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Sample records for containment atmosphere conditions-an

  1. MINOS atmospheric neutrino contained events

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, A.; /Minnesota U.

    2007-10-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment has continued to collect atmospheric neutrino events while doing a precision measurement of NuMI beam {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations. The 5.4 kton iron calorimeter is magnetized to provide the unique capability of discriminating between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions on an event-by-event basis and has been collecting atmospheric neutrino data since July 2003. An analysis of the neutrino events with interaction vertices contained inside the detector will be presented.

  2. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  3. OCEANET-Atmosphere - The Autonomous Measurement Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisch, John; Macke, Andreas; Althausen, Dietrich; Bumke, Karl; Engelmann, Ronny; Kanitz, Thomas; Kleta, Henry; Zoll, Yann

    2010-05-01

    OCEANET-Atmosphere is a joint venture project of IFM-GEOMAR and IFT to study the mass and energy transfer of ocean and atmosphere by introducing a special measurement container, which is suitable to perform a large spectrum of atmospheric underway measurements on offshore research vessels and cargo ships. The container combines state-of-the-art measurement devices and connect them to its own computer network to realize a comprehensive system for remote sensing. A Raman-lidar measures marine and anthropogenic optical aerosol properities by analyzing the elastic signal and the vibration-rotation Raman signal of nitrogen. Our passive microwave radiometer determines the integrated water vapor and the liquid water path of the atmospheric column, as well as vertical temperature and humidity profiles. Carbon dioxide is measured high-frequent. Turbulence measurements are performed by means of a sonic anemometer. In combination with fast humidity sensors the fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat are derived. An automatic full sky imager monitors the state of the cloudy sky. A selection of standard meteorological devices measure air temperature, humidity, wind velocity, wind speed and downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. The GPS sensors register navigational data. For an almost real time monitoring of a data subset our telemetry system is sending short hourly data reports via satellite. OCEANET-Atmosphere is set up to improve the quantity and the quality of atmospheric data sets on intercontinental oceanic transects, where the previous data base is still weak. A first research mission has been performed onboard RV Polarstern at ANT XXVI/1.

  4. Purging of working atmospheres inside freight containers.

    PubMed

    Braconnier, Robert; Keller, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on prevention of possible exposure to chemical agents, when opening, entering, and stripping freight containers. The container purging process is investigated using tracer gas measurements and numerical airflow simulations. Three different container ventilation conditions are studied, namely natural, mixed mode, and forced ventilation. The tests conducted allow purging time variations to be quantified in relation to various factors such as container size, degree of filling, or type of load. Natural ventilation performance characteristics prove to be highly variable, depending on environmental conditions. Use of a mechanically supplied or extracted airflow under mixed mode and forced ventilation conditions enables purging to be significantly accelerated. Under mixed mode ventilation, extracting air from the end of the container furthest from the door ensures quicker purging than supplying fresh air to this area. Under forced ventilation, purging rate is proportional to the applied ventilation flow. Moreover, purging rate depends mainly on the location at which air is introduced: the most favourable position being above the container loading level. Many of the results obtained during this study can be generalized to other cases of purging air in a confined space by general ventilation, e.g. the significance of air inlet positioning or the advantage of generating high air velocities to maximize stirring within the volume. PMID:25636319

  5. Synthetic spectra of simulated terrestrial atmospheres containing possible biomarker gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, T. L.; Kasting, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder, a space-based interferometer, will eventually allow spectroscopic analyses of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Such analyses would provide information about the existence of life on these planets. One strategy in the search for life is to look for evidence of O3 (and hence O2) in a planet's atmosphere; another is to look for gases that might be present in an atmosphere analogous to that of the inhabited early Earth. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have calculated synthetic spectra for several hypothetical terrestrial-type atmospheres. The model atmospheres represent four different scenarios. The first two, representing inhabited terrestrial planets, are an Earth-like atmosphere containing variable amounts of oxygen and an early Earth-type atmosphere containing methane. In addition, two cases representing Mars-like and early Venus-like atmospheres were evaluated, to provide possible "false positive" spectra. The calculated spectra suggest that ozone could be detected by an instrument like Terrestrial Planet Finder if the O2 concentration in the planet's atmosphere is > or = 200 ppm, or 10(-3) times the present atmospheric level. Methane should be observable on an early-Earth type planet if it is present in concentrations of 100 ppm or more. Methane has both biogenic and abiogenic sources, but concentrations exceeding 1000 ppm, or 0.1% by volume, would be difficult to produce from abiogenic sources alone. High methane concentrations in a planet's atmosphere are therefore another potential indicator for extraterrestrial life.

  6. Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-06-15

    Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

  7. Algal refossilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Neushul, M. )

    1991-07-01

    The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is steadily increasing. With our increasing awareness of the economic and environmental impacts of the greenhouse effects'' of CO{sub 2}, methane and other gases, there is interest in finding new methods to reduce the amounts of these gases in the atmosphere. This study evaluates the possibility that large-scale oceanic cultures of macroalgae (macroscopic seaweeds'') could be used to capture atmospheric CO{sub 2}. It is a design for a marine farm system in which a crop'' of calcareous macroalgae grows attached to, and supported by, floating macroalgae that comprise the farm structure.'' The least complicated, yet feasible, macroalgal farm system appears to be one in which laboratory-propagated calcareous algal epiphytes'' and floating algal basiphytes'' are dispersed together in natural ocean upwelling regions. From there, the plants drift with surface currents to the open ocean and then sink to the sea floor, where the buried carbon is refossilized.'' An important caveat regarding the use of calcareous algae is that the process of calcification may release CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. There is some evidence that CO{sub 2} is not released by calcification in red calcareous algae, but in contrast many geochemists feel that all biologically -- as well as chemically --mediated calcification processes release CO{sub 2}. A substantial amount of research will be necessary to answer basic questions about algal carbon fixation and biomineralization on one hand, while on the other hand to devise strategies for farming the open ocean. 76 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Estimation of the atmospheric corrosion on metal containers in industrial waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, M; Midoux, N; Mazaudier, F; Feron, D

    2001-08-17

    Solid industrial waste are often stored in metal containers filled with concrete, and placed in well-aerated warehouses. Depending on meteorological conditions, atmospheric corrosion can induce severe material damages to the metal casing, and this damage has to be predicted to achieve safe storage. This work provides a first estimation of the corrosivity of the local atmosphere adjacent to the walls of the container through a realistic modeling of heat transfer phenomena which was developed for this purpose. Subsequent simulations of condensation/evaporation of the water vapor in the atmosphere were carried out. Atmospheric corrosion rates and material losses are easily deduced. For handling realistic data and comparison, two different meteorological contexts were chosen: (1) an oceanic and damp atmosphere and (2) a drier storage location. Some conclusions were also made for the storage configuration in order to reduce the extent of corrosion phenomena. PMID:11489528

  9. Containment building atmosphere response during severe accidents in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Chan, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Several safety evaluations for large High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR), using a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) design, have concluded that Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) present the most important severe accidents, resulting in the dominant source term. While the core thermohydraulic transients for such accident sequences have been presented previously, the subject of this paper is the containment building (CB) atmosphere transient, with primary emphasis on the CB atmosphere temperature and pressure, as overpressurization is the most likely failure mode.

  10. Addition Laws for Intensities of Radiation Emerging from Scattering Atmospheres Containing Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.; Kapanadze, N. G.

    2016-03-01

    A group theoretical approach is developed for solving astrophysical radiative transfer problems described in a previous series of papers. Addition laws for observed radiative intensities are derived for the case in which atmospheres not only absorb and scatter radiation incident on them, but radiate themselves because of energy sources contained within them. As an illustration of the application of these laws, several special radiative transfer problems which we believe are of practical interest are discussed.

  11. Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. I - Amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, G.; Miller, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, HCN, H2CO, and NH3 using a spark discharge on various simulated primitive earth atmospheres at 25 C is investigated. Various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, N2, NH3, H2O, and H2 were utilized in different experiments. The yields of amino acids (1.2-4.7 percent based on the carbon) are found to be approximately independent of the H2/CH4 ratio and the presence of NH3, and a wide variety of amino acids are obtained. Glycine is found to be almost the only amino acid produced from CO and CO2 model atmospheres, with the maximum yield being about the same for the three carbon sources at high H2/carbon ratios,whereas CH4 is superior at low H2/carbon ratios. In addition, it is found that the directly synthesized NH3 together with the NH3 obtained from the hydrolysis of HCN, nitriles, and urea could have been a major source of ammonia in the atmosphere and oceans of the primitive earth. It is determined that prebiotic syntheses from HCN and H2CO to give products such as purines and sugars and some amino acids could have occurred in primitive atmospheres containing CO and CO2 provided the H2/CO and H2/CO2 ratios were greater than about 1.0.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical stability of ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing atmospheres at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical stability of several ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing environments was analyzed with thermodynamic considerations in mind. Equilibrium calculations were made as a function of temperature, moisture content, and total system pressure. The following ceramic materials were considered in this study: SiC, Si3N4, SiO2, Al2O3, mullite, ZrO2, Y2O3, CaO, MgO, BeO, TiB2, TiC, HfC, and ZrC. On the basis of purely thermodynamic arguments, upper temperature limits are suggested for each material for long-term use in H2-containing atmospheres.

  13. High-temperature corrosion of metallic alloys in an oxidizing atmosphere containing NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.

    1989-02-01

    A particular heat-exchanger application involved metallic alloys exposed to flue gases of an aluminum remelt furnace. Because the flue gases might contain NaCl and other halides, the corrosion behavior of the alloys was to be investigated. Planned direct exposure of candidate alloys to the flue gases, however, was not conducted because of premature termination of the project. Complementary laboratory testing was conducted on seven commercially available alloys and two nickel aluminides. These materials were exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere containing 0.06 wt % NaCl for 1100 h at 1000/degree/C. Most of the alloy exhibited grain-boundary attack, which resulted in complete oxidation of enveloped grains. The alloys Incoloy MA-956, Incoloy 800, Inconel 625, Inconel 601, Hastelloy X, Haynes 188, and nickel aluminide IC-50 were substantially more corroded than Alloy 214 and nickel aluminide IC-221. The latter two alloys, therefore, would probably be superior to the others in application involving flue gases containing NaCl. Strength fabricability, and weldability, which are briefly discussed, would also affect selection of materials. 8 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Physics and chemistry of non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure plasmas containing fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiawan

    The physics and chemistry of low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas containing fluorine have been investigated with current, voltage, and power measurements, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and optical emission spectroscopy. The plasma source consisted of two closely spaced metal electrodes, supplied with radio-frequency power at 13.56 MHz. The fluorine atom concentration was measured in the downstream region of a carbon tetrafluoride and helium plasma using infrared spectroscopy. The gas discharge generated 1.2 x 10 15 cm-3 of F atoms, which is ˜100 times higher than that found in low-pressure plasmas. A numerical model of the plasma indicated that most of the F atoms were generated by the reaction of CF4 with metastable helium atoms. It was discovered that the atmospheric pressure, radio-frequency plasma could be made to undergo sheath breakdown with conversion from an alpha- to a gamma-mode discharge. With 0.4 vol% nitrogen in helium, this transition was accompanied by a 40% drop in voltage, a 12% decrease in current, and a surge in power density from 25 to 2083 W/cm3. The shift in intense plasma emission from the bulk gas to the surface of the electrodes was documented by optical techniques. When the plasma was operated in the alpha and gamma modes, 5.2% and 15.2% of the N2 was dissociated into atoms, respectively. In the latter case, the low dissociation efficiency was ascribed to the nonuniform structure of the plasma across the gap. In plasmas containing 1.0 vol% carbon tetrafluoride and sulfur hexafluoride, the alpha to gamma transition occurred smoothly with no discharge contraction. The electron density in these plasmas equaled 6.0 x 1011 cm-3, compared to 1.9 x 1013 cm -3 in pure helium. The drop in plasma density was due to fast electron attachment processes caused by the electronegative molecules, which also resulted in a high density of negative ions, up to 1013 cm-3. In addition, the non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to

  15. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Li, Y.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits and analyzed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometers in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should to be assessed.

  16. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. K.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2015-06-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits, and analysed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometres in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should be assessed.

  17. Thermodynamics of Silicon-Hydroxide Formation in H2O Containing Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Myers, Dwight; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile silicon-hydroxide species from SiO2 in water containing atmospheres has been identified as a potentially important mode of degradation of Si-based ceramics. Availability of thermodynamic data for these species is a major problem. This study is part of an ongoing effort to obtain reliable, experimentally determined thermodynamic data for these species. The transpiration method was used to measure the pressure of Si-containing vapor in equilibrium with SiO2 (cristobalite) and Ar + H2O(g) with various mole fractions of water vapor, X(sub H2O), at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1780 K. Enthalpies and entropies for the reaction, SiO2(s) + 2H2O(g) = Si(OH)4(g), were obtained, at X(sub H2O) = 0.15 and 0.37, from the variation of lnK with 1/T according to the 'second law method'. The following data were obtained: delta(H)deg = 52.9 +/- 3.7 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg = -68.6 +/- 2.5 J/mole K at an average temperature of 1550 K, and delta(H)deg = 52.5+/-2.0 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg= -69.7 +/- 1.5 J/moleK at an average temperature of 1384 K, for X(sub H2O)= 0.15 and 0.37, respectively. These data agree with results from the literature obtained at an average temperature of 1600 K, and strongly suggest Si(OH)4(g) is the dominant vapor species. Contradictory results were obtained with the determination of the dependence of Si-containing vapor pressure on the partial pressure of water vapor at 1187 and 1722 K. These results suggested the Si-containing vapor could be a mixture of Si(OH)4 + SiO(OH)2. Further pressure dependent studies are in progress to resolve these issues.

  18. Atmospheric degradation mechanisms of hydrogen containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and fluorocarbons (HFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, Reinhard

    1990-01-01

    The current knowledge of atmospheric degradation of hydrogen containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC 22 (CHClF2), HCFC 123 (CHCl2CF3), HCFC 124 (CHClFCF3), HCFC 141b (CFCl2CH3), HCFC 142b (CF2ClCH3)) and fluorocarbons (HFC 125 (CHF2CF3), HFC 134a (CH2FCF3), HFC 152a (CHF2CH3)) is assessed. Except for the initiation reaction by OH radicals, there are virtually no experimental data available concerning the subsequent oxidative breakdown of these molecules. However, from an analogy to the degradation mechanisms of simple alkanes, some useful guidelines as to the expected intermediates and final products can be derived. A noteable exception from this analogy, however, appears for the oxi-radicals. Here, halogen substitution induces new reaction types (C-Cl and C-C bond ruptures) which are unknown to the unsubstituted analogues and which modify the nature of the expected carbonyl products. Based on an evaluation of these processes using estimated bond strength data, the following simplified rules with regards to the chlorine content of the HCFC's may be deduced: (1) HCFC's containing one chlorine atom such as 22 and 142b seem to release their chlorine content essentially instantaneous with the initial attack on the parent by OH radicals, and for HCFC 124, such release is apparently prevented; (2) HCFC's such as 123 and 141b with two chlorine atoms are expected to release only one of these instantaneously; and the second chlorine atom may be stored in potentially long-lived carbonyl compounds such as CF3CClO or CClFO.

  19. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the foodborne pathogens attached to commercial food containers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Yong, Hae In; Alahakoon, Amali U; Park, Sanghoo; Park, Jooyoung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with numerous infections and problems in the health care and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilm formation on collagen casing (CC), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which are widely used food container materials. The samples were treated separately with the APP jet at a 50-W input power for 5 and 10 min, and nitrogen (6 l per minute) gas combined with oxygen (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) was used to produce the APP. The APP jet reduced the number of bacterial cells in a time-dependent manner. All pathogens attached to CC, PP, and PET were reduced by 3-4 log CFU/cm(2) by the 10-min APP treatment. The developed APP jet was effectively reduced biofilms on CC, PP, and PET. PMID:26604423

  20. Mechanism of Na2SO4-induced corrosion of molybdenum containing nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. I - Corrosion in atmospheres containing O2 only. II - Corrosion in O2 + SO2 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of the Na2SO4-induced corrosion of the molybdenum-containing nickel-base superalloys, B-1900 and Udimet 700, coated with Na2MoO4, has been studied in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 C. Because the gas turbine atmosphere always contains some SO2 and SO3, the effect of atmospheric SO2 content on corrosion of Udimet-700 has also been studied. It was found that in the O2 atmosphere the melt in the catastrophic corrosion phase consists of Na2MoO4 plus MoO3, with the onset of the catastrophic corrosion coinciding with the appearance of MoO3. In the presence of low levels of atmospheric SO2 (below 0.24 percent), the melt during catastrophic corrosion contains, in addition to Na2MoO4 and MoO3, some quantities of Na2SO4. At the levels of SO2 above 1 percent, no catastrophic corrosion was observed. At these SO2 levels, internal sulfidation appears to be the primary mode of degradation.

  1. An atmospheric air gas-liquid diffuse discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container used for water sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tang, Kai; Song, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we report that the air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container with different bottom structures at atmospheric pressure. Optical diagnostic measurements show that bountiful chemically and biologically active species, which are beneficial for effective sterilization in some areas, are produced. Such diffuse plasmas are then used to treat drinking water containing the common microorganisms (Candida albicans and Escherichia coli). It is found that these plasmas can sterilize the microorganisms efficiently.

  2. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 ON WATER CHEMISTRY AND MOSQUITO (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) GROWTH UNDER COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS IN CONTAINER HABITATS

    PubMed Central

    Alto, Barry W.; Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Drake, Bert G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the direct and indirect effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on freshwater container habitats and their larval mosquito occupants. We predicted that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 would (1) alter the chemical properties of water in this system, (2) slow degradation of leaf litter, and (3) decrease larval growth of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes raised on that litter under competitive conditions. Effects of elevated CO2 on water quality parameters were not detected, but the presence of leaf litter significantly reduced pH and dissolved oxygen relative to water-filled containers without litter. Degradation rates of oak leaf litter from plants grown under elevated CO2 atmospheres did not differ from breakdown rates of litter from ambient CO2 conditions. Litter from plants grown in an elevated CO2 atmospheres did not influence mosquito population growth, but mosquito production decreased significantly with increasing larval density. Differences among mosquito density treatments influenced survivorship most strongly among male Ae. albopictus and time to emergence most strongly among females, suggesting fundamental sex-determined differences in response to competition. Results of this and other studies indicate that direct and indirect effects of doubled atmospheric CO2 are minimal in artificial containers with freshwater. PMID:22661767

  3. Sodium enrichment on glass surface during heating of heavy-metal-containing glasses under a reductive atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    Sodium enrichment occurs on the surface of the glass that is in contact with the gas phase during the heat treatment of lead-containing glass under a reductive atmosphere. This technique was previously found to promote lead recovery in waste-glass treatment, and may be potentially applied to glasses containing other heavy metal oxides. Thus, the efficiencies of sodium enrichment were compared among glasses with different heavy metal species (PbO, CuO, and ZnO) in the heat-treatment under a CO-containing atmosphere. The sodium enrichment efficiencies in the treatment of the PbO- and CuO-containing glasses were higher than that in the treatment of the ZnO containing glass. This was because the efficiencies were related to the reduction of the heavy metal oxides. The mass ratio of Na to Si on the glass surface increased as the PbO concentration decreased via reduction of PbO. The sodium-rich phase was separated together with a copper-concentrated phase that was generated via the reduction of CuO. However, ZnO in the glass is thermodynamically more difficult to reduce in the CO-containing atmosphere used in the study, resulting in the lower efficiency of the sodium enrichment.

  4. Measurement of the Hygroscopicity and Wet Removal of Black-Carbon-Containing Particles in the Urban Atmosphere of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, Sho; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Mori, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Makoto; Schwarz, Joshua; Takami, Akinori; Kondo, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Megacities are very large, concentrated anthropogenic sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols. Freshly emitted BC particles inside megacities affect local air quality and regional and global climate. The microphysical properties (e.g., number size distribution, coating thickness, and hygroscopicity) of atmospheric BC-containing particles are important because their efficiency of wet removal from the atmosphere can be highly dependent on these properties. In this study, we developed a method for independent measurement of the hygroscopicity of BC-free and BC-containing particles, and then applied it to the ambient observation in the urban atmosphere of Tokyo. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was modified as a humidified-SP2, which quantifies the BC-core mass (BC content within a BC-containing particle) and optical diameter of individual aerosol particles, under controlled relative humidity (RH), by detecting both the laser-induced incandescence emitted and laser light scattered from each particle (Schwarz et al., 2014, Journal of Aerosol Science). Measurements of growth factor (GF) and hygroscopicity parameter κ for BC-free and BC-containing particles can be achieved by combining an aerosol particle mass analyzer with the newly developed humidified-SP2. This method was tested in the laboratory and then employed in ambient observations in summer 2014. The ambient measurements were made while also measuring number size distribution of BC cores in rainwater with a nebulizer-SP2 system. Throughout the observation period, for BC-containing particles with a dry diameter of about 200 nm, the particles with smaller BC fractions tended to represent greater water uptake, and the number fraction of the less hygroscopic (GF < 1.2 at 85% RH) BC-containing particles was more than 70% of the total BC-containing particles. The measured average number size distribution of BC cores in rainwater was larger than that in the surface air before precipitation began, and the

  5. Deposition of Functional Coatings from an Acetylene-Containing Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevako, F. V.; Gorbatov, S. V.; Davidovich, P. A.; Prikhod‧ko, E. M.; Shushkov, S. V.; Krul‧, L. P.; Butovskaya, G. V.; Shakhno, O. V.; Gusakova, S. V.; Korolik, O. V.; Mazanik, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of thin coatings formed on polymer and glass substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of nitrogen with acetylene at atmospheric pressure were investigated. It was established that chemically stable transparent films with a mass ratio of fixed carbon and nitrogen C:N ~ 2:1 are formed on the surface of these substrates. When the deposition time was increased, arrays of dendrite-like structures were formed on the substrates.

  6. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols containing heavy metals measured on Fukue Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidemori, Takehiro; Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Kinugawa, Takashi; Yabushita, Akihiro; Ohashi, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Takao; Irei, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Yoshino, Ayako; Suzuki, Ryota; Yumoto, Yayoi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    To investigate transport and chemical compositions of fine aerosols in the East Asian region, aerosol chemical components and their mixing states were measured at Fukue Island in the spring of 2010. Off-line chemical analyses using an ion chromatographic analyzer and an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer for the aerosols sampled by a high volume sampler have also been conducted. The mixing state and temporal variation of number concentrations of the particles containing lead (Pb) and vanadium (V) were studied by using a laser ionization single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (LISPA-MS). The temporal variation of number concentrations of particles containing Pb measured by the LISPA-MS is well consistent with those obtained by the chemical analysis of the aerosols sampled by the high volume sampler. The Pb-containing particles were classified into four types from the statistical analysis on the basis of the single-particle mass spectra with assists of laboratory experiments. It is estimated that 52% of observed particles containing Pb were originated from coal combustion. The concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis suggests that these particles are mainly transported from China continent. The V-containing particles were classified into three types. The 41% of V-containing particles were internally mixed with sea salt and the result of CWT analysis suggests that the potentially anthropogenic V-containing particles possibility emitted from ships are mixing with sea salt in the region that is highly loaded with sea salt in the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. II. Hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, G; Miller, S L

    1983-01-01

    The electric discharge synthesis of HCN, H2CO, NH3 and urea has been investigated using various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, N2, NH3, H2O, and H2. HCN and H2CO were each synthesized in yields as high as 10% from CH4 as a carbon source. Similar yields were obtained from CO when H2/CO greater than 1.0 and from CO2 when H2/CO2 greater than 2.0. At H2/CO2 less than 1.0 the yields fall off drastically. Good yields of NH3 (0.7 to 5%) and fair yields of urea (0.02 to 0.63%) based on nitrogen were also obtained. The directly synthesized NH3 together with the NH3 obtained from the hydrolysis of HCN, nitriles and urea could have been a major source of ammonia in the atmosphere and oceans of the primitive earth. These results show that prebiotic syntheses from HCN and H2CO to give products such as purines and sugars and some amino acids could have occurred in primitive atmospheres containing CO and CO2 provided the H2/CO and H2/CO2 ratios were greater than about 1.0. Methane containing atmospheres give comparable quantities of HCN and H2CO, and are superior in the synthesis of amino acids. PMID:6315963

  8. Carbon and energy yields in prebiotic syntheses using atmospheres containing CH4, CO and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1984-01-01

    Yields based on carbon are usually reported in prebiotic experiments, while energy yields (moles/cal) are more useful in estimating the yields of products that would have been obtained from the primitive atmosphere of the earth. Energy yields for the synthesis of HCN and H2CO from a spark discharge were determined for various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H2O, N2 an NH3. The maximum yields of HCN and H2CO from CH4, CO, and CO2 as carbon sources are about 4 x 10 to the -8th moles/cal.

  9. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jupp, Tim E.; Cox, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters η (atmospheric thickness), ω (rotation rate) and ξ (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability ξ is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability ξ is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate ω is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when ξ is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated. PMID:20368254

  10. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Tim E; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters eta (atmospheric thickness), omega (rotation rate) and xi (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability xi is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability xi is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate omega is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when xi is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated. PMID:20368254

  11. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass. PMID:25497054

  12. High-density capacitors based on amorphous BaTiO3 layers grown under hydrogen containing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; El Kamel, F.

    2007-06-01

    Addition of hydrogen (H2) during the sputter deposition of BaTiO3 amorphous thin films drastically modifies their dielectric properties. Films grown under hydrogen containing atmospheres display large capacitances (several μF /cm2 for 1μm thick films), that are hundred times higher than capacitances measured for films grown without hydrogen. This is explained by the formation of a double-layer capacitor which arises from mobile protons (protonic conduction with an activation energy around 0.3eV). These films could find applications for the elaboration of integrated supercapacitors.

  13. Stability of chromium (III) sulfate in atmospheres containing oxygen and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, B. D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    The stability of chromium sulfate in the temperature range from 880 K to 1040 K was determined by employing a dynamic gas-solid equilibration technique. The solid chromium sulfate was equilibrated in a gas stream of controlled SO3 potential. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were used to follow the decomposition of chromium sulfate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the decomposition product was crystalline Cr2O3 and that the mutual solubility between Cr2(SO4)3 and Cr2O3 was negligible. Over the temperature range investigated, the decomposition pressure were significantly high so that chromium sulfate is not expected to form on commercial alloys containing chromium when exposed to gaseous environments containing oxygen and sulfur (such as those encountered in coal gasification).

  14. Biomonitoring of Sulfur-Containing Pollutants in an Urban Atmosphere by FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Khizhnyak, S. D.; Notov, A. A.; Pakhomov, P. M.

    2014-09-01

    The relative content of sulfur-containing compounds in samples of epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes collected at recreation zones of Tver city with different levels of air pollution was determined using FTIR spectroscopy. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration was also measured at the same recreation zones using an IR gas analyzer. The measurements were compared by two methods. Maps of SO2 air pollution in Tver city were constructed.

  15. Nitrogen-Containing Low Volatile Compounds from Pinonaldehyde-Dimethylamine Reaction in the Atmosphere: A Laboratory and Field Study.

    PubMed

    Duporté, Geoffroy; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Barreira, Luís M F; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Pinonaldehyde, which is among the most abundant oxidation products of α-pinene, and dimethylamine were selected to study the formation of N-containing low volatile compounds from aldehyde-amine reactions in the atmosphere. Gas phase reactions took place in a Tedlar bag, which was connected to a mass spectrometer ionization source via a short deactivated fused silica column. In addition to on-line analysis, abundance of gaseous precursors and reaction products were monitored off-line. Condensable products were extracted from the bag's walls with a suitable solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to chemical ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The reactions carried out resulted in several mid-low vapor pressure nitrogen-containing compounds that are potentially important for the formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Further, the presence of brown carbon, confirmed by liquid chromatography-UV-vis-mass spectrometry, was observed. Some of the compounds identified in the laboratory study were also observed in aerosol samples collected at SMEAR II station (Hyytiälä, Finland) in August 2015 suggesting the importance of aldehyde-amine reactions for the aerosol formation and growth. PMID:27035788

  16. Desizing of Starch Containing Cotton Fabrics Using Near Atmospheric Pressure, Cold DC Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasath, A.; Sivaram, S. S.; Vijay Anand, V. D.; Dhandapani, Saravanan

    2013-03-01

    An attempt has been made to desize the starch containing grey cotton fabrics using the DC plasma with oxygen as the gaseous medium. Process conditions of the plasma reactor were optimized in terms of distance between the plates (3.2 cm), applied voltage (600 V) and applied pressure (0.01 bar) to obtain maximum desizing efficiency. No discolouration was observed in the hot water extracts of the desized sample in presence of iodine though relatively higher solvent extractable impurities (4.53 %) were observed in the plasma desized samples compared to acid desized samples (3.38 %). Also, significant weight loss, improvements in plasma desized samples were observed than that of grey fabrics in terms of drop absorbency.

  17. In situ total-electron-yield sulfur K-edge XAFS measurements during exposure of copper to an SO 2-containing humid atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Inho; Rickett, Brett; Janavicius, Paul; Payer, Joe H.; Antonio, Mark R.

    1995-02-01

    A total-electron-yield (TEY) detector was designed and constructed for in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of the sulfur-containing species formed during exposure of copper to a humid atmosphere containing SO 2. Using the detector, gas phase XAFS spectra were also collected for both dry and humid SO 2 atmospheres. This work presents the experimental technique and examples of the sulfur K-edge spectra collected during the study.

  18. Determination of the Composition of the Atmospheres in the Enclosures Containing the Charters of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, George F.

    2002-12-01

    In the early 1950s, the United States Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence, collectively known as the "Charters of Freedom," were encased in specially designed enclosures. As a protective measure the enclosures were filled with moist helium and sealed. Currently a project is underway to remove the Charters from these encasements and re-encase them in modem enclosures. Before these cases are opened, conservationists at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) wish to know if air has leaked into the cases and what the relative humidity is. In 1998 NARA contacted NASA to request assistance with this problem. By adapting the NASA Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), an airborne sensor based on the absorption of infrared radiation at 1.4 microns by water vapor, the cases containing the second and third pages of the Constitution were non-invasively analyzed in 1999. Approximate relative humidity values were obtained. In addition, because the width of the absorption line is dependent on the other gases present it was possible to determine that the seals had not leaked. During the summer of 2001, the remaining documents were removed from public display and were made available for analysis. To increase the sensitivity of the DLH to the presence of air, for the 2001 measurements a stronger water vapor absorption line was chosen, however this required locating a laser that operated at the wavelength of this stronger line. In this work a number of diode lasers were characterized and a suitable one was identified and installed in the DLH. A series of laboratory measurements of the chosen absorption line were performed to determine spectroscopic parameters including line strength, and helium broadening, air broadening, and self-broadening coefficients. The DLH was then reconfigured from its normal aircraft configuration to one more suitable for the Charters measurements. This involved installing it in a different housing, one specifically

  19. Powder containing 2H-type silicon carbide produced by reacting silicon dioxide and carbon powder in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuramoto, N.; Takiguchi, H.

    1984-01-01

    The production of powder which contains silicon carbide consisting of 40% of 2H-type silicon carbide, beta type silicon carbide and less than 3% of nitrogen is discussed. The reaction temperature to produce the powder containing 40% of 2H-type silicon carbide is set at above 1550 degrees C in an atmosphere of aluminum or aluminum compounds and nitrogen gas or an antioxidation atmosphere containing nitrogen gas. The mixture ratio of silicon dioxide and carbon powder is 0.55 - 1:2.0 and the contents of aluminum or aluminum compounds within silicon dioxide is less than 3% in weight.

  20. Densities and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + chlorohydrocarbons at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, F.; Francesconi, R.

    1995-11-01

    Densities and excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, for binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + 10 chlorohydrocarbons (dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,4-dichlorobuthane, 1,6-dichlorohexane, 1,10-dichlorodecane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene) have been measured at 298.15 K and at atmospheric pressure using an Anton Paar digital vibrating tube density meter. The results are fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of V{sub m}{sup E} for the mixtures containing dichloroalkanes show an increasing trend with the increase of the chain length and vary from a minimum of {minus}0.24 cm{sup 3}/mol for dichloromethane up to a maximum of +0.31 cm{sup 3}/mol for 1,10-dichlorodecane. The excess molar volumes for the other mixtures are negative over the entire range of composition. Results are qualitatively discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  1. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  2. Optimization and application of atmospheric pressure chemical and photoionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for speciation of oxygen-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Jin, Jang Mi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the feasibility of optimized positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) for structural assignment of diverse oxygen-containing compounds. The important parameters for optimization of HDX MS were characterized. The optimized techniques employed in the positive and negative modes showed satisfactory HDX product ions for the model compounds when dichloromethane and toluene were employed as a co-solvent in APCI- and APPI-HDX, respectively. The evaluation of the mass spectra obtained from 38 oxygen-containing compounds demonstrated that the extent of the HDX of the ions was structure-dependent. The combination of information provided by different ionization techniques could be used for better speciation of oxygen-containing compounds. For example, (+) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with alcohol, ketone, or aldehyde substituents, while (-) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with carboxylic functional groups. In addition, the compounds with alcohol can be distinguished from other compounds by the presence of exchanged peaks. The combined information was applied to study chemical compositions of degraded oils. The HDX pattern, double bond equivalent (DBE) distribution, and previously reported oxidation products were combined to predict structures of the compounds produced from oxidation of oil. Overall, this study shows that APCI- and APPI-HDX MS are useful experimental techniques that can be applied for the structural analysis of oxygen-containing compounds. PMID:26898203

  3. Real time analysis of lead-containing atmospheric particles in Beijing during springtime by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Lei; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Zou, Lilin; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing particles, and six major classes were acquired consisting of K-rich, carboneous, Fe-rich, dust, Pb-rich, and Cl-rich particles. Pb-containing particles accounted for 4.2-5.3%, 21.8-22.7%, and 3.2% of total particle number during clear, hazy and dusty days, respectively. K-rich particles are a major contribution to Pb-containing particles, varying from 30.8% to 82.1% of total number of Pb-containing particles, lowest during dusty days and highest during hazy days. The results reflect that the chemical composition and amount of Pb-containing particles has been affected by meteorological conditions as well as the emissions of natural and anthropogenic sources. K-rich particles and carbonaceous particles could be mainly assigned to the emissions of coal combustion. Other classes of Pb-containing particles may be associated with metallurgical processes, coal combustion, dust, and waste incineration etc. In addition, Pb-containing particles during dusty days were first time studied by SPAMS. This method could provide a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling of Pb pollution in real time. PMID:27085059

  4. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of nickel in an alkali metal carbonate melt under a chlorine-containing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, E. V.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Malkov, V. B.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2013-08-01

    The corrosion-electrochemical behavior of a nickel electrode is studied in the melt of lithium, sodium, and potassium (40: 30: 30 mol %) carbonates in the temperature range 500-600°C under an oxidizing atmosphere CO2 + 0.5O2 (2: 1), which is partly replaced by gaseous chlorine (30, 50, 70%) in some experiments. In other experiments, up to 5 wt % chloride of sodium peroxide is introduced in a salt melt. A change in the gas-phase composition is shown to affect the mechanism of nickel corrosion.

  5. The Relative Humidity of the Atmosphere in the Encasements Containing the Declaration of Independence, the US Constitution (Pages 1 and 4), and the Bill of Rights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, James W.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Levine, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1951, the four pages of the US Constitution, the Letter of Transmittal, the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence, collectively called the 'Charters of Freedom,' were hermetically sealed individually in glass encasements. The atmosphere in the encasements consisted of a mixture of helium with water vapor at a relative humidity between 25 and 35% at room temperature. In 1998, Margaret Kelly of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), contacted Dr. Joel S. Levine at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to request assistance in determining the chemical composition of the atmosphere inside the encasements. Several different Langley learns were assembled to address that request. each using a different measurement technique. This report describes the method and results of one team's relative humidity measurements on encasements containing pages 1 and 4 of the US Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence performed at NARA, College Park. Maryland, on July 23, 2001.

  6. Production and reactivity of the hydroxyl radical in homogeneous high pressure plasmas of atmospheric gases containing traces of light olefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Postel, C.

    2007-05-01

    A photo-triggered discharge has been used to study the production kinetic mechanisms and the reactivity of the hydroxyl radical in a N2/O2 mixture (5% oxygen) containing ethane or ethene for hydrocarbon concentration values in the range 1000-5000 ppm, at 460 mbar total pressure. The discharge (current pulse duration of 60 ns) has allowed the generation of a transient homogeneous non-equilibrium plasma, and the time evolution of the OH density has been measured (relative value) in the afterglow (up to 200 µs) by laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Experimental results have been explained using predictions of a self-consistent 0D discharge and plasma reactivity modelling, and reduced kinetic schemes for OH have been validated. It has been shown that recombination of H- and O-atoms, as well as reaction of O with the hydroperoxy radical HO2, plays a very important role in the production of OH radicals in the mixture with ethane. H is a key species for production of OH and HO2 radicals. As for ethane, O, H and HO2 are key species for the production of OH in the case of ethene, but carbonated radicals, following the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon molecule by O, also play a non-negligible role. The rate constant for O- and H-atom recombination has been estimated to be 3 × 10-30 cm6 s-1 at near ambient temperature, consistent with LIF measurements on OH for both mixtures with ethane and ethene.

  7. The influence of atmosphere conditions on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi radiosensitization in irradiated ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Borsa, J.; Chiasson, F.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of carvacrol (1.0%) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (0.1%) in ground beef packed under four different atmospheres (air; 100% CO 2; MAP : 60% O 2-30% CO 2-10% N 2 and vacuum) was determined. Medium fat ground beef containing carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi. Samples were packed under different atmospheres as described before and irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 kGy in presence of E. coli and from 0.50 to 2.0 kGy for S. typhi. Results indicated that the best increase in radiosensitization was observed in samples packed under MAP. The D10 values were 0.046 kGy for E. coli and 0.053 kGy for S. typhi. Both bacteria were more resistant to irradiation under air, in the absence of active compound. A D10 values of 0.126 kGy for E. coli and 0.526 kGy for S. typhi was observed.

  8. A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-06-01

    Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

  9. Experimental studies of the formation of cluster ions formed by corona discharge in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J. O.; Hvelplund, P.; Støchkel, K.; Enghoff, M. B.; Kurten, T.

    2013-12-01

    We report on studies of ion induced nucleation in a corona discharge taking place in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O at standard temperature and pressure. Positive ions such as H3O+(H2O)n, NH4+(H2O)n, and H+(H2SO4)(H2O)n and negative ions such as HSO5-(H2O)n, SO4-(H2O)n, HSO4-(H2O)n and NO3-(H2O)n have been recorded. Large values of n (> 100) were observed and the experiment indicates the existence of even larger water clusters. In contrast, only clusters with a maximum of 2 sulfuric acid molecules were observed. Fragmentation studies also revealed that the negative ion HSO5-, which has been observed in many studies, in our experiments is contaminated by O2-(HNO3)(H2O) ions, and this may also have been the case in other experiments. Finally an ion with m/z = 232 (where m is the cluster mass in amu and z the charge state), capable of attaching H2O-molecules was observed and studied by fragmentation. Positive ion m/z (mass/charge) spectrum

  10. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  11. Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols, defined as particles and droplets suspended in air, are always present in the atmosphere. They are part of the earth-atmosphere climate system, because they interact with both incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. They do this directly through scattering and absorption, and indirectly through effects on clouds. Submicrometer aerosols usually predominate in terms of number of particles per unit volume of air. They have dimensions close to the wavelengths of visible light, and thus scatter radiation from the sun very effectively. They are produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions of sulfur-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing gases of both natural and anthropogenic origins. Light absorption is dominated by particles containing elemental carbon (soot), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and by biomass burning. Light-scattering dominates globally, although absorption can be significant at high latitudes, particularly over highly reflective snow- or ice-covered surfaces. Other aerosol substances that may be locally important are those from volcanic eruptions, wildfires and windblown dust.

  12. Non-disturbing characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) contained in clay rock pore water by mass spectrometry using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Landesman, Catherine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Monteau, Fabrice; Vinsot, Agnes; Grambow, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the composition of the mobile natural organic matter (NOM) present in Callovo-Oxfodian pore water using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. The generation of knowledge of the composition, structure and size of mobile NOM is necessary if one wants to understand the interactions of these compounds with heavy metals/radionuclides, in the context of environmental studies, and particularly how the mobility of these trace elements is affected by mobile NOM. The proposed methodology is very sensitive in unambiguously identifying the in situ composition of dissolved NOM in water even at very low NOM concentration, due to innovative non-disturbing water sampling and ionization (ESI/APCI-MS) techniques. It was possible to analyze a quite exhaustive inventory of the small organic compounds of clay pore water without proceeding to any chemical treatment at naturally occurring concentration levels. The structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds and fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. PMID:20013952

  13. OH kinetic in high-pressure plasmas of atmospheric gases containing C2H6 studied by absolute measurement of the radical density in a pulsed homogeneous discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Gadonna, K.; Jeanney, P.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Jorand, F.; Postel, C.

    2009-08-01

    The absolute value of the hydroxyl radical was measured in the afterglow of an homogeneous photo-triggered discharge generated in N2/O2/H2O/C2H6 mixtures, using a UV absorption diagnostic synchronized with the discharge current pulse. Measurements show that OH is efficiently produced even in the absence of water vapour in the mixture, and that the radical production is closely linked to the degradation kinetic of the hydrocarbon. Experimental results for dry mixtures, both for OH and for the removal of ethane in the discharge volume, are compared with predictions of a self-consistent 0D discharge and the kinetic model. It appears that the oxidation reaction of the ethane molecule by O(3P) atoms plays a minor role. Dissociation of the hydrocarbon through quenching collisions of the nitrogen metastable states are of great importance for a low oxygen concentration value. Also, the oxidation of ethane by O(1D) cannot be neglected at high oxygen concentration. The most probable exit channel for N2 states quenching collisions by ethane is the production of ethene and hydrogen molecules. Afterwards C2H4 should be dissociated to produce H and H2. As previously suggested from the study of the OH density time evolution in relative value, the recombination of H and O atoms appears as a main process for the production of OH in transient low temperature plasmas generated in atmospheric gases at high pressure. Another important reaction is the reduction of the HO2 radical by O, this radical coming from the addition of H on the oxygen molecule. H atoms come from numerous kinetic processes, amongst which is the dissociation of ethene.

  14. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  15. Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers.

  16. Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  17. Atmospheric Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents student survey results (n=708) of misconceptions held regarding the atmosphere. Results indicated a basic lack of understanding concerning atmospheric processes and phenomena. Although misconceptions generally decreased with increasing education, some seemed to be firmly rooted. (PR)

  18. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  19. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  20. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  1. Atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the atmosphere are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of atmospheric neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the atmosphere and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.

  2. Pluto's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, J.L.; Dunham, E.W.; Bosh, A.S.; Slivan, S.M.; Young, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sloane, C.S. ); Tesche, T.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the predictive strength of atmospheric models. The book covers all of the major important atmospheric areas, including large scale models for ozone depletion and global warming, regional scale models for urban smog (ozone and visibility impairment) and acid rain, as well as accompanying models of cloud processes and biofeedbacks.

  4. The Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are discussed, considering the atmosphere's role in distributing the energy of solar radiation received by the earth. Models of this activity which help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future are also considered. (JN)

  5. Atmospheres of Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy

    The giant planets of the solar system have been studied for centuries using a wide range of remote sensing and in situ techniques. An understanding of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune has dramatically improved since the dawn of spacecraft exploration of the outer solar system in the 1970s. Cloud decks that were predicted to exist from thermochemical equilibrium arguments have been observationally confirmed, although the exact vertical distribution of condensible species in these atmospheres remains an active area of study. All four of the giant planets have fast zonal (east-west) winds with prograde and retrograde jets, which dominate their atmospheric circulations. Each planet also contains long-lived cyclonic features or convective cloud features that appear and disappear on short timescales. These features suggest a link between the energy transport in the deep atmosphere and the visible cloud tops; the exact nature of this connection remains an outstanding question in giant planet atmosphere studies. The chemistry of the giant planet atmospheres is driven by both the convective processes that loft disequilibrium species from the deep atmosphere into the stratosphere and the interaction between stratospheric materials and ultraviolet sunlight. A unique opportunity to study these interactions was presented to planetary scientists in 1994, when the 22 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted Jupiter. The future of giant planet atmospheric studies is promising. Several mission concepts that will answer fundamental questions regarding giant planet atmospheres are in various stages of development, and the James Webb Space Telescope will also contribute especially to our understanding of Uranus and Neptune. As an understanding of giant planet formation and evolution expands and deepens, these knowledge gains must be examined against the backdrop of the numerous exoplanet systems recently discovered, very few of which resemble our own.

  6. Atmospheric tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

  7. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  8. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    1990-06-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  9. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  10. Jet Engine Powerloss in Ice Particle Conditions: An Aviation Industry Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strapp, J. W.

    2009-09-01

    Since about the 1990, there have been in excess of 100 engine powerloss events in jet aircraft that have now been attributed to the ingestion of ice particles. These powerloss events are observed in essentially all engine types, and on all airframes. Almost all cases have occurred in the vicinity of deep convection usually associated with warm and moist atmospheres. Events have occurred all throughout the world, although there is a somewhat higher concentration in the area of southeast Asia. Powerloss can result from stall, surge, flameout and rollback events in the engine. Many are momentary, with engines relighting automatically, while others require a manual engine relight. In some cases, particularly in rollback cases on smaller commuter-transport aircraft, engine power has only been recovered by melting of ice buildup in the engine below the freezing level. There have been cases of multiple simultaneous engine powerloss, and one case of a landing with no engine power. The frequency of the events, and the potential for multiple-engine powerloss, has led the FAA to note that that these occurrences constitute a significant safety issue. Analysis of the events using aircraft flight data recorder information, pilot interviews, standard meteorological radar and satellite data, and information from several past flight test programs, have led to the conclusion that the powerloss is due to ice buildup in the engine from high concentrations of ice particles in the atmosphere, and that supercooled LWC is not required. This is an unconventional form of icing that had not been previously considered possible by engine designers. The Engine Harmonization Working Group (EHWG), an industry-led committee composed of engine manufacturers, airframe manufacturers, regulators, and government agencies have been studying the powerloss issue since 2004, and have suggested a 4-part technical plan to resolve the issue, which includes improvement of instrumentation to measure high ice

  11. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  12. Sharps container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  13. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423

  14. Atmospheric engineering of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Averner, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of creating a breathable atmosphere on Mars was studied. Assuming that indigenous life is absent, and that human habitation will prove economically justifiable, several methods of introducing oxygen were considered. On the basis of energy requirements, photosynthetic oxygen production appears to be reasonable, assuming that the amounts of water, carbon dioxide, and mineral nutrients available on the Martian surface would be adequate for the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms. However, optimum rates of O2 formation could occur only after a significant increase in average temperature and in atmospheric mass. The generation of a runaway greenhouse/advective effect was considered. However, neither the energy requirement nor the time constant for initiation could be calculated. There appear to be no insuperable obstacles to the conversion of the Martian atmosphere to one containing oxygen, but the conversion would require many thousands of years.

  15. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  16. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  17. Atmospheric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harshvardhan, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric radiative processes are summarized for the period 1987-1990. Topics discussed include radiation modeling; clouds and radiation; radiative effects in dynamics and climate; radiation budget and aerosol effects; and gaseous absorption, particulate scattering and surface reflection. It is concluded that the key developments of the period are a defining of the radiative forcing to the climate system by trace gases and clouds, the recognition that cloud microphysics and morphology need to be incorporated not only into radiation models but also climate models, and the isolation of a few important unsolved theoretical problems in atmospheric radiation.

  18. Atmospheric humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  19. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  20. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

  1. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  2. Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John

    2004-12-01

    In his book, John Green presents a unique personal insight into the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and atmospheric dynamics. Generations of students have benefited from his lectures, and this book, many years in the making, is the result of his wide teaching and research experience. The theory of fluid flow has developed to such an extent that very complex mathematics and models are currently used to describe it, but many of the fundamental results follow from relatively simple considerations: these classic principles are derived here in a novel, distinctive, and at times even idiosyncratic, way. The book is an introduction to fluid mechanics in the atmosphere for students and researchers that are already familiar with the subject, but who wish to extend their knowledge and philosophy beyond the currently popular development of conventional undergraduate instruction.

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    2016-05-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  4. Experimental results of an integral effects test in a zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of a classically inert atmosphere on direct containment heating: The IET-5 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M. ); Nichols, R.T. )

    1992-11-01

    The fifth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-5) series was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limiter plate with a 4-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The cavity contained 3.48 kg of water, and the basement floor inside the crane wall contained 71 kg of water, which corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminium/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten them-lite was ejected by 6.0 MPa of steam into the reactor cavity.

  5. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  6. Atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary atmospheres; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  7. The Role of Watershed Characteristics in Estuarine Condition: An Empirical Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine condition is a function of the nature of the estuary, ocean, and atmospheric systems, and the upstream watershed. To fully understand and predict how an estuary will respond to drivers and pressures, each compartment must be characterized. For example, eutrophication ef...

  8. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechrist, C. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    An overview is presented of the research activities and objectives of the middle atmosphere program (MAP). Status reports are presented of projects underway in the area of middle atmosphere climatology and atmospheric chemistry condensed minutes of MAP steering committee meetings are contained in this volume. Research recommendations for increased U.S. participation in the middle atmosphere program are given.

  9. Atmosphere Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s model PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer is produced in both airborne and ground-use versions. Originating from NASA technology, it is a quick and accurate method of detecting minute amounts of mass loadings on a quartz crystal -- offers utility as highly sensitive detector of fine particles suspended in air. When combined with suitable air delivery system, it provides immediate information on the size distribution and mass concentrations of aerosols. William Chiang, obtained a NASA license for multiple crystal oscillator technology, and initially developed a particle analyzer for NASA use with Langley Research Center assistance. Later his company produced the modified PC-2 for commercial applications Brunswick Corporation uses the device for atmospheric research and in studies of smoke particles in Fires. PC-2 is used by pharmaceutical and chemical companies in research on inhalation toxicology and environmental health. Also useful in testing various filters for safety masks and nuclear installations.

  10. Atmospheric Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embleton, Tony F. W.; Daigle, Gilles A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviewed here is the current state of knowledge with respect to each basic mechanism of sound propagation in the atmosphere and how each mechanism changes the spectral or temporal characteristics of the sound received at a distance from the source. Some of the basic processes affecting sound wave propagation which are present in any situation are discussed. They are geometrical spreading, molecular absorption, and turbulent scattering. In geometrical spreading, sound levels decrease with increasing distance from the source; there is no frequency dependence. In molecular absorption, sound energy is converted into heat as the sound wave propagates through the air; there is a strong dependence on frequency. In turbulent scattering, local variations in wind velocity and temperature induce fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the sound waves as they propagate through an inhomogeneous medium; there is a moderate dependence on frequency.

  11. Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet, L. M.

    Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants, containing the proceedings of a colloquium held at Oberursel/Taunus, FRG, November 9-11, 1981, is divided into three main parts: dry deposition; wet deposition; and deposition on plants and vegetation.The 20 articles in the volume permit a fair survey of present-day knowledge and will be a useful tool to all working on the topic. Pollution by deposition of either the dry or wet sort is very insidious; its importance only appears in the long range, when its effects are or are almost irreversible. That is why concern was so long in emerging from decision makers.

  12. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  13. Cometary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Rosa, N.

    Comets are icy leftovers from the formation of the solar system about 4.5 billion years ago. Because they have been stored at cold temperatures and their interiors have been protected by an overburden of insulating layers, comets contain the most unaltered remnants from the birth of our solar system. For this reason, determining their chemical composition and physical proper-ties as well as how the composition and structure of the nucleus changes with time are fundamental problems in planetary science. This information provides clues as to how material in our solar system formed and evolved.

  14. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY is an instrument which measures backscattered, reflected, and transmitted light from the earth's atmosphere and surface. SCIAMACHY has eight spectral channels which observe simultaneously the spectral region between 240 and 1700 nm and selected windows between 1940 and 2400 nm. Each spectral channel contains a grating and linear diode array detector. SCIAMACHY observes the atmosphere in nadir, limb, and solar and lunar occultation viewing geometries.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC ACID DEPOSITION DAMAGE TO PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion have been analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression analysis coefficients associated w...

  16. The Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael (Editor); Travis, Larry D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers.

  17. Latino Caregiver Coping With Children's Chronic Health Conditions: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Priti P; Rivera, Abigail Torres; Backes, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined research pertaining to how Latino caregivers cope with their children's chronic health conditions. An understanding of this topic could facilitate appropriate interventions by health care staff to promote optimal child health outcomes. In this integrative review we categorized 21 studies by publication characteristics, methodology, findings, and their focus on emotion-focused and/or problem-focused coping. Thirteen studies used a qualitative design. Five studies included fathers in the sample. Twelve studies investigated coping with child's asthma, primarily in Mexican or Puerto Rican families. Coping strategies utilizing religion/spirituality, alternate healing practices, family support, and education about the child's illness were identified. Language, cultural dissimilarities, receiving inadequate information about the child's health care, differences in health beliefs, and feeling disrespected by providers were frequently cited coping challenges. Addressing these barriers is imperative to enhance coping of caregivers. Inconsistencies in research samples regarding income, education, immigration, and acculturation histories make findings difficult to generalize; recommendations for further research are suggested. PMID:26188357

  18. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator...

  19. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator...

  20. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator...

  1. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator...

  2. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  3. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  4. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  5. Dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, much effort has been put in the study of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the middle atmosphere. A great deal of activity has been stimulated by the necessity of estimating the potential effects of several anthropogenic perturbations on the ozone layer and on the earth's climate. For example, the atmospheric response to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or nitrogen oxides is among the problems to be elucidated. Questions such as this cannot be properly answered without an understanding of the various processes involved in the transport of chemical constituents. The publication of a book. that contains original contributions on a variety of topics, such as internal gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, and stratospheric warmings, and that presents overview articles on the transport of trace species and on general circulation models is particularly useful for both research scientists and graduate students involved in atmospheric science.

  6. North Sea wave conditions: an analysis of four transient future climate realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Grabemann, Iris; Gaslikova, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    The multi-decadal wave conditions in the North Sea can be influenced by anthropogenic climate change. That may lead to the intensification of wave extremes in the future and consequently increase risks for the coastal areas as well as for on- and offshore human activities. Potential changes caused by alteration of atmospheric patterns are investigated. Four transient climate projections (1961-2100), reflecting two IPCC emission scenarios (A1B and B1) and two different initial states, are used to simulate the wave scenarios. The potential wind-induced changes in waves are studied by comparing future statistics (2001-2100) with the corresponding reference conditions (1961-2000). Generally, there is a small increase in future 99th percentile significant wave height for most eastern parts of the North Sea towards the end of the twenty-first century. This small increase is superimposed by a strong variability of the annual extremes on time scales of decades. Opposite to the differences in wave height, the change in wave direction to more waves propagating east shows less decadal variability and is more uniform among all realizations. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial differences of the wave height in the four climate projections point to the uncertainties in the climate change signals.

  7. Testing of the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Sciacca, F.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.

    1984-04-01

    CONTAIN is a large computer code intended for use in the analysis of severe nuclear power plant accidents. Many tests have been conducted on CONTAIN to assess its adequacy for dealing with nuclear-accident problems. This report describes the CONTAIN test program and summarizes the results obtained to date. These results are presented so that users may be aware of the features of CONTAIN that have been checked and of the areas where problems have been identified. In addition, this report provides information needed by users to repeat tests of interest in their specific work areas. The test efforts have identified a substantial number of problems in the coding or logic of the CONTAIN code. Most of these problems have been corrected. These corrections have been included in the most recent versions of the code. CONTAIN can accurately treat most of the phenomena expected to occur in containment atmospheres. Some problems identified by the test program, involving pool-related phenomena, have prompted the development of a substantially new system of models for pool phenomena. When completed, this new system will be subjected to intense testing of the type described here.

  8. CALCIUM OXIDE SINTERING IN ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of measurements of the effects of water vapor and CO2 on the sintering rate of nascent CaO, as a function of partial pressure and temperature using CaO prepared by rapid decomposition of CaCO3 and CA(OH)2. Each gas strongly catalyzed the sintering process ...

  9. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  10. Atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Robert E.

    Techniques and applications of the ultraviolet wavelength region are examined. The topics addressed include: radiometry, sensors, space operations, the earth's atmosphere, solar photoabsorption, photon cross sections, airglow, aurora, scattering and fluorescence, atmospheric ultraviolet backgrounds, radiance and transmission codes, ozone and lower atmospheric composition, upper atmospheric composition and density, global auroral imaging, and ionospheric electron density.

  11. Droplet heat transfer and chemical reactions during direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer and chemical reaction has been adapted to evaluate the expected behavior of droplets containing unreacted Zircaloy and stainless steel moving through the containment atmosphere during postulated accidents involving direct containment heating. The model includes internal and external diffusive resistances to reaction. The results indicate that reactions will be incomplete for many conditions characteristic of direct containment heating sequences.

  12. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOEpatents

    Stein, L.

    1973-12-11

    A method for purifying an atmosphere of radon and radon daughter elements which may be contained therein by contacting the atmosphere with a fluorinating solution, whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. The fluorides dissolve in the fluorinating solutlon and are removed from the atmosphere, which may then be recirculated. (Official Gazette)

  13. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g-1, average value 14 Bq g-1). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g-1 (average value 81 mBq g-1). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  14. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh

    2006-09-28

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: 1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant # DE-FG03-01ER63270, and 2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant # DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly on the

  15. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Simon, Amy; Delcroix, Marc; Orton, Glenn S.; Trinh, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal variability of Saturn's clouds and weather layer, currently displaying a variety of phenomena (convective storms, planetary waves, giant storms and lightning-induced events, etc.) is not yet fully understood. Variations of Saturn's radiance at 5.2 microns, a spectral region dominated by thermal emission in an atmospheric window containing weak gaseous absorption, contain a strong axisymmetric component as well as large discrete features at low and mid-latitudes that are several degrees colder than the planetary average and uncorrelated with features at shorter wavelengths that are dominated by reflected sunlight (Yanamandra-Fisher et al., 2001. Icarus, Vol. 150). The characterization of several fundamental atmospheric properties and processes, however, remains incomplete, namely: How do seasons affect (a) the global distribution of gaseous constituents and aerosols; and (b) temperatures and the stability against convection and large scale-atmospheric transport? Do 5-micron clouds have counterparts at other altitude levels? What changes occur during the emergence of Great White Storms? Data acquired at the NASA/IRTF and NAOJ/Subaru from 1995 - 2011; since 2004, high-resolution multi-spectral and high-spatial imaging data acquired by the NASA/ESA Cassini mission, represents half a Saturnian year or two seasons. With the addition of detailed multi-spectral data sets acquired by amateur observers, we study these dramatic phenomena to better understand the timeline of the evolution of these events. Seasonal (or temporal) trends in the observables such as albedo of the clouds, thermal fields of the atmosphere as function of altitude, development of clouds, hazes and global abundances of various hydrocarbons in the atmosphere can now be modeled. We will present results of our ongoing investigation for the search and characterization of periodicities over half a Saturnian year, based on a non-biased a priori approach and time series techniques (such as

  16. THAI Multi-Compartment Containment Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzleiter, T.; Poss, G.; Funke, F.; Allelein, H.J.

    2006-07-01

    The THAI experimental programme includes combined-effect investigations on thermal hydraulics, hydrogen, and fission product (iodine and aerosols) behaviour in LWR containments under severe accident conditions. An overview on the experiments performed up to now and on the future test program is presented, in combination with a selection of typical results to illustrate the versatility of the test facility and the broad variety of topics investigated. (authors)

  17. Evolution of fracture permeability of ultramafic rocks at hydrothermal conditions: An experimental study on serpentinization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farough, A.; Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.; Lowell, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, during which olivine and pyroxene minerals are replaced by serpentine, magnetite, brucite and talc, is associated with hydrothermal activity at slow and ultraslow mid-ocean ridges. Serpentinization reactions affect hydrothermal fluid circulation by changing permeability of the oceanic crust. To advance our understanding of the evolution of permeability accompanying serpentinization reactions, we performed a series of flow-through experiments at a temperature of 260˚C, a confining pressure of 50 MPa, and a pore pressure of 20±2 MPa on cylindrical cores of ultramafic rocks (18 mm in diameter and 23 mm length) containing a single through-going tensile fracture. Pore fluid flow was in one direction and was collected routinely for chemical analysis. A 7.5 mm thick layer of the same rock, crushed and sieved (0.18-1.0 mm) was placed on the inlet end of the sample to produce a reactive heated reservoir for the pore fluid before entering the fracture. Multiple peridotite samples were tested, to investigate the effect of mineral assemblage on fluid-rock interaction and permeability. The initial effective permeability of the samples varied between 10-(15-18)m2, and it decreased by about 2 orders of magnitude in 7-10 days, showing that serpentinization reactions result in an initially rapid decrease in permeability. The best fit equation for the observed rate of change in permeability (k) is in the form of dk/dt=Ae-0.01t, where A is a constant and t is time. This result suggests that the rate of serpentine formation is largely controlled by the initial permeability rather than the properties of the reacting rock. Assuming flow between parallel plates, we find the effective crack width decreases by approximately 2 orders of magnitude during the experiments. The fluid chemistry and mineralogy data support the occurrence of serpentinization reactions. The early peak and monotonic decrease in the concentration of Mg, and Si in pore fluid

  18. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  19. Stellar atmospheric structural patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics of stellar atmospheres is discussed. Particular attention is given to the relation between theoretical modeling and empirical evidence. The characteristics of distinctive atmospheric regions and their radical structures are discussed.

  20. Our shared atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  1. Earth's changeable atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Billions of years ago, high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations were vital to life's tenuous foothold on Earth. Despite new constraints, the composition and evolution of Earth's early atmosphere remains hazy.

  2. The Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Topics considered at the conference included the dynamics, structure, chemistry, and evolution of the Venus atmosphere, as well as cloud physics and motion. Infrared, ultraviolet, and radio occultation methods of analysis are discussed, and atmospheric models are described.

  3. Laboratory for Atmospheres: 2004 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The report describes our role in NASA's mission, gives a broad description of our research, and summarizes our scientists' major accomplishments in 2004. The report also contains useful information on human resources, scientific interactions, outreach activities, and the transformation our laboratory has undergone. This report is published in two versions: 1) an abbreviated print version, and 2) an unabridged electronic version at our Laboratory for Atmospheres Web site: http://atmospheres.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  4. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  5. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  6. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator shall... conditions for an empty container as specified in 40 CFR 261.7(b)), the owner or operator shall...

  7. The Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tides, oscillations in meteorological fields occurring at subharmonics of a solar or lunar day, comprise a major component of middle atmosphere global dynamics. The purpose of the 1982 to 1986 Atmospheric Tides Atmosphere Program (ATMAP) was to foster an interaction between experimentalists, data analysts, and theoreticians and modelers, in order to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tides and their relationships to other scales of motion, and to thereby explain features of observed tidal structures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The ATMAP consisted of seven observational campaigns, five workshops and a climatological study. A historical perspective is provided along with a summary of major results, conclusions, and recommendations for future study which have emerged from the ATMAP.

  8. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I. )

    1990-03-01

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs.

  9. 40 CFR 264.1086 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator shall... ambient temperature fluctuations. (v) Opening of a safety device, as defined in 40 CFR 265.1081,...

  10. Electrochemical Measurement of Atmospheric Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeArmond, Anna H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of Shuttle thruster components in atmospheres containing high concentrations of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and water is an important issue in ground operations of bipropellant systems in humid locations. Measurements of the corrosivities of NTO-containing atmospheres and the responses of different materials to these atmospheres have been accomplished using an electrochemical sensor. The sensor is composed of alternating aluminum/titanium strips separated by thin insulating layers. Under high humidity conditions a thin film of water covers the surface of the sensor. Added NTO vapor reacts with the water film to form a conductive medium and establishes a galvanic cell. The current from this cell can be integrated with respect to time and related to the corrosion activity. The surface layer formed from humid air/NTO reacts in the same way as an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Nitric acid is generally considered an important agent in NTO corrosion situations. The aluminum/titanium sensor is unresponsive to dry air, responds slightly to humid air (> 75% RH), and responds strongly to the combination of humid air and NTO. The sensor response is a power function (n = 2) of the NTO concentration. The sensor does not respond to NTO in dry air. The response of other materials in this type of sensor is related to position of the material in a galvanic series in aqueous nitric acid. The concept and operation of this electrochemical corrosion measurement is being applied to other corrosive atmospheric contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and acidic aerosols.

  11. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  12. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

  13. Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Amit K.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Josephson; Gary B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  14. Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Amit K.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  15. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  16. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  17. Photochemistry in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Graedel, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Widely varying paths of evolutionary history, atmospheric processes, solar fluxes, and temperatures have produced vastly different planetary atmospheres. The similarities and differences between the earth atmosphere and those of the terrestrial planets (Venus and Mars) and of the Jovian planets are discussed in detail; consideration is also given to the photochemistry of Saturn, Uranus, Pluto, Neptune, Titan, and Triton. Changes in the earth's ancient atmosphere are described, and problems of interest in the earth's present troposphere are discussed, including the down wind effect, plume interactions, aerosol nucleation and growth, acid rain, and the fate of terpenes. Temperature fluctuations in the four principal layers of the earth's atmosphere, predicted decreases in the ozone concentration as a function of time, and spectra of particles in the earth's upper atmosphere are also presented. Finally, the vertical structure of the Venus cloud system and the thermal structure of the Jovian planets are shown graphically.

  18. Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir.

  19. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  20. Atmospheres from Within

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Thomas; Abshire, James; Clancy, Todd; Fry, Ghee; Gustafson, Bo; Hecht, Michael; Kostiuk, Theodor; Rall, Jonathan; Reuter, Dennis; Sheldon, Robert

    1996-01-01

    In this review of atmospheric investigations from planetary surfaces, a wide variety of measurement and instrument techniques relevant to atmospheric studies from future planetary lander missions are discussed. The diversity of planetary surface environments within the solar system precludes complete or highly specific coverage, but lander investigations for Mars and cometary missions are presented as specific cases that represent the broad range of atmospheric-surface boundaries and that also correspond to high priority goals for future national and international lander missions.

  1. Statistics of atmospheric correlations.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, M S; Patra, P K

    2001-07-01

    For a large class of quantum systems, the statistical properties of their spectrum show remarkable agreement with random matrix predictions. Recent advances show that the scope of random matrix theory is much wider. In this work, we show that the random matrix approach can be beneficially applied to a completely different classical domain, namely, to the empirical correlation matrices obtained from the analysis of the basic atmospheric parameters that characterize the state of atmosphere. We show that the spectrum of atmospheric correlation matrices satisfy the random matrix prescription. In particular, the eigenmodes of the atmospheric empirical correlation matrices that have physical significance are marked by deviations from the eigenvector distribution. PMID:11461326

  2. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder- An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larnbrigtsen, Bjorn; Fetzer, Eric; Lee, Sung-Yung; Irion, Fredrick; Hearty, Thomas; Gaiser, Steve; Pagano, Thomas; Aumann, Hartmut; Chahine, Moustafa

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched in May 2002. Along with two companion microwave sensors, it forms the AIRS Sounding Suite. This system is the most advanced atmospheric sounding system to date, with measurement accuracies far surpassing those available on current weather satellites. The data products are calibrated radiances from all three sensors and a number of derived geophysical parameters, including vertical temperature and humidity profiles, surface temperature, cloud fraction, cIoud top pressure, and profiles of ozone. These products are generated under cloudy as well as clear conditions. An ongoing calibration validation effort has confirmed that the system is very accurate and stable, and many of the geophysical parameters have been validated. AIRS is in some cases more accurate than any other source and can therefore be difficult to validate, but this offers interesting new research opportunities. The applications for the AIRS products range from numerical weather prediction to atmospheric research - where the AIRS water vapor products near the surface and in the mid to upper troposphere will make it possible to characterize and model phenomena that are key for short-term atmospheric processes, such as weather patterns, to long-term processes, such as interannual cycles (e.g., El Nino) and climate change.

  3. Air-snow interactions and atmospheric chemistry.

    PubMed

    Dominé, Florent; Shepson, Paul B

    2002-08-30

    The presence of snow greatly perturbs the composition of near-surface polar air, and the higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) observed result in a greater oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid, light aldehydes, acetone, and molecular halogens have also been detected. Photolysis of nitrate ions contained in the snow appears to play an important role in creating these perturbations. OH formed in the snowpack can oxidize organic matter and halide ions in the snow, producing carbonyl compounds and halogens that are released to the atmosphere or incorporated into snow crystals. These reactions modify the composition of the snow, of the interstitial air, and of the overlying atmosphere. Reconstructing the composition of past atmospheres from ice-core analyses may therefore require complex corrections and modeling for reactive species. PMID:12202818

  4. Air-Snow Interactions and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominé, Florent; Shepson, Paul B.

    2002-08-01

    The presence of snow greatly perturbs the composition of near-surface polar air, and the higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) observed result in a greater oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid, light aldehydes, acetone, and molecular halogens have also been detected. Photolysis of nitrate ions contained in the snow appears to play an important role in creating these perturbations. OH formed in the snowpack can oxidize organic matter and halide ions in the snow, producing carbonyl compounds and halogens that are released to the atmosphere or incorporated into snow crystals. These reactions modify the composition of the snow, of the interstitial air, and of the overlying atmosphere. Reconstructing the composition of past atmospheres from ice-core analyses may therefore require complex corrections and modeling for reactive species.

  5. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  6. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    1990-01-01

    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  9. GSFC Venus atmosphere simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cridlin, M. S.; Munford, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The design and preliminary testing of a Venus Atmosphere Simulation System are described. The system was designed for testing a quadrupole mass spectrometer proposed for the Pioneer-Venus Experiment. The system is capable of providing programmed temperature cycles up to 550 C, and manually controlled pressure up to 100 atmospheres.

  10. MODIS Atmospheric Data Handler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmosphere Data Handler software converts the HDF data to ASCII format, and outputs: (1) atmospheric profiles of temperature and dew point and (2) total precipitable water. Quality-control data are also considered in the export procedure.

  11. Evolution of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Theories on the origin of the Earth atmosphere and chemical composition are presented. The role of oxygenic photosynthesis on the determination of the Earth's origin is discussed. The research suggests that further analysis of the geologic record is needed to more accurately estimate the history of atmospheric oxygen.

  12. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  13. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  14. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    In thirty years of university teaching, Peter Hobbs of the Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Washington, has seen atmospheric chemistry grow from a relatively small branch of geosciences into one with which every student of atmospheric sciences needs familiarity Some students are captivated in their first course and make atmospheric chemistry a field of further study or a lifelong career. At the same time, courses of “global change” and emerging curricula in scientific policy require students from diverse backgrounds to develop sufficient knowledge to become well-informed policy-makers. A number of practicing atmospheric chemists are retrained on the job from other scientific backgrounds and need selfeducation in the basics of the field.

  15. Magneto-atmospheric waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of magneto-atmospheric waves is presented and applied to the modelling of waves in the solar atmosphere. The waves arise in compressible, stratified, electrically conductive atmospheres within gravitational fields when permeated by a magnetic field. Compression, buoyancy, and distortion of the magnetic field all contribute to the existence of the waves. Basic linearized equations are introduced to describe the waves and attention is given to plane-stratified atmospheres and their stability. A dispersion relation is defined for wave propagation in a plane-stratified atmosphere when there are no plane-wave solutions. Solutions are found for the full wave equation in the presence of either a vertical or a horizontal magnetic field. The theory is applied to describing waves in sunspots, in penumbrae, and flare-induced coronal disturbances.

  16. The atmosphere below. (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    In this educational `Liftoff to Learning` video series, astronauts from the STS-45 Space Shuttle Mission (Kathy Sullivan, Byron Lichtenberg, Brian Duffy, Mike Foale, David Leestma, Charlie Bolden, and Dirk Frimont) explain and discuss the Earths atmosphere, its needs, the changes occurring within it, the importance of ozone, and some of the reasons behind the ozone depletion in the Earths atmosphere. The questions of: (1) what is ozone; (2) what has happened to the ozone layer in the atmosphere; and (3) what exactly does ozone do in the atmosphere, are answered. Different chemicals and their reactions with ozone are discussed. Computer animation and graphics show how these chemical reactions affect the atmosphere and how the ozone hole looks and develops at the south pole during its winter season appearance.

  17. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  18. Personal Container Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the study of personal containers and their uses in art creation for children. States that children are fascinated by boxes and containers. Provides examples of personal containers, such as lunch boxes, pencil cases, purses and valets, and school bags. (CMK)

  19. The PHOCUS Project: Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the atmospheric composition and present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements. The atmospheric composition was probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University. The idea behind the instrument setup was to combine the advantages of the sensitive resonance fluorescence with well-calibrated airglow photometry. The set of instruments consisted of two resonance fluorescence probes (each containing a lamp and a detector), one for atomic oxygen and one for atomic hydrogen, and two IR photometers for O2 and OH dayglow emissions in the near IR. The O2 IR Atmospheric system at 1.27 μm is related to the photolysis of O3, which during the day is in steady state with O and a retrieval of O is possible. The OH Meinel emission is produced by the reaction between mesospheric O3 and H, and H concentrations can be deduced by combining information from both photometers. Unfortunately, some of these measurements were corrupted by instrument problems or payload glow. O3 and O profiles will be presented and compared to the simultaneous measurements of ice and meteoric smoke particles, water vapour and the state of the background neutral and charged atmosphere.

  20. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOEpatents

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  1. Geochemical cycles of atmospheric gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C. G.; Drever, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The processes that control the atmosphere and atmospheric changes are reviewed. The geochemical cycles of water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and minor atmospheric constituents are examined. Changes in atmospheric chemistry with time are discussed using evidence from the rock record and analysis of the present atmosphere. The role of biological evolution in the history of the atmosphere and projected changes in the future atmosphere are considered.

  2. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-18

    This invention is an apparatus for use in 100% leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. It includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. Pressure in the shell is kept lower than that in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph (GC). The GC issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  3. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  4. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  5. Planetary upper atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2005-10-01

    Earth and most planets in our solar system are surrounded by permanent atmospheres. Their outermost layers, the thermospheres, ionospheres and exospheres, are regions which couple the atmospheres to space, the Sun and solar wind. Furthermore, most planets possess a magnetosphere, which extends into space considerably further than the atmosphere, but through magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes closely interacts with it. Auroral emissions, found on Earth and other panets, are manifestations of this coupling and a mapping of distant regions in the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere along magnetic field lines. This article compares planetary upper atmospheres in our solar system and attempts to explain their differences via fundamental properties such as atmospheric gas composition, magnetosphere structure and distance from Sun. Understanding the space environment of Earth and its coupling to the Sun, and attempting to predict its behaviour ("Space Weather") plays an important practical role in protecting satellites, upon which many aspects to todays civilisation rely. By comparing our own space environment to that of other planets we gain a deeper understanding of its physical processes and uniqueness. Increasingly, we apply our knowledge also to atmospheres of extrasolar system planets, which will help assessing the possibility of life-elsewhere in the Universe.

  6. Atmospheric and adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickson, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric optics is the study of optical effects induced by the atmosphere on light propagating from distant sources. Of particular concern to astronomers is atmospheric turbulence, which limits the performance of ground-based telescopes. The past two decades have seen remarkable growth in the capabilities and performance of adaptive optics (AO) systems. These opto-mechanical systems actively compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. By sensing, and correcting, wavefront distortion introduced by atmospheric index-of-refraction variations, AO systems can produce images with resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at near-infrared wavelengths. This review highlights the physical processes and fundamental relations of atmospheric optics that are most relevant to astronomy, and discusses the techniques used to characterize atmospheric turbulence. The fundamentals of AO are then introduced and the many types of advanced AO systems that have been developed are described. The principles of each are outlined, and the performance and limitations are examined. Aspects of photometric and astrometric measurements of AO-corrected images are considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges related to current and future AO systems, particularly those that will equip the next generation of large, ground-based optical and infrared telescopes.

  7. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  8. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  9. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  10. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Monitoring – National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) developed and operates a collaborative network of atmospheric mercury monitoring sites based in North America – the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet). The justification for the network was growing interest and demand from many ...

  11. Triton's Distorted Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Agner, M. A.; Davies, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    A stellar-occultation light curve for Triton shows asymmetry that can be understood if Triton's middle atmosphere is distorted from spherical symmetry. Although a globally oblate model can explain the data, the inferred atmospheric flattening is so large that it could be caused only by an unrealistic internal mass distribution or highly supersonic zonal winds. Cyclostrophic winds confined to a jet near Triton's northern or southern limbs (or both) could also be responsible for the details of the light curve, but such winds are required to be slightly supersonic. Hazes and clouds in the atmosphere are unlikely to have caused the asymmetry in the light curve.

  12. Laboratory atmospheric compensation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drutman, C.; Moran, James P.; Faria-e-Maia, Francisco; Hyman, Howard; Russell, Jeffrey A.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes an in-house experiment that was performed at the Avco Research Labs/Textron to test a proprietary atmospheric phase compensation algorithm. Since the laser energies of interest were small enough that thermal blooming was not an issue, it was only necessary to simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence. This was achieved by fabricating phase screens that mimicked Kolmogorov phase statistics. A simulated atmosphere was constructed from these phase screens and the phase at the simulated ground was measured with a digital heterodyne interferometer. The result of this effort was an initial verification of our proprietary algorithm two years before the field experiment.

  13. Evolution of Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.

    1993-02-12

    An atmosphere is the dynamic gaseous boundary layer between a planet and space. Many complex interactions affect the composition and time evolution of an atmosphere and control the environment - or climate - at a planet's surface. These include both reactions within the atmosphere as well as exchange of energy, gases, and dust with the planet below and the solar system above; for Earth today, interactions with the biosphere and oceans are paramount. In view of the large changes in inputs of energy and gases that have occurred since planets began to form and the complexity of the chemistry, it is not surprising that planetary climates have changed greatly and are continuing to change.

  14. New atmospheric program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  15. Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schryer, David R.

    In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that heterogeneous, or multiphase, processes play an important role in the atmosphere. Unfortunately the literature on the subject, although now fairly extensive, is still rather dispersed. Furthermore, much of the expertise regarding heterogeneous processes lies in fields not directly related to atmospheric science. Therefore, it seemed desirable to bring together for an exchange of ideas, information, and methodologies the various atmospheric scientists who are actively studying heterogeneous processes as well as other researchers studying similar processes in the context of other fields.

  16. [Opening medicine containers].

    PubMed

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-01

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients. PMID:2142351

  17. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  18. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  19. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  20. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  1. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  2. Thermal atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The static thermal atmosphere is described and its predictions are compared to observations both to test the validity of the classic assumptions and to distinguish and describe those spectral features with diagnostic value.

  3. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  4. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  5. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  6. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. The invention of atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved. PMID:26193787

  8. The changing atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Firor, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book describes the causes of acid rain, ozone depletion, and global warming and the evidence for each one's recent acceleration. It provides practical and long-range suggestions for controlling these and other forms of atmospheric deterioration.

  9. Our Changing Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about two major variables involved in certain types of chemical pollution that seem to be changing the structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Discusses the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer. (TW)

  10. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  12. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-05-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy?s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  13. Unravelling our atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A main limiting factor in climate predictions is that we do not understand atmospheric processes as a function of height. An upcoming European and Japanese space mission called EarthCARE seeks to remedy this, as Martin Caldwell explains.

  14. Experiments on atmospheric processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab technology is examined as applied to the observation of the earth's weather patterns, composition, thermodynamics, and kinematics. An atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and a geophysical fluid flow cell are individually outlined as planned payload experiment efforts.

  15. Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanimoto, Toshiro

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.

  16. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  17. CONTAIN independent peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Denning, R.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  18. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This presentation poster covers data products from the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) of the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer products (TOMS) introduced in the presentation include TOMS Version 8 as well as Aura, which provides 25 years of TOMS and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data. The presentation lists a number of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics data sets at DAAC.

  20. Study of atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnider, Richard T.; Christy, John R.; Cox, Gregory N.

    1993-01-01

    In order to better understand the dynamics of the global atmosphere, a data set of precision temperature measurements was developed using the NASA built Microwave Sounding Unit. Modeling research was carried out to validate global model outputs using various satellite data. Idealized flows in a rotating annulus were studied and applied to the general circulation of the atmosphere. Dynamic stratospheric ozone fluctuations were investigated. An extensive bibliography and several reprints are appended.

  1. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 265.71. If a defect is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect in accordance... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 265.71. If a defect is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect in accordance... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 265.71. If a defect is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect in accordance... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 265.71. If a defect is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect in accordance... defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b) may be open to the atmosphere at any time (i.e., covers and closure devices are... the conditions to be an empty container as defined in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the owner or operator...

  5. Evolution of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H.; Povoden, G.; Selsis, F.; Ribas, I.; Tehrany, M. G.; Guinan, E. F.; Hanslmeier, A.; Bauer, S. J.

    2003-04-01

    We show that anomalies of heavy isotopes in Titan's atmosphere can be explained by using observational data of the radiation and particle environment of solar proxies. These observations indicate a larger solar wind flux and high solar EUV radiation of the early Sun during the first billion years are responsible for a fractionated atmospheric loss. For studying the evolution of the thermal escape of Titan's atmosphere we use a scaling law based on an approximate solution of the heat balance equation in the exosphere. Further, isotope fractionation by non-thermal atmospheric escape processes like dissociative recombination, impact dissociation, atmospheric sputtering and ion pick-up processes. We show that Titan lost an atmospheric mass We discuss also possible chemical reactions of methane and other out-gassing substances due to the high solar EUV fluxes powered thermospheric temperature 4 Gyr ago. This could have lead to molecules of higher mass like ethane and other organic compounds. The efficient production of such molecules was reduced by the decrease of the solar activity resulting in a kind of frozen state. At present only high energy processes like lightning discharges may give similar reactions.

  6. Structural response of rectilinear containment to overpressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1995-07-01

    Containment structures for nuclear reactors are the final barrier between released radionuclides and the public. Containment structures are constructed from steel, reinforced concrete, or prestressed concrete. US nuclear reactor containment geometries tend to be cylindrical with elliptical or hemispherical heads. The older Soviet designed reactors do not use a containment building to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, they employ a sealed set of rectilinear, interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that can be used to find the structural capacity of reinforced concrete structures. The method is applicable to both cylindrical and rectilinear geometries. As an illustrative example, the methodology is applied to a generic VVER-440/V213 design.

  7. The photochemistry of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational investigations of photochemical processes in the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the CO2-dominated atmospheres of Mars and Venus, the hydrogen-dominated atmospheres of the Jovian planets, the SO2 atmosphere of Io, and the massive atmospheres of Titan and Triton. The principal reaction paths involved are listed and briefly characterized, and numerical data on atmospheric compositions are given in tables.

  8. Modeling the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Models of the general circulation and climate system of Mars have reached a high level of maturity, but observations to validate them have lacked the kind of global and temporal coverage required. However, we are now on the verge of a new era in Mars exploration as Mars Global Surveyor, and the now enroute Mars Climate Orbiter, will provide daily global coverage of the atmosphere for two Mars years. In the coming years, data from these missions will test the predictions of general circulation models (GCM's) whose results have perhaps become too accepted as truth. This talk will review what GCM's tell us about Mars, what their weaknesses are, and what the latest results imply for their future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Mars - North-Polar atmospheric warming during dust storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Martin, Terry Z.

    1987-01-01

    Viking observations of the two 1977 dust storms on Mars yield winter polar atmosphere temperature measurements that indicate a strong spatial and temporal dependence in the process of polar warming. Very little dust appears to be contained in the upper atmosphere; the data do not allow a determination of dust abundance in the lower atmosphere to be made. Surges appear in the polar warming that are prevalent only on one side of the pole, corresponding to the evening side of the 1977 observations. The polar atmospheric warming occurred during the second, but not the first, of the 1977 global dust storms.

  10. Russian studies of atmospheric ozone in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elansky, N. F.

    2016-03-01

    This review contains the most important results obtained in Russian studies on atmospheric ozone in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences that was prepared for the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). This report was considered and approved at the XXVI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).1 The list of Russian publications on atmospheric ozone and its precursors for 2011-2014 is appended to this review.

  11. Atmosphere control during debinding of powder injection molded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. A.; Jarding, B. P.; Lograsso, B. K.; Anderson, I. E.

    1995-06-01

    Atmosphere control during debinding of powder injection molded (PIM) parts is an important parameter to consider. Experimental results have shown that a stagnant atmosphere containing volatiles evolved during debinding can cause slumping of the green samples. Removal of volatiles from the sample zone aids debinding and can reduce cycle times and improve sample quality. Residual carbon and oxygen can be controlled during debinding by adjusting the atmosphere composition. This paper presents the results of PIM 70 vol% spherical copper powder and 30 vol% binder. Debinding atmospheres were altered to determine the effect of debinding on the green body and the sintered sample.

  12. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  13. [Management, a containment tool].

    PubMed

    Chazalet, Nathalie; Perrin-Niquet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare managers, in partnership with a doctor, are responsible for the care project, the coherence of the care activities and the cohesion of the team. Their managerial role means they need to be receptive to and contain the feelings of the team, as well as take an active part in the psychological containment approach used with the patient. PMID:25562917

  14. Flywheel containment technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, A. P.; Zweben, C. H.; Mirandy, L.

    1980-07-01

    The important effect of containment weight on the density of a flywheel was examined for a selection of flywheel designs incorporating metallic and composite construction as contained by steel housings. Three different flywheel constructions are presented, namely laminated rotor, shaped disk, and multirim. Materials are steel for the first two types and E glass, S glass and Kevlar composites for the third type. All of the flywheels were comparable in that their stress levels were based on long term high cycle operation. All of the specific energy values were penalized heavily by the containment weight, the least being the laminated rotor (-29 percent) and the greatest being the shaped disk (-72 percent). The penalties for the multirim designs are -45 percent (E glass), -55 percent (S glass), and -60 percent (Kevlar). The low penalty of the laminated steel rotor was due to the fact that the containment weight was based on withstanding the rupture of only one of the constituent disks. The high penalty of the shaped steel disk, on the other hand, reflects the severe containment action that resulted from its bursting into large, hard, and axially narrow fragments. The intermediate but nevertheless substantial containment penalty of the multidrum composite rotors resulted from their relatively mild containment behavior.

  15. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  16. Atmospheric anthropic impacts tracked by the French atmospheric mobile observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    A new ATmospheric Mobile ObServatory, so called "ATMOS", has been developed by the LiMAG "Lidar, Meteorology and Geophysics" team of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) in France, in order to contribute to international field campaigns for studying atmospheric physico-chemistry, air quality and climate (i.e. aerosols, clouds, trace gazes, atmospheric dynamics and energy budget) and the ground-based validation of satellite observations. ATMOS has been deployed in the framework of i) LISAIR, for monitoring air quality in Paris in 2005, ii) AMMA "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis", in Tamanrasset and in Niamey for observing the aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer in the Sahara and in the Sahel in 2006, iii) COPS "Convectively and Orographycally driven Precipitation Study" in the Rhin Valley in 2007 and iv) the validation of the spatial mission CALIPSO, launched in April 2006. In the coming years, ATMOS will be deployed i) in the Paris Megacity, in the framework of MEGAPOLI (2009-2010), ii) in southern France (near Marseille) for the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment CHARMEX (2011-2012) and iii) the validation of ADM-Aeolus in 2010-2011 and Earth-Care in 2012. ATMOS payload is modular, accounting for the different platforms, instruments and measuring techniques. The deployment of ATMOS is an essential contribution to field campaigns, complementing the fixed sites, and a potential alternative of airborne platforms, heavier and more expensive. ATMOS mobile payload comprises both the remote sensing platform MOBILIS ("Moyens mOBIles de téLédetection de l'IPSL") and the in-situ physico-chemical station SAMMO ("Station Aérosols et chiMie MObile"). MOBILIS is an autonomous and high-performance system constituted by a full set of active and passive remote sensing instrumentation (i.e. Lidars and radiometers), whose payload may be adapted for either i) long term fixed monitoring in a maritime container or a shelter, ii) ground-based transect

  17. A Modular Atmospheric Propagation Program (MAPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Gasiorek, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A computer model of the atmosphere has been developed that will solve a wide variety of lidar and atmospheric propagation problems. The lidar system calculations involve the prediction of path loss and lidar signal return for a variety of atmospheric conditions and lidar system configurations. The program contains a very large data base of absorption and attenuation coefficients for all of the naturally occurring gases and several gaseous pollutants such as S02, N02, NO, N20, 03, HCL, etc. The spectral range of this data base extends from the ultra-violet (1200 angstroms) through the infra-red. Several aerosol models are included in the program to account for the effects of this important scattering mechanism.

  18. Atmospheric planetary wave response to external forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, D. E.; Reiter, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tools of observational analysis, complex general circulation modeling, and simpler modeling approaches were combined in order to attack problems on the largest spatial scales of the earth's atmosphere. Two different models were developed and applied. The first is a two level, global spectral model which was designed primarily to test the effects of north-south sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) gradients between the equatorial and midlatitude north Pacific. The model is nonlinear, contains both radiation and a moisture budget with associated precipitation and surface evaporation, and utilizes a linear balance dynamical framework. Supporting observational analysis of atmospheric planetary waves is briefly summarized. More extensive general circulation models have also been used to consider the problem of the atmosphere's response, especially in the horizontal propagation of planetary scale waves, to SSTA.

  19. Evolution of the atmosphere and oceans.

    PubMed

    Holland, H D; Lazar, B; McCaffrey, M

    1986-03-01

    The residence times of most constituents of the atmosphere and oceans are small fractions of the age of the Earth and, in general, their rate of output has been nearly equal to their rate of input. We are disturbing a number of these dynamic equilibria quite severely. The mineralogy of marine evaporites rules out drastic changes in the composition of sea water during the last 900 Myr. The chemistry of soils formed more than 1,000 Myr ago suggests that the atmosphere then contained significantly more CO2 and less O2 than at present. Hydrogen peroxide may well have been the principal oxidant and formaldehyde the main reductant in rain water between 3,000 and 1,000 Myr ago. Major changes in atmospheric chemistry since that time are almost certainly related to the evolution of the biosphere. PMID:11540871

  20. A reduced atmosphere for early Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    One-dimensional, radiative-convective climate calculations indicate that the old model of a warm, dense, CO2 atmosphere on early Mars is no longer viable. The magnitude of the greenhouse effect in a CO2/H2O atmosphere is limited by condensation of CO2 clouds; this phenomenon is not important for Mars today, but has a pronounced cooling effect at the low solar luminosities thought to apply during early solar system history. The failure of this model indicates one of four things: (1) the new climate calculations are incorrect; (2) current solar evolution models are incorrect; (3) the idea that early Mars was warm and wet is incorrect; or (4) the atmosphere of early Mars contained other greenhouse gases (or particles) in addition to CO2 and H2O. Of these explanations, the most plausible is number (4) and the rest of the investigation is a further explanation of number (4).

  1. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  2. ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

  3. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  4. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert E.

    2010-06-20

    Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

  5. Venus: atmospheric evolution.

    PubMed

    Dayhoff, M O; Eck, R V; Lippincott, E R; Sagan, C

    1967-02-01

    Because of the high temperatures prevailing in the lower atmosphere of Venus, its chemistry is dominated by the tendency toward thermodynamic equilibrium. From the atomic composition deduced spectroscopically, the thermodynamic equilibrium composition of the atmosphere of Venus is computed, and the following conclusions drawn. (i) There can be no free carbon, hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, or any other organic molecule present in more than trace amounts. (ii) The original atomic composition of the atmosphere must have included much larger quantities of hydrogen and a carbon/oxygen ratio atmosphere of Venus are so unique that an evolutionary mechanism involving two independent processes seems necessary, as follows. Water, originally present in large quantities, has been photodissociated in the upper atmosphere, and the resulting atomic hydrogen has been lost in space. The resulting excess oxygen has been very effectively bound to the surface materials. (iv) There must be some weathering process, for example, violent wind erosion, to disturb and expose a sufficient quantity of reduced surface material to react with the oxygen produced by photodissociation. PMID:17737405

  6. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  7. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  8. OBOE containment prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N R

    1999-11-19

    The OBOE series of experiments presents a new fielding concept for LLNL subcritical experiments. An experimental alcove will be reused for many different experiments. Each individual experiment will be conducted within a steel experimental vessel. After each experiment, the vessel will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. The alcove is designed with sufficient space to entomb 12 experiment vessels. Each experiment in the OBOE series of experiments is composed of one experimental package. Each experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in a steel experimental vessel within the OBOE zero-room. Each experiment will be detonated inside its experimental vessel in the OBOE zero-room that is formed by a steel and concrete barrier at the entrance to the U1a.102C drift. The containment plan for the OBOE series of experiments utilizes a two containment vessel concept. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from an experiment, the containment plan for the OBOE series only assumes that the steel experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and is a heat sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experimental vessels may seep SNM in the zero-room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. We are presenting a containment plan for the entire series of OBOE experiments. At this time, we do not know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the OBOE series. However, we do know that the maximum number of experiments in the OBOE series is 12. After the final experiment in the OBOE series, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. This

  9. Lanthanide-containing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of a variety of lanthanide-containing polyimide films is described, and results of their characterization are presented. The properties investigated include the glass transition temperature, thermooxidative stability, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity of the polymer. Films containing lanthanide chlorides, fluorides, and sulfides are flexible, but those containing lanthanide nitrates are extremely brittle. The addition of lanthanide acetates and acetylacetonates caused immediate gelation of two of the synthesis-mixture ingredients. It was found that, in general, the addition of lanthanide to the polyimide increases the density and glass transition temperature of the polymer but slightly decreases the thermooxidative stability.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four landfills known to contain large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored for atmospheric emissions: Three of these were uncontrolled and contained large numbers of electrical capacitors, many of which were scattered on the surface and leaking PCB askare...

  11. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.

    2015-10-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics and circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress, while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  12. Martian atmospheric radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

  13. Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perliski, Lori

    Because radiative transfer cuts across many scientific disciplines with applications including remote sensing, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and photobiology, there is a need for comprehensive books on this subject that can appeal to a wide readership. While Atmospheric Radiative Transfer takes strides toward filling this niche by addressing a broad range of topics, it is dry reading and suffers from lack of detail. The book was based on a graduate-level course taught at the University of Sciences and Technologies in Lille, France, and indeed, the text reads much like an expanded outline perhaps derived from lecture notes.Part one deals with general radiative transfer, and part two covers Earth's radiation budget, the climate system, and remote sensing techniques. The radiative transfer equation and solutions for absorbing and scattering atmospheres are discussed as are the details of absorption, such as energy levels, line strengths, line intensities, equivalent widths, and weak- and strong-line limits.

  14. Atmospheric Pseudohalogen Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, David John

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is not usually considered in atmospheric chemical models. The paper presents three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. Firstly, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. Secondly, it is also likely that lightning is producing HCN, and as HCN is sparingly soluble it could be a useful long-lived "smoking gun" marker of lightning activity. Thirdly, the chemical decomposition of HCN leads to the production of small amounts of the cyanide (CN) and NCO radicals. The NCO radical can be photolyzed in the visible portion of the spectrum yielding nitrogen atoms (N). The production of nitrogen atoms is significant as it leads to the titration of total nitrogen from the atmosphere via N+N->N2, where N2 is molecular nitrogen.

  15. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynitch, Anatoli

    2016-04-01

    The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Variable-Volume Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Nallette, T. A.; Sansevero, F.

    1989-01-01

    Container holds bed of beads securely while accommodating sizable changes in volume and allowing gases to flow through bed. Developed for air-purifying system in which carbon dioxide is removed by solid amine beads.

  17. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  18. SECO containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    This containment data report for the SECO event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation, pressure, collapse phenomena, and motion. Surface array measurements are provided.

  19. Self Contained Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained ecosystem developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory is manufactured by Engineering and Research Associates. It is essentially a no-care aquarium which requires only natural or fluorescent light.

  20. Lightweight flywheel containment

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James R.

    2001-01-01

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  1. Lightweight flywheel containment

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  2. Portable heatable container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A container is provided which can be designed to heat its outer surface to sterilize it, or to heat its inner surface and any contents therewithin. In a container that self sterilizes its outer surface, the container includes a combustible layer of thermite-type pyrotechnic material which can be ignited to generate considerable heat, and a thin casing around the combustible layer which is of highly thermally conductive materials such as aluminum which can be heated to a high temperature by the ignited combustible layer. A buffer layer which may be of metal, lies within the combustible layer, and a layer of insulation such as Teflon lies within the buffer layer to insulate the contents of the container from the heat.

  3. Container cover closure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Griesau, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to handling and/or storing hazardous waste materials, such as radioactive materials, and is more specifically directed to loading and/or unloading radioactive material into or out of a container, such as a drum, by remote operation, and more particularly the present invention relates to the remote opening and/or closing of a container secured by a compression ring.

  4. Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.

  5. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrum, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    GRAM series of four-dimensional atmospheric model validated by years of data. GRAM program, still available. More current are Gram 86, which includes atmospheric data from 1986 and runs on DEC VAX, and GRAM 88, which runs on IBM 3084. Program generates altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through atmosphere, and also useful for global circulation and diffusion studies.

  6. Echo 1 container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Echo 1 container: The design of this container was one of the most difficult technical tasks. Hansen writes: 'After several weeks of examining potential solutions to this problem, the Langley engineers narrowed the field of ideas to five. They then built working models of these five container designs, and 12-foot-diameter models of the satellite for simulation studies. With help from Langley's Engineering Service and Mechanical Service divisions, the Echo group built a special 41-foot-diameter spherical vacuum chamber equipped with pressure-proof windows. There the dynamics of opening the container and inflating the satelloon could be studies as the satelloon fell to the bottom of the tank.' 'The container-opening mechanism that eventually resulted from these vacuum tests was surely one of the oddest explosive devices ever contrived. The container was a sphere that opened at its equator into top and bottom hemispheres. the top half fit on the bottom half much like a lid fits snugly atop a kitchen pot. The joint between the two hemispheres, therefore, formed a sliding valve. The halves had to move apart an inch or two before the canister was actually open. It was in this joint between the hemispheres that the charge was placed.' The whole whole system was laced together with fishing line which resulted in many disdainful comments from visiting scientists and engineers but the system worked. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 180.

  7. Evolution of the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of Mars' noble gases through two stages of hydrodynamic escape early in planetary history has been proposed previously by the author. In the first evolutionary stage of this earlier model, beginning at a solar age of approximately 50 m.y., fractionating escape of a H2-rich primordial atmosphere containing CO2, N2, and the noble gases in roughly the proportions found in primitive carbonaceous (CI) chondrites is driven by intense extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) leads to a long (approximately 80 m.y.) period of quiescence, followed by an abrupt degassing of remnant H2, CO2, and N2 from the mantle and of solar-composition noble gases lighter than Xe from the planet's volatile-rich accretional core. Degassed H refuels hydrodynamic loss in a waning but still potent solar EUV flux. Atmospheric Xe, Kr, and Ar remaining at the end of this second escape stage, approximately 4.2 G.y. ago, have evolved to their present-day abundances and compositions. Residual Ne continues to be modified by accretion of solar wind gases throughout the later history of the planet. This model does not address a number of processes that now appear germane to Martian atmospheric history. One, gas loss and fractionation by sputtering, has recently been shown to be relevant. Another, atmospheric erosion, appears increasingly important. In the absence then of a plausible mechanism, the model did not consider the possibility of isotopic evolution of noble gases heavier than Ne after the termination of hydrodynamic escape. Subsequent non-thermal loss of N was assumed, in an unspecified way, to account for the elevation of N from the model value of approximately 250 percent at the end of the second escape stage to approximately 620 percent today. Only qualitative attention was paid to the eroding effects of impact on abundances of all atmophilic species prior to the end of heavy bombardment approximately 3.8 G.y. ago. No attempt was made to include precipitation and recycling of carbonates in

  8. Evolution of the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    Evolution of Mars' noble gases through two stages of hydrodynamic escape early in planetary history has been proposed previously by the author. In the first evolutionary stage of this earlier model, beginning at a solar age of approximately 50 m.y., fractionating escape of a H2-rich primordial atmosphere containing CO2, N2, and the noble gases in roughly the proportions found in primitive carbonaceous (CI) chondrites is driven by intense extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) leads to a long (approximately 80 m.y.) period of quiescence, followed by an abrupt degassing of remnant H2, CO2, and N2 from the mantle and of solar-composition noble gases lighter than Xe from the planet's volatile-rich accretional core. Degassed H refuels hydrodynamic loss in a waning but still potent solar EUV flux. Atmospheric Xe, Kr, and Ar remaining at the end of this second escape stage, approximately 4.2 G.y. ago, have evolved to their present-day abundances and compositions. Residual Ne continues to be modified by accretion of solar wind gases throughout the later history of the planet. This model does not address a number of processes that now appear germane to Martian atmospheric history. One, gas loss and fractionation by sputtering, has recently been shown to be relevant. Another, atmospheric erosion, appears increasingly important. In the absence then of a plausible mechanism, the model did not consider the possibility of isotopic evolution of noble gases heavier than Ne after the termination of hydrodynamic escape. Subsequent non-thermal loss of N was assumed, in an unspecified way, to account for the elevation of N from the model value of approximately 250 percent at the end of the second escape stage to approximately 620 percent today. Only qualitative attention was paid to the eroding effects of impact on abundances of all atmophilic species prior to the end of heavy bombardment approximately 3.8 G.y. ago. No attempt was made to include precipitation and recycling of carbonates in

  9. Therapeutic potential of atmospheric neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Tatje, Jennifer; Biffi, Katia; Leschi, Delphine; Briançon, Jérome; Marcovici, Céline Lantieri

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in humans. It has a very poor prognosis despite multi-modality treatments consisting of open craniotomy with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Recently, a new treatment has been proposed – Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) – which exploits the interaction between Boron-10 atoms (introduced by vector molecules) and low energy neutrons produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. Methods The objective of the present study is to compute the deposited dose using a natural source of neutrons (atmospheric neutrons). For this purpose, Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out to estimate the dosimetric effects of a natural source of neutrons in the matter, to establish if atmospheric neutrons interact with vector molecules containing Boron-10. Results The doses produced (an average of 1 μGy in a 1 g tumour) are not sufficient for therapeutic treatment of in situ tumours. However, the non-localised yet specific dosimetric properties of 10B vector molecules could prove interesting for the treatment of micro-metastases or as (neo)adjuvant treatment. On a cellular scale, the deposited dose is approximately 0.5 Gy/neutron impact. Conclusion It has been shown that BNCT may be used with a natural source of neutrons, and may potentially be useful for the treatment of micro-metastases. The atmospheric neutron flux is much lower than that utilized during standard NBCT. However the purpose of the proposed study is not to replace the ordinary NBCT but to test if naturally occurring atmospheric neutrons, considered to be an ionizing pollution at the Earth's surface, can be used in the treatment of a disease such as cancer. To finalize this study, it is necessary to quantify the biological effects of the physically deposited dose, taking into account the characteristics of the incident particles (alpha particle and Lithium

  10. Searching for Charon's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, J.; Stern, A.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C.; Ennico Smith, K.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Gladstone, R.; Parker, J. W.; Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Versteeg, M. H.; Summers, M. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    There has been no compelling evidence to date for an atmosphere around Charon. However, New Horizons' successful flyby of the Pluto-Charon system provides orders of magnitude more sensitivity to detection of even a very tenuous Charon atmosphere. In particular, the Alice ultraviolet spectrograph acquired measurements of both reflected sunlight from Charon on approach of the system, as well as observing an occultation of the sun during departure through Charon's shadow. We will present the results from Alice and our analysis of these Charon observations.

  11. Modeling atmospheric particle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Msafiri M.

    Experimentally determined dry deposition velocities for atmospheric particles in the size range of 5-80 μm in diameter have been shown to be greater than predictions made with the current state-of-the-art (Sehmel-Hodgson) model which is based on wind tunnel experiment, particularly at higher wind speed. In this research, a model to predict the atmospheric dry deposition velocities of particles has been developed that is similar to a model developed for particle deposition in vertical pipes. The model uses a sigmoid curve to correlate nondimensional inertial deposition velocity (Vdi+) with dimensionless particle relaxation time (/tau+) and flow Reynolds number (Re). Vdi+ obtained from data collected in the atmosphere with particle size classifier system and a flat greased plate, Re, and /tau+ for particles between 1 and 100 μm diameter were fit with a sigmoid curve using the least square procedure to obtain coefficients for the sigmoid curve. Deposition velocities data for particles between 0.06 and 4 μm diameter developed by Sehmel-Hodgson model were used to introduce a Schmidt number (Sc) term to take care of Brownian diffusion. The atmospheric plate deposition velocity model is a function of Vst (Stokes settling velocity), V* (friction velocity), /tau+, Re, and Sc. Model application to 62 atmospheric data set revealed that: generated flux predictions agreed well with atmospheric measurements, and its performance is better than Sehmel-Hodgson model. By comparing the sigmoid curve coefficients developed for vertical pipe data with the coefficients developed for atmospheric data it is concluded that, the two types of deposition are similar when the effects of Re and /tau+ are properly considered. Sensitivity analysis for the model has revealed three distinct regions based on particle size. Of the three physical parameters (/tau+, Re, Sc) in the model, not more than two controls the deposition in any of the identified regions. The plate deposition model which is

  12. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

  13. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  14. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1996-01-01

    The relatively low value of Xe/Kr in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars seems to rule out meteorites as the major carriers of noble gases to the inner planets. Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures suggest that comets may be a better choice. It is then possible to develop a model for the origin of inner planet atmospheres based on volatiles delivered by comets added to volatiles originally trapped in planetary rocks. The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe.

  15. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.901 Atmospheric...

  16. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.901 Atmospheric...

  17. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.901 Atmospheric...

  18. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.901 Atmospheric...

  19. 46 CFR 154.902 - Atmospheric control within hold and interbarrier spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atmospheric control within hold and interbarrier spaces... DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.902 Atmospheric...

  20. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  1. The relative humidity of Mars' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    As a general rule, Mars' atmosphere contains as much water vapor as it can hold on a daily basis; it reaches saturation at night, and the vapor appears to be distributed throughout the lowest several kilometers. Interesting exceptions to this occur when there are temperature inversions in the arctic springtime and during dust-storm activity. As contrasted to the northern hemisphere there appears to be no local source of water in the southern temperate and arctic areas.

  2. Atmospheric neutrinos observed in underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced when the primary cosmic ray beam hits the atmosphere and initiates atmospheric cascades. Secondary mesons decay and give rise to neutrinos. The neutrino production was calculated and compared with the neutrino fluxes detected in underground detectors. Contained neutrino events are characterized by observation of an interaction within the fiducial volume of the detector when the incoming particle is not observed. Both the neutrino flux and the containment requirement restrict the energy of the neutrinos observed in contained interactions to less than several GeV. Neutrinos interact with the rock surrounding the detector but only muon neutrino interactions can be observed, as the electron energy is dissipated too fast in the rock. The direction of the neutrino is preserved in the interaction and at energies above 1 TeV the angular resolution is restricted by the scattering of the muon in the rock. The muon rate reflects the neutrino spectrum above some threshold energy, determined by the detector efficiency for muons.

  3. Modeling of Cometary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombosi, Tamas

    2004-01-01

    The NASA supported project 'Modeling of Cometary Atmospheres' has been quite successful in broadening our understanding of the cometary environment. We list peer reviewed publications and conference presentation that have been made as a result of studies performed under this project. Following the list we present details of a selection of the results.

  4. Does the Atmosphere Precess?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, R. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The study considers a north-south pair of mid-latitude rings of atmospheric mass, symmetric with respect to the equator, and rotating with respect to the distant stars. The mass and angular velocity are assigned similar to the annual and zonal mean upper level westerlies. Their relatively rapid rotation is assumed to allow a rigid body approximation on long time and space scales. The rings are constrained to move as if rigidly connected to a common axis of rotation. The pair thus constitutes a symmetric top with a fixed pivot point at the center of mass. Analysis of the dynamics follows the classical mechanics approach used for precession of the equinoxes. The theoretical rate of precession for this highly idealized system yields a period on the order of decades. The predicted dynamics appears consistent with three prior studies of observational data: latitudinal movements of atmospheric circulation above far Southern Australia, latitudinal movements of ocean circulation in the Kuroshio Extension, and changes in global Atmospheric Angular Momentum before and after 1976. Each of these observational records indicates correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The theoretical dynamics in combination with the observations suggests the axis of rotation of the atmospheric westerlies is offset from the Earth axis by a few degrees, and further, that this axis precesses around a mean axis on a time scale of a few decades.

  5. Solar Atmosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution honoring Kees de Jager's 80th birthday is a review of "one-dimensional" solar atmosphere modeling that followed on the initial "Utrecht Reference Photosphere" of Heintze, Hubenet & de Jager (1964). My starting point is the Bilderberg conference, convened by de Jager in 1967 at the time when NLTE radiative transfer theory became mature. The resulting Bilderberg model was quickly superseded by the HSRA and later by the VAL-FAL sequence of increasingly sophisticated NLTE continuum-fitting models from Harvard. They became the "standard models" of solar atmosphere physics, but Holweger's relatively simple LTE line-fitting model still persists as a favorite of solar abundance determiners. After a brief model inventory I discuss subsequent work on the major modeling issues (coherency, NLTE, dynamics) listed as to-do items by de Jager in 1968. The present conclusion is that one-dimensional modeling recovers Schwarzschild's (1906) finding that the lower solar atmosphere is grosso modo in radiative equilibrium. This is a boon for applications regarding the solar atmosphere as one-dimensional stellar example - but the real sun, including all the intricate phenomena that now constitute the mainstay of solar physics, is vastly more interesting.

  6. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  7. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  8. Overview of atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Effluents from the transportation system are the major cause of Satellite Power System related atmospheric effects. These effects are discussed and include inadvertent weather modification, air quality degradation, compositional changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere, formation of noctilucent clouds, plasma density changes, airglow enhancements, and changes in composition and dynamics of the plasmasphere and magnetosphere.

  9. Venus Middle Atmosphere Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, F. P.; Sundaram, M.; Slanger, T. G.; Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.

    2005-08-01

    Venus is the most similar planet to Earth, and years of research have sought to understand their similarities and differences. Yet, it is still not clear what chemical processes maintain the long-term stability of Venus' primarily CO2 atmosphere. CO2 dissociates into CO and O after absorbing photons at wavelengths < 210 nm. These O atoms should combine to form O2, and observations of intense airglow confirm rapid production of O2 on both day and night sides. CO and O2 are sufficiently stable that an initially pure CO2 atmosphere would rapidly evolve to have 7-8% CO and 3.5-4% O2 [1]. The observed upper limit on O2 (0.3 ppm [2]), however, indicates catalytic mechanisms [3], rapidly convert CO and oxygen into CO2. The current understanding of Venus middle atmosphere chemistry, the state of lab data, and prospects for advances based on Venus Express will be reviewed. Recent work evaluating newly proposed mechanisms for producing CO2, which could be important depending on the rates of poorly constrained reactions, will be described. This research was supported by funding from NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program and the Australian Research Council. Part of this work was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. [1] Nair, et al., Icarus 111, 124 (1994), [2] Trauger and Lunine, Icarus 55, 272 (1983), [3] Pernice, et al., PNAS 101, 14007 (2004)

  10. Superstatistics and atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, S.; Rapisarda, A.

    2005-08-01

    In this very short contribution we summarize some recent results on wind velocity data recorded at Florence airport. In particular we show that one can describe this example of atmospheric turbulence by means of the superstatistics approach proposed by Beck and Cohen (2003). The latter justifies the successful application of Tsallis generalized statistics in different fields, and more specifically in turbulence experiments.

  11. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  12. Dynamics of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    2004-04-01

    The study of atmospheric dynamics has seen an impressive expansion into many sub-disciplines in the past few decades. It is only natural, then, that most textbooks published during this period have tended to focus on one of these sub-disciplines. Atmospheric dynamics seems to be too broad a subject area to be the focus of a single text. A pitfall of writing a broadly focused text like Dynamics of the Atmosphere is that some subjects will receive short shrift. Nevertheless, the authors have succeeded admirably in striking a balance between, first of all, covering the important topics and, second, providing sufficient detail on these subjects in a concise and accurate manner. Dynamics of the Atmosphere is an advanced undergraduate or graduate-level text whose aim is to provide a thorough treatment of the important aspects of the subject. The authors emphasize a rigorous mathematical analysis of the various topics and usually do not relegate the details to appendices. They have done an excellent job of verifying the accuracy of all the mathematical derivations. I could not find any errors, although I freely admit not having checked all of the mathematical steps in each section.

  13. Electricity in the Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampath, S.; Kumar, V. Sasi

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the atmospheric electric circuit and a discussion of the fair-weather electrical are presented. The ion concentration, mobility, conductivity, and electric field altitudinal profiles are explained. An outline of the electrical processes inside thunderstorms along with a description of the lightning strike are included. (Author)

  14. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  15. Modeling of Atmosphere Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, James; Kittredge, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    NASA's AES is pioneering new approaches for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. All spacecraft systems must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Here, we show work related to improving system efficiency and reliability for water separation systems on crewed vehicles and the initial development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project

  16. A survey of kinetic data of compounds containing flourine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorofluoromethanes may have a significant effect on the level of ozone in the atmosphere. However, the role of fluroine-containing compounds has not been examined fully. A tabulation of a search of the chemical kinetic literature published between 1953 and July 1975, is presented. The data are then evaluated with respect to acceptability and importance to the overall reaction balance in the atmosphere. Possible future research to elucidate important reaction processes is discussed.

  17. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  18. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1994-01-01

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  19. Solar flare model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Fisher, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Solar flare model atmospheres computed under the assumption of energetic equilibrium in the chromosphere are presented. The models use a static, one-dimensional plane parallel geometry and are designed within a physically self-consistent coronal loop. Assumed flare heating mechanisms include collisions from a flux of non-thermal electrons and x-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona. The heating by energetic electrons accounts explicitly for variations of the ionized fraction with depth in the atmosphere. X-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona incorporates a flare loop geometry by approximating distant portions of the loop with a series of point sources, while treating the loop leg closest to the chromospheric footpoint in the plane-parallel approximation. Coronal flare heating leads to increased heat conduction, chromospheric evaporation and subsequent changes in coronal pressure; these effects are included self-consistently in the models. Cooling in the chromosphere is computed in detail for the important optically thick HI, CaII and MgII transitions using the non-LTE prescription in the program MULTI. Hydrogen ionization rates from x-ray photo-ionization and collisional ionization by non-thermal electrons are included explicitly in the rate equations. The models are computed in the 'impulsive' and 'equilibrium' limits, and in a set of intermediate 'evolving' states. The impulsive atmospheres have the density distribution frozen in pre-flare configuration, while the equilibrium models assume the entire atmosphere is in hydrostatic and energetic equilibrium. The evolving atmospheres represent intermediate stages where hydrostatic equilibrium has been established in the chromosphere and corona, but the corona is not yet in energetic equilibrium with the flare heating source. Thus, for example, chromospheric evaporation is still in the process of occurring.

  20. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  1. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  2. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Silicone-containing composition

    DOEpatents

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  5. Material containment enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  6. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  7. On Detecting Biospheres from Chemical Thermodynamic Disequilibrium in Planetary Atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Bergsman, David S; Catling, David C

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in Solar System atmospheres, in which we quantify the available Gibbs energy: the Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere minus that of atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere is mostly attributable to O2 and CH4. The available Gibbs energy is not unusual compared to other Solar System atmospheres and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's fluid envelope contains an ocean, allowing gases to react with water and requiring a multiphase calculation with aqueous species. The disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole of atmosphere) ranges from ∼20 to 2 × 10(6) times larger than the disequilibria of other atmospheres in the Solar System, where Mars is second to Earth. Only on Earth is the chemical disequilibrium energy comparable to the thermal energy per mole of atmosphere (excluding comparison to Titan with lakes, where quantification is precluded because the mean lake composition is unknown). Earth's disequilibrium is biogenic, mainly caused by the coexistence of N2, O2, and liquid water instead of more stable nitrate. In comparison, the O2-CH4 disequilibrium is minor, although kinetics requires a large CH4 flux into the atmosphere. We identify abiotic processes that cause disequilibrium in the other atmospheres. Our metric requires minimal assumptions and could potentially be calculated from observations of exoplanet atmospheres. However, further work is needed to establish whether thermodynamic disequilibrium is a practical exoplanet biosignature, requiring an assessment of false positives, noisy

  8. Volcanic eruptions: Atmospheric effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning gaseous and particulate contributions to the Earth's atmosphere from volcanoes, and the effects these substances have on the climate and the environment. Citations cover case studies of specific volcanic eruptions, detection and measurement of volcanic gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, environmental effects on the biota, long and short term climatological effects, paleoclimatology and volcanoes, atmospheric and transport modeling, and solar radiation inhibition. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Papers Presented to the Workshop on the Evolution of the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains papers that have been accepted for the Workshop on the Evolution of the Martian Atmosphere. The abstracts presented in the paper cover such topics as: modeling of the mars atmosphere from early development to present including specific conditions affecting development; studies of various atmospheric gases such as O2, SO2, CO2, NH3, and nitrogen; meteorite impacts and their effects on the atmosphere; and water inventories and cycles.

  10. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used to control ground-water seepage in the construction industry for many years. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of containment technologies as supplemental and stand-alone remedial options for hazardous waste sites to...

  11. Crash resistant container

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, J.D.

    1994-08-16

    A container for hazardous materials capable of protecting the enclosed materials from high speed impact is disclosed. Energy absorption is provided by a multiplicity of crushable layers of either wire mesh or perforated metal sheets which thin and flow together under impact loading. Layers of a higher tensile strength material are interspersed within the crushable layers to confine them and increase performance. 1 fig.

  12. Crash resistant container

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.

    1994-01-01

    A container for hazardous materials capable of protecting the enclosed materials from high speed impact. Energy absorption is provided by a multiplicity of crushable layers of either wire mesh or perforated metal sheets which thin and flow together under impact loading. Layers of a higher tensile strength material are interspersed within the crushable layers to confine them and increase performance.

  13. Silicone containing solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small amount, for example 1% by weight, of a liquid silicone oil to a metal containing solid rocket propellant provides a significant reduction in heat transfer to the inert nozzle walls. Metal oxide slag collection and blockage of the nozzle are eliminated and the burning rate is increased by about 5% to 10% thus improving ballistic performance.

  14. ISLAY containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    This containment data report for the ISLAY event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation pressure and motion. Collapse phenomena are reported, including motion and radiation pressure. Measurements on the emplacement pipe are reported, including motion, pressure, temperature, and radiation.

  15. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  16. JARLSBERG: Containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1994-12-01

    Information on the JARLSBERG event at the Nevada Test Site is given. Emphasis is on stemming performance, surface motion, and satellite hole (free-field) measurements. Some of the instrumentation was rendered inoperative by a preshot lightning strike on the grounding system and the EMP. The containment was satisfactory.

  17. Polyazomethines containing trifluoromethylbenzene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Soluble, amorphous, aromatic polyazomethine polymers and copolymers were prepared by reacting a dialdehyde monomer with a diamine monomer containing trifluoromethylbenzene and various combinations thereof in a solvent, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide. The reaction was heated to reflux yielding a polyazomethine which, after cooling to room temperature, was precipitated. These polymers and copolymers may be used to make films, coatings, composites and adhesives.

  18. Polyazomethines containing trifluoromethylbenzene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Soluble, amorphous, aromatic polyazomethine polymers and copolymers were prepared by reacting a dialdehyde monomer with a diamine monomer containing trifluoromethylbenzene and various combinations thereof in a solvent, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide. The reaction was heated to reflux yielding a polyazomethine which, after cooling to room temperature, was precipitated. These polymers and copolymers may be used to make films, coatings, composites and adhesives.

  19. Tartrazine-containing drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Bartle, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers producing or distributing drugs in Canada were surveyed between December 1974 and March 1975 to determine which of their products contained tartrazine, a pyrazole aniline dye. A list of some 580 drug products of the 156 manufacturers who responded is presented for aid in managing the tartrazine-sensitive patients. PMID:953903

  20. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  1. Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

  2. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  3. Spaceborne Infrared Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas; Macenka, Steven; Kampe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of the spaceborne infrared atmospheric sounder (SIRAS) - a spectral imaging instrument, suitable for observing the atmosphere of the Earth from a spacecraft, that utilizes four spectrometers to cover the wavelength range of 12 to 15.4 m with a spectral resolution that ranges between 1 part per 900 and 1 part per 1,200 in wavelength. The spectrometers are operated in low orders to minimize filtering requirements. Focal planes receive the dispersed energy and provide a spectrum of the scene. The design of the SIRAS combines advanced, wide-field refractive optics with high-dispersion gratings in a solid-state (no moving parts), diffraction-limited optical system that is the smallest such system that can be constructed for the specified wavelength range and resolution. The primary structure of the SIRAS has dimensions of 10 by 10 by 14 cm and has a mass of only 2.03 kg

  4. Atmospheric rendezvous feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the feasibility of using atmospheric rendezvous to increase the efficiency of space transportation and to determine the most effective implementation. It is concluded that atmospheric rendezvous is feasible and can be utilized in a space transportation system to reduce size of the orbiter vehicle, provide a powered landing with go-around capability for every mission, and achieve lateral range performance that exceeds requirements. A significantly lighter booster and reduced launch fuel requirements are additional benefits that can be realized with a system that includes a large subsonic airplane for recovery of the orbiter. Additional reduction in booster size is possible if the airplane is designed for recovery of the booster by towing. An airplane about the size of the C-5A is required.

  5. Atmospheric sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    The propagation of sound waves at infrasonic frequencies (oscillation periods 1.0 - 1000 seconds) in the atmosphere is being studied by a network of seven stations separated geographically by distances of the order of thousands of kilometers. The stations measure the following characteristics of infrasonic waves: (1) the amplitude and waveform of the incident sound pressure, (2) the direction of propagation of the wave, (3) the horizontal phase velocity, and (4) the distribution of sound wave energy at various frequencies of oscillation. Some infrasonic sources which were identified and studied include the aurora borealis, tornadoes, volcanos, gravity waves on the oceans, earthquakes, and atmospheric instability waves caused by winds at the tropopause. Waves of unknown origin seem to radiate from several geographical locations, including one in the Argentine.

  6. Global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, E. A.; Perkins, P. J.; Englund, D. R.; Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Automated instruments were installed on a commercial B-747 aircraft, during the program, to obtain baseline data and to monitor key atmospheric constituents associated with emissions of aircraft engines in order to determine if aircraft are contributing to pollution of the upper atmosphere. Data thus acquired on a global basis over the commercial air routes for 5 to 10 years will be analyzed. Ozone measurements in the 29,000 to 45,000 foot altitude were expanded over what has been available from ozonesondes. Limited aerosol composition measurements from filter samples show low levels of sulfates and nitrates in the upper troposphere. Recently installed instruments for measurement of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei are beginning to return data.

  7. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    2015-08-01

    This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  8. Outer atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability.

  9. Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

  10. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  11. Understanding Atmospheric Catastrophes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the physical mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how atmospheric catastrophes can be studied.

  12. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  13. Understanding Microbial Contributions to Planetary Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Should our search of distant, extrasolar planetary atmospheres encounter evidence of life, that evidence will most likely be the gaseous products of microorganisms. Our biosphere was exclusively microbial for over 80 percent of its history and, even today, microbes strongly influence atmospheric composition. Life's greatest environmental impact arises from its capacity for harvesting energy and creating organic matter. Microorganisms catalyze the equilibration of C, S and transition metal species at temperatures where such reactions can be very slow in the absence of life. Sunlight has been harvested through photosynthesis to create enormous energy reservoirs that exist in the form of coexisting reservoirs of reduced, organic C and S stored in Earth's crust, and highly oxidized species (oxygen, sulfate and ferric iron) stored in the crust, oceans and atmosphere. Our civilization taps that storehouse of energy by burning fossil fuels. As astrobiologists, we identify the chemical consequences of distant biospheres as expressed in the atmospheres of their planets. Our approach must recognize that planets, biospheres and atmospheres evolve and change. For example, a tectonically more active early Earth hosted a thermophilic, non-photosynthetic biosphere and a mildly reducing, carbon dioxide-rich and oxygen-poor atmosphere. Microorganisms acquired energy by consuming hydrogen and sulfide and producing a broad array of reduced C and S gases, most notably, methane. Later, diverse types of bacterial photosynthesis developed that enhanced productivity but were incapable of splitting water to produce oxygen. Later, but still prior to 2.6 billion years ago, oxygenic photosynthesis developed. We can expect to encounter distant biospheres that represent various stages of evolution and that coexist with atmospheres ranging from mildly reducing to oxidizing compositions. Accordinaly, we must be prepared to interpret a broad range of atmospheric compositions, all containing

  14. Atmospheric emission photometric imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-channel video system mounted on a stabilized two-axis gimbal system (mounted on the pallet) with associated optics and data handling electronics described the low light flux observations are required for: (1) investigating ionospheric transport processes by observing Mg+ ions; (2) supporting magnetospheric electron bounce experiments; (3) measuring electron cross sections for selected atmospheric species; (4) detecting small particle contamination; and (5) studying natural auroras.

  15. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  16. SMEAT atmosphere trace contaminants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schornick, J. L.; Heinrich, C. T.; Garcia, G. S., Jr.; Verostko, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The atmosphere trace contaminant analysis support provided for the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT) which was conducted from July 26 through September 20, 1972, at the JSC Crew Systems Division facility is discussed. Sample acquisition techniques and analytical instrumentation methodology utilized for identification and quantification of the trace contaminants are described. Emphasis is placed on the contaminants found, their occurrence patterns, and possible sources.

  17. Atmospheric emission photometric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mende, S.B.

    1981-11-01

    A dual-channel video system mounted on a stabilized two-axis gimbal system (mounted on the pallet) with associated optics and data handling electronics is described. Low light flux observations are required for: (1) investigating ionospheric transport processes by observing Mg+ ions (2) supporting magnetospheric electron bounce experiments (3) measuring electron cross sections for selected atmospheric species (4) detecting small particle contamination and (5) studying natural auroras.

  18. Remotely induced atmospheric lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Penano, Joseph; Gordon, Daniel; Hafizi, Bahman; Scully, Marlan

    2011-05-23

    We propose and analyze a remote atmospheric lasing configuration which utilizes a combination of an ultrashort pulse laser to form a plasma filament (seed electrons) by tunneling ionization and a heater pulse which thermalizes the seed electrons. Electrons collisionally excite nitrogen molecules and induce lasing in the ultraviolet. The lasing gain is sufficiently high to reach saturation within the length of the plasma filament. A remotely generated ultraviolet source may have applications for standoff detection of biological and chemical agents.

  19. Discovering Pluto's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, J.K.; Killian, A.

    1988-12-01

    Observations of the occultation of an obscure 12th-magnitude star in eastern Virgo by Pluto on June 9, 1988 are discussed. The occultation was observed by astronomers aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory flying over the Pacific. The prediction of the occultation and the results of the observations are examined. The study demonstrated that Pluto has a thin atmosphere and that its diameter is about two-thirds that of the moon.

  20. Atmospheric Disturbance Environment Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, the application of atmospheric disturbance data to airplane design problems has been the domain of the structures engineer. The primary concern in this case is the design of structural components sufficient to handle transient loads induced by the most severe atmospheric "gusts" that might be encountered. The concern has resulted in a considerable body of high altitude gust acceleration data obtained with VGH recorders (airplane velocity, V, vertical acceleration, G, altitude, H) on high-flying airplanes like the U-2 (Ehernberger and Love, 1975). However, the propulsion system designer is less concerned with the accelerations of the airplane than he is with the airflow entering the system's inlet. When the airplane encounters atmospheric turbulence it responds with transient fluctuations in pitch, yaw, and roll angles. These transients, together with fluctuations in the free-stream temperature and pressure will disrupt the total pressure, temperature, Mach number and angularity of the inlet flow. For the mixed compression inlet, the result is a disturbed throat Mach number and/or shock position, and in extreme cases an inlet unstart can occur (cf. Section 2.1). Interest in the effects of inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, supersonic airplanes is not new. Results published by NASA in 1962 of wind tunnel studies of the problem were used in support of the United States Supersonic Transport program (SST) (White, at aI, 1963). Such studies continued into the late 1970's. However, in spite of such interest, there never was developed an atmospheric disturbance database for inlet unstart analysis to compare with that available for the structures load analysis. Missing were data for the free-stream temperature and pressure disturbances that also contribute to the unStart problem.

  1. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Harold N.

    1987-01-01

    Various types of atmospheric turbulence measurements are addressed for the purpose of stimulating discussion relative to available data. An outline of these various types of measurements are discussed. Some specific results of detailed characterization studies made at NASA Langley are emphasized. The most recent reports on statistics of turbulence encounters for various types of aircraft operations are summarized. Special severe encounter studies and reference to remote sensing are also included. Wind shear is considered to be a special topic and is not covered.

  2. Atmospheric prediction model survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellck, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the SEASAT Satellite program of NASA, a survey of representative primitive equation atmospheric prediction models that exist in the world today was written for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Seventeen models developed by eleven different operational and research centers throughout the world are included in the survey. The surveys are tutorial in nature describing the features of the various models in a systematic manner.

  3. Shuttle derived atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, John

    1987-01-01

    The shuttle descends along a rather shallow path, thus providing some information on the horizontal structure of the atmosphere. Small scale structures were suggested (shears, potholes). The best estimates of the shuttle drag coefficient and projected areas are used to go from accelerometer data to density through the use of BET's (Best Estimated Trajectories). Data are from the IMU's (Inertial Measurement Unit) and the HiRAP (High Resolution Accelerometer Package).

  4. Atmospheric optics in art.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1991-08-20

    A brief historical overview of the atmospheric optical phenomena that appear in works of fine art is presented. It is shown that artists have recorded many features of the color and brightness of the sky and clouds, aerial perspective and visibility effects, and phenomena, including crepuscular rays, rainbows, halos, and coronas. Artistic biases resulting from prevailing styles and societal influences are noted. Attention is drawn to a number of phenomena recorded by artists that have not yet been explained or modeled. PMID:20706420

  5. Does toxicity of aromatic pollutants increase under remote atmospheric conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Kroflič, Ana; Grilc, Miha; Grgić, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic compounds contribute significantly to the budget of atmospheric pollutants and represent considerable hazard to living organisms. However, they are only rarely included into atmospheric models which deviate substantially from field measurements. A powerful experimental-simulation tool for the assessment of the impact of low- and semi-volatile aromatic pollutants on the environment due to their atmospheric aqueous phase aging has been developed and introduced for the first time. The case study herein reveals that remote biotopes might be the most damaged by wet urban guaiacol-containing biomass burning aerosols. It is shown that only after the primary pollutant guaiacol has been consumed, its probably most toxic nitroaromatic product is largely formed. Revising the recent understanding of atmospheric aqueous phase chemistry, which is mostly concerned with the radical nitration mechanisms, the observed phenomenon is mainly attributed to the electrophilic nitrogen-containing reactive species. Here, their intriguing role is closely inspected and discussed from the ecological perspective. PMID:25748923

  6. Does toxicity of aromatic pollutants increase under remote atmospheric conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroflič, Ana; Grilc, Miha; Grgić, Irena

    2015-03-01

    Aromatic compounds contribute significantly to the budget of atmospheric pollutants and represent considerable hazard to living organisms. However, they are only rarely included into atmospheric models which deviate substantially from field measurements. A powerful experimental-simulation tool for the assessment of the impact of low- and semi-volatile aromatic pollutants on the environment due to their atmospheric aqueous phase aging has been developed and introduced for the first time. The case study herein reveals that remote biotopes might be the most damaged by wet urban guaiacol-containing biomass burning aerosols. It is shown that only after the primary pollutant guaiacol has been consumed, its probably most toxic nitroaromatic product is largely formed. Revising the recent understanding of atmospheric aqueous phase chemistry, which is mostly concerned with the radical nitration mechanisms, the observed phenomenon is mainly attributed to the electrophilic nitrogen-containing reactive species. Here, their intriguing role is closely inspected and discussed from the ecological perspective.

  7. Flight through Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Ádámkovics, Máté; Gibbard, Seran; Roe, Henry G.; Griffith, Caitlin A.

    We assembled spectral image data cubes of Titan in H-band (1.413-1.808 μm), using adaptive optics on the 10-m W.M. Keck telescope, by stepping a spectrometer slit across Titan's disk. We constructed images of Titan at each wavelength by 'glueing' the spectra together, producing 1400 ultra-narrowband (~0.1nm) views of the satellite. With this method one can characterise Titan's atmosphere over the entire disk, in more specific vertical detail than possible with either narrowband imaging or slit spectroscopy at one position. Data were obtained of Titan's leading hemisphere on UT 20 February 2001. At the shorter wavelengths we probe all the way down to the surface, revealing the familiar bright and dark terrain, while at longer wavelengths we probe various altitudes in the atmosphere. The data have been assembled into a movie, showing the surface and different haze layers while stepping up in altitude. The transitions from the surface to the tropospheric haze, and through the tropopause into the upper atmospheric haze, are clearly recognised.

  8. NASA CONNECT: Atmospheric Detectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' is the second of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' students will learn how scientists use satellites, lasers, optical detectors, and wavelengths of light to measure the presence of certain gaseous elements, compounds, and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Atmospheric Ball Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, C. J. V.; Wurden, G. A.

    2008-11-01

    Free-floating atmospheric pressure copper hydroxyl ball plasmas have been studied in air and helium atmospheres, using still and high speed photography (up to 20,000 fps), collimated photodiodes, and spectroscopy. A fine boundary layer between the greenish Cu-OH cloud, and the air, is orange in color. However, when the discharge is initiated into a helium atmosphere, the boundary layer is no longer visible, suggesting that the visible boundary was caused by interactions with oxygen. We have studied scaling of the 10-cm diameter ball plasmas with both the size of the water bucket, and the applied discharge voltage, over the range of 500-5000 volts. When looking at the initial spider-leg breakdown above the water surface, the ratio of H-alpha to H-beta lines suggests a temperature of ˜0.3 eV. This is also consistent with the presence of molecular lines of OH, and perhaps CuOH2 in the rising cloud. The cloud is affected by, but can penetrate through an aluminum window screen mesh.

  10. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  11. Mars atmospheric water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Grossman, A. W.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1992-01-01

    We indicate the Dec. 3-4 spectrum averaged over the morning limb of Mars. Two synthetic spectra indicate the expected line emission for 3 precipitable microns of water with a uniform vertical distribution (dotted) and a vertical distribution in which water decreases rapidly above 20 km altitude if Mars atmospheric temperatures are approximately 20 K cooler than implied by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapping (IRTM) and lander descent observations. Such cooler atmospheric temperatures have been argued on the basis of ground-based microwave observations of Mars atmospheric CO. Our 3 pr micron column abundance for water can be compared to the global value of approximately 6 pr microns, observation for the same season with the Viking MAWD experiment in 1977. We will investigate the latitude and diurnal variations when the data corresponding to the second day of observations are reduced. We also plan to compare these VLA water observations with a very complementary set of Hubble Space Telescope ozone observations. Ultraviolet (220-330 nm) spectra and imates of Mars were obtained on Dec. 13 1990 as part of a general Mars observing program with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. Model atmospheres for Betelgeuse.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, T. D.; Johnson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed comparison of a series of stellar atmospheric models at effective temperatures of 3800 and 3500 K with scanner observations of Betelgeuse (alpha Ori, M2 Iab). The atmospheres are hydrostatic, flux-constant, LTE atmospheres which include the opacity of H2O, CO, CN, and atomic line blanketing. To reduce the flux shortward of 6000 A enough to agree with observations requires either strong atomic line blanketing (or a similar opacity source) or significant reddening, or (likely) both. The visual extinction (an estimate of which depends strongly on the line blanketing, especially in the 1- to 2-micron region) lies between 0.4 and 2.0 mag. Comparison of predicted strengths of observed CO and CN features with observations and of predicted column densities of CO, OH, NH, and H2O with published column densities suggests that C/H may be less than its solar value by about a factor of 10 and C/O may be less than 0.6 in Betelgeuse.

  13. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  14. The atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Garratt, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, boundary-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. Finally, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.

  15. Titan's surface and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2016-05-01

    Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With atmospheric pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated atmosphere and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of atmospheric/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor physical models.

  16. BWR steel containment corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  17. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  18. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  19. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  20. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  1. The chemistry of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning the chemistry of planetary atmospheres is reviewed along with the theories which attempt to explain observational data. The known gross atmospheric compositions of the terrestrial and giant planets are listed, differences between the atmospheres of earth and Venus are discussed, and the atmospheres of the giant planets are described. The origin and evolution of the atmospheres of earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined, and chemical processes in the atmospheres are examined, particularly cloud formation. The question of organic synthesis and evolution in the reducing atmospheres of the giant planets is considered. It is noted that laboratory work on the individual chemical processes and reactions involved in the evolution of organic compounds in planetary atmospheres, comets, and interstellar space points to the inevitability of organic-compound synthesis in all these situations and to the pervasiveness of organic chemistry throughout the universe.

  2. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  3. Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring (AVM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, Muthu; Tong, Loretta

    1996-01-01

    The program objective is to obtain atmospheric transmission statistics data to support optical communications through: (1) Atmospheric loss in optical communication channel; (2) Joint PDFs for multiple site reception; (3) Statistical modeling; and (4) extrapolate PDFs for other sites.

  4. Fluorine-containing polyformals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trischler, F. D. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A fluorine-containing polymeric polyformals is described which has the repeating unit O CH2 O CH2 (CF2) sub n CH2 wherein n is an integer of from about 3 to about 6 prepared by reacting trioxane with a diol having the formula HO CH2 (CF2) sub n CH2 OH. These polymeric polyformals are useful directly for impervious coatings on metals and the like.

  5. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  6. CORNUCOPIA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The CORNUCOPIA event was detonated on July 24, 1986. A crater resulted from the event that was 137.5 m in diameter and a maximum depth of 16.9 m. No radiation was detected above the ground surface and containment was satisfactory. This report describes measuring methods utilized, maps indicating the location of the event, and a discussion, with data, concerning the collapse progression.

  7. LABQUARK containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The LABQUARK event was detonated in hole U19an of the Nevada Test Site. Detonation time was 15:30 PDT on September 30, 1986. A surface collapse occurred at about 3 hour, 51 minutes after detonation. No measurements of the crater dimensions were made, however, visual estimates of the crater depth varied from 1 to 4 feet depending upon the observer. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the LABQUARK event containment was satisfactory.

  8. First International Conference on Laboratory Research for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Kenneth (Editor); Allen, John E., Jr. (Editor); Stief, Louis J. (Editor); Quillen, Diana T. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Laboratory Research for Planetary Atmospheres are presented. The covered areas of research include: photon spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and charged particle interactions. This report contains the 12 invited papers, 27 contributed poster papers, and 5 plenary review papers presented at the conference. A list of attendees and a reprint of the Report of the Subgroup on Strategies for Planetary Atmospheres Exploration (SPASE) are provided in two appendices.

  9. Jupiter's microwave spectrum - Implications for the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Poynter, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown through the use of weighting functions that Jupiter's brightness temperature in the wavelength range 0.8-1.5 cm contains information on the thermal structure and abundance of ammonia in and above the tropopause in Jupiter's atmosphere. We present new data of Jupiter's brightness temperature in this wavelength range, and compare the results with theoretical spectra. The pressure in the Jovian atmosphere is estimated from these data to be 0.48 atm at 130 K.

  10. Method for protecting plant life from acidic atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel, A.D.

    1986-10-14

    A method is described for treating a stand of coniferous trees growing by natural processes and exposed to an atmosphere containing inorganic nitric acid or nitrate compounds to improve the resistance of the trees to damage by acid rain. The method consists of foliarly applying at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and disaccharides to the coniferous trees naturally growing in the stand exposed to the atmosphere.

  11. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  12. Atmospheric microwave refractivity and refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, E.; Hodge, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    The atmospheric refractivity can be expressed as a function of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, and operating frequency. Based on twenty-year meteorological data, statistics of the atmospheric refractivity were obtained. These statistics were used to estimate the variation of dispersion, attenuation, and refraction effects on microwave and millimeter wave signals propagating along atmospheric paths. Bending angle, elevation angle error, and range error were also developed for an exponentially tapered, spherical atmosphere.

  13. Probing the atmosphere with infrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posmentier, E. S.; Donn, W. L.

    1969-01-01

    Recent studies are reported which have contributed to the knowledge of atmospheric structure and have established the practicality of infrasonic techniques for probing the atmosphere to heights of 120 km or more. Observations of a few types of infrasound are reviewed, and the theories used to account for the infrasound propagation and the deduced atmospheric structures are discussed.

  14. Range reference atmosphere Shemya, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    A reference atmosphere is a statistical model of the earth's atmosphere, derived from upper air observations over a specific location. The individual RRA is the authoritative source for upper atmosphere climatology over the launch and recovery site for which it has been prepared. The RRA's are used to plan, evaluate, and establish environmental launch constraints for aerospace vehicles launched from a particular location.

  15. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  16. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Letaw, J R; Share, G H; Kinzer, R L; Silberberg, R; Chupp, E L; Forrest, D J; Rieger, E

    1989-02-01

    We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified. The features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with index -1.16. Many of these features contain a blend of more than one nuclear line. All of these lines (with the exception of the 511-keV annihilation line) are Doppler broadened. Line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric 14N and 16O. Although we find no evidence for other production mechanisms, we cannot rule out significant contributions from direct excitation or spallation by primary cosmic ray protons. The relative intensities of the observed line features are in fair agreement with theoretical models; however, existing models are limited by the availability of neutron cross sections, especially at high energies. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, can be explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of approximately 21 g cm-2 of atmosphere. PMID:11537397

  17. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  18. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution ( MAVEN) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Lin, R. P.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mitchell, D. F.; Beutelschies, G.; Priser, T.; Acuna, M.; Andersson, L.; Baird, D.; Baker, D.; Bartlett, R.; Benna, M.; Bougher, S.; Brain, D.; Carson, D.; Cauffman, S.; Chamberlin, P.; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Cheatom, O.; Clarke, J.; Connerney, J.; Cravens, T.; Curtis, D.; Delory, G.; Demcak, S.; DeWolfe, A.; Eparvier, F.; Ergun, R.; Eriksson, A.; Espley, J.; Fang, X.; Folta, D.; Fox, J.; Gomez-Rosa, C.; Habenicht, S.; Halekas, J.; Holsclaw, G.; Houghton, M.; Howard, R.; Jarosz, M.; Jedrich, N.; Johnson, M.; Kasprzak, W.; Kelley, M.; King, T.; Lankton, M.; Larson, D.; Leblanc, F.; Lefevre, F.; Lillis, R.; Mahaffy, P.; Mazelle, C.; McClintock, W.; McFadden, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Montmessin, F.; Morrissey, J.; Peterson, W.; Possel, W.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Schneider, N.; Sidney, W.; Sparacino, S.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Tolson, R.; Toublanc, D.; Waters, C.; Woods, T.; Yelle, R.; Zurek, R.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft launched in November 2013, arrived at Mars in September 2014, and completed commissioning and began its one-Earth-year primary science mission in November 2014. The orbiter's science objectives are to explore the interactions of the Sun and the solar wind with the Mars magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, to determine the structure of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes controlling it, to determine the escape rates from the upper atmosphere to space at the present epoch, and to measure properties that allow us to extrapolate these escape rates into the past to determine the total loss of atmospheric gas to space through time. These results will allow us to determine the importance of loss to space in changing the Mars climate and atmosphere through time, thereby providing important boundary conditions on the history of the habitability of Mars. The MAVEN spacecraft contains eight science instruments (with nine sensors) that measure the energy and particle input from the Sun into the Mars upper atmosphere, the response of the upper atmosphere to that input, and the resulting escape of gas to space. In addition, it contains an Electra relay that will allow it to relay commands and data between spacecraft on the surface and Earth.

  19. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  20. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  1. [Psychological containment at home].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marilyne; Velay, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The mobile care and rehabilitation team offers patients who have been receiving long-term, in-patient care, when they are stabilised, a discharge programme underpinned by considerable support from a nursing team. Through apartments owned by associations and the CATTP (part-time therapy centre), the team will guide the patient along their sometimes precarious pathway. This well thought-out and shared support, takes on the function of psychological containment for the patient, helping to ensure a successful reintegration. PMID:25562916

  2. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  3. Hexafluoroisopropoxy-containing polyacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.S.; Cassidy, P.E.; Fitch, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The fluorinated alcohol, 4-fluoro(2-hydroxyhexafluoroisopropyl)benzene (HFIPFB) has proven to be an highly useful starting material for the preparation of various fluorinated acrylic polymers. Hexafluoroisopropoxy-containing acrylic monomers were prepared from the acid derivative of HFIPFB and hydroxyalkyl methacrylate. These monomers were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The homo- and copolymerizations of these monomers and nonfluorinated analogues were effected by radical polymerization to yield fluoro-acrylic polymers which were soluble in common organic solvents such as CHCl{sub 3} and THF. The inherent viscosity of these polymers ranged up to 1.5 dL/g.

  4. Atmospheric heating of meteors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, K. E.; Mccay, T. D.; Best, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model of the radiating metallic gas produced about an iron meteor entering the earth's atmosphere is discussed. Numerical results are presented for a 0.1 cm diameter iron meteor traveling at 15 km/sec at an altitude of 100 km above the earth. It is shown that collisions between the expanding iron gas and the air molecules produce a radiating gas shell a few meters thick which is located many meters ahead of the meteor core. Temperature, pressure, and density distributions are presented as functions of radial distance and angle for several initial meteor conditions.

  5. Atmospheric testing of Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roosa, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Basic space shuttle launch and orbit configurations are examined. Particular attention is given to the atmospheric portion of reentry and landing, taking into account the pilot techniques, the flight control system, and questions of stability and control. Details are provided regarding a plan which has been proposed for testing the lower Mach number and altitude regime of the entry profile. The ALT program will be primarily concerned with gathering sufficient test data to verify safe subsonic aerodynamic flight and landing in the first orbital flight test approach and landing configuration.

  6. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this three year proposal are: (1) to calculate the likely diffusive flux of Ar and He from the interior of Mercury for representative crustal compositions; (2) compute a reasonable estimate of the fractional escape flux of photoions for the likely range of field conditions; and (3) to calculate the capture rate of solar wind ions into the atmosphere. The morphology of the magnetosphere in response to the solar wind and the IMF is the crucial boundary condition for the flux of ions to the surface. We have tackled problem (1) using a multipath diffusion code, and problems (2) and (3) using a combination of MHD and kinetic plasma dynamics.

  7. Uranus deep atmosphere revealed

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Romani, P.N.; Atreya, S.K. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor )

    1989-12-01

    The present examination of the radio spectrum and latitudinal radio brightness temperature variation of Uranus leads to a ejection of thermochemical equilibrium models and the adoption of an atmospheric model characterized by a low ammonia volume-mixing ratio that is uniformly distributed over a wide altitude range. The elemental ratios derivable from this model support the planetary accretion theory of Pollack and Bodenheimer (1989). It is noted that while the equatorial and midlatitude values of Uranian radio brightness temperature are explainable by condensation theories, the polar value can only be accounted for through the invocation of strong, dry air downdrafts. 43 refs.

  8. Fair weather terrestrial atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, G.

    Atmospheric electricity is one of the oldest experimental topics in atmospheric science. The fair weather aspects, although having less dramatic effects than thunderstorm electrification, link the microscale behaviour of ion clusters to currents flowing on the global scale. This talk will include a survey of some past measurements and measurement methods, as atmospheric electrical data from a variety of sites and eras are now being used to understand changes in atmospheric composition. Potential Gradient data was the original source of information on the global atmospheric electrical circuit, and similar measurements can now be used to reconstruct past air pollution concentrations, and black carbon loading.

  9. Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1998-12-31

    Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

  10. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C.

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  11. U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Part 1 gives the basis for computation of the main tables of atmospheric properties, including values of physical constants, conversion factors, and definitions of derived properties, including values of physical constants, conversion factors, and definitions of derived properties. Part 2 describes the model and data used up to 85 km, in the first section; and the model and data used above 85 km in the second section. The theoretical basis of the high altitude model is given in an appendix. Part 3 contains information on minor constituents in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. The main tables of atmospheric properties to 1000 km are given in Part 4. The international system of metric units is used.

  12. Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M Z; Evans, W H

    1980-10-01

    A unique polar nephelometer was designed and constructed for the measurement of atmospheric particulate characteristics. The nephelometer produces visible light from a self-contained laser to irradiate an air sample drawn into the instrument. The light scattered from the particulates and molecules in the sample is detected as a function of scattering angle for each of four different incident light polarizations. These measurements are used to determine the particulate scattering matrix which is a function of the size, shape, and index of refraction of the particles. The region of sensitivity for the measurements corresponds to the size range of particles that strongly affects visible radiative transfer in the atmosphere, which is the primary application for the derived information. PMID:20234624

  13. Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Christopher M.; Ellison, G. Barney; Tuck, Adrian F.; Vaida, Veronica

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have recently been found to contain a large number of chemical elements and a high content of organic material. The latter property is explicable by an inverted micelle model. The aerosol sizes with significant atmospheric lifetimes are the same as those of single-celled organisms, and they are predicted by the interplay of aerodynamic drag, surface tension, and gravity. We propose that large populations of such aerosols could have afforded an environment, by means of their ability to concentrate molecules in a wide variety of physical conditions, for key chemical transformations in the prebiotic world. We also suggest that aerosols could have been precursors to life, since it is generally agreed that the common ancestor of terrestrial life was a single-celled organism. The early steps in some of these initial transformations should be accessible to experimental investigation. PMID:11035775

  14. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the status of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). These instruments are on board the EOS Aqua Spacecraft that was launched May 4, 2002. The instruments are working normally. The objectives of the mission were to improve weather forecasting, assist in climate studies, and provide information as to the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The Aqua spacecraft is operating normally, the the primary life-limiting resource is fuel for maneuvers. The presentation also contains charts indicating who are using the data. There is information on the type of data available, and the propsal process. Also there is a few views of some of the planned instruments that were made possible in part due to the success of AIRS.

  15. Acoustic propagation in a thermally stratified atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanmoorhem, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in an atmosphere with a specific form of temperature profile has been investigated by analytical means. The temperature profile used is representative of an actual atmospheric profile and contains three free parameters. Both lapse and inversion cases have been considered. Although ray solution have been considered the primary emphasis has been on solutions of the acoustic wave equation with point force where the sound speed varies with height above the ground corresponding to the assumed temperature profile. The method used to obtain the solution of the wave equation is based on Hankel transformation of the wave equation, approximate solution of the transformed equation for wavelength small compared to the scale of the temperature (or sound speed) profile, and approximate or numerical inversion of the Hankel transformed solution. The solution displays the characteristics found in experimental data but extensive comparison between the models and experimental data has not been carried out.

  16. Microbial biodiversity of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Ann Maureen

    Microorganisms are critical to the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and may also play a role in the functioning of the atmosphere. However, little is known about the diversity and function of microorganisms in the atmosphere. To investigate the forces driving the assembly of bacterial microbial communities in the atmosphere, I measured temporal variation in bacterial diversity and composition over diurnal and inter-day time scales. Results suggest that bacterial communities in the atmosphere markedly vary over diurnal time scales and are likely structured by inputs from both local terrestrial and long-distance sources. To assess the potential functions of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere, I characterized total and potentially active communities using both RNA- and DNA-based data. Results suggest there are metabolically active microorganisms in the atmosphere that may affect atmospheric functions including precipitation development and carbon cycling. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  17. Planetary migration, accretion, and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian M.

    mechanisms for stopping this accretion involve either disk dispersal or gap formation. Although mass accretion may eventually be quenched by a global depletion of gas, as in the ease of Uranus and Neptune, such a mechanism is unlikely to have stalled the growth of some known planetary systems which contain relatively low-mass and close-in planets along with more massive and longer period companions. Similarly, the formation of a gap cannot fully explain the decrease in mass accretion. Several groups have shown that, even in the presence of a gap, diffusion allows rapid gas accretion to continue. Here I explore the effect of the growing tidal barrier on the flow within the protoplanetary disk. Using both analytic and numerical approaches I show that accretion rates increases rapidly with the ratio of the protoplanet's Roche to Bondi radii or equivalently to the disk thickness. Mass accretion timescales become comparable to observed disk lifetimes. In regions with loco geometric aspect ratios gas accretion is efficiently quenched with relatively low protoplanetary masses. This mechanism is important for determining the gas- giant planets' mass function, the distribution of their masses within multiple planet systems around solar type stars, and for suppressing the emergence of gas-giants around low mass stars. The final section explores the atmospheric dynamics of short-period gas-giant planets. Ubiquitous among currently observed extrasolar planetary systems these planets receive intense irradiation from their host stars that dominates the energy input into their atmospheres. Characterization of several of these planets through transit observations have revealed information on temperature, structure, and composition. Here we present three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical simulations of atmospheric circulation on close-in gas giant planets. In contrast to previous Global Climate Models and shallow water algorithms, this method does not assume quasi hydrostatic equilibrium

  18. Commissioning of self-management support for people with long-term conditions: an exploration of commissioning aspirations and processes

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, Claire; Kennedy, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Vassilev, Ivo; Rogers, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore how self-management support (SMS) is considered and conceptualised by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and whether this is reflected in strategic planning and commissioning. SMS is an essential element of long-term condition (LTC) management and CCGs are responsible for commissioning services that are coordinated, integrated and link into patient's everyday lives. This focus provides a good test and exemplar for how commissioners communicate with their local population to find out what they need. Design A multisite, quasi-ethnographic exploration of 9 CCGs. Setting National Health Service (NHS) CCGs in southern England, representing varied socioeconomic status, practice sizes and rural and urban areas. Data collection/analysis Content analysis of CCG forward plans for mention of SMS. Semistructured interviews with commissioners (n=10) explored understanding of SMS and analysed thematically. The practice of commissioning explored through the observations of Service User Researchers (n=5) attending Governing Body meetings (n=10, 30 hours). Results Observations illuminate the relative absence of SMS and gateways to active engagement with patient and public voices. Content analysis of plans point to tensions between local aspirations and those identified by NHS England for empowering patients by enhancing SMS services (‘person-centred’, whole systems). Interview data highlight disparities in the process of translating the forward plans into practice. Commissioners reference SMS as a priority yet details of local initiatives are notably absent with austerity (cost-containment) and nationally measured biomedical outcomes taking precedence. Conclusions Commissioners conceptualise locally sensitive SMS as a means to improve health and reduce service use, but structural and financial constraints result in prioritisation of nationally driven outcome measures and payments relating to biomedical targets. Ultimately, there is little evidence of

  19. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  20. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1995-01-01

    We are proposing a model for the delivery of volatiles to the inner planets by icy planetesimals (comets). Laboratory studies of the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures simulate the formation of comet nuclei at various distances from the Sun in the solar nebula. The total gas content as well as the relative proportions of gases trapped in the ice are strong functions of temperature. As they trap N2 inefficiently, all planetesimals formed interior to Neptune are deficient in nitrogen, acquiring values of C/N resembling those found in the inner planet volatile inventories. A mixture of three basic types of comets appears capable of accounting for the observed volatile inventories on Venus, Earth, and Mars, with the caveat that impact erosion is necessary to explain the present condition of the martian atmosphere. The model includes the possibility of several epochs of clement conditions on early Mars. Some tests of these ideas are suggested, including measurements in Jupiter's atmosphere by the Galileo probe.

  1. Comparative Understanding of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bolton, S. J.; Bougher, S. W.; Coustenis, A.; Edgington, S. G.; Friedson, A. J.; Griffith, C. A.; Guberman, S. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Mendillo, M.; Moses, J.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Orton, G. S.; Rages, K. A.; Slanger, T. G.; Titov, D. V.; Yelle, R.

    2001-11-01

    Observing, characterizing, and understanding planetary atmospheres are key components of solar system exploration. A planet's atmosphere is the interface between the surface and external energy and mass sources. Understanding how atmospheres are formed, evolve, and respond to perturbations is essential for addressing the long-range science objectives of identifying the conditions that are favorable for producing and supporting biological activity, managing the effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere, and planning and evaluating observations of extra-solar planets. Our current knowledge, based on very few observations, indicates that the planets and moons in the solar system have diverse atmospheres with a number of shared characteristics. Comparing and contrasting solar system atmospheres provides the best means of addressing the broad scientific goals. Additional space missions with specific atmospheric objectives are required. At the same time, investment of additional resources is needed in the infrastructure of observation and interpretation of planetary atmospheres. The Planetary Atmospheres Community Panel is considering and prioritizing potential recommendations in two broad categories. Possible recommendations that apply to multiple planets include creation of a new Comparative Planetary Atmospheres program, establishing a mechanism for secure funding for analysis and interpretation of mission data, creation of a new "Super-Discovery" program for more ambitious planetary missions, enhancement of laboratory and theory research, and deployment of space- or ground-based telescopes dedicated to planetary observations. Possible recommendations for specific planetary missions with atmospheric goals include deep-penetration multiprobes to determine elemental compositions of giant planet atmospheres, Venus and Mars atmospheric explorer missions, and a Post-Cassini atmospheric/surface mission to Titan.

  2. Rayleigh scattering in the atmospheres of hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišák, J.; Krtička, J.; Munzar, D.; Kubát, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Rayleigh scattering is a result of an interaction of photons with bound electrons. Rayleigh scattering is mostly neglected in calculations of hot star model atmospheres because most of the hydrogen atoms are ionized and the heavier elements have a lower abundance than hydrogen. In atmospheres of some chemically peculiar stars, helium overabundant regions containing singly ionized helium are present and Rayleigh scattering can be a significant opacity source. Aims: We evaluate the contribution of Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and singly ionized helium in the atmospheres of hot stars with solar composition and in the atmospheres of helium overabundant stars. Methods: We computed several series of model atmospheres using the TLUSTY code and emergent fluxes using the SYNSPEC code. These models describe atmospheres of main sequence B-type stars with different helium abundance. We used an existing grid of models for atmospheres with solar chemical composition and we calculated an additional grid for helium-rich stars with N(He)/N(H) = 10. Results: Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen can be neglected in atmospheres of hot stars, while Rayleigh scattering by singly ionized helium can be a non-negligible opacity source in some hot stars, especially in helium-rich stars.

  3. Method for preventing sulfur emissions from vessels containing molten sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R. H.

    1984-10-23

    Emissions from sulfur pits or other vessels containing molten sulfur are prevented or minimized by use of an air purge drawn into the vessel from the atmosphere and subsequently utilized as a portion of the oxidant required in a process for oxidizing hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur.

  4. Organometalic carbosilane polymers containing vanadium and their preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Fukuda, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention concerns a new organometallic polymer material containing in part a vanadium-siloxane linkage (V-0-Si), which has excellent resistance to heat and oxidation and a high residue ratio after high temperature treatment in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, for example, nitrogen, argon, helium, ammonia, or hydrogen.

  5. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  6. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  7. SALUT: Containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The SALUT event was detonated in hole U20ak of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in Fig. 1.1. The device had a depth-of-burial of 607 m in the Scrugham Peak rhyolite of Area 20, about 15 m above the standing water level (SWL), as shown in Figures 1.2 and 1.3. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in Fig. 1.4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 08:15 PDT on June 12, 1985 and about 10 hours, 17 minutes later a sub-surface collapse progressed upwards to a depth between 200 and 270 m. No radiation arrivals were detected in the emplacement hole and the SALUT containment was considered successful.

  8. Does Propolis Contain Tannins?

    PubMed Central

    Mayworm, Marco A. S.; Lima, Carolina A.; Tomba, Augusto C. B.; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C.; Salatino, Maria L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6–4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization. PMID:24959188

  9. TARKO containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    The TARKO event was detonated in hole U2fd of the Nevada Test Site. The TARKO device had a depth-of-burial of 369 m in the alluvium area 2, about 280 m above the Paleozoic formation and 200 m above the standing water level. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole is described. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on February 27,1980, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 4 hours after the detonation resulting in a crater having a mean radius of 45.7 m and a maximum depth of 13.6 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the TARKO containment was considered successful.

  10. NORMANNA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The second in a series of three similar experiments, NORMANNA was located in hole U10cb in area 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first experiment of this series (JARLSBERG) was conducted about one year earlier. The diameter of the emplacement hole was 2.18 m and the depth-of-burial of 203 m placed the working point in alluvium about 100 m above the Paleozoic contact and nearly 300 m above the static water level. NORMANNA was detonated on July 12, 1984 at 07:00 PDT. All phenomena appeared normal with a chimney collapse to the ground surface about 7 minutes later. The mean radius of the resulting crater was 54.1 m and its maximum depth was 8.8 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and containment was satisfactory.

  11. NIZA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    The NIZA event was detonated in hole U9cr of the Nevada Test Site. The NIZA device had a depth-of-burial of 340 m in the Tunnel Beds Tuffs of area 9, about 200 m above both the Paleozoic formation and the standing water level. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole is described. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PDT on July 8,1981, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 85 minutes after the detonation resulting in a crater having a mean radius of 55. 6 m and a maximum depth of 6.3 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the NIZA containment was considered successful.

  12. Containment data report - KARAB

    SciTech Connect

    Heinle, R

    1998-07-01

    The KARAB event was detonated in hole U4ah of the Nevada Test Site. The KARAB device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 331 m in the Tunnel Beds tuff of area 4, about 200 m above the Paleozoic formation and the standing water level. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:51 PST on March 16, 1978 and collapse progressed to the surface about 53 minutes after detonation. The resulting surface crater had an average radius of 60.3 m and a maximum depth of 7.6 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and containment of the KARAB event was considered successful. This paper describes the site of the event and reports on stemming performance and collapse phenomena

  13. Oil containment booms

    SciTech Connect

    Teasdale, R.G.

    1982-04-20

    A design of an oil containment boom suitable particularly for stowage on a reel is disclosed. The boom, in its inflated condition, is of ''t'' section having double buoyancy chambers and a central skirt member. The boom utilizes a tension wire in its lower skirt region and an air pressurizing hose in its upper skirt region above the buoyancy chambers. The geometry of the panels making up the chambers is arranged, together with the joints, to give a substantially flat deflated form. The air pressurizing hose and the tension wire are of comparable diameter each being of larger diameter than the maximum thickness of the deflated boom whereby undesirable folding and puckering of the boom material when wound up is accommodated in the lateral space between the hose and the wire.

  14. Oil containment booms

    SciTech Connect

    Teasdale, R.G.

    1983-09-13

    The invention concerns the design of an oil containment boom suitable particularly for stowage on a reel. The boom in its inflated condition, is of ''T'' section having double buoyancy chambers and a central skirt member. The boom utilizes a tension wire in its lower skirt region and an air pressurizing hose in its upper skirt above the buoyancy chambers. The geometry of the panels making up the chambers is arranged, together with the joints, to give a substantially flat deflated form. The air pressurizing hose and the tension wire are of comparable diameter each being of larger diameter than the maximum thickness of the deflated boom whereby undesirable folding and puckering of the boom material when wound up is accommodated in the lateral space between the hose and the wire.

  15. Three-dimensional random earth atmospheres for Monte Carlo trajectory analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A set of four computer tapes containing random three dimensional Earth atmospheres is available for Monte Carlo trajectory analyses. The tapes contain sufficient atmospheric tables to allow replications of any trajectory below an altitude of 99 km. The atmospheres were provided by an empirical model designed to generate random atmospheres whose distributions match those in a data base of sounding rocket measurements. A readily implementable means of linking the tapes to any existing trajectory simulation computer program is described involving the addition of three subroutines which are listed in an appendix.

  16. Greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2016-04-01

    Average optical atmospheric parameters for the infrared spectrum range are evaluated on the basis of the Earth energetic balance and parameters of the standard atmosphere. The average optical thickness of the atmosphere is u ≈ 2.5 and this atmospheric emission is originated at altitudes below 10 km. Variations of atmospheric radiative fluxes towards the Earth and outward are calculated as a function of the concentration of \\text{CO}2 molecules for the regular model of molecular spectrum. As a result of doubling of the \\text{CO}2 concentration the change of the global Earth temperature is (0.4 +/- 0.2) \\text{K} if other atmospheric parameters are conserved compared to the value (3.0 +/- 1.5) \\text{K} under real atmospheric conditions with the variation of the amount of atmospheric water. An observed variation of the global Earth temperature during the last century (0.8 ^\\circ \\text{C}) follows from an increase of the mass of atmospheric water by 7% or by conversion of 1% of atmospheric water in aerosols.

  17. Convective storms in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The atmospheres of the planets in the Solar System have different physical properties that in some cases can be considered as extreme when compared with our own planet's more familiar atmosphere. From the tenuous and cold atmosphere of Mars to the dense and warm atmosphere of Venus in the case of the terrestrial planets, to the gigantic atmospheres of the outer planets, or the nitrogen and methane atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, we can find a large variety of physical environments. The comparative study of these atmospheres provides a better understanding of the physics of a geophysical fluid. In many of these worlds convective storms of different intensity appear. They are analogous to terrestrial atmospheres fed by the release of latent heat when one of the gases in the atmosphere condenses and they are therefore called moist convective storms. In many of these planets they can produce severe meteorological phenomena and by studying them in a comparative way we can aspire to get a further insight in the dynamics of these atmospheres even beyond the scope of moist convection. A classical example is the structure of the complex systems of winds in the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. These winds are zonal and alternate in latitude but their deep structure is not accessible to direct observation. However the behaviour of large--scale convective storms vertically extending over the "weather layer" allows to study the buried roots of these winds. Another interesting atmosphere with a rather different structure of convection is Titan, a world where methane is close to its triple point in the atmosphere and can condense in bright clouds with large precipitation fluxes that may model part of the orography of the surface making Titan a world with a methane cycle similar to the hydrological cycle of Earth's atmosphere.

  18. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  19. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  20. Soot in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.

    1980-10-01

    The principal goal of the research described is to assess quantitatively the relative amounts of primary and secondary carbonaceous material in atmospheric aerosols and to differentiate between secondary carbonaceous species produced by photochemical and nonphotochemical reactions. The approach used most extensively involves the use of an optical attenuation technique, combined with total particulate carbon determination. The black component of soot, which is an unambiguous tracer for primary emissions, can be conveniently monitored because of its large and uniform optical absorptivity. The black carbon content of the particles can easily be determined by an optical attenuation method. Determination of total particulate carbon mass enables the study of the relations between the black and the total carbon content.

  1. Ocean-atmospheric linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle on the time scale of decades to centuries. The input rate of CO2 to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel burning and deforestation has continued to increase over the last century. To balance the global carbon budget, a sink is required whose magnitude is changing on similar time scales. We have sought to identify aspects of the ocean system that are capable of responding on decadal time scales, to examine our present ability to model such changes, and to pinpoint ways in which this ability could be improved. Many other important aspects of the ocean's role in global change are not addressed, including the importance of oceanic heat transport and thermal inertia to the climate system, biogeochemical cycling of elements other than carbon, and the importance of the ocean as a source or sink of trace gases.

  2. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  3. ZAP: Zurich Atmosphere Purge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Lilly, Simon J.; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-02-01

    ZAP (Zurich Atmosphere Purge) provides sky subtraction for integral field spectroscopy; its approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA) developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources; this method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation.

  4. Halogens in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric halogen measurement data are presented for: (1) inorganic and organic gaseous compounds of chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine; and (2) chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodine in particulate form and in precipitation. The roles that these data and other, unavailable data play in the determination of the global cycles of the halogens are discussed. It is found that the speciation of the halogen gases in the troposphere is uncertain, with the only inorganic species detected by species-specific methods being HC1 and SF6. It is shown that heterogeneous reactions, both gas-to-particle and particle-to-gas processes, precipitation removal, and sea-salt aerosol generation and fractionation processes, need quantitative investigation to allow progress in estimating halogen sources and sinks. Where practical, quantitative comparisons are made between measured and predicted concentrations.

  5. Martian atmospheric lee waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirraglia, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Mars extensive mountain lee wave phenomenon in the northern mid-latitudes during winter were evaluated. The characteristic wave length of the lee waves is readily observable, and in a few cases the boundaries of the wave patterns, as well as the wave length, are observed. The cloud patterns resulting from the waves generated by the flow across a mountain or crater are shown to be dependent upon the velocity profile of the air stream and the vertical stability of the atmosphere. Using the stability as inferred by the temperature structure obtained from the infrared spectrometer data, a two layer velocity model of the air stream is used in calculations based on the theory of mountain lee waves. Results yield magnitudes generally in agreement with various other circulation models.

  6. Phanerozoic Atmospheric Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Robert A.

    Theoretical calculations, based on both the chemical and isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, indicate that atmospheric O2 has varied appreciably over Phanerozoic time, with a notable excursion during the Permo-Carboniferous reaching levels as high as 35% O2. This agrees with measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of fossil plants together with experiments and calculations on the effect of O2 on photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation. The principal cause of the excursion was the rise of large vascular land plants and the consequent increased global burial of organic matter. Higher levels of O2 are consistent with the presence of Permo-Carboniferous giant insects, and preliminary experiments indicate that insect body size can increase with elevated O2. Higher O2 also may have caused more extensive, possibly catastrophic, wildfires. To check this, realistic burning experiments are needed to examine the effects of elevated O2 on fire behavior.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry research

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.

  8. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other Government agencies. The Laboratory for Atmospheres is a vital participant in NASA s research agenda. Our Laboratory often has relatively large programs, sizable satellite missions, and observational campaigns that require the cooperative and collaborative efforts of many scientists. We ensure an appropriate balance between our scientists responsibility for these large collaborative projects and their need for an active individual research agenda. This balance allows members of the Laboratory to continuously improve their scientific credentials. Members of the Laboratory interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratory raises the public s awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Laboratory makes substantial efforts to attract new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA s mission, gives a broad description of our research, and summarizes our scientists major accomplishments during calendar year 2008. The report also contains useful information on human resources, scientific interactions, and outreach activities.

  9. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  10. Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-11-01

    In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

  11. Models of Mars' atmosphere (1974)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Atmospheric models for support of design and mission planning of space vehicles that are to orbit the planet Mars, enter its atmosphere, or land on the surface are presented. Quantitative data for the Martian atmosphere were obtained from Earth-base observations and from spacecraft that have orbited Mars or passed within several planetary radii. These data were used in conjunction with existing theories of planetary atmospheres to predict other characteristics of the Martian atmosphere. Earth-based observations provided information on the composition, temperature, and optical properties of Mars with rather coarse spatial resolution, whereas spacecraft measurements yielded data on composition, temperature, pressure, density, and atmospheric structure with moderately good spatial resolution. The models provide the temperature, pressure, and density profiles required to perform basic aerodynamic analyses. The profiles are supplemented by computed values of viscosity, specific heat, and speed of sound.

  12. CARNELIAN containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T

    1998-07-01

    The CARNELIAN event was detonated in hole U4af of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in figure 1 .l. The CARNELIAN device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 208 m in the alluvium of Area 4 , about 70 m above the Paleozoic formation and 330 m above the standing water level, as shown in the geologic cross-sections of figure 1.2(l) Figure 1 3 displays the local surface area showing nearby events Stemming of the 2 44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in figure 1 4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver(2) Detonation time was about 07 00 PDT on July 28,1977, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 19 minutes after the detonation resulting in a crater having a "cookie-cutter" geometry (steep walls with a relatively flat bottom) with a mean radius of 32 2 m and a maximum depth of 10 5 m No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the CARNELIAN containment was considered successful

  13. Cost containment: Europe. Italy.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Melotti, R; Repetto, F; Iapichino, G

    1994-08-01

    Through prepaid compulsory insurance managed by the central government, Italy's National Health Service (NHS) provides full coverage, free accessibility, and no or limited copayment by individuals when receiving health services. Although Italy spends less than other countries on health care (< 8% of the country's gross national product), the present NHS faces considerable difficulties, and its performance regarding quality, outcome, and spending has come under question. ICUs account for < 2% of total hospital beds, and the proportion of ICU patients is < 2.5% of all hospital patients (2.5% of all Italian hospital patients receive ICU care at some time during their hospital stay). Information from administrative databases and epidemiologic studies gives an interesting national picture of the situation in Italy regarding admission criteria case mix, and outcomes when compared with data from other countries. Important changes in the financial and institutional framework of the NHS are underway, yielding an unpredictable scenario for the future. Innovations focus mostly on cost containment and quality initiatives. These innovations will likely produce a new health service in which regions will have a more important role than in the past. Actions planned in a large Italian region by the local government are used as an example to explain the potential impact of this new trend on critical care medicine. PMID:8087596

  14. From containment to ... syzygy

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  15. WEXFORD containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The WEXFORD event was detonated in hole U2cr of the Nevada Test Site. A plan view map of the local region of hole U2cr showing the surface projections of the faults and the local drill holes is given. The device had a depth-of-burial of 314 m in the Tunnel Beds tuff of Area 2, about 120 m above the standing water level (SWL). Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes and Narver. Detonation time was 07:45 PDT on August 30, 1984 and about 26 minutes later the chimney collapsed to the surface leaving a small, off-center crater which grew, over several days, until it took on a cookie cutter form encompassing the emplacement hole and having a mean diameter of about 35 m. An interior, highly asymmetric crater had a mean diameter of about 12 m. No functioning monitors detected radiation arrivals in the emplacement hole above a depth of 130 m and the WEXFORD containment was considered successful.

  16. Organic containment separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  17. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G. ); Wlodarczyk, Z. )

    1993-06-15

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

  18. Exploring the atmosphere using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Vogt, Patrik; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of the inner layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, are determinant for Earth's life. In this experience we explore the first hundreds of meters using a smartphone mounted on a quadcopter. Both the altitude and the pressure are obtained using the smartphone's sensors. We complement these measures with data collected from the flight information system of an aircraft. The experimental results are compared with the International Standard Atmosphere and other simple approximations: isothermal and constant density atmospheres.

  19. Monsoon circulation and atmospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrgian, A. Kh.; Nguyen, Van Thang

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the Indonesian-Australian winter monsoon, proceeding from the Asian continent to the south, on the atmospheric ozone is examined. It is shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation phenomena caused by monsoons in the tropical regions of Australia and in south-eastern Asia can cause significant falls in atmospheric ozone concentrations. The common occurrence of such phenomena might explain the higher-than-average incidence of skin cancer in Australia.

  20. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, G.; WŁOdarczyk, Z.

    1993-06-01

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

  1. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  2. Atmospheric waves and the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, T.

    1972-01-01

    A review of evidence supporting the existence of atmospheric waves is presented, and a simple, theoretical approach for describing them is shown. Suggestions for gravity wave sources include equatorial and auroral electrojet, auroral and polar substorm heating, atmospheric jet streams, and large oceanic tides. There are reviewed previous studies dealing with the interaction between ionization and atmospheric waves believed to exist at ionospheric heights. These waves include acoustic waves, evanescent waves, and internal atmospheric gravity waves. It is explained that mode analysis, often employed when an increased number of layers is used for a more complete profile, is inapplicable for waves very close to a source.

  3. Atmospheric effects on radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurica, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two essentially distinct regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed: (1) the scattering region in which the radiation energy is provided by the incident solar flux; and (2) the infrared region in which emission by the earth's surface and atmospheric gases supply radiative energy. In each of these spectral regions the atmosphere performs its dual function with respect to a remote sensing measurement of surface properties. The atmosphere acts both as a filter and as a noise generator removing and obscuring sought after information. Nevertheless, with proper application of concepts such as have been considered, it will be possible to remove these unwanted atmospheric effects and to improve identification techniques being developed.

  4. Middle atmosphere dynamics and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of the dynamics and composition of that region of the earth atmosphere lying above the tropopause but below 100 km are considered as they relate to processes at middle and high latitudes. The physics of the summer to winter reversal of the direction of the middle atmosphere jet is discussed, along with the effects of planetary waves on the mean zonal flow, which occasionally produce sudden stratosphere warming events. The chemistry of the two middle atmospheric trace constituents ozone and nitric oxide, which play dominant roles in atmospheric radiation balance and lower ionospheric structure, respectively, is then examined, and the importance of transport in determining their distribution is pointed out.

  5. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  6. Using ground-based GPS to characterize atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Davis, J. L.; Hill, E. M.

    2009-08-01

    A new method for measuring and studying atmospheric turbulence is presented. The method uses data from a local network of GPS receivers. The GPS data are processed in a way that assures that the estimated zenith total delays (ZTD) contain the effects of atmospheric turbulence present in the GPS observations. The turbulence is characterized using the spatial structure function for the atmospheric zenith total delay. The structure function is modeled by an expression with unknown parameters which contains information about the turbulence. The unknown parameters are solved by a fit to the observed ZTD variations. We apply the method to GPS data from the Yucca Mountain network, Nevada, USA. The results show that the magnitude of the turbulent variations in that region have a strong seasonal dependence, with much larger variations in summer compared to winter.

  7. Atmospheric electricity and aerosol-cloud interactions in earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Tammet, Hannes; Mäkelä, Antti; Haapalainen, Jussi; Mirme, Sander; Nieminen, Tuomo; Franchin, Alessandro; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2013-05-01

    Firstly, atmospheric ions play an important role in the fair weather electricity in Earth's atmosphere. Small ions, or charged molecular clusters, carry electric currents in the atmosphere. These small ions are continuously present, and their lifetime in lower atmosphere is about one minute. It's essential to find out a connection between the production rate of cluster ions, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment, and their ambient concentrations, in order to understand electrical properties of air. Secondly, atmospheric ions are important for Earth's climate, due to their potential role in secondary aerosol formation, which can lead to increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn can change the cloud properties. Our aim is to quantify the connections between these two important roles of air ions based on field observations.

  8. Mechanisms for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone

    SciTech Connect

    Graedel, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    The physical and chemical phenomena responsible for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone are presented. Corrosion product formation, morphology, and chemical makeup are discussed in the context of calcium-containing minerals and other crystalline structures that thermodynamics and kinetics suggest are likely to be present. Formation pathways for the minerals most often reported to occur in carbonate corrosion layers are shown in schematic diagrams. The dominant corrosion products are sulfates and oxalates, the former resulting from interactions with atmospheric sulfur dioxide or sulfate ions, the latter from oxalate secretions from the biological organisms. present (and perhaps to some extent from oxalate deposited from the atmosphere). The degradation processes are enhanced by the catalytic action of transition metal ions present in the stone and of soot deposited from the atmosphere.

  9. The young Sun and photochemistry of the primitive Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, H.; Gerstell, M. F.; Yung, Y. L.

    1993-01-01

    We will investigate the climatology of an atmosphere where CO2 is a minor constituent but still the key radiative species. The thermal structure of the dust-free atmosphere is estimated by employing a simple radiative-convective model similar to that used by Gierasch and Goody. Radiative heating rates are computed using the Caltech/JPL one-dimensional photochemical model. Thermal cooling rates for a Martian atmosphere containing O2, O3, H2O, N2O, CO, and CO2 are calculated using FASCODE and k-distribution methods. The effects due to pressure broadening of the infrared absorption lines of CO2 by CO and O2, as well as the radiative effects of increased ozone densities in the atmosphere, will be examined.

  10. The young Sun and photochemistry of the primitive Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, H.; Gerstell, M. F.; Yung, Y. L.

    We will investigate the climatology of an atmosphere where CO2 is a minor constituent but still the key radiative species. The thermal structure of the dust-free atmosphere is estimated by employing a simple radiative-convective model similar to that used by Gierasch and Goody. Radiative heating rates are computed using the Caltech/JPL one-dimensional photochemical model. Thermal cooling rates for a Martian atmosphere containing O2, O3, H2O, N2O, CO, and CO2 are calculated using FASCODE and k-distribution methods. The effects due to pressure broadening of the infrared absorption lines of CO2 by CO and O2, as well as the radiative effects of increased ozone densities in the atmosphere, will be examined.

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogenated Species for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. Various satellite instruments monitor many of these molecules by detecting infrared radiation that has passed through the Earth's atmosphere. However, the quantification of their atmospheric abundances crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory spectroscopic measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  12. Gravity Waves in Hot Planet Atmospheres with High Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. Y.-K.; Watkins, C. L.

    2013-09-01

    Many global hydrodynamics models have been used to study the large-scale flows of close-in extrasolar planet atmospheres. None of these models, however, resolve gravity waves which can significantly affect the large-scale flow and its associated variability in the atmosphere. Such waves are generated by a variety of mechanisms - including, inter alia, spatially or temporally varying diabatic heating, convective overshoots, hydrodynamic instabilities and adjustment processes. Previously, we have examined mesoscale gravity waves in an inviscid atmosphere with moderately fast background flows [1]. In this work, we study large-scale, as well as mesoscale, waves in atmospheres containing high-speed flows and regions of strong dissipation. The primary focus is on the waves' propagation characteristics and interaction with the mean-flow.

  13. The integrated atmospheric characterization system (IACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. W.; Albers, K. R.; Brown, E. A.; Craney, T. A.; Hosain, M. M.; James, R. K.; Meraz, N. D.; Mercer, A. J.; Nielson, K. D.; Ortman, R. L.; Pool, T. W.; Wood, J. W.; Stewart, J. M.; Strike, T. M.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Whiteman, D. N.

    2014-06-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing a transportable multi-lidar instrument known as the Integrated Atmospheric Characterization System (IACS). The system will be housed in two shipping containers that will be transported to remote sites on a low-boy trailer. IACS will comprise three lidars: a 355 nm imaging lidar for profiling refractive turbulence, a 355 nm Raman lidar for profiling water vapor, and an aerosol lidar operating at 355 nm as well as 1.064 and 1.627 µm. All of the lidar transmit/receive optics will be on a common mount, pointable at any elevation angle from 10 degrees below horizontal to vertical. The entire system will be computer controlled to facilitate pointing and automatic data acquisition. The purpose of IACS is to characterize optical propagation paths during outdoor tests of electro-optical systems. The tests are anticipated to include ground-to-ground, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air scenarios, so the system must accommodate arbitrary slant paths through the atmosphere, with maximum measurement ranges of 5-10 km. Elevation angle scans will be used to determine atmospheric extinction profiles at the infrared wavelengths, and data from the three wavelengths will be used to determine the aerosol Angstrom coefficient, enabling interpolation of results to other wavelengths in the 355 nm to 1.627 µm region.

  14. Organic synthesis in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Ochiai, E.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-10-01

    Experimental simulations of organic chemistry taking place in the atmosphere of Titan are presented in light of the recent atmospheric composition data provided by the Voyager spacecraft. In the experiments, a gas mixture of N2 and CH4 in proportions from about 100:1 to 100:4 was irradiated by UV radiation, electric discharges, an electron beam, gamma radiation and a proton beam to assess the possible contributions of the various possible energy sources to atmospheric chemistry on Titan. Analysis of reaction products by GC/MS reveals UV light to produce saturated hydrocarbons such as C2H6 and C3H8 but no appreciable amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons or nitrogen-containing compounds. Electric discharges and gamma, beta and proton radiation, however, are found to produce HCN and more unsaturated than saturated hydrocarbons. Acetylene is believed to be produced from ethane or ethylene in methanephotolysis, while HCN may be produced from CH2 radicals. The presence of HCN on Titan is interpreted as implying that the chemical processes postulated as involved in the formation of bases and amino acids on the primitive earth may be common in the solar system.

  15. Volcanic Effects in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, A.; Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions have a well observed impact on the lower atmosphere and climate. In the past forty years, two eruptions, El Chichon in 1982 and Pinatubo in 1991, released significant amounts of aerosols. The effects of these two volcanos have been studied in the stratosphere (10km - 50km), but not in the upper atmosphere. This project attempted to find traces of the two eruptions at altitudes of 250km to 500km through temperature trend studies of long-term observations of the upper atmosphere. An ion temperature trend model was refined and then used to subtract solar, geomagnetic, annual, semi-annual, and correlated effects from Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data, which span more than 3 solar cycles starting in 1970s. After subtraction, the ion temperature residuals were studied around the years 1982 and 1991 for anomalous dips. This modeling technique was then applied to the Sondrestrom (1990-) and St. Santin (1966-1987) ISR sites to validate temperature trends and volcanic effects at different locations., Effects of the 1982 El Chichon eruption appeared to exist with a visible ion temperature drop in Millstone Hill and St. Santin measurements. The 1991 Pinatubo eruption was not immediately present until up to 2 years later over Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom, but this result contains large uncertainty due to solar and magnetic activities. Further study is needed to understand the theoretical effects of volcanic activity at those altitudes and gauge the significance of the observed temperature residuals.

  16. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  17. Atmospheric continuous-variable quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Peuntinger, C.; Killoran, N.; Khan, I.; Wittmann, C.; Marquardt, Ch; Leuchs, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a quantum communication experiment conducted over a point-to-point free-space link of 1.6 km in urban conditions. We study atmospheric influences on the capability of the link to act as a continuous-variable (CV) quantum channel. Continuous polarization states (that contain the signal encoding as well as a local oscillator (LO) in the same spatial mode) are prepared and sent over the link in a polarization multiplexed setting. Both signal and LO undergo the same atmospheric fluctuations. These are intrinsically auto-compensated which removes detrimental influences on the interferometric visibility. At the receiver, we measure the Q-function and interpret the data using the framework of effective entanglement (EE). We compare different state amplitudes and alphabets (two-state and four-state) and determine their optimal working points with respect to the distributed EE. Based on the high entanglement transmission rates achieved, our system indicates the high potential of atmospheric links in the field of CV quantum key distribution.

  18. Transient clouds in Titan's lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C A; Owen, T; Miller, G A; Geballe, T

    1998-10-01

    The 1980 encounter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft with Titan, Saturn's largest moon, revealed the presence of a thick atmosphere containing nitrogen and methane (1.4 and approximately 0.05 bar, respectively). Methane was found to be nearly saturated at Titan's tropopause, which, with other considerations, led to the hypothesis that Titan might experience a methane analogue of Earth's vigorous hydrological cycle, with clouds, rain and seas. Yet recent analyses of Voyager data indicate large areas of super-saturated methane, more indicative of dry and stagnant conditions. A resolution to this apparent contradiction requires observations of Titan's lower atmosphere, which was hidden from the Voyager cameras by the photochemical haze (or smog) in Titan's stratosphere. Here we report near-infrared spectroscopic observations of Titan within four narrow spectral windows where the moon's atmosphere is ostensibly transparent. We detect pronounced flux enhancements that indicate the presence of reflective methane condensation clouds in the troposphere. These clouds occur at a relatively low altitude (15+/-10 km), at low latitudes, and appear to cover approximately 9 per cent of Titan's disk. PMID:9783583

  19. ATMOSPHERIC DRY PARTICLE DEPOSITION OF POPS AND TRACE METALS IN AN URBAN- AND INDUSTRIALLY-IMPACTED MID-ATLANTIC ESTUARY (AEOLOS B MID-ATLANTIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants into the coastal urban-industrial atmosphere increase atmospheric depositional fluxes to proximate water bodies. Dry deposition of large particles containing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace metals were a major contribu...

  20. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  1. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  2. SIMULATED ROADWAY EXPOSURE ATMOSPHERES FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL AND HUMAN STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will elucidate the important characteristics that define toxicity resulting from roadway emissions and their interaction with background air. We expect that fresh whole exhaust containing ultrafine particles and vapor will confer the most potent atmosphere. These results wi...

  3. Decrease of the Atmospheric Co-Rotation with Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Membrado, M.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. The status of military specifications with regard to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, David J.; Heffley, Robert K.

    1987-01-01

    The features of atmospheric disturbances that are significant to aircraft flying qualities are discussed. Next follows a survey of proposed models. Lastly, there is a discussion of the content and application of the model contained in the current flying qualities specification and the forthcoming MIL-Standard.

  5. Preparation of nanodiamonds from carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Fray, Derek J

    2015-04-01

    A route for producing diamond nanocrystals is reported in this paper. Li2CO3 containing carbon nanostructures synthesised in molten LiCl were transformed to nanodiamonds by simple heating at atmospheric pressure, far less severe conditions than conventional processes. The method presented offers the possibility of bulk production. PMID:25650151

  6. Atmospheric Measurements of Neutral Nucleating Clusters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Eisele, F. L.; Smith, J. N.; Chen, M.; Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; McMurry, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles produced by nucleation can subsequently grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within one or two days and hence affect cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric radiation budgets. As an intermediate stage between molecules and nanoparticles, neutral molecular clusters are believed to play an important role in processes that lead to boundary layer nucleation. Therefore, knowledge of chemical composition, concentrations, thermodynamic properties, and evolution of neutral molecular clusters is essential to better elucidate the nucleation mechanism and to reduce the uncertainty in nucleation rates used in global climate models. Here we present laboratory and field measurements from a recently developed chemical ionization mass spectrometer (the Cluster-CIMS) designed to measure atmospheric neutral clusters (Zhao et al., 2010). The sensitivity of the Cluster-CIMS was significantly improved by using a unique conical octopole device in the first vacuum stage for transmitting and focusing ions, which was further confirmed by ion trajectory simulations using SIMION. The ion cluster formation in the atmospheric-pressure inlet was controlled by two processes: neutral ionization and ion-induced clustering (IIC), which can be differentiated from the time independency of the intensity ratio between the cluster and monomer ions. Two methods were employed to separate neutral clusters from the ion-induced clustering. The concentrations and distribution of the neutral nucleating clusters containing up to 4 H2SO4 are estimated from the above methods at three measurement sites in the US (NCAR foothill laboratory, Manitou Forest Observatory, and Atlanta). Typically, the molecular cluster concentrations are well correlated with the concentrations of nanoparticles measured simultaneously during the nucleation event periods. The Cluster-CIMS was employed to measure clusters containing both sulfuric acid and amines in summer 2010 at NCAR foothill laboratory

  7. Nanoporous Materials in Atmosphere Revitalization. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, J.; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Luna, Bernadette; Junaedi, Christian; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.; Raptis, Raphael G.; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric Revitalization (AR) is the term the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses to encompass the engineered systems that maintain a safe, breathable gaseous atmosphere inside a habitable space cabin. An AR subsystem is a key part of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system for habitable space cabins. The ultimate goal for AR subsystem designers is to 'close the loop', that is, to capture gaseous human metabolic products, specifically water vapor (H2O) and Carbon dioxide (CO2), for maximal Oxygen (o2) recovery and to make other useful resources from these products. The AR subsystem also removes trace chemical contaminants from the cabin atmosphere to preserve cabin atmospheric quality, provides O2 and may include instrumentation to monitor cabin atmospheric quality. Long duration crewed space exploration missions require advancements in AR process technologies in order to reduce power consumption and mass and to increase reliability compared to those used for shorter duration missions that are typically limited to Low Earth Orbit. For example, current AR subsystems include separate processors and process air flow loops for removing metabolic CO2 and volatile organic tract contaminants (TCs). Physical adsorbents contained in fixed, packed beds are employed in these processors. Still, isolated pockets of high carbon dioxide have been suggested as a trigger for crew headaches and concern persists about future cabin ammonia (NH3) levels as compared with historical flights. Developers are already focused on certain potential advancements. ECLS systems engineers envision improving the AR subsystem by combining the functions of TC control and CO2 removal into a single regenerable process and moving toward structured sorbents - monoliths - instead of granular material. Monoliths present a lower pressure drop and eliminate particle attrition problems that result from bed containment. New materials and configurations offer promise for

  8. Multi-liposomal containers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, A A; Sybachin, A V; Zaborova, O V; Zezin, A B; Talmon, Y; Ballauff, M; Menger, F M

    2015-12-01

    when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0. The results allow loaded liposomes to be concentrated within a rather small volume and, thereby, the preparation of multi-liposomal containers of promise in the drug delivery field. PMID:26372095

  9. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  10. Boron-containing compositions, and lubricants and fuels containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F.W.; Pialet, J.W.; Barrer, D.E.; Schroech, C.W.

    1988-05-03

    A method of preparing boron-containing compositions is described which comprises reacting at least one hydroxy-substituted ester, amide or imide with a boron compound. Such boron-containing compositions are useful in lubricating oils and provide the lubricating oils with anti-wear and/or friction-reducing properties. The boron-containing compositions also are useful in fuel compositions.

  11. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOEpatents

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  12. Jupiter Atmospheric Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Huge cyclonic storms, the Great Red Spot and the Little Red Spot, and wispy cloud patterns are seen in fascinating detail in this map of Jupiter's atmosphere obtained January 14-15, 2007, by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI).

    The map combines information from 11 different LORRI images that were taken every hour over a 10-hour period -- a full Jovian day -- from 17:42 UTC on January 14 to 03:42 UTC on January 15. The New Horizons spacecraft was approximately 72 million kilometers (45 million miles) from Jupiter at the time.

    The LORRI pixels on the 'globe' of Jupiter were projected onto a rectilinear grid, similar to the way flat maps of Earth are created. The LORRI pixel intensities were corrected so that every point on the map appears as if the sun were directly overhead; some image sharpening was also applied to enhance detail. The polar regions of Jupiter are not shown on the map because the LORRI images do not sample those latitudes very well and artifacts are produced during the map-projection process.

  13. Atmospheric breakup of meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Swift, Damian; Remington, Bruce; Mulford, Roberta; Milathianaki, Despina; Chen, Laura; Eakins, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    When meteoroids enter a planetary atmosphere, breakup is governed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, mitigated by the strength of the meteoritic material. Particle sizes in the breakup cascade depend on the perturbation length scales exhibiting growth. The physics of meteoroid entry is thus related closely to experiments where strength at high pressure is inferred from the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of perturbations. There are significant discrepancies between predicted and observed breakup altitudes of meteoroids, which in turn reduce the accuracy of assessments of the impact threat from asteroids. Simulations, validated by laboratory experiments of instability growth, can play a role in understanding the breakup of meteoroids and thus the threat from asteroids. Continuum dynamics simulations provide more rigorous stress distribution than are usually used in breakup analyses, and can be used to calibrate compact expressions describing the breakup conditions. We have measured the strength of samples from Fe-rich meteorites using indentation and shock-loading experiments, and found them to be significantly stronger than was previously realized. This, together with the more accurate stress analysis, removes the altitude discrepancy for Fe-rich meteorites. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. High altitude atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, Alan E.

    1988-01-01

    Five empirical models were compared with 13 data sets, including both atmospheric drag-based data and mass spectrometer data. The most recently published model, MSIS-86, was found to be the best model overall with an accuracy around 15 percent. The excellent overall agreement of the mass spectrometer-based MSIS models with the drag data, including both the older data from orbital decay and the newer accelerometer data, suggests that the absolute calibration of the (ensemble of) mass spectrometers and the assumed drag coefficient in the atomic oxygen regime are consistent to 5 percent. This study illustrates a number of reasons for the current accuracy limit such as calibration accuracy and unmodeled trends. Nevertheless, the largest variations in total density in the thermosphere are accounted for, to a very high degree, by existing models. The greatest potential for improvements is in areas where we still have insufficient data (like the lower thermosphere or exosphere), where there are disagreements in technique (such as the exosphere) which can be resolved, or wherever generally more accurate measurements become available.

  15. On the Decadal Modes of Oscillation of an Idealized Ocean-atmosphere System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vikram M.

    1990-01-01

    Axially-symmetric, linear, free modes of global, primitive equation, ocean-atmosphere models are examined to see if they contain decadal (10 to 30 years) oscillation time scale modes. A two-layer ocean model and a two-level atmospheric model are linearized around axially-symmetric basic states containing mean meridional circulations in the ocean and the atmosphere. Uncoupled and coupled, axially-symmetric modes of oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system are calculated. The main conclusion is that linearized, uncoupled and coupled, ocean-atmosphere systems can contain axially-symmetric, free modes of variability on decadal time scales. These results have important implications for externally-forced decadal climate variability.

  16. Free from the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    An artificial, laser-fed star now shines regularly over the sky of Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, one of the world's most advanced large ground-based telescopes. This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. Now that it is routinely offered by the observatory, the skies seem much sharper to astronomers. In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. This requires, however, a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To surmount this limitation, astronomers now use at Paranal a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. Two of the Adaptive Optics (AO) science instruments at the Paranal observatory, NACO and SINFONI, have been upgraded to work with the recently installed Laser Guide Star (LGS; see ESO 07/06) and have delivered their first scientific results. This achievement opens astronomers' access to a wealth of new targets to be studied under the sharp eyes of AO. "These unique results underline the advantage of using a Laser Guide Star with Adaptive Optics instruments, since they could not be obtained with Natural Guide Stars," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics group at ESO. "This is also a crucial milestone towards the multi-laser systems ESO is designing for the VLT and the future E-ELT" (see e.g. ESO 19/07). ESO PR Photo 27a/07 ESO PR Photo 27a/07 An Ultra Luminous Merger (NACO-LGS/VLT) The Laser Guide Star System installed at Paranal uses the PARSEC dye laser developed by MPE-Garching and MPIA-Heidelberg, while the launch telescope and the laser laboratory was developed by ESO. "It is great to see the whole system working so well together," emphasises Richard

  17. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2006-11-01

    Fluid dynamics is fundamental to our understanding of the atmosphere and oceans. Although many of the same principles of fluid dynamics apply to both the atmosphere and oceans, textbooks tend to concentrate on the atmosphere, the ocean, or the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD). This textbook provides a comprehensive unified treatment of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics. The book introduces the fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, including rotation and stratification, vorticity and potential vorticity, and scaling and approximations. It discusses baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Student problems and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation will be an invaluable graduate textbook on advanced courses in GFD, meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography, and an excellent review volume for researchers. Additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521849692. Includes end of chapter review questions to aid understanding Unified and comprehensive treatment of both atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics Covers many modern topics and provides up to date knowledge

  18. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSFORMATION OF DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators anticipate successfully conducting a complex study to characterize the atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of sunlight, O3, radicals, and organic compounds. It is hope that this study will present novel results on the atmospheric aging of...

  19. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  20. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Blocker, Rhonda; Justus, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    4D model provides atmospheric parameter values either automatically at positions along linear path or along any set of connected positions specified by user. Based on actual data, GRAM provides thermal wind shear for monthly mean winds, percent deviation from standard atmosphere, mean vertical wind, and perturbation data for each position.

  1. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  2. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  3. Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

  4. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-05-12

    Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

  5. Linkages between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretherton, Francis; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fung, Inez; Moore, Berrien, III; Prather, Michael; Running, Steven W.; Tiessen, Holm

    1992-01-01

    The primary research issue in understanding the role of terrestrial ecosystems in global change is analyzing the coupling between processes with vastly differing rates of change, from photosynthesis to community change. Representing this coupling in models is the central challenge to modeling the terrestrial biosphere as part of the earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems participate in climate and in the biogeochemical cycles on several temporal scales. Some of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis is incorporated into plant tissue and is delayed from returning to the atmosphere until it is oxidized by decomposition or fire. This slower (i.e., days to months) carbon loop through the terrestrial component of the carbon cycle, which is matched by cycles of nutrients required by plants and decomposers, affects the increasing trend in atmospheric CO2 concentration and imposes a seasonal cycle on that trend. Moreover, this cycle includes key controls over biogenic trace gas production. The structure of terrestrial ecosystems, which responds on even longer time scales (annual to century), is the integrated response to the biogeochemical and environmental constraints that develop over the intermediate time scale. The loop is closed back to the climate system since it is the structure of ecosystems, including species composition, that sets the terrestrial boundary condition in the climate system through modification of surface roughness, albedo, and, to a great extent, latent heat exchange. These separate temporal scales contain explicit feedback loops which may modify ecosystem dynamics and linkages between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The long-term change in climate, resulting from increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O)) will further modify the global environment and potentially induce further ecosystem change. Modeling these interactions requires coupling successional models to biogeochemical models to

  6. Chemistry Of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2015-05-27

    Organic carbon (OC) accounts for a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing. Molecular composition of the OC and its evolution during common processes of atmospheric aging have been a subject of extensive research over the last decade (see reviews of Ervens et al.,1 Hallquist et al.,2 Herckes et al.,3 Carlton et al.,4 Kroll and Seinfeld,5 Rudich et al.,6 and Kanakidou et al.7). Even though many fundamental advances have been reported in these studies, our understanding of the climate-related properties of atmospheric OC is still incomplete and the specific ways in which OC impacts atmospheric environment and climate forcing are just beginning to be understood. This review covers one topic of particular interest in this area –environmental chemistry of light-absorbing aerosol OC and its impact on radiative forcing.

  7. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  8. Atmospheric composition - Influence of biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    The variability of atmospheric constituents influenced by biological organisms over various time scales is examined, together with the human contribution to atmospheric sulfur. The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is discussed, with an emphasis on N2O, NO, and microbially mediated reactions in soil and water. Carbon species are bound up mainly in sediments and the deep ocean, but human activities involving combustion may cause a doubling of the atmospheric levels of CO2 in the near future, which could produce a general low-level atmospheric warming. Longer term measurements are required to assess the effects of CH4 augmentation in the atmosphere through fuel combustion. Coal burning effectively doubles the amount of SO2 produced by natural sources, and reduces the pH of rainwater, thus posing hazards to fish, plankton, and mollusc life.

  9. Venus lower atmosphere heat balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Pechmann, J. B.

    1980-12-01

    Pioneer Venus observations of temperatures and radiative fluxes are examined in an attempt to understand the thermal balance of the lower atmosphere. If all observations are correct and the probe sites are typical of the planet, the second law of thermodynamics requires that the bulk of the lower atmosphere heating must come from a source other than direct sunlight or a thermally driven atmospheric circulation. Neither the so-called greenhouse models nor the mechanical heating models are consistent with this interpretation of the observations. One possible interpretation is that two out of the three probe sites are atypical of the planet. Additional lower atmosphere heat sources provide another possible interpretation. These include a planetary heat flux that is 250 times the earth's, a secular cooling of the atmosphere, and a chemically energetic rain carrying solar energy from the clouds to the surface. Other data make these interpretations seem unlikely, so measurement error remains a serious possibility.

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry of Acenaphthalene and Acenaphthylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Wenger, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released into the atmosphere as a by-product of combustion processes and have been detected in ambient air at urban locations around the world. In the atmosphere, PAHs containing two and three rings are found predominantly in the gas-phase, whilst those containing six or more rings principally adsorb to particles. PAHs with four or five rings are found in both phases. The gas-phase PAHs can be chemically transformed in the lower troposphere via reaction with hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radicals and ozone. These reactions lead to the formation of a range of oxidation products including phenols, nitro-PAHs and carbonyls, in addition to other pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Despite their importance, relatively little is known about the atmospheric chemistry of the PAHs, mainly because of the difficulty of working with these compounds and also the variety and complexity of the reaction products formed. Up to now only one kinetic study on the reaction of acenaphthalene and acenaphthylene with OH, NO3 and ozone has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. In this study, we have determined rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of acenaphthalene and acenaphthylene with OH, NO3 and ozone using the relative rate method. The results are compared with previous measurements and used to provide estimates of the tropospheric lifetimes of these compounds. A recently developed denuder-filter sampling technique was used to investigate the gas and particle phase products arising from the photooxidation of the PAHs. Chemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry using O-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) as derivatizing agents for carbonyls and phenols respectively. The results provide new data on the gas-particle partitioning behavior of the oxidation products and useful information on the products likely to

  11. Influence of CO on Titan atmospheric reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, B.; Carrasco, N.; Gautier, T.; Mahjoub, A.; He, J.; Szopa, C.; Hadamcik, E.; Buch, A.; Cernogora, G.

    2014-08-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is mainly composed of N2 and CH4 which are the source of various CxHyNz photochemical volatiles products. Laboratory simulations of the Titan’s atmospheric reactivity were mainly interested in the study of the complex organic chemistry which leads to the formation of analogues of Titan’s aerosols, called tholins. These studies were mainly interested in the reactivity of the N2/CH4 gaseous mixture and with the primary products of reactions without oxygen. However, the atmosphere of Titan also contains oxygenated volatile species. The most abundant one to have been detected is CO with a concentration about 50 ppmv. The work presented here is an experimental simulation devoted to estimate the influence of CO on the Titan’s atmospheric reactivity. With this aim, CO is introduced in a standard N2/CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 4.5%. The kinetics of the methane consumption is monitored with in situ mass spectrometry and the compositions of the gaseous phase and tholins produced in the reactor are characterized ex situ with GC-MS and elemental analysis. This work shows that CO modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO2 and N2O. The presence of CO also drastically decreases the production rate of tholins, involving also a perturbation on the methane kinetics. Tholins are produced in lower global amounts, but their sizes are found to be significantly larger than without CO. The oxygen incorporation in tholins is found to be efficient, with an oxygen content of the same order of magnitude as the amount of CO in the initial gas mixture.

  12. Structure of the neutral upper atmosphere of Mars - Results from Viking 1 and Viking 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    Neutral mass spectrometers carried on the aeroshells of Viking 1 and Viking 2 indicate that carbon dioxide is the major constituent of the Martian atmosphere over the height range 120 to 200 kilometers. The atmosphere contains detectable concentrations of nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, molecular oxygen, atomic oxygen, and nitric oxide. The upper atmosphere exhibits a complex and variable thermal structure and is well mixed to heights in excess of 120 kilometers.

  13. CONTAINER MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ROBUSTNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  15. Cottonwood Control in Nursery Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate preemergence herbicides for control of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) in nursery containers. In 2006, granular preemergence herbicides were applied to recently filled, weed-free containers. In May 2006, containers were infested with cottonwood seed b...

  16. Conductive Container for Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    Container for semiconductor components not only protects them against mechanical damage but ensures they are not harmed by electrostatic discharges. Container holds components in fixed positions so they can be serialized and identified from their locations. Suitable for holding components during both storing and shipping. Originally developed for microwave diodes, container concept readily adaptable to transistors and integrated circuits.

  17. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  18. The Measurement of Atmospheric Concentrations and Deposition of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David S.; Nicholson, Ken W.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a physical description of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), both in terms of their characteristic nature in the atmosphere and the processes which control their deposition. Contains a summary of the requirements for a full assessment of atmospheric SVOCs and their deposition. (LZ)

  19. Atmospheric transport of persistent pollutants governs uptake by holarctic terrestrial biota

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Woin, Per )

    1990-10-01

    The atmospheric deposition of PCBs, DDT, and lindane, governed uptake in terrestrial biota in the Scandinavian peninsula. Mammalian herbivores and predators as well as predatory insects contained higher levels of pollutants at locations where the fallout load was high than at stations where atmospheric deposition was lower, and the two variables were significantly correlated.

  20. Atmospheric Entry Heating of Micrometeorites Revisited: Higher Temperatures and Potential Biases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, S.; Alexander, C. M. OD.

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric entry heating model of Love and Brownlee appears to have overestimated evaporation rates by as much as two orders of magnitude. Here we revisit the issue of atmospheric entry heating, using a revised prescription for evaporation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. WHAT IS THE POTENTIAL OF FOREST MANAGEMENT TO SLOW THE INCREASE OF ATMOSPHERIC C02?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests are a major sink for carbon and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. ot only do forests contain huge amounts of carbon, they exchange it very actively with the atmosphere. n average the equivalent of the entire C02 content of the atmosphere passes through th...

  2. Mechanism for production of secondary organic aerosols and their representation in atmospheric models. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, J.H.; Flagan, R.C.

    1999-06-07

    This document contains the following: organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons; gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds to model inorganic, organic, and ambient smog aerosols; and representation of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models.

  3. Germination of fungal conidia after exposure to low concentration ozone atmospheres.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germinability of conidia of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, or Penicillium italicum was determined periodically during exposure for approximately 100 days to a humid atmosphere of air alone or air containing 150 ppb ozone ...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Simulations of hot gas planets atmospheres (Salz+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, M.; Czesla, S.; Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-11-01

    The following tables contain the simulation results from the publication. Each table contains a 1D spherically symmetric, hydrodynamically escaping thermosphere of a hot gas planet. The atmospheres contain hydrogen and helium, and no molecules. The simulations were performed with the PLUTO-CLOUDY interface (Salz et al., Cat. J/A+A/576/A21). Each table contains a header, which specifies the system parameters, that where used for the simulations. The simulation region extends to 12/15 planetary radii, but the atmospheres are only approximately valid up to the Roche-lobe height, above which the spherical approximation is invalid. The Roche-lobe height is also given in the header. In the cases of WASP-10 b and WASP-8 b the atmospheres are hydrodynamically stable and the atmospheres extend only up to the exobase defined for proton-proton scattering as given in the publication. (17 data files).

  5. Wet atmospheric generation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, Richard M. (Inventor); Allen, Janice K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

  6. Wet atmospheric generation apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Richard M.; Allen, Janice K.

    1990-03-01

    The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

  7. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  8. METHOD OF TESTING HERMETIC CONTAINERS

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1959-02-17

    A method is presented for testing hermetic containers enclosing a material capable of chemically combining with a fluid at elevated temperatures. In accordance with the invention, the container to be tested is weighed together with the material therein. The container and its contents are then immersed in the fluid and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to cause a reaction to take place between the contents and the fluid and maintained under such conditions for a definite period of time. The container and its contents are then cooled and re-weighed. The rate of change in weight is determined and utilized as an index to determine the possibility of container failure.

  9. Global distribution of Pluto's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.; Stern, S.A.

    1983-04-15

    Pluto's volatile atmosphere currently extends essentially uniformly around the globe and has nearly uniform thickness, discounting topographic elevation differences and tidal effects. Although in equilibrium with the surface ice, the atmosphere does not noticeably freeze out on the night side, during eclipses of the Sun by Charon, or at the poles during Pluto's present season near perihelion. The bulk thermal tide is negligible. The rotational and tidal deformations of the atmosphere affect the atmospheric thickness of 0.6--2% for a pure CH/sub 4/ atmosphere, depending on the unknown mass of Charon, and up to 15% for an atmosphere with high mean molecular weight. An important consequence of the global uniformity of Pluto's atmosphere and the observed CH/sub 4/ column abundance of 27 +- 7 m--Am is that Pluto's surface is close to 58 K over the entire globe. This compares with the value approx.43 K expected on the basis of insolation and blackbody radiation. We suggest that the explanation for Pluto's elevated surface temperature is the low thermal emissivity of solid CH/sub 4/, expected on the basis of the absence of a rotational spectrum in the gas. Solid CH/sub 4/, which covers an appreciable portion of Pluto's surface, can absorb sunlight in the visible and near-infrared bands but lacks opacity at thermal wavelengths to radiate the absorbed energy efficiently.

  10. Cloud formation in substellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    Clouds seem like an every-day experience. But-do we know how clouds form on brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets? How do they look like? Can we see them? What are they composed of? Cloud formation is an old-fashioned but still outstanding problem for the Earth atmosphere, and it has turned into a challenge for the modelling of brown dwarf and exo-planetary atmospheres. Cloud formation imposes strong feedbacks on the atmospheric structure, not only due to the clouds own opacity, but also due to the depletion of the gas phase, possibly leaving behind a dynamic and still supersaturated atmosphere. I summarise the different approaches taken to model cloud formation in substellar atmospheres and workout their differences. Focusing on the phase-non-equilibrium approach to cloud formation, I demonstrate the inside we gain from detailed microphysical modelling on for instance the material composition and grain size distribution inside the cloud layer on a Brown Dwarf atmosphere. A comparison study on four different cloud approaches in Brown Dwarf atmosphere simulations demonstrates possible uncertainties in interpretation of observational data.

  11. Atmospheric effects on target acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, Norman S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Golbraikh, Ephim

    2012-06-01

    Imaging systems have advanced significantly in the last decades in terms of low noise and better resolution. While imaging hardware resolution can be limited by collection aperture size or by the camera modulation transfer function (MTF), it is the atmosphere that usually limits image quality for long range imaging. The main atmospheric distortions are caused by optical turbulence, absorption, and scattering by particulates in the atmosphere. The effects of the turbulent medium over long/short exposures are image blur and wavefront tilts that cause spatio-temporal image shifts. This blur limits the frequency of line pairs that can be resolved in the target's image and thus affects the ability to acquire targets. The observer appears to be able to ignore large-scale distortions while small-scale distortions blur the image and degrade resolution. Resolution degradations due to turbulence are included in current performance models by the use of an atmospheric MTF. Turbulence distortion effects are characterized by both short and long exposure MTFs. In addition to turbulence, scattering and absorption produced by molecules and aerosols in the atmosphere cause both attenuation and additional image blur according to the atmospheric aerosol MTF. The absorption can have significant effect on target acquisition in infrared (IR) imaging. In the present work, a brief overview and discussion of atmospheric effects on target acquisition in the IR is given.

  12. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  13. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro Griffin, Kristen L.; Sokol, D.; Dailey, D.; Lee, G.; Polidan, R.

    2013-10-01

    We have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying Northrop Grumman (non-NASA) development programs to the challenges associated with Venus upper atmosphere science missions. Our concept is a low ballistic coefficient (<50 Pa), semi-buoyant aircraft that deploys prior to entering the Venus atmosphere, enters the atmosphere without an aeroshell, and provides a long-lived (months to years), maneuverable vehicle capable of carrying science payloads to explore the Venus upper atmosphere. In this presentation we report results from our ongoing study and plans for future analyses and prototyping. We discuss the overall mission architecture and concept of operations from launch through Venus arrival, orbit, entry, and atmospheric science operations. We present a strawman concept of VAMP, including ballistic coefficient, planform area, percent buoyancy, inflation gas, wing span, vehicle mass, power supply, propulsion, materials considerations, structural elements, subsystems, and packaging. The interaction between the VAMP vehicle and the supporting orbiter will also be discussed. In this context, we specifically focus upon four key factors impacting the design and performance of VAMP: 1. Feasibility of and options for the deployment of the vehicle in space 2. Entry into the Venus atmosphere, including descent profile, heat rate, total heat load, stagnation temperature, control, and entry into level flight 3. Characteristics of flight operations and performance in the Venus atmosphere: altitude range, latitude and longitude access, day/night performance, aircraft performance (aerodynamics, power required vs. power available, propulsion, speed, percent buoyancy), performance sensitivity to payload weight 4. Science payload accommodation, constraints, and opportunities We discuss interdependencies of the above factors and the manner in which the VAMP strawman’s characteristics affect the CONOPs and the science objectives. We show how

  14. Atmospheric corrosion testing. (Latest citations from the Metadex (Metals Abstracts/Alloys Index) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the results of both long term atmospheric testing and accelerated testing in artificial environments for a wide variety of materials. The effects of atmospheric pollution, specifically, sulfur dioxide, are included. Applications include use in testing for corrosion of aluminum, steel, magnesium, automotive parts, and metal roofing materials. (Contains a minimum of 203 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Titan's Polar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Schinder, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini CIRS and Radio-Occultation measurements obtained in 2004-2015 have tracked the evolution of temperatures and winds in Titan's polar atmosphere, as the winter season shifted from the northern hemisphere to the southern. The dissolution of the strong circumpolar vortex initially seen in the northern hemisphere has been gradual. There is no evidence of the rapid distortion and disruption forced by planetary waves that can occur on Earth. Indeed, neither Cassini experiment has identified any thermal signature attributable to planetary-scale waves. The south-polar region has turned wintry fairly abruptly: temperature and zonal wind maps from CIRS data show that the 1-mbar temperatures at high southern latitudes in late autumn are already much colder than those at the corresponding latitudes in the north in midwinter, when the first extensive polar measurements were obtained. The south-polar region now has a strong circumpolar vortex, with maximum stratospheric winds occurring near 60° S, in contrast to the northern hemisphere in winter, where the polar vortex was much broader, extending to 20°-30° N. Potential vorticity maps now indicate steep meridional gradients at high southern latitudes, implying a barrier to efficient mixing between the polar region and lower latitudes. Radio-occultations have higher vertical resolution than CIRS, and they have recently probed latitudes as high as 65° in both hemispheres (latitudes closer to the pole are precluded because of the geometry of Earth occultations and the season). Above 80 km at these latitudes, where the radiative damping times are small enough that temperatures have large seasonal variations, the stratosphere in the north has warmed, and it has become much colder in the south. The abrupt transition region with negative vertical temperature gradient between 80 and 100 km, which was seen at high northern latitudes in winter, has weakened, but it is still visible. In the south, one can see the early stage of

  16. New atmospheric sensor analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1989-01-01

    The functional capabilities of the ESAD Research Computing Facility are discussed. The system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are used in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in modeling the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The results may then be evaluated to furnish inputs into the final design specifications for new space sensors intended for future Spacelab, Space Station, and free-flying missions. In addition, data gathered from these missions may subsequently be analyzed to provide better understanding of requirements for numerical modeling of atmospheric phenomena.

  17. Atmospheric transmission computer program CP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

  18. Planetary atmospheres. [reviewing recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, Conway

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of planetary atmospheres published during the period 1983-1986 are reviewed, including Vega and Voyager data and results from ground-based remote sensing. Consideration is given to water-vapor and sulfur-compound distributions, electrical phenomena, and dynamics in the Venus atmosphere; dust storms, water cycles, and water and ice erosion on Mars; the compositions, temperature profiles, and dynamics of the Jovian and Saturnian atmospheres; chemical processes and zonal winds on Titan; and the radiation budgets and chemical compositions of the outer planets.

  19. Mars: Its atmosphere and surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral experiments on Mars Orbiter show that solar energy is absorbed by the planet and its atmosphere and eventually re-emitted in the infrared as thermal emission. The majority of the radiances at the north polar Mars area follows very closely the radiance from a black body of about 145 degrees kelvin, which indicates a frozen CO2 surface; the south polar region radiance indicates a temperature inversion in the atmosphere, and the emission of atmospheric dust as well as emissions from frozen CO2.

  20. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere? PMID:20299587