresh lung specimens in 30 cases (15.3%) and from frozen samples in only two cases (0.9%). Such a different degree of isolation demonstrates that long freezing had an adverse effect on the viability of this organism in lung samples. A pleuropneumoniae detection was positive in 134 samples (68.4%) by at least one of the immunological techniques examined. The indirect ELISA was the most sensitive and specific test, with antigen detected in 125 lungs (63.8%). In comparison with the coagglutination and immunodiffusion tests, the sensitivities of the indirect ELISA were 95.8 and 93.7%, and the specificities were 67.0 and 63.4%, respectively. PMID:1563263

  18. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours' awareness using contagious displays.

    PubMed

    Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L; Senkiw, Robert W

    2014-02-22

    The jump-yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as 'the wave' through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump-yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump-yips thus function to assess neighbours' alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents. PMID:24403324

  19. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours’ awareness using contagious displays

    PubMed Central

    Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Senkiw, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The jump–yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as ‘the wave’ through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump–yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump–yips thus function to assess neighbours’ alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents. PMID:24403324

  20. [Importation of rare but life-threatening and highly contagious diseases. Current situation and outlook].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G D

    2015-10-01

    Internists should expect to be the first contact for patients with rare, but highly contagious, life-threatening illnesses. Although certainly not encountered often, it is associated with significant consequences. Thus, physicians should be familiar with viral hemorrhagic fevers: filoviruses cause Ebola and Marburg fever, arenaviruses cause Lassa fever and South American hemorrhagic fevers, and the bunyaviruses cause among others Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Furthermore, physicians should be familiar with highly contagious respiratory infections, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, pneumonic plague, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). PMID:26391557

  1. Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-05-10

    An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus. PMID:15820115

  2. Children's Understanding of the Transmission of Genetic Disorders and Contagious Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Gelman, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies suggesting that children attribute different modes of transmission to genetic disorders and contagious illnesses. Study 1 presented preschoolers through 5th graders and adults with "switched-at-birth" scenarios for various disorders. Study 2 presented preschoolers with the same disorders but used contagion links in…

  3. Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis MCE9, the Causative Agent of Contagious Equine Metritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Laugier, Claire; Batto, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE9, isolated in 2005 from the urethral fossa of a 4-year-old stallion in France. PMID:21278298

  4. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

  5. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  6. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  7. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  8. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries... imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding new testing protocols for test mares and...

  9. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  10. Genome sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis MCE9, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Laugier, Claire; Batto, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2011-04-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE9, isolated in 2005 from the urethral fossa of a 4-year-old stallion in France. PMID:21278298

  11. [Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin; Li, Wei; Li, Liangjun; Li, Lu; Zhang, Sihua; Li, Tingting; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Lei; Guo, Zhiwei; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a very important respiratory pathogen for swine and causes great economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is an effective method to identify virulence genes in bacteria. In this study, we selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of APP serotypes 1 and 3 by in vitro cultivation, and used as receipt strains for constructing transposon mutants by mating with E. coli CC 118 lambdapir or S17-1 lambdapir containing mini-Tn10 tag plasmids pLOF/TAG1-48, with or without the help of E. coli DH5alpha (pRK2073). We screened mutant strains by antibiotics selection, PCR and Southern blot identification. Our data revealed that nalidixic acid-resistance of APP strains could easily be induced in vitro and the resistance was due to the mutation in the DNA gyrase A subunit gene gyrA. In the mating experiments, the bi-parental mating was more effective and easier than tri-parental mating. Different APP strains showed a different mating and transposon efficiency in the bi-parental mating, with the strains of serotype 1 much higher than serotype 3 and the reference strain of serotype 3 higher than the field strains. These data were helpful for the construction of STM mutants and pickup of virulence genes of APP. PMID:18338580

  12. Pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and mediastinitis in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) associated with Pseudomonas luteola Infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J; Martorell, J; Abarca, M L; Olvera, A; Ramis, A; Woods, L; Cheville, N; Juan-Sallés, C; Moya, A; Riera, A; Soto, S

    2012-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2009, three pet ferrets from different sources presented with acute episode of dyspnoea. Cytological examination of pleural exudates revealed severe purulent inflammation with abundant clusters of rod-shaped microorganisms with a clear surrounding halo. Treatment was ineffective and the ferrets died 2-5 days later. Two ferrets were subjected to necropsy examination, which revealed pyothorax, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and multiple white nodules (1-2mm) in the lungs. Microscopical examination showed multifocal necrotizing-pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and lymphadenitis with aggregates of encapsulated microorganisms, some of which were positively stained by periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue. In-situ hybridization for Pneumocystis spp., Ziehl-Neelsen staining and immunohistochemistry for distemper, coronavirus and influenza antigen were negative in all cases. Electron microscopically, the bacteria were 2-3 μm long with a thick electron-lucent capsule. Microbiology from one ferret yielded a pure culture of gram-negative bacteria identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas luteola. This speciation was later confirmed by 16S RNA gene amplification. PMID:21601873

  13. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak. PMID:25480757

  14. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs. PMID:27046446

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in edible tissues of healthy and experimentally infected pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bladek, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej; Jablonski, Artur; Gajda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tissue pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy pigs and pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Tulathromycin was given to 24 healthy and 24 infected pigs by intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.). Pigs were euthanised at each group and then samples of liver, kidney, muscle, injection site and skin with fat were taken at scheduled time points. Drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. In this study, higher values of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated in all tissue samples taken from infected than healthy pigs. In pigs with App the AUCs of liver, kidney, muscle, skin with fat and injection site were 1111, 1973, 235, 181 and 2931 mg kg(-1) h, while in pigs without inflammation they were 509, 1295, 151, 111 and 1587 mg kg(-1) h, respectively. Maximum drug tissue concentrations (Cmax) in infected animals were 2370, 6650, 2016, 666 and 83,870 µg kg(-1), while in healthy pigs they were 1483, 6677, 1733, 509 and 55,006 µg kg(-1), respectively. The eliminations half-times (T1/2) were respectively longer in all tissue samples taken from infected animals (from 157.3 to 187.3 h) than in healthy ones (from 138.6 to 161.2 h). The tulathromycin tissue concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in all tissue samples of the infected pigs compared with the healthy animals at 360 h (from 0.0014 to 0.0280) and at 792 h (from 0.0007 to 0.0242) after drug administration. The results suggest that the tissue pharmacokinetic properties and residue depletion of tulathromycin can be influenced by the disease state of animals. PMID:26247868

  16. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  17. Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: current knowledge concerning epidemiology, diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    Bergonier, D; Berthelot, X; Poumarat, F

    1997-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which principally affects the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The main causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep, and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. The evolution of the infection tends to be chronic in affected animals and herds. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. These insidious infections, associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, are difficult to diagnose and to control. The main mode of transmission between flocks is related to the sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance, whereas transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses the clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. PMID:9567311

  18. Molecular Analysis of an Alternative N-Glycosylation Machinery by Functional Transfer from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Naegeli, Andreas; Neupert, Christine; Fan, Yao-Yun; Lin, Chia-Wei; Poljak, Kristina; Papini, Anna Maria; Schwarz, Flavio; Aebi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    N-Linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon NX(S/T) of secreted polypeptides. The δ-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-Linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo, and in depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. Although NX(S/T) is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria. PMID:24275653

  19. Genomic relatedness among Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains of sterotypes 1 and 5 isolated from healthy and diseased pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Chatellier, S; Harel, J; Dugourd, D; Chevallier, B; Kobisch, M; Gottschalk, M

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and apx toxin gene typing. Nine RAPD types and 14 PFGE patterns were identified. No common RAPD or PFGE patterns were found between strains of serotype 1 and those of serotype 5. The RAPD analysis indicated that the 15 serotype 1 strains isolated from diseased pigs were assigned to 4 RAPD types, with 66% of strains characterized by the same RAPD type. By contrast, the 5 strains of serotype 1 isolated from healthy carriers were dispersed in 4 RAPD types. These data suggest that the diversity of strains isolated from healthy pigs could be higher than that of strains recovered from diseased pigs. In addition, all serotype 5 strains exhibited a unique RAPD type. Unlike RAPD, PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of serotype 1 and among those of serotype 5. All but 3 isolates showed the same apx genotype as their respective serotype reference strain. These data indicate that RAPD analysis is a valuable rapid tool for routine subtyping of strains of serotype 1. For strains of serotype 5, a combination of several typing methods, such as PFGE and apx gene typing, is needed to provide useful information on the molecular epidemiology of swine pleuropneumonia. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:10480458

  20. Impact of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilm mode of growth on the lipid A structures and stimulation of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, Skander; Beaudry, Francis; Provost, Chantale; Martelet, Léa; Segura, Mariela; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, forms biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. APP biofilms confers resistance to antibiotics. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of APP biofilm in immune evasion and infection persistence. This study was undertaken to (i) investigate biofilm-associated LPS modifications occurring during the switch to biofilm mode of growth; and (ii) characterize pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and proliferation in porcine PBMCs challenged with planktonic or biofilm APP cells. Extracted lipid A samples from biofilm and planktonic cultures were analyzed by HPLC high-resolution, accurate mass spectrometry. Biofilm cells displayed significant changes in lipid A profiles when compared with their planktonic counterparts. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the inflammatory response of PAMs exposed to UV-inactivated APP grown in biofilm or in suspension. Relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes IL1, IL6, IL8 and MCP1 decreased in PAMs when exposed to biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Additionally, the biofilm state reduced PBMCs proliferation. Taken together, APP biofilm cells show a weaker ability to stimulate innate immune cells, which could be due, in part, to lipid A structure modifications. PMID:27226465

  1. Susceptibility testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark. Evaluation of three different media of MIC-determinations and tablet diffusion tests.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Jensen, N E

    1999-02-12

    This study was conducted to compare the applicability of three different media in sensitivity testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by means of MIC and tablet diffusion tests. The media used were: modified PPLO agar, chocolatized Mueller-Hinton-II and Columbia agar supplemented with NAD. Seven antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, trimethoprim + sulfadiazine and tylosin, against 40 randomly selected A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. In general, good agreement was found between results obtained with all combinations of media, most antimicrobials tested and the two-test systems. Some variations between media were observed for spectinomycin, tiamulin and tylosin. For ceftiofur and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine some isolates with low MIC-values were classified as resistant using tablet diffusion, indicating that the break points of resistance for these antimicrobials using the tablet diffusion tests need adjustment. Using current break points for resistance with MIC-determinations, all isolates tested susceptible to ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine. A larger number of isolates tested resistant to spectinomycin and tylosin on all three media using both MIC determinations and tablet diffusion. PMID:10063535

  2. Pleural effusion associated with acute and chronic pleuropneumonia and pleuritis secondary to thoracic wounds in horses: 43 cases (1982-1992).

    PubMed

    Collins, M B; Hodgson, D R; Hutchins, D R

    1994-12-15

    Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%). Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery. Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia. PMID:7744650

  3. Clinico-pathological observations on naturally occurring contagious ecthyma in lambs in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Gameel, A A; Abu Elzein, E M; Housawi, F M; Agib, A; Ibrahim, A O

    1995-01-01

    Typical lesions of contagious ecthyma were diagnosed in lambs four months old and infection has been confirmed by viral isolation and identification. The lambs had lower total serum protein values, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte counts and packed cell volume, but higher blood leukocyte counts and increased serum transaminase activity when compared to apparently healthy animals. The disease is believed to be transmitted from newly introduced goats which showed evidence of infection. PMID:8745744

  4. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model. PMID:25024909

  5. A tale of two tumours: comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-09-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD. PMID:23200636

  6. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs. PMID:10461841

  7. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  8. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  9. Comparative in vitro activity of 16 antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Takagi, M; Ishimura, M; Endoh, Y S

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen antimicrobial agents were tested for their activity against 68 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftiofur and the fluoroquinolones danofloxacin and enrofloxacin were the most active compounds, with a MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) of (0.05 microg/ml. The MIC90 values of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and aspoxicillin were 0.78 units/ml, 0.39 microg/ml and < or = 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Three isolates (4.4%) were resistant to penicillins, but aspoxicillin was as active as ceftiofur against the susceptible isolates, with MICs of < or = 0.05 microg/ml for all isolates. Resistance to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol occurred in 22 (32.4%), 14 (20.6%) and 15 (22.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Doxycycline was more active than oxytetracycline, with a MIC90 of 1.56 microg/ml as against 25 microg/ml. Florfenicol was not only as active as thiamphenicol, with a MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) of 0.39 microg/ml, but also active against thiamphenicol-resistant isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. All the isolates were also susceptible to gentamicin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, colistin and tiamulin. Of these, spectinomycin was the least active, with a MIC50 of 25 microg/ml, followed by tiamulin, with a MIC50 of 6.25 microg/ml. Of the 68 isolates tested, 49 (72.0%) were of serotype 2; 14 (20.5%) were of serotype 1; 2 each (3.0%) were of serotypes 5 and 6; and one was of serotype 7. Of the isolates, 23 (33.8%) were resistant to one or more of the major antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was found only infrequently among serotype 2, with 5 (10.2%) of 49 isolates being resistant to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline, while it occurred in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 isolates of other serotypes. PMID:11860083

  10. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  12. Individual Variation in Contagious Yawning Susceptibility Is Highly Stable and Largely Unexplained by Empathy or Other Known Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Alex J.; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted. PMID:24632594

  13. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks. PMID:24718030

  14. Using Friends as Sensors to Detect Global-Scale Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global–scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global–scale networks. PMID:24718030

  15. The revival of Lucretian atomism and contagious diseases during the renaissance.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the influence of Lucretius' De rerum natura on the theory of contagious diseases which Girolamo Fracastoro developed during the second decade of the 16th century. It is apparent that the use of the concept of semina morbi was neither an anticipation of modern germ theory, nor a mere adaptation of the terminology of classical atomism. In fact, the combination of the humanist interest in the poem of Lucretius with a renewed attention towards direct observation resulted in the publication in of Fracastoro's De morbo gallico (1530), containing an innovative and effective interpretation of the notion of contagion. PMID:15309812

  16. Contagious cancer.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  17. Identification and preliminary characterization of a 75-kDa hemin- and hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Marie; Labrie, Josée; Rioux, Clément R; Dumas, France; Thibault, Pierre; Elkins, Christopher; Jacques, Mario

    2003-10-01

    The reference strains representing serotypes 1 to 12 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 were examined for their ability to utilize porcine hemoglobin (Hb) or porcine hemin (Hm) as iron sources for growth. In a growth promotion assay, all of the reference strains were able to use porcine Hb, and all strains except 2 were able to use porcine Hm. Using a preliminary characterization procedure with Hm- or Hb-agarose, Hm- and Hb-binding outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of approximately 75 kDa were isolated from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 grown under iron-restricted conditions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed a number of common tryptic peptides between the Hb-agarose- and Hm-agarose-purified 75 kDa OMPs, strongly suggesting that these peptides originate from the same protein. A database search of these peptide sequences revealed identities with proteins from various Gram-negative bacteria, including iron-regulated OMPs, transporter proteins, as well as TonB-dependent receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae synthesizes potential Hm- and Hb-binding proteins that could be implicated in the iron uptake from porcine Hb and Hm. PMID:14620863

  18. Nasal immunization with M cell-targeting ligand-conjugated ApxIIA toxin fragment induces protective immunity against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisang; Seo, Ki-Weon; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Kim, Bumseok; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hee; Yoo, Han Sang; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-05-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and severe economic loss in the swine industry has been caused by the infection. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine against the bacteria is necessary. ApxII toxin, among several virulence factors expressed by the bacteria, is considered to be a promising vaccine candidate because ApxII toxin not only accompanies cytotoxic and hemolytic activities, but is also expressed in all 15 serotypes of bacteria except serotypes 10 and 14. In this study, we identified the peptide ligand capable of targeting the ligand-conjugated ApxIIA #5 fragment antigen to nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue. It was found that nasal immunization with ligand-conjugated ApxIIA #5 induced efficient mucosal and systemic immune responses measured at the levels of antigen-specific antibodies, cytokine-secreting cells after antigen exposure, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation. More importantly, the nasal immunization induced protective immunity against nasal challenge infection of the bacteria, which was confirmed by histopathological studies and bacterial clearance after challenge infection. Collectively, we confirmed that the ligand capable of targeting the ligand-conjugated antigen to nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue can be used as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant to induce protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25818577

  19. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  20. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Church, Allyson M; Gallup, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control) or yawning (experimental) vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status) and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status). The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:26617557

  1. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  2. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for contagious agalactia diagnosis in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Becker, Claire A M; Ramos, Fabien; Sellal, Eric; Moine, Sandrine; Poumarat, François; Tardy, Florence

    2012-08-01

    Contagious agalactia is an important disease worldwide that affects small ruminants. Clinical manifestations vary from mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis to septicemia. Four mycoplasmal etiological agents have been identified: Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. capri, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens. The current procedure for direct diagnosis, recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health, involves the isolation of one or several causative agents from clinical specimens and further time-consuming identification steps. The present study reports the development of a new multiplex real-time PCR (including an internal positive control) that detects all four pathogens simultaneously and distinguishes M. agalactiae from the others. First, intra- and inter-species polymorphisms of the two target house-keeping genes, namely polC and fusA, were analyzed to design primers and probes adapted to the diversity of currently circulating strains. The specificity and the sensitivity of the assay were then challenged and the limit of detection was found to be as low as 6 to 12 copies of the target genes. The assay requires further assessment on clinical specimens but its performances (notably low intra- and inter-assay variability) are already very promising for use in large-scale diagnosis and prophylactic surveys of contagious agalactia. PMID:22579581

  3. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Church, Allyson M.; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control) or yawning (experimental) vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status) and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status). The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:26617557

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  5. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  6. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases. PMID:20633939

  7. The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

  8. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    PubMed

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  9. Contagious Fire? An Empirical Assessment of the Problem of Multi-Shooter, Multi-Shot Deadly Force Incidents in Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael D.; Klinger, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent police shootings in which multiple officers fired numerous rounds at suspects have led some observers to assert that such situations involve "contagious fire," where an initial officer's shots launch a cascade of gunfire from other officers present. Although there is anecdotal recognition of the contagious fire phenomenon among police and…

  10. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  11. What Do Children Learn about Biology from Factual Information? A Comparison of Interventions to Improve Understanding of Contagious Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myant, Katherine A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children have been shown to hold misconceptions about illness, and previous work has indicated that their knowledge can be improved through the use of interventions. Aims: This study aims to evaluate interventions based on the provision of factual information for improving understanding of contagious illness. Sample: The participants…

  12. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  13. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  14. A Framework for Categorization of the Economic Impacts of Outbreaks of Highly Contagious Livestock Diseases.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, H W; Mourits, M C M; Howe, K S

    2016-08-01

    A framework for categorization of economic impacts of outbreaks of highly contagious livestock diseases (HCLD) is presented. This framework interprets veterinary measures to control HCLD outbreaks with reference to economic definitions of costs and benefits, and the implications for value losses both for different stakeholders affected and society as a whole. Four cost categories are identified, that is virus control-related direct costs (DC), spread prevention and zoning-related direct consequential costs (DCC), market and price disruption-related costs during (indirect consequential costs, ICC) and after the outbreak (aftermath costs, AC). The framework is used to review existing literature on cost estimation for different stakeholders. This review shows considerable differences between studies, making comparison of results difficult and susceptible to misunderstanding. It is concluded that the framework provides a logical basis for all future analyses of the economic impacts of HCLD. PMID:25382248

  15. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health. PMID:27102276

  16. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38. PMID:26294761

  17. Conservation and antigenic cross-reactivity of the transferrin-binding proteins of Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Holland, J; Parsons, T R; Hasan, A A; Cook, S M; Stevenson, P; Griffiths, E; Williams, P

    1996-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae acquires iron from the iron-transporting glycoprotein transferrin via a receptor-mediated process. This involves two outer-membrane transferrin-binding proteins (Tbps) termed Tbp1 and Tbp2 which show considerable preference for the human form of transferrin. Since the Tbps are attracting considerable attention as potential vaccine components, we used transferrin affinity chromatography to examine their conservation amongst 28 H. influenzae type b strains belonging to different outer-membrane-protein subtypes as well as six non-typable strains. Whole cells of all type b and non-typable strains examined bound human transferrin; whilst most strains possessed a Tbp1 of approximately 105 kDa, the molecular mass of Tbp2 varied from 79 to 94 kDa. Antisera raised against affinity-purified native H. influenzae Tbp1/Tbp2 receptor complex cross-reacted on Western blots with the respective Tbps of all the Haemophilus strains examined. When used to probe Neisseria meningitidis Tbps, sera from each of four mice immunized with the Haemophilus Tbp1/2 complex recognized the 68 kDa Tbp2 of N. meningitidis strain B16B6 but not the 78 kDa Tbp2 of N. meningitidis strain 70942. Serum from one mouse also reacted weakly with Tbp1 of strain B16B6. Apart from a weak reaction with the Tbp2 of a serotype 5 strain, this mouse antiserum failed to recognize the Tbps of the porcine pathogen A. pleuropneumoniae. However, a monospecific polyclonal antiserum raised against the denatured Tbp2 of Neisseria meningitidis B16B6 recognized the Tbps of all Haemophilus and Actinobacillus strains examined. Since H. influenzae forms part of the natural flora of the upper respiratory tract, human sera were screened for the presence of antibodies to the Tbps. Sera from healthy adults contained antibodies which recognized both Tbp1 and Tbp2 from H. influenzae but not N. meningitidis. Convalescent sera from meningococcal meningitis patients contained antibodies which, on Western blots

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  19. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  20. 21 CFR 522.313b - Ceftiofur hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD, shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with...

  1. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection. PMID:25632657

  2. Identification of a hemolysin from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and characterization of its channel properties in planar phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, G; McDonald, T V; Gardner, P; O'Hanley, P D

    1989-08-15

    A proteinaceous hemolysin secreted by strain 4074 of serotype 1 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was purified by diafiltration and ion exchange chromatographic techniques. The hemolytic activity is associated with a 107-kDa band as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and confirmed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. This hemolysin produces pores in membranes as demonstrated by osmotic protection studies using red blood cells and carbohydrate compounds of various molecular weights. These assays suggest a pore diameter in the order of 2 nm. Phospholipid bilayers composed of 1:1 w/w phosphotidylserine:phosphotidylethanolamine exposed to this toxin display discrete current flow events typical of transmembrane channels and consistent with the interpretation that this toxin acts by forming pores in phospholipid membranes. The linear relationship of current amplitude to holding potential when examined over the -60 to +60 mV range indicates that this pore has a constant mean single channel conductance level of 350-400 pS. PMID:2474533

  3. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  7. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  8. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  9. Comparative activities of selected fluoroquinolones against dynamic populations of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in an in vitro model of time-kill continuous culture experiment.

    PubMed

    Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi B; Hossain, Md Akil; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to demonstrate and compare the impact of different pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin on their antimicrobial effects, their killing and re-growth kinetics, and the population dynamics of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in an in vitro dynamic model. Selected clinical isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and three fluoroquinolones at a range of simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of multiple doses were investigated. At the same simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of the three fluoroquinolones, the killing re-growth profile and I(E) values (intensity of the antimicrobial effect) revealed strain- and fluoroquinolone-specific effects. For example, a 31% lower I(E) of difloxacin was observed in AppK5 (biofilm-former) than in AppK2 (biofilm-non-former) at the same AUC(24)/MIC ratio of 120 h. In addition, losses in A. pleuropneumoniae susceptibility of both strains by the three fluoroquinolones were observed. AUC(24)/MPC ratios of 20.89 and 39.81 for marbofloxacin, 17.32 and 19.49 for enrofloxacin and 31.62 and 60.25 for difloxacin were estimated to be protective against the selection of AppK2 and AppK5 strain mutants, respectively. Integration of these in vitro data with published pharmacokinetics revealed the inadequacy of the conventional clinical doses of the three drugs to attain the above protective values for minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and concentration to prevent growth of 90% of the mutant subpopulation (MPC(90)). In conclusion, the results suggest optimising doses could suffice for resistant mutants control, while for biofilm-forming strains combination with biofilm-disrupting agents to reduce the MBEC to achieve AUC/MBEC ratios within the possible dosing regimens is desired. PMID:24139884

  10. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Cox, Andrew D; Hancock, Mark A; Mourez, Michael; Labrie, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Jacques, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Apx toxins are major virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen of the respiratory tract of pigs. Here, we evaluated the effect of LPS core truncation in haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of this microorganism. We previously generated a highly attenuated galU mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that has an LPS molecule lacking the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I outer core residues. Our results demonstrate that this mutant exhibits wild-type haemolytic activity but is significantly less cytotoxic to porcine alveolar macrophages. However, no differences were found in gene expression and secretion of the haemolytic and cytotoxic toxins ApxI and ApxII, both secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. This suggests that the outer core truncation mediated by the galU mutation affects the toxins in their cytotoxic activities. Using both ELISA and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LPS and the ApxI and ApxII toxins via the core oligosaccharide. Our results indicate that the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I trisaccharide of the outer core is fundamental to mediating LPS/Apx interactions. The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:18713318

  11. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control. PMID:23066698

  12. The occurrence of treponemes in contagious ovine digital dermatitis and the characterisation of associated Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Moore, L J; Woodward, M J; Grogono-Thomas, R

    2005-12-20

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a recently recorded, apparently new infection of the ovine hoof, which differs clinically from footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and which fails to respond well to accepted treatment practices for footrot. Despite the welfare implications of such an infection, very little research has been performed on CODD to date and the aetiology remains confused. Suggestions have been made that there is a potential role for treponemes in the pathogenesis of CODD but that D. nodosus is apparently not involved. Six farms were therefore targeted in this study to provide a more in-depth investigation into the bacterial flora of CODD lesions. Dark ground microscopy, culture and PCR techniques were used, concentrating on the presence of D. nodosus and spirochaetes, particularly those of the genus Treponema. The results demonstrated that isolates of D. nodosus were indeed present in a high percentage (74%) of CODD lesions compared with 31% of apparently healthy feet. The isolates were shown to be of similar virulence type to those reported previously in cases of footrot, and the range of serogroups was also found to be similar to footrot, with serogroup H being prevalent. Treponemes were present in 70% of CODD lesions and 38% of apparently healthy feet, supporting a possible association between CODD and treponemes. However, any further progress on the aetiology of CODD and the potential for novel, effective treatment will depend on an improved ability to culture these organisms routinely in the laboratory thereby enabling their complete characterisation. PMID:16280206

  13. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue from which DFTD originated. We did not observe any strain or region-specific epimutations. However, we revealed a significant increase in hypomethylation in DFT samples over time (p < 0.0001). We propose that loss of methylation is not because of a maintenance deficiency, as an upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 gene was observed in tumours compared with nerves (p < 0.005). Instead, we believe that loss of methylation is owing to active demethylation, supported by the temporal increase in MBD2 and MBD4 (p < 0.001). The implications of these changes on disease phenotypes need to be explored. Our work shows that DFTD should not be treated as a static entity, but rather as an evolving parasite with epigenetic plasticity. Understanding the role of epimutations in the evolution of this parasitic cancer will provide unique insights into the role of epigenetic plasticity in cancer evolution and progression in traditional cancers that arise and die with their hosts. PMID:23135679

  14. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue from which DFTD originated. We did not observe any strain or region-specific epimutations. However, we revealed a significant increase in hypomethylation in DFT samples over time (p < 0.0001). We propose that loss of methylation is not because of a maintenance deficiency, as an upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 gene was observed in tumours compared with nerves (p < 0.005). Instead, we believe that loss of methylation is owing to active demethylation, supported by the temporal increase in MBD2 and MBD4 (p < 0.001). The implications of these changes on disease phenotypes need to be explored. Our work shows that DFTD should not be treated as a static entity, but rather as an evolving parasite with epigenetic plasticity. Understanding the role of epimutations in the evolution of this parasitic cancer will provide unique insights into the role of epigenetic plasticity in cancer evolution and progression in traditional cancers that arise and die with their hosts. PMID:23135679

  15. MHC gene copy number variation in Tasmanian devils: implications for the spread of a contagious cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Marzec, Jolanta; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Tasmanian devils face extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a clonal cancer spread owing to a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers in Tasmanian devil populations. We present a comprehensive screen of MHC diversity in devils and identify 25 MHC types and 53 novel sequences, but conclude that overall levels of MHC diversity at the sequence level are low. The majority of MHC Class I variation can be explained by allelic copy number variation with two to seven sequence variants identified per individual. MHC sequences are divided into two distinct groups based on sequence similarity. DFTD cells and most devils have sequences from both groups. Twenty per cent of individuals have a restricted MHC repertoire and contain only group I or only group II sequences. Counterintuitively, we postulate that the immune system of individuals with a restricted MHC repertoire may recognize foreign MHC antigens on the surface of the DFTD cell. The implication of these results for management of DFTD and this endangered species are discussed. PMID:20219742

  16. Clinical and radiographic features of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and a novel lesion grading system.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Blundell, R; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-05-23

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an infectious foot disease of sheep causing severe lameness. Diagnosis is currently made using broad anecdotal descriptions. The aim of this study was to systematically and formally describe the clinical presentation of the disease in terms of (1) a lesion grading system; (2) associated radiographic changes and (3) severity of associated lameness. A five-point lesion grading system was developed and applied to 908 sheep affected by CODD from six farms. Sheep with lesions typical of each grade were euthanased and their feet radiographed. Radiographic abnormalities including soft tissue and bony changes were evident in feet with lesions graded 2-5. In order to quantify the welfare impact of CODD, all the 908 sheep were locomotion scored. Five hundred and eighty-five (64.5% (95% CI 61.4% to 67.6%)) were lame. The locomotion score for affected sheep increased with worsening pathological changes. Once healing had begun the locomotion score decreased. In conclusion the five-point grading system may be used to clinically describe stages of CODD lesions. The radiographic changes revealed examples of deeper pathological changes and there was a strong association between the lesion grading system and locomotion score in affected sheep. PMID:25861825

  17. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Québec.

    PubMed

    Francoz, David; Bergeron, Luc; Nadeau, Marie; Beauchamp, Guy

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in bulk tank milk (BTM) in Québec dairy herds. BTM was sampled 3 times a month in 117 randomly selected dairy herds. Samples were submitted for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and mycoplasma and for direct mycoplasma detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mycoplasma spp. was identified at least once in 3 herds (2.6%) by primary culture and/or PCR and in 4 herds (3.4%) by enrichment culture and/or PCR. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated at least once in 99 (84.6%) and 112 (95.7%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated at least once in 9 (7.7%) and 10 (8.6%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Herd prevalence of mycoplasma was similar to that previously reported in Canada. Staphylococcus aureus is still by far the most important contagious mastitis pathogen. PMID:23543925

  18. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs. PMID:24984948

  19. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  20. Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S

    1992-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability, a timing protocol was adopted. Within-plate variability was also controlled by using a sample placement configuration pattern. Sliding scales were determined by repeated testing of a cross section of samples to set acceptance limits for both within- and between-plate variability. These limits were used in a quality control program to monitor assay performance. The results obtained suggest that this standardized protocol might be useful in the serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. PMID:1734068

  1. Characterization of bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus succinogenes for efficient glutathione biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production. PMID:26996628

  2. Therapeutic effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" on porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and its acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxi; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Ren-Yong; Lai, Xin; Zhou, Xun; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Li-Xia; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Lv, Cheng; He, Chang-Liang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Li-Zi; Jing, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Chinese patent medicines play an important role in veterinary clinical use. The aim of this study is to research the anti-infection effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" for the treatment of porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and to evaluate the safety of "Wuhuanghu" in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its toxicity. The anti-infection results showed that the treatment with "Wuhuanghu" could significantly inhibit pneumonia and decrement of the pneumonia in high, medium and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were 70.97%, 61.29% and 58.06% respectively. The acute toxicity test showed that rats in the highest group (5000mg/kg) had no death and no abnormal response, suggesting the LD50 of "Wuhuanghu" was more than 5000mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study showed that hematology indexes in all groups had no obvious differences; blood biochemical index, only albumin and total cholesterol in middle and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were significantly decreased when compared with control group. The clinical pathology showed that the target organ of "Wuhuanghu" was liver. The safety pharmacology study indicated that "Wuhuanghu" had no side effects on rats. In conclusion, "Wuhuanghu" has therapeutic and protective effects to porcine infectious pleuropneumonia in a dose-dependent manner and "Wuhuanghu" is a safe veterinary medicine. PMID:26245812

  3. Potential Application Of New Diagnostic Methods For Controlling Bovine Tuberculosis In Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Luciana dos Santos; Marassi, Carla Dray; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio S.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an economic and public health problem for several countries. Due to its economic impact on international trade, contagious nature, and implications for human health, global programs to eradicate the disease were implemented worldwide. Those programs are based on slaughtering PPD-reactive animals. Despite the National Programs in Brazil, complete eradication has not been achieved, and the disease remains, albeit at a lower prevalence. The central purpose of this review is to address diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Considering the course of the infection in cattle, at least two tests, ideally complementary to one another, may be necessary for an adequate diagnosis: the first based on the cellular response, and the second capable of identifying anergic animals by detection of specific anti-M.bovis antibodies. PMID:24031527

  4. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can ‘force’ spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes. PMID:24586705

  5. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  6. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  7. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the ‘chameleon effect’, targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  8. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  9. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  10. A Rational Approach to Estimating the Surgical Demand Elasticity Needed to Guide Manpower Reallocation during Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Sun, Ying-Chou; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. Aim To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Materials and Methods Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volumes of major surgery types for the period 1998–2003, which covered the SARS period, in order to carry out a time series analysis. The demand elasticity of each surgery type was then estimated by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis. Results During the study period, the surgical volumes of most selected surgery types either increased or remained steady. We categorized these surgery types into low-, moderate- and high-elastic groups according to their demand elasticity. Appendectomy, ‘open reduction of fracture with internal fixation’ and ‘free skin graft’ were in the low demand elasticity group. Transurethral prostatectomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) were in the high demand elasticity group. The manpower of the departments carrying out the surgeries with low demand elasticity should be maintained during outbreaks. In contrast, departments in charge of surgeries mainly with high demand elasticity, like urology departments, may be in a position to have part of their staff reallocated. Conclusions Taking advantage of the demand variation during the SARS period in 2003, we adopted the concept of demand elasticity and used a time series approach to figure out an effective index of demand elasticity for various types of surgery that could be used as a rational reference to carry out manpower reallocation during contagious outbreak situations. PMID:25837596

  11. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Minehata, Masamichi; Dando, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime . PMID:22984642

  12. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  13. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  14. Minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints and disk diffusion inhibitory zone interpretive criteria for tilmicosin susceptibility testing against Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae associated with porcine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Staples, J Mitchell; DeRosa, David C

    2002-09-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic developed for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Tilmicosin has been approved as a feed premix to control porcine respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines for tilmicosin was predicated on the relationship of clinical efficacy studies that demonstrated a favorable therapeutic outcome, on pharmacokinetic data, and on in vitro test data, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The approved breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration dilution testing for both species are resistant, > or = 32 microg/ml, and susceptible, < or = 16 microg/ml. The zone of inhibition interpretive criteria for disk diffusion testing with a 15-microg tilmicosin disk are resistant, < or = 10 mm, and susceptible, > or = 11 mm. PMID:12296390

  15. Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Kai; SHAO, Hongze; PEI, Zhihua; HU, Guixue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. The results showed that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 100 copies of the standard plasmid, which is 100-fold higher than the sensitivity of PCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with capripoxvirus, fowlpox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia I and bluetongue virus. The average positive rate was 19.73% (72/365), and the positive rate was highest in lambs aged 1–6 months. Our results demonstrated that CEV infection was very widespread in the flocks of Jilin Province and that the LAMP assay allows for easy, rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of CEV infection. PMID:26346652

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    PubMed

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Paterna, Ana; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies. PMID:27374908

  17. Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Shao, Hongze; Pei, Zhihua; Hu, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. The results showed that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 100 copies of the standard plasmid, which is 100-fold higher than the sensitivity of PCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with capripoxvirus, fowlpox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia I and bluetongue virus. The average positive rate was 19.73% (72/365), and the positive rate was highest in lambs aged 1-6 months. Our results demonstrated that CEV infection was very widespread in the flocks of Jilin Province and that the LAMP assay allows for easy, rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of CEV infection. PMID:26346652

  18. Benefits of lethal pandemics: direct impact of contagious diseases on public administration in Hungary (1867-1914).

    PubMed

    Palvolgyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    The reconciliation of 1867 between Austria and Hungary brought great changes to Hungarian public administration: the way towards the building up of a modern public administration had been opened. Although there was a functioning public health system and a related legislation from the late 18th century, major issues - such as balanced geographical distribution of medical personnel, fair access to medical services even in the poorer regions of the country, and the effective protection against some contagious diseases - were not resolved for decades. During the reform work of public administration since the 1870s, the lawmakers touched repeatedly the framework and functioning of the public health as well. Although the general conditions of the domain depended traditionally on the municipalities and counties due to the national importance of the matter, the government made efforts to make the functioning of the public health more efficient through centralisation. The contagious diseases continuously endangered the population, revealing the weak points in the existing public health system, thereby giving a momentum to the reforms and helping the government in its organization of prevention and clearly contributing to the legislation work. PMID:24304105

  19. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle. PMID:22142412

  20. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  1. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  2. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  3. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar; Yuen, Chun Kit; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine; Swift, Kate; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna E; Skjødt, Karsten; Woods, Gregory M; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-03-26

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should be rejected by the host-immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of considerable confusion. Here, we show that DFTD cells do not express cell surface MHC molecules in vitro or in vivo, due to down-regulation of genes essential to the antigen-processing pathway, such as β2-microglobulin and transporters associated with antigen processing. Loss of gene expression is not due to structural mutations, but to regulatory changes including epigenetic deacetylation of histones. Consequently, MHC class I molecules can be restored to the surface of DFTD cells in vitro by using recombinant devil IFN-γ, which is associated with up-regulation of the MHC class II transactivator, a key transcription factor with deacetylase activity. Further, expression of MHC class I molecules by DFTD cells can occur in vivo during lymphocyte infiltration. These results explain why T cells do not target DFTD cells. We propose that MHC-positive or epigenetically modified DFTD cells may provide a vaccine to DFTD. In addition, we suggest that down-regulation of MHC molecules using regulatory mechanisms allows evolvability of transmissible cancers and could affect the evolutionary trajectory of DFTD. PMID:23479617

  4. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar; Yuen, Chun Kit; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine; Swift, Kate; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna E.; Skjødt, Karsten; Woods, Gregory M.; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should be rejected by the host–immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of considerable confusion. Here, we show that DFTD cells do not express cell surface MHC molecules in vitro or in vivo, due to down-regulation of genes essential to the antigen-processing pathway, such as β2-microglobulin and transporters associated with antigen processing. Loss of gene expression is not due to structural mutations, but to regulatory changes including epigenetic deacetylation of histones. Consequently, MHC class I molecules can be restored to the surface of DFTD cells in vitro by using recombinant devil IFN-γ, which is associated with up-regulation of the MHC class II transactivator, a key transcription factor with deacetylase activity. Further, expression of MHC class I molecules by DFTD cells can occur in vivo during lymphocyte infiltration. These results explain why T cells do not target DFTD cells. We propose that MHC-positive or epigenetically modified DFTD cells may provide a vaccine to DFTD. In addition, we suggest that down-regulation of MHC molecules using regulatory mechanisms allows evolvability of transmissible cancers and could affect the evolutionary trajectory of DFTD. PMID:23479617

  5. Transcriptional profiling of bovine Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's Disease is a chronic, contagious disease prevalent in ruminants. The animal is infected early in life by the bacteria Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The characteristic symptoms of rapid weight loss and diarrhea may not appear for years after infection. We investigated t...

  6. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals. PMID:23076724

  7. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  8. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  9. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, C; Giboin, H; Schneider, M; El Garch, F; Fraile, L

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the theoretical clinical outcome of three marbofloxacin posology regimens in two groups of pigs (weaners and fatteners) for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hp) infection and the appearance of resistant bacteria due to the antibiotic treatment. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance for fluoroquinolones at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were calculated, respectively. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for the three posology regimens against App and they ranged from 91.12% to 96.37% in weaners and from 93% to 97.43% in fatteners, respectively. In the case of Hp, they ranged from 80.52% to 85.14% in weaners and from 82.01% to 88.49% in fatteners, respectively. Regarding the PTA of the PK/PD threshold associated with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance, results showed that marbofloxacin would prevent resistances in most of the animals up to the MPC value of 1 μg/mL. PMID:24903473

  10. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a proposal... January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553, Docket No. 03-080-3). The delay of applicability was removed in a final... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR...