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Sample records for contaminated dredged material

  1. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  2. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  3. Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

  4. Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the lower Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Winger, P V; Lasier, P J; White, D H; Seginak, J T

    2000-01-01

    Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal areas on the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination. PMID:10556380

  5. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  6. Effects of a contaminated dredged material on laboratory populations of the tubicolous amphipod Ampelisca abdita

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.J.; Redmond, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term and full-life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with Ampelisca abdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP). These studies comprised a portion of the effects-assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with aquatic disposal of dredged materials from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. The specific objective of these toxicity tests was to document the sensitivity of Ampelisca's chronic endpoints to a range of contaminated suspended particulate concentrations. In long-term exposures of 56 days, amphipod growth and intrinsic rate of population growth, r, were impaired at all BRH sediment exposures. In all cases, the reduction in population growth rate was a function of slower growth of females, causing a longer time to maturity, which was coupled with a reduced egg production at maturity because the females were smaller.

  7. HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

  8. DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

  9. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue concentrations were observed, differences in Cd tissue concentrations were noted. A maximum concentration of 26 mg Cd kg?1 DW was detected in T. aestivum shoots. Although Cd tissue concentrations of T. aestivum plants in this study were below the Cd plant hyperaccumulation criterion of >100 mg kg?1 Cd found in other studies, this plant species however may still have beneficial uses for phytoremediation studies. T. aestivum plants may serve as an indicator plant for environmental assessment and management, in which the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. Cd) mirrors the concentration in the substrate without dying due to phytotoxicity at low metal concentrations. PMID:16705830

  10. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue concentrations were observed, differences in Cd tissue concentrations were noted. A maximum concentration of 26 mg Cd kg(-1) DW was detected in T. aestivum shoots. Although Cd tissue concentrations of T. aestivum plants in this study were below the Cd plant hyperaccumulation criterion of >100 mg kg(-1) Cd found in other studies, this plant species however may still have beneficial uses for phytoremediation studies. T. aestivum plants may serve as an indicator plant for environmental assessment and management, in which the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. Cd) mirrors the concentration in the substrate without dying due to phytotoxicity at low metal concentrations. PMID:16705830

  11. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  12. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  13. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dredged materials. 227.13 Section 227... THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.13 Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are bottom sediments or materials that have been dredged...

  14. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Dredged materials. 227.13 Section 227... THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.13 Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are bottom sediments or materials that have been dredged...

  15. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dredged materials. 227.13 Section 227... THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.13 Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are bottom sediments or materials that have been dredged...

  16. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not....13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact §...

  17. Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

  18. Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

  19. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... major constituents of the liquid phase are in compliance with the applicable marine water quality... included in the applicable marine water quality criteria, or there is reason to suspect synergistic effects... Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are bottom sediments or materials that have been dredged...

  20. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  1. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  2. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineer manual series on dredging and dredged material disposal. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.

    1988-03-01

    This technical note describes a series of Engineer Manuals (EMs) on dredging and dredged material disposal being published by the Office, Chief of Engineers, US Army. The note describes the purpose of the manual series, intended audience, major topics covered, availability of published manuals, and the status of future manuals.

  3. Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

  4. Mercury-contaminated sludge treatment by dredging in Minamata Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, Kiyoto

    1995-12-31

    To eradicate Minamata Disease, caused by the discharge of sewage containing methyl mercury and its accumulation in fish and shellfish through the food cycle, a large-scale sediment disposal project was conducted with special care taken to prevent new pollution resulting from the project itself. The basic approach to sediment disposal was to construct a highly watertight revetment to reclaim the inner area of the bay and then confine sediment dredged from the remaining contaminated area in the reclamation area through surface treatment. Before sediment disposal, boundary nets were installed to enclose the work area to prevent the mixing of contaminated and noncontaminated fish. Dredging work was successfully carried out by using four cutterless suction dredgers, newly developed in advance for minimizing resuspension of sediments. Dredged material was discharged into the reclamation area, filled up to sea level, and covered with a sandproof membrane, lightweight volcanic ash earth, and mountain soil.

  5. Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

  6. Comparison of the ames assay and mutatox in assessing the mutagenic potential of contaminated dredged material. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, A.S.

    1995-04-01

    The Ames assay and Mutatox were evaluated to compare their ability to identify the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The Ames assay has been used extensively in the testing of environmental contaminants. Mutatox, a bacterial bioluminescence test, was developed as a genotoxicity bioassay. Ten sediments with varying degrees of contamination were soxhlet extracted. These extracts were divided into crude and clean samples. Cleaned samples were prepared using silica-gel chromatography resulting in 20 extract samples. Both the Ames test (TA98 and TAl00) and Mutatox were conducted with and without S9 metabolic activation. TA98+S9 and TA1OO+S9 indicated a positive mutagenic response in 80 and 50 percent, respectively, of the sediment extracts. Half of the extracts indicated a positive mutagenic response with TA98-S9, while only 10 percent did so with TAlOO-S9. Mutatox indicated a positive mutagenic response with S9 activation in 75 percent of the extracts and no mutagenic response in any of the sediment extracts without metabolic activation. In a side-by-side comparison of the Ames assay (TA98+S9) and Mutatox, 80 percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses, both positive and negative. Fifty percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses when tested with TAlOO+S9 and Mutatox. Mutatox compared favorably with the Ames assay and shows promise as a screening tool to assess sediment genotoxicity when used with Ames assay as a confirmation.

  7. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  8. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  9. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated estuarine dredged material placed in both upland and wetland environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.; Wilhelm, G.S.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the Field Verification Program (FVP), conducted during the period 1981-1986. Laboratory tests were conducted on the sediment prior to dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under each of the disposal alternatives. Prior to dredging for upland disposal and wetland creation at the FVP field site, upland tests (i.e., plant and earthworm bioassays) and wetland tests (i.e., plant, sandworm, snail, and mussel bioassays) were conducted. Laboratory test results were sub-subsequently field verified at the field test site at Tongue Point, Bridgeport, CT. The results of the upland disposal and wetland creation portions of the FVP, and the changes occurring since completion of the FVP for each disposal environment, are summarized herein. The emphasis of this report is on the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. This interim report includes data collected through 1989. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland and wetland ecosystems at this site will be evaluated until September 1985.

  10. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  11. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. PMID:22240209

  12. Canaveral ODMDS Dredged Material Erosion Rate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JEPSEN,RICHARD A.; ROBERTS,JESSE D.; LUCERO,AMY L.; CHAPIN JR.,D. MICHAEL

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the erosion properties of four sediments related to the Canaveral Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site have been determined as a function of density, consolidation, and shear stress by means of a high shear stress sediment erosion flume at Sandia National Laboratories. Additional analysis was completed for each sediment to determine mineralogy, particle size, and organic content. This was done to support numerical modeling efforts, aid in effective management, and minimize environmental impact. The motivation for this work is based on concerns of dredged material transporting beyond the designated site and estimates of site capacity.

  13. Dredged material disposal in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Ketchum, B.H.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include sediment-copper reservoir formation by the burrowing polychaete Nephtys incisa, factors affecting the uptake of cadmium and other trace metals from marine sediments by bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates, and changes in the levels of PCBs in Mytilus edulis associated with dredged-material disposal.

  14. Stakeholder engagement in dredged material management decisions.

    PubMed

    Collier, Zachary A; Bates, Matthew E; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-15

    Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as multi-stakeholder, multi-criteria decision problems. In this paper, we describe a case study in which multi-criteria decision analysis was implemented in a multi-stakeholder setting in order to generate recommendations on dredged material placement for Long Island Sound's Dredged Material Management Plan. A working-group of representatives from various stakeholder organizations was formed and consulted to help prioritize sediment placement sites for each dredging center in the region by collaboratively building a multi-criteria decision model. The resulting model framed the problem as several alternatives, criteria, sub-criteria, and metrics relevant to stakeholder interests in the Long Island Sound region. An elicitation of values, represented as criteria weights, was then conducted. Results show that in general, stakeholders tended to agree that all criteria were at least somewhat important, and on average there was strong agreement on the order of preferences among the diverse groups of stakeholders. By developing the decision model iteratively with stakeholders as a group and soliciting their preferences, the process sought to increase stakeholder involvement at the front-end of the prioritization process and lead to increased knowledge and consensus regarding the importance of site-specific criteria. PMID:25089686

  15. TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Programs for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into waters of the United States specify a tiered testing and evaluation protocol that includes performance of acute and chronic bioassays to assess toxicity of the dredged sediments. Although these evaluations refl...

  16. Management of dredged material at Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.R.

    1992-04-01

    Toledo Harbor, at the mouth of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio, is the second most active port and largest single dredging project on the Great Lakes. Over 770,000 cub. m is dredged each year. material has been confined since 1955. Most of this half of the harbor was declared suitable In 1983, over water disposal. Monitoring of the open-water disposal has not shown any adverse impact on water quality. Studies of the release or bioavailability of phosphorus (P) bound to the sediments indicate that P is released from the sediments at a rate of from 10 to 30 percent per day. On an annual basis, dredging and disposal account for 0.4 to 0.6 percent of the total external loading of P to Lake Erie. High-resolution visible data from the French satellite SPOT were used to demonstrate the total extent of the dredging plume. Efforts will be made in the future to use the satellite for routine monitoring.

  17. Evaluating contamination of dredges and disposal criteria in Greek coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Leotsinidis, Michalis; Sazakli, Eleni

    2008-06-01

    Sediments were collected from areas that were going to be dredged located at six small Greek ports, as well as from possible disposal areas. In order to assess the contamination level of dredged material, the samples were analysed for pH, organic matter, the metals Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and major organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs). The sediments' quality was evaluated by two approaches: (i) by classifying each area according to two sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and (ii) by calculating the contamination factors and degree for each area. The results showed that organic compounds were detected in trace amounts in 14% of the port samples belonging to the PAHs group. The characterization of the sediment samples was based on the metals' concentration showing that the majority of the areas to be dredged (80%) are classified as of medium-low contamination according to the SQGs. However, according to the contamination degree, only 30% of the areas are classified as of low contamination, while 40% as of moderate contamination and 30% of the areas as of considerable contamination. From the point of view of "no disturbance" of the ecosystem, decisions about dumping should be taken only after evaluating the material to be dredged. If the SQGs are exceeded, dumping must be forbidden. Otherwise, further evaluation is needed based on the comparison with the receiving area, i.e. by estimating the contamination degree. Dumping could be allowed if the contamination degree is found to be below moderate. PMID:18397800

  18. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

  19. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 225.2 Section 225.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The... made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6)...

  20. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set forth in... Engineer any additional information he deems necessary or appropriate to evaluate the proposed dumping....

  1. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set... the District Engineer any additional information he deems necessary or appropriate to evaluate...

  2. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set... the District Engineer any additional information he deems necessary or appropriate to evaluate...

  3. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  4. MODELING SHORT-TERM BEHAVIOR OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSED IN VERY SHALLOW AND VERY DEEP COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modifications have been made to the model for Disposal From an Instantaneous Dump (DIFID), commonly used to simulate transport and fate of dredged material rapidly disposed from a dredge or barge into aquatic systems. hanges include simulation of particulate and contaminant detac...

  5. Update of dredged material capping experiences in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.

    1992-03-01

    There has been considerable experience in the United States regarding level-bottom capping operations in the New England area and in New York Bight. These operations involve placement of contaminated sediments at open-water sites by bottom dumping from hopper dredges or barges, forming a mound on the bottom followed by placement of a cap of clean sediment. More recent US capping experiences involve hydraulic placement of highly contaminated sediments from a Superfund project in New Bedford, Massachusetts, in preexcavated subaqueous pits. These sediments were capped by hydraulically placing clean sediment using a submerged diffuser. Other recent innovations include controlled placement of materials in thin layers by pipeline and from barges, recently accomplished in Puget Sound. Results from these projects and planned demonstrations of other capping procedures will extend capping experience in the United States to a wide range of project conditions.

  6. Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

  7. Impact of remobilized contaminants in Mytilus edulis during dredging operations in a harbour area: bioaccumulation and biomarker responses.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H

    2012-11-01

    Dredging operations in harbours are recurrent to maintain accessibility and navigational depths. One of the main environmental risks of these operations is the remobilization of contaminants trapped in the sediments, rendering them more bioavailable to the biota. However, regulatory policies regarding the contamination risk of dredging chiefly apply to the disposal of dredged materials rather than the direct impact of the procedure itself. In order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of harbour dredging operations in a polluted estuary (the Tagus, W Portugal), the present study compared bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in field-deployed mussels before and after the beginning of operations, complemented by sediment characterization and risk analysis based on standardized sediment quality guidelines. The results revealed a very significant increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress from the beginning of dredging onwards, which was accompanied by increased bioaccumulation of toxicants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Overall, the results indicate the importance of surveying the direct impacts of these procedures on local contamination, especially considering these sediments had been previously classified as "trace contaminated", according to normative guidelines, and therefore safe for disposal. This study shows the importance of obtaining both chemical and biological data in standard monitoring procedures and that the remobilization of contaminants by dredging operations may be grossly underestimated, which calls for caution when assessing the impact of these activities even in low to moderately polluted areas. PMID:22938960

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  9. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  10. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1992-09-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

  11. Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Herv, D; Thvenot, D

    2002-11-01

    Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'. PMID:12465592

  12. Beach reclamation and dredged material disposal for marine environment improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Y.

    1992-04-01

    The Bureau of Ports and Harbors, Ministry of Transport, is engaged in a number of sea bottom management operations. These operations consist of the prevention of harbor pollution, implemented primarily by dredging bottom sediments, and a study of sea bottom sediment clarification designed to eliminate organic sediment in bays and inland seas. In implementing these projects, one very significant problem that must be solved is disposal of the dredged material. Difficulties are also encountered in disposal of the material produced from the improvement works of port facilities, fairways, and anchorages. These difficulties occasionally block the implementation of such projects. This paper describes examples of the disposal of, or use of, certain types of dredged material and organic sediment for beach reclamation.

  13. Quality of dredged material in the River Seine basin (France). I. Physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Herv, D; Thvenot, D

    2002-08-01

    In rivers, sediments are frequently accumulating persistent chemicals, especially for those that are more contaminated as a consequence of pressure related to environmental pollution and human activity. The Seine river basin (France) is heavily polluted from nearby industrial activities, and the urban expansion of Paris and its suburbs within the Ile de France region and the sediments present in the Seine river basin are contaminated. To ensure safe, navigable waters, rivers and waterways must be dredged. In this paper, the quality of the sediment dredged in 1996, 1999 and 2000 is discussed. Physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment itself and of the pore-water are presented. Seine basin sediments show very diverse compositions depending on the sampling site. Nevertheless, a geographic distribution study illustrated that the Paris impact is far from being the only explanation to this diversity, the quality of this sediment is also of great concern. The sediment once dredged is transported via barges to a wet disposal site, where the dredged material is mixed with Seine water in order to be pumped into the receiving site. This sort of dumping might be responsible for the potential release of contaminants to the overlying water from the significantly contaminated sediments. PMID:12186280

  14. Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

  15. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  16. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  17. Environmental effects of dredging. Corps of Engineers` procedures and policies on dredging and dredged material disposal (the federal standard). Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, R.M.; Wright, T.; Lee, C.R.; Dillon, T.M.

    1988-08-01

    This note describes the Federal Standard pursuant to Corps` technical considerations and policies with regard to the disposal of dredged material in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA), which provides for selecting the least costly dredged or fill material disposal alternative consistent with sound engineering practices and appropriate environmental quality standards. This approach also generally applies to assessments conducted in accordance with the Ocean Dumping Act, even though the discussion centers on the CWA.

  18. Dredged material isolation on the abyssal seafloor: A feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.J.; Young, D.K.

    1997-12-01

    This report is the result of an examination of the feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The focus is on the technical and environmental factors that constrain the considerations of feasibility. A thorough conceptual design of a dredging to abyssal deposition system is analyzed with regard to each subsystem and to the entire operational concept. These subsystems include: (1) a low leakage dredge, (2) equipment for material handling and loading into geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs), (3) the barge for transport and navigation, and (4) the subsystem for releasing the GFCs to sink to the abyssal seafloor isolation site. Particular consideration is given to the exclusion of dredged material from the ocean`s productive zone in the upper 1000 m. New theoretical models and previous empirical results are used to predict GFC motion through the water column and response to impact on the abyssal seafloor, including the case of potential release of contaminated, turbid water at impact. A geochemical model of the temporal and spatial evolution of the post-deposition geochemistry of the water column, the GFC contents and the sediments below is developed and analyzed; the results show that release of metals into the ocean waters would be insignificant. A model of the biological impacts of the introduction of dredged material in the abyssal environment is used to infer that: (1) biological diversity in the vicinity of the deposition site will be diminished, (2) biomass will be increased by dominance of a few fast growing, opportunistic benthic species, and (3) concentrations of trace elements and organic contaminant.

  19. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  20. DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

  1. CALIBRATION OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUSLY DISCHARGED DREDGED MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes modifications to a computer model originally developed by R.C.Y. Koh and Y.C. Chang for predicting the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into a water column. Changes to the simulation include the calibration and verification of the p...

  2. DREDGED MATERIAL PLUME DISPERSAL IN CENTRAL LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simulation model based upon in situ current velocity data and records of disposal events was developed to predict the chemical exposure field resulting from dredged material disposal plumes in central Long island Sound (CLIS) during the spring of 1983. n the model, plumes are a...

  3. New Federal Regulations for Dredged and Fill Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Aided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, the United States Army Corps of Engineers regulates the discharge of dredged and fill material, through a permit program, to all waters of the United States. This feature summarizes the key points of the Corps regulations and the EPA guidelines. (BT)

  4. Lake-dredged materials for beef cattle pasture establishment in subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to reuse dredge materials for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. Beneficial uses of dredging or dredged materials are both economical and environmental. ...

  5. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...The EPA is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G- DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged material disposal site (ODMDS) located offshore of Guam. Dredging is essential for maintaining safe navigation at port and naval facilities in Apra Harbor and other locations around Guam. Beneficial re-use of dredged material (e.g., for habitat creation, construction material, or landfill cover) is......

  6. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks related to depositing dredged materials from canals in northern France on soil.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Babut, Marc; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Bray, Marc; Clement, Bernard; Delolme, Ccile; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Montuelle, Bernard

    2006-08-01

    The implementation of an ecological risk assessment framework is presented for dredged material deposits on soil close to a canal and groundwater, and tested with sediment samples from canals in northern France. This framework includes two steps: a simplified risk assessment based on contaminant concentrations and a detailed risk assessment based on toxicity bioassays and column leaching tests. The tested framework includes three related assumptions: (a) effects on plants (Lolium perenne L.), (b) effects on aquatic organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Xenopus laevis) and (c) effects on groundwater contamination. Several exposure conditions were tested using standardised bioassays. According to the specific dredged material tested, the three assumptions were more or less discriminatory, soil and groundwater pollution being the most sensitive. Several aspects of the assessment procedure must now be improved, in particular assessment endpoint design for risks to ecosystems (e.g., integration of pollutant bioaccumulation), bioassay protocols and column leaching test design. PMID:16797071

  7. Dredged material characterization and management frameworks: A case study at the port Vilagarcia (NW, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Romero, Araceli; Khosrovyan, Alla; DelValls, T Angel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-01-25

    The potential impact of dredged sediment has been assessed at sixteen areas of the high-traffic port of Vilagarcia (Northwest Spanish Atlantic coast). The assessment has been done by three weight-of-evidence tools, which integrated data on sediment characteristics and toxicity responses of Ampelisca brevicornis, Vibrio fischeri and eggs and embryos of Paracentrotus lividus. Two of the tools also represented management options regarding the disposal of dredged material. The comparison of the logic in these tools revealed essential differences in the type and the necessity of bioassays and threshold values for chemical concentrations. However, despite this difference, assessment results and the derived management options coincided in most of the sediments. The potential toxicity of sediments was relatively low especially for eggs and embryos possibly due to different contaminant availability in solid and liquid phases. The importance of a battery of toxicity tests in the dredged material quality assessment has been emphasized to avoid an underestimation of sediment toxicity for solid phase organisms, if only liquid phase responses are considered. The potential false implications, which may result from the application of the third tool, were highlighted. The strengths and weaknesses of the tools were discussed from the dredged material management perspective. PMID:26453824

  8. Evaluation of dredged material disposal alternatives for US Navy homeport at Everett, Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.; Shafer, R.A.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Truitt, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The US Navy has proposed to homeport a carrier battle group at Everett, Wash. Development of the homeport will involve dredging and disposal of approximately 1 million cu yd of contaminated native material. The US Army Engineer District, Seattle, is providing technical assistance in developing a dredging and disposal plan for these sediments from the East Waterway. In addition, the Seattle District is a permitting agency under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The purpose of the WES studies was to evaluate the feasibility of alternatives from an environmental and related engineering standpoint. Three major disposal alternatives were evaluated for disposal of the contaminated sediment: confined upland, confined nearshore, and contained aquatic disposal (CAD). The Navy identified CAD as a preferred alternative during the course of the WES study, and also as the selected alternative in all applications for a Section 404 permit.

  9. Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.

    PubMed

    Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

    2008-01-01

    Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage). PMID:17826971

  10. Dredging as remediation for white phosphorus contamination at Eagle River Flats, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.R.; Collins, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Eagle River Flats impact area is a Ft. Richardson Superfund site. It is a salt marsh that is contaminated with white phosphorus (WP), and remediation of sediments in permanently ponded areas may require dredging. A remotely piloted dredging system was designed, constructed, and deployed at the Flats as part of the overall site remediation feasibility study. Experience gained over two years of engineering study and contract operation indicates that, although feasible and effective, this alternative is slow, difficult, and very expensive.

  11. How does dredging of drainage ditches affect contaminant transport?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential component to ensuring the agricultural productivity in much of the Midwestern United States. Water from tile drains is typically conveyed into open ditches, which are dredged every five to ten years to maintain uninhibited drainage into ditches. This study was conduct...

  12. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  13. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  14. Environmental effects of dredging, technical notes. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Biomagnification of Contaminants in Aquatic Food Webs as a Result of Open-Water Disposal of Dredged Material ; Fate of Dredged Material During Open-Water Disposal; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Background and Preliminary Planning; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Design Concepts and Placement Techniques; Monitoring Dredged Material Consolidation and Settlement at Aquatic Disposal Sites; Computerized Database for Interpretation of the Relationship Between Contaminant Tissue Residues and Biological Effects in Aquatic Organisms; Use of Daphnia Magna to Predict Consequences of Bioaccumulation; Simplified Approach for Evaluating Bioavailability of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Sediment; A Procedure for Determining Cap Thickness for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits; Acoustic Tools and Techniques for Physical Monitoring of Aquatic Dredged Material Disposal Sites; Contaminant Modeling; Use of Seabed Drifters for Locating and Monitoring Dredged Material Placement Sites.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  16. Establishing bahiagrass in subtropical beef cattle pastures with lake-dredged materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredged materials (DM) are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess lake-dredged materials...

  17. Evaluation of hydrocyclone and post-treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Choi, Jeongyun; Lee, Seongeon; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-15

    There are many disposal and treatment methods for contaminated dredged sediments, depending on their properties. In this study, treatment methods for the remediation of dredged sediments as well as the reduction of pore water generated from dredged sediments were optimized. The efficiency of separation using hydrocyclone as the pre-treatment increased with greater inflow velocity of hydrocyclone, deeper insertion of the vortex finder, and smaller hydrocyclone diameter. In the post-treatment of hydrocyclone overflow, the chemical coagulation and membrane filtration methods had high efficiency with regard to the removal of solid and organic compounds, but the former was less feasible, due to its excessive operation and sludge disposal costs. The membrane filtration was easily applicable in the field, based on its convenience of installation and lower cost of operation despite low removal efficiency of trace organic contaminants. PMID:26496838

  18. TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF DREDGED MATERIALS: ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY AS DETERMINED BY BIOASSAYS AND BIOACCUMULATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whenever dredged materials are disposed into the ocean, the potential effects of the materials on human health, fishery resources, and marine ecosystems may range from being negligible or unmeasurable to important. Because these effects may differ greatly at each dredged material...

  19. Land application of carbonatic lake-dredged materials: Effects on soil quality and forage productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive disposal options of carbonatic lake-dredged materials (82% CaCO3) may provide substantial and intangible benefits that will enhance the environment, community, and society. The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it redu...

  20. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 2. STABILIZATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of diked dredge sediments has the potential to provide landfill for community development projects. However, the successful realization of this objective requires that proper attention be given to the problems (a) possible surface water pollution by the effluent from the ...

  1. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  2. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  3. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  6. BIOASSESSMENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE HAZARDS OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 325 million m3 of sediment are dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United States. f this, 46 million m3 are disposed of annually in the ocean (Peddicord, 1987). ecisions regarding the ocean disposal of dredged material result, in large part, from bioasse...

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  8. Improved sea-urchin embryo bioassay for in situ evaluation of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, M J; Fernández, N; Cesar, A; Antón, R; Lopez, P; Delvalls, A

    2009-11-01

    Sediments usually contain many contaminants derived from human activities. In case of dredging activities, these sediment-bound contaminants arise following the excavation and remobilization of sediments. Previous studies have used different species of clam, crabs, lugworms, etc. for the evaluation of dredged material in situ, but there are not studies that use acute bioassays for these purposes. The sea-urchin embryo bioassay has been chosen to characterize biological effects in situ in two ports of the southwest of Spain, the Port of Huelva and the Port of Cadiz. The sea-urchin embryo bioassay has been adapted for in situ evaluation of seawater quality in coastal areas, however, they are necessary for further improvements to take into account differences of temperature between sites. This temperature variation is one of the principal reasons (other than pollution) of larval mortality and the slow down in the growth rate of the urchin. In the present study a bioassay was conducted in both field and laboratory conditions, in order to compare the effects in situ with the effects under controlled conditions of temperature, salinity and oxygen dissolved. Results showed a good correlation between samples obtained in situ and in the laboratory, but in the field the percentage of normal pluteus larvae is less than under laboratory conditions. PMID:19590952

  9. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Fan, Chengxin; Shen, Qiushi; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-02-01

    Environmental dredging is often used in river mouth areas to remove heavy metals. However, following dredging, high levels of metal-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) originating from polluted inflowing rivers might adversely affect the sediment-water interface (SWI). Here, we conducted a 360-day-long experiment investigating whether the riverine SPM adversely affects dredging outcome in a bay area of Lake Chaohu, China. We found that the heavy metal concentrations in the post-dredging surface sediment increased to pre-dredging levels for all metals studied (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) after the addition of SPM. In addition, the increased concentrations were mostly detected in the relatively bioavailable non-residual fractions. Of the metals studied, the rate of increase was the greatest for Zn and Cd (482.98% and 261.07%, respectively), mostly in the weak acid extractable fraction. These results were probably due to certain characteristics of SPM (fine grain size, and high concentrations of organic matter and heavy metals) and the good oxic conditions of the SWI. Furthermore, As was the only metal for which we observed an increasing trend of diffusive flux across the SWI. However, the flux was still significantly lower than that measured before dredging. In conclusion, the quantity and character of riverine metal-adsorbed SPM affect metal re-contamination across the post-dredging SWI, and this information should be incorporated into the management schemes of dredging projects dedicated to reducing metal contamination in similar areas. PMID:26606187

  10. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  11. EVALUATION OF THREE FISH SPECIES AS BIOASSAY ORGANISMS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus, Fundulus similis, and Menidia menidia, were evaluated to determine which is most suitable as a bioassay organism for solid phase testing of dredged material. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were mon...

  12. An innovative coupling between column leaching and oxygen consumption tests to assess behavior of contaminated marine dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Couvidat, Julien; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Chatain, Vincent; Zhang, Fan; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated dredged sediments are often considered hazardous wastes, so they have to be adequately managed to avoid leaching of pollutants. The mobility of inorganic contaminants is a major concern. Metal sulfides (mainly frambodal pyrite, copper, and zinc sulfides) have been investigated in this study as an important reactive metal-bearing phase sensitive to atmospheric oxygen action. An oxygen consumption test (OC-Test) has been adapted to assess the reactivity of dredged sediments when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. An experimental column set-up has been developed allowing the coupling between leaching and oxygen consumption test to investigate the reactivity of the sediment. This reactivity, which consisted of sulfide oxidation, was found to occur for saturation degree between 60 and 90 % and until the 20th testing week, through significant sulfates releases. These latter were assumed to come from sulfide oxidation in the first step of the test, then probably from gypsum dissolution. Confrontation results of OC-Test and leachate quality shows that Cu was well correlated to sulfates releases, which in turn, leads to Ca and Mg dissolution (buffer effect). Cu, and mostly Zn, was associated to organic matter, phyllosilicates, and other minerals through organo-clay complexes. This research confirmed that the OC-Test, originally developed for mine tailings, could be a useful tool in the dredged sediment field which can allow for intrinsic characterization of reactivity of a material suspected to readily reacting with oxygen and for better understanding of geochemical processes that affect pollutants behavior, conversion, and transfer in the environment. PMID:25779112

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  14. UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  16. Potential contaminants at a dredged spoil placement site, Charles City County, Virginia, as revealed by sequential extraction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianwu; Whittecar, G Richard; Johannesson, Karen H; Daniels, W Lee

    2004-01-01

    Backfills of dredged sediments onto a former sand and gravel mine site in Charles City County, VA may have the potential to contaminate local groundwater. To evaluate the mobility of trace elements and to identify the potential contaminants from the dredged sediments, a sequential extraction scheme was used to partition trace elements associated with the sediments from the local aquifer and the dredged sediments into five fractions: exchangeable, acidic, reducible, oxidizable, and residual phases. Sequential extractions indicate that, for most of the trace elements examined, the residual phases account for the largest proportion of the total concentrations, and their total extractable fractions are mainly from reducible and oxidizable phases. Only Cd, Pb, and Zn have an appreciable extractable proportion from the acidic phase in the filled dredged sediments. Our groundwater monitoring data suggest that the dredged sediments are mainly subject to a decrease in pH and a series of oxidation reactions, when exposed to the atmosphere. Because the trace elements released by carbonate dissolution and the oxidation (e.g., organic matter degradation, iron sulfide and, ammonia oxidation) are subsequently immobilized by sorption to iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, no potential contaminants to local groundwater are expected by addition of the dredged sediments to this site.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  18. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ∼1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities. PMID:20674146

  19. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  1. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  2. Valorization of unauthorized sea disposal dredged sediments as a road foundation material.

    PubMed

    Achour, Raouf; Abriak, Nor-Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Rivard, Patrice; Gregoire, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to show the ability of fine dredged material (mainly silty material) to be used in road construction project. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the physical, the mineralogical and the mechanical characteristics of the used fine dredged sediments, as well as their chemical composition and environmental impacts are presented. In the second part, the methodology developed to design the road made from dredged fine sediment is developed. The third part of the paper focuses on the presentation of the road construction and the interpretation of analyses made on cores drilled samples from the road and measurements of the deflection of the road. The environmental assessment, based on leaching tests, is also performed at different issues. PMID:24956794

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  6. Settling of ocean-dumped dredged material, Townsville, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Gibbs, Ronald; Ridd, Peter; Mehta, Ashish

    1992-11-01

    Mud is dredged from the Port of Townsville, Australia, and its navigation channel and is dumped offshore in typically 12 m depth. There are two stages to the settling: initial, rapid descent as a negatively buoyant jet, forming a high concentration suspension near the bottom, followed by subsequent slower settling of mud flocs. In calm weather, mud flocs settled out of this layer in about 15 min and the suspension did not move out of the dump site. In rough weather, the settling of mud flocs was inhibited by wave-induced turbulence, and the suspension was mobile and was transported away from the dump site. In quiescent waters, this suspension compacted to about 8% of its original volume in approximately 4 days. Even after compaction the mud was resuspended, presumably by pumping by long waves since no strong currents were observed, forming a mobile, 1 m thick, high concentration suspension at the bottom.

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  8. Analysis of environmental effects of the use of stabilized dredged material from New York/New Jersey Harbor, USA, for construction of roadway embankments.

    PubMed

    Douglas, W Scott; Maher, Ali; Jafari, Farhad

    2005-11-01

    Since the 1997 local ban on ocean dumping of dredged sediments, the state of New Jersey has pursued a policy of environmentally sound solutions to the controversial problem of dredged material management, including beneficial use of dredged material stabilized with pozzolanic additives (SDM). A pilot study was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the use of SDM in the construction of highway embankments. Using 80,000 cubic yards of silty dredged material, 2 embankments were constructed from SDM on a commercial development area adjacent to the New York/New Jersey Harbor. This article presents the evaluation of the environmental effects of the SDM, including fugitive air emissions, leachate, and stormwater quality. Engineering properties, handling and management techniques of the SDM, constructability, and performance were also evaluated, the results of which are published elsewhere. The findings demonstrate that although there are measurable releases of contaminants to the environment from the SDM, these releases are not significant long-term threats to human health or the environment. Policies currently in place to regulate the management of SDM that include limiting placement options to previously contaminated sites with institutional and engineering controls will further reduce the potential for environmental impact and, in fact, have the potential to produce significant environmental benefit. PMID:16639902

  9. Fate of cadmium in the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis halleri grown in a contaminated dredged sediment.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Séphanie; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Bert, Valérie; Laboudigue, Agnès; Proux, Olivier; Flank, Anne-Marie; Vantelon, Delphine; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-12-01

    In regions impacted by mining and smelting activities, dredged sediments are often contaminated with metals. Phytotechnologies could be used for their management, but more knowledge on the speciation of metals in the sediment and on their fate after colonization by plant roots is needed. This work was focused on a dredged sediment from the Scarpe river (North of France), contaminated with Zn and Cd. Zn, Cd hyperaccumulating plants Arabidopsis halleri from metallicolous and non-metallicolous origin were grown on the sediment for five months in a pot experiment. The nature and extent of the modifications in Cd speciation with or without plant were determined by electron microscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and bulk and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition, changes in Cd exchangeable and bioavailable pools were evaluated, and Cd content in leachates was measured. Finally, Cd plant uptake and plant growth parameters were monitored. In the original sediment, Cd was present as a mixed Zn, Cd, Fe sulfide. After five months, although pots still contained reduced sulfur, Cd-bearing sulfides were totally oxidized in vegetated pots, whereas a minor fraction (8%) was still present in non-vegetated ones. Secondary species included Cd bound to O-containing groups of organic matter and Cd phosphates. Cd exchangeability and bioavailability were relatively low and did not increase during changes in Cd speciation, suggesting that Cd released by sulfide oxidation was readily taken up with strong interactions with organic matter and phosphate ligands. Thus, the composition of the sediment, the oxic conditions and the rhizospheric activity (regardless of the plant origin) created favorable conditions for Cd stabilization. However, it should be kept in mind that returning to anoxic conditions may change Cd speciation, so the species formed cannot be considered as stable on the long term. PMID:26233782

  10. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 5. BEHAVIOR OF DREDGED MATERIALS IN DIKED CONTAINMENT AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavioral characteristics of hydraulically placed maintenance dredgings were investigated during an extensive four-year field and laboratory experimental program. The field work, which took place primarily at four disposal areas near Toledo, Ohio, consisted of (a) periodic v...

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  12. LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (LTMS) FOR PLACEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with the EIS for the "Long Term management Strategy (LTMS) for Placement of Dredged material in the San Francisco Bay Region, Final policy Environmental Impact Statement and Programmatic Environmental Impact Report." Published October, 1...

  13. FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

  14. A COMPUTER STUDY OF THE KOH-CHANG MODEL FOR DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is on a computer study of the Koh-Chang model for physical fate prediction in dredge material disposal. This computer model can simulate three discharge methods: instantaneous bottom release, jet discharge, and discharge into a wake. Convective descent, dynamic collap...

  15. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  16. Minimizing impacts of maintenance dredged material disposal in the coastal environment: a habitat approach.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Stefan G; Rees, Hubert L

    2003-08-01

    At present, coastal disposal of maintenance dredged material constitutes one of the most important problems in coastal zone management and in some coastal areas represents the major anthropogenic disturbance to the benthos. In this review we first propose, based on the classic literature, that macrofaunal communities typical of environmentally stressed habitats are more resilient than those of more environmentally stable habitats, and we outline the macrofaunal successional changes following a disturbance. Second, from a review and analysis of the published and unpublished literature on macrofaunal recovery following maintenance dredged material deposition in the coastal environment, we compare the successional sequences and recovery rates in euhaline and polyhaline systems. The review reveals that invertebrate recovery following dredged material disposal in relatively unstressed marine environments generally takes between 1 and 4 years, while in more naturally stressed areas, recovery is generally achieved within 9 months, although deeper polyhaline habitats can take up to 2 years to recover. Differences in recovery times are attributed to the number of successional stages required to regain the original community composition and that species typical of naturally unstressed assemblages do not possess life-history traits to allow rapid recolonization of disturbances. In the last section of this review, the management implications of these findings are discussed in terms of minimizing dredged material disposal impacts on fisheries resources. Since the natural disturbance regime appears to be very important in determining the response of a benthic community following dredged material disposal, it is recommended that when predicting the potential environmental impact of an operation, the nature of the physical environment in combination with the status (and role) of associated marine benthic communities should be considered. PMID:14753644

  17. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL DESICCATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model has been developed to represent the physical phenomena that occur during the desiccation and one-dimensional consolidation of successive layers of dredged material as they are periodically deposited in a diked containment area. The governing boundary value pr...

  18. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives. Report 4. Surface runoff quality evaluation for confined disposal. Technical report, June-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Skogerboe, J.G.; Price, R.A.; Brandon, D.L.

    1988-10-01

    The thickness of capping material needed to chemically sequests the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor sediment from the overlying water column and aquatic biota was assessed in a small-scale predictive test. Changes in the overlying water concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium-nitrogen, and orthophosphate-phosphorus were monitored following isolation of the water column from the atmosphere by placing a 4-cm layer of mineral oil on the water surface. The chemical tracers (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate-phosphorus) were selected for their mobility under anaerobic conditions, ease of measurement, and generally high concentrations in contaminated dredged material compared with clean sediments. The chemical tracers were used to evaluate the efficiency of the capping material in preventing transfer of contaminants from New Bedford Harbor sediment into the overlying water column.

  19. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Bottom Ash - Dredged Material Mixtures in Laboratory Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bałachowski, Lech; Sikora, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    Bottom ash from EC Gdańsk and dredged material taken from the mouth of The Vistula were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. Mixtures with different bottom ash content were tested in laboratory to determine its basic physical and mechanical properties. The optimum bottom ash-dredged material mixture, built in the corps of the test dike, contains 70% of ash. The optimum bottom ash content in the mixture was chosen taking into account high internal friction angle, good compaction and reduced filtration coefficient. The maximum dry density of the mixtures was measured in Proctor test for the mixtures formed in laboratory and on samples taken from the test dike. Minimum and maximum void ratio were also determined.

  1. Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring navigation capability, is to remove dredged materials from the shallow waters of the ecosystem.

  2. Use of multi-objective dredging for remediation of contaminated sediments: a case study of a typical heavily polluted confluence area in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Shao, Shiguang; Shen, Qiushi; Fan, Chengxin; Zhou, Qilin; Yin, Hongbin; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-11-01

    Sediments in confluence areas are typically contaminated by various pollutants that have been transported there by inflowing rivers. In this study, we evaluated the pollution status of a confluence area in Lake Chaohu (China). Both the nutrients and hazardous pollutants were analysed. Most sediment cores showed large variations in nutrient concentrations at depths of 10 to 18 cm. Positive release rates of NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P were detected in sediment cores. Hg and Cd were the most typical problematic metal contaminants encountered, and their contamination levels extended to depths of 20 and 25 cm, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (mostly acenaphthene and fluorine) were the primary persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in sediments, and contamination levels frequently could be detected up to a depth of 16 cm. Simulated dredging operations were implemented in the laboratory, with a dredging depth of 15 cm found to be suitable for nutrient suppression. With the goal of suppressing nutrients release and removing high-risk metals and POPs, a multi-objective dredging plan was developed. This plan subdivides the confluence area into five parts that were treated with different dredging depths. A demonstration area was dredged in the most heavily polluted part, and the observed dredging effects were consistent with those expected on the basis of the plan. Such an approach to dredging might also be useful in other areas in the future. PMID:26162442

  3. Application of a hazard assessment research strategy to the ocean disposal of a dredged material: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.H.; Pesch, G.G.; Dillon, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has responsibility for establishing and applying criteria for reviewing and evaluating permits for dumping wastes into the ocean, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has responsibility for issuing permits for the disposal of dredged material into the ocean. After several years of operational experience, the EPA and the COE have reexamined the strengths and weaknesses of the permit program and the general state of the art in sediment testing for the evaluation of the disposal of dredged material into the marine environment. The chapter describes a predictive hazard assessment strategy and decision rationale for disposal that can be used as the basis for revisions both in the ocean dumping regulations and in the permitting program.

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of environmental dredging in South Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Yu; Feng, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    Environmental dredging is a primary remedial option for removal of the contaminated material from aquatic environment. Of primary concern in environmental dredging is the effectiveness of the intended sediment removal. A 5-year field monitoring study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the environmental dredging in South Lake, China. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphors, and heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, and As) before and after dredging in sediment were determined and compared. Multiple ecological risk indices were employed to assess the contamination of heavy metals before and after dredging. Our results showed that the total phosphorus levels reduced 42% after dredging. Similar changes for Hg, Zn, As Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed, with reduction percentages of 97.0, 93.1, 82.6, 63.9, 52.7, 50.1, 32.0, and 23.6, respectively, and the quality of sediment improved based on the criterion of Sediment Quality Guidelines by USEPA and contamination degree values (Cd) decreased significantly (paired t-test, p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the TN increased 49% after dredging compared to before dredging. Findings from the study demonstrated that the environmental dredging was an effective mechanism for removal of total phosphorus and heavy metals from South Lake. Nevertheless, the dredging was ineffective to remove total nitrogen from sediment. We conclude that the reason for the observed increase in TN after dredging was likely ammonia release from the sediment impairing the dredging effectiveness. PMID:17562102

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Dredging in South Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Yu; Feng, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    Environmental dredging is a primary remedial option for removal of the contaminated material from aquatic environment. Of primary concern in environmental dredging is the effectiveness of the intended sediment removal. A 5-year field monitoring study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the environmental dredging in South Lake, China. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphors, and heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, and As) before and after dredging in sediment were determined and compared. Multiple ecological risk indices were employed to assess the contamination of heavy metals before and after dredging. Our results showed that the total phosphorus levels reduced 42% after dredging. Similar changes for Hg, Zn, As Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed, with reduction percentages of 97.0, 93.1, 82.6, 63.9, 52.7, 50.1, 32.0, and 23.6, respectively, and the quality of sediment improved based on the criterion of Sediment Quality Guidelines by USEPA and contamination degree values (Cd) decreased significantly (paired t-test, p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the TN increased 49% after dredging compared to before dredging. Findings from the study demonstrated that the environmental dredging was an effective mechanism for removal of total phosphorus and heavy metals from South Lake. Nevertheless, the dredging was ineffective to remove total nitrogen from sediment. We conclude that the reason for the observed increase in TN after dredging was likely ammonia release from the sediment impairing the dredging effectiveness.

  6. DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  9. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  10. Bacteriological water quality effects of hydraulically dredging contaminated upper Mississippi River bottom sediment.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D J

    1980-04-01

    Bacteriological effects of hydraulically dredging polluted bottom sediment in the navigation channel of the Upper Mississippi River (river mile 827.5 [about 1,332 km] to 828.1 [about 1,333 km]) were investigated. Bottom sediment in the dredging site contained high total coliform densities (about 6,800 most-probable-number total coliform index per g [dry weight] and 3,800 membrane filter total coliforms per g [dry weight]), and fecal coliforms comprised an average 32% of each total coliform count. Total coliform and fecal coliform densities in water samples taken immediately below the dredge discharge pipe were each approximately four times corresponding upstream values; fecal streptococcus densities were approximately 50 times corresponding upstream values. Correlation analysis indicated that mean turbidity values downstream to the dredging operation were directly and significantly (r greater than 0.94) related to corresponding total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus densities. Salmonellae and shigellae were not recovered from either upstream or downstream water samples. Turbidity and indicator bacteria levels had returned to predredge values within less than 2 km below the dredge spoil discharge area at the prevailing current velocity (about 0.15 m/s). PMID:7377776

  11. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  12. Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

  13. Dispersal and fate of dredged materials disposed of in the Changjiang Estuary determined by use of an in situ rare earth element tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gao-Feng; Wu, Hua-Lin; Guo, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Jian-Rong; Sun, Lian-Cheng

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the dispersal pattern and the fate of dredged materials disposed at a pre-selected disposal site, a field tracer experiment was conducted in the North Passage of the Changjiang Estuary during the 2005 flood season. Three tons of dredged materials were mixed with 2.792 kg of sodium hexachloroiridate (IV) hexahydrate (SHH), which contained the rare earth element tracer iridum (Ir). Sampling was conducted at pre-selected sections of the estuary on the second, third and fourth day after the release of dredged materials. All samples were evaluated by use of neutron activation analysis. The majority of the dredged material was dispersed nearly parallel to the navigation channel and deposited between the channel and the south dike. Only a small quantity of dredged materials entered or crossed the navigation channel, and the back silting ratio in the navigation channel was about 5%. The dredged materials also dispersed southeasterly beyond two dike heads.

  14. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  15. Surgical dredging controls turbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Seagren, E.H.

    1994-06-01

    The need to remove contaminated and uncontaminated sediments located under a column of water is increasing. Small hydraulic dredges offer flexibility in the removal of sediments in industrial lagoons, wetlands, drinking water ponds, and environmentally sensitive areas.

  16. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  18. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period. PMID:20089285

  19. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE 1 HUMAN HEALTH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  20. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK (TEF) FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE II ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  1. Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, M.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July 1996 as a result of spraying, and despite initial shallow subsidence and continual erosion through February 1998, water bottom elevation was raised sufficiently to allow S. alterniflora to invade via rhizome growth from the adjacent marsh. Hence, thin-layer deposition of dredged material at this site was effective at restoring and maintaining marsh elevation after 1.5 years. However, if the open water sediment deposits are not soon completely stabilized via further vegetative colonization, erosion may eventually lower elevations to the level where emergent vegetation cannot persist.

  2. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Eastern Long Island Sound; Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern Long Island Sound Region. The public meeting was originally scheduled for November 15, 2012, but was...

  3. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  6. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  7. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  8. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October 1998). For Further Information... material from the potential construction dredging at Port Everglades Harbor. The need for an expanded ODMDS... have been tentatively defined: 1. No action. 2. Expansion of the existing Port Everglades Harbor...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  10. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., EPA published a proposed rule at 75 FR 5708 to designate two new ocean dredged material disposal sites... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA... NEPA Documents,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October 29, 1998), sets out both the...

  11. LDEF Materials/Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary

    1997-01-01

    This pictorial presentation reviews the post-flight analysis results from two type of hardware (tray clamp bolt heads and uhcre flight experiment tray walls) from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). It will also discuss flight hardware for one upcoming (Effects of the Space Environment on Materials (ESEM) flight experiment), and two current flight experiments evaluating the performance of materials in space (Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) 1&2 flight experiments. These flight experiments also are concerned with contamination effects which will also be discussed.

  12. Planting woody crops on dredged contaminated sediment provides both positive and negative effects in terms of remediation.

    PubMed

    Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Shutes, Brian; Sparke, Shaun; Scholz, Miklas

    2011-12-01

    There is currently a requirement for studies focusing on the long-term sustainability of phytoremediation technologies. Trace element uptake by Salix, Populus and Alnus species planted in dredged contaminated canal sediment and concentrations in sediment and pore waters were investigated, eight years after a phytoremediation trial was initiated in NW England. Soil biological activity was also measured using invertebrate and microbial assays to determine soil quality improvements. Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and woody stems, and the most mobile trace element in sediment pore water (~14 mg l(-1)). Biological activity had improved; earthworm numbers had increased from 5 to 24, and the QBS index (an index of microarthropod groups in soil) had increased from 70 to 88. It is concluded that biological conditions had improved and natural processes appear to be enhancing soil quality, but there remains a potential risk of trace element transfer to the wider environment. PMID:21903313

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-11-01

    Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

  14. Characterizing the risks to aquatic ecosystems: a tentative approach in the context of freshwater dredged material disposal.

    PubMed

    Babut, Marc P; Delmas, Hlne; Bray, Marc; Durrieu, Claude; Perrodin, Yves; Garric, Jeanne

    2006-10-01

    The development of relevant frameworks for assessing ecological risks posed by dredged material management does not only involve an appropriate selection of assessment and measurement endpoints but also requires a sound approach to both risk characterization and the associated uncertainty. A formal methodology addressing both aspects has been developed in France for freshwater sediment deposits in water. Both exposure and effects measurements are 1st transformed into scores or classes. As far as possible, class boundaries are based on existing knowledge or expertise. Benthic organism exposure is based on a ratio of the deposit area to the burrow pit area, whereas pelagic species exposure is based on the ratio of porewater volume to water column volume. The combination of exposure and effect scores yields risk scores, or classes, which are linked to management decisions. Uncertainty is assessed with respect to a set of 4 predetermined criteria for exposure (the strength of association with the assessment endpoint, spatial and temporal representativeness, and the use of standard methods) and 4 criteria for effects (strength of association, the distinction between effect and no effect, sensitivity, and the use of standard methods). This approach was applied to 8 sediments from French canals contaminated to varying degrees. PMID:17069175

  15. Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

    2015-03-01

    Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21 months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24 months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2 km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area. PMID:25497354

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  17. Analyses of native water and dredged material from southern Louisiana waterways, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demas, Charles R.; Higgins, Patricia C.

    1977-01-01

    From June 1975 to July 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted nine dredging and seven postdredging studies related to water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Mississippi River at Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at New Orleans, Bayou Rigaud near Grand Isle, Barataria Bay and Waterway, Bayou La Carpe near Houma, Atchafalaya Bay (Ship Channel), Lower Atchafalaya River area, Intracoastal Waterway near Calumet, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), Petite Anse area, and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. These studies were conductd to determine potential environmental effects of dredging activities in the waterways. The Geological survey collected, treated, and analyzed 383 water and water-sediment mixture samples from 85 dredging sites and 142 postdredging samples (72 sites). Water samples were collected 100 yards upstream and downstream from the dredge effluent, from the disposal area, and from the effluent outfall during the dredge phase of the study; samples were collected at former dredge sites during the postdredging phase. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients, and organic constituents. The analytical data are presented in tables. Sampling sites are shown on maps. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

  19. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-?m mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing newly deposited sediments. Subtle year-to-year shifts in faunal assemblages were evident at stations on the boundary of SF-DODS. At these stations species richness and diversity remained high, but numerically dominant taxa differed, possibly due to changes in sediment grain size associated with the dredged material. However, some year-to-year changes appeared to be regional in nature. Large epifaunal organisms such as the elasapoid holothurian Scotoplanes globosa appeared to be locally important in modifying surficial sediments: it moves through the sediment like a bulldozer, disturbing the surface and disrupting resident infauna as it ingests sediment. Other deposit-feeding holothurians such as Ypsilothuria bitentaculata were found throughout the study area including sediments with fresh dredged material. A long, narrow-bodied tube-like agglutinated foraminiferan of the genus Bathysiphon is commonly found in sediments containing dredged material. This foraminiferan is poorly understood, but may be opportunistic on soft dredged material.

  20. Fishery resource utilization of a restored estuarine borrow pit: a beneficial use of dredged material case study.

    PubMed

    Reine, Kevin; Clarke, Douglas; Ray, Gary; Dickerson, Charles

    2013-08-15

    Numerous pits in coastal waters are subject to degraded water quality and benthic habitat conditions, resulting in degraded fish habitat. A pit in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (USA) was partially filled with dredged sediment to increase flushing, alleviate hypoxia, and enhance benthic assemblages. Restoration objectives were assessed in terms of benthic community parameters and fishery resource occupation. Restoration resulted in increased benthic diversity (bottom samples) and the absence of water column stratification. Fisheries resources occupied the entire water column, unlike pre-restoration conditions where finfish tended to avoid the lower water column. The partial restoration option effectively reproduced an existing borrow pit configuration (Hole #5, control), by decreasing total depth from -11 m to -5.5 m, thereby creating a habitat less susceptible to hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while retaining sufficient vertical relief to maintain associations with juvenile weakfish and other forage fishes. Partially filling pits using dredged material represents a viable restoration alternative. PMID:23790449

  1. Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. PMID:24933908

  2. Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

    1995-07-01

    This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

  3. Zn speciation in a soil contaminated by the deposition of a dredged sediment by synchrotron X-ray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Laboudigue, Agnes; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    The nature and proportion of Zn species present in an agricultural soil overlaid by a dredged contaminated sediment have been untangled by the novel combination of three non-invasive synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: x-ray microfluorescence ({mu}SXRF), microdiffraction ({mu}XRD), and absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). One primary (franklinite) and two secondary (phyllomanganate and phyllosilicate) Zn-containing minerals were identified in the initial soil, and another primary (ZnS) and a new secondary (Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide) Zn species in the covered soil. The quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra recorded on bulk samples indicated that ZnS and Zn-Fe (oxyhydr)oxides amounted to 71+-10 percent and 27+-10 percent, respectively, and the other Zn species to less than 10 percent. The two new Zn species found in the covered soil result from the gravitational migration of ZnS particles initially present in the sediment, and from their further oxidative dissolution and fixation of leached Zn on F e (oxyhydr) oxides.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  5. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a slurry was added to experimental chambers seeded with adult razor clams to produce burial mounds of various thicknesses. The laboratory results presented here have two implications for disposal operations.

  6. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wy?cigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Ma?gorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wy?cigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5cm and B 190.0cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06??0.71mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56??2.6mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred. PMID:26555008

  7. AGRICULTURAL EFFICANCY OF CARBONATIC LAKE-DREDGED MATERIALS IN ENHANCING PASTURE ESTABLISHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal and environmental quality of dredged sediments from navigational channels, lakes and rivers have been judged as beneficial by combinations of physical, chemical, and biological analyses for over 30 years. However, many people in the scientific community find this approach objectionable sinc...

  8. The Short Term Effects of Ditch Dredging to Nutrient Saturation onto Ditch Bed Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Midwestern United States, drainage ditches are an essential part of our landscape to ensure agriculture productivity. Sediment buildup reduces the flow rate of ditches and thus field tile lines, it then becomes necessary to dredge drainage ditches occasionally to optimize removal of water fr...

  9. Spatio-temporal pattern of community development in dredged material used for habitat enhancement: A study case in a brackish lagoon.

    PubMed

    Munari, C; Mistri, M

    2014-12-15

    Dredged material is a potential resource for beneficial use for create/improve subtidal habitats. In a northwestern Adriatic lagoon, dredged sand was placed in inner areas with the management objective of improving the characteristics of the muddy areas being recharged. With this study we investigated the recolonization dynamics of benthic communities following the placement of dredged sand in a microtidal lagoon. The disposal of dredged sand had an immediate and negative effect on resident fauna. After an initial reduction, benthic communities followed different recovery pathways. One year after disposal, we recorded an almost complete recovery of the benthic invertebrates in terms of univariate parameters. Despite multivariate analyses still showed significantly different community structures, the trajectories of recovery for disposal areas converged towards the same basin of attraction of control areas. The ecological quality of sites, assessed with benthic indices, did not improve, thus no new beneficial habitat was created for macrobenthos. PMID:25308327

  10. Materials surface contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

  11. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. I: Effects on sediment properties, contamination and toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Ponti, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Conservation and management of coastal lagoons envisage direct human intervention. To prevent siltation and to preserve the hydrodynamics features of the lagoon system, the inner channels undergo regular maintenance dredging. Sediment properties (RDP, organic matter, grain size), trace metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb), and toxicity vs. the amphipod Corophium insidiosum and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, were analysed before and after dredging operations in a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Baiona, Italy). To detect the actual impacts, disturbed sites were contrasted with multiple controls in two distinct times, i.e. before and after disturbance, according to a sampling design based on Beyond BACI principles. The integrated methodology here adopted suggests that dredging operations carried out are not likely to pose dramatic effects on environmental quality of the lagoon.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short-duration disposal scenarios, the shear force and surge currents estimated from the modeling and observed previously in the field at Palos Verdes, California appear to be sufficiently high to mobilize and transport the bottom sediment and at least juvenile crab. Behavioral response to surge currents probably occurs and may reduce the occurrence and extent of movement and any associated impacts. There evidence that burial by dredged materials can effect crab survival, but confounding factors in previous experiments preclude conclusions about thresholds and extent of effects. We recommend that future studies focus on burial effects during shallow water, short duration disposal events and take into account the potential for behavioral responses to mitigate any effects.

  14. Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  18. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  20. Changes in the geochemistry and ecotoxicity of a Zn and Cd contaminated dredged sediment over time after land disposal.

    PubMed

    Piou, Stphanie; Bataillard, Philippe; Laboudigue, Agns; Frard, Jean-Franois; Masfaraud, Jean-Franois

    2009-08-01

    The management of dredged sediments is of environmental concern worldwide since they may be overloaded with myriads of pollutants. For inland waters' sediments, disposal on land is a common practice. For the long-term risks assessment of such a management, a better understanding of the fate of pollutants over time and an assessment of possible associated biological consequences are needed. Here, we studied the geochemical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd in sediment dredged from the Scarpe canal (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region, France). Analyses were carried out immediately after dredging and 12, 18 and 24 months after disposal in field conditions. In parallel, ecotoxicity of sediment leachates was assessed using standardized bioassays. The results reflected an initial oxidation of sulphides (first year) followed by changes explained by a reversible binding of metals to organic matter in winter and to Fe oxihydroxides in summer. The water-leachable fraction represented less than 2% of the total metal and its ecotoxicity was higher for deposited sediments than for the fresh one. After first year of disposal, sediment ecotoxicity remained stable. A long-term natural attenuation of metals within disposed sediment seemed unlikely since their speciation seemed to fluctuate seasonally without any time trend over years. PMID:19464680

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  3. Example of latest techniques for bottom-sludge dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasuna, J.

    1992-03-01

    Recently in Japan, the biggest problems of the bottom sludge dredging are lack of enough room for dumping areas and preventing water contamination during dredging in terms of environmental aspects. The new dredging system introduced at this time has been developed for the above purposes.

  4. A sediment budget study of clamshell dredging and ocean disposal activities in the New York bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavolaro, John F.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the dry mass of dredged material involved in each stage of typical clamshell dredging and ocean disposal activities in order to identify and quantify “losses” of dredged material Turbidity plumes generated at dredging sites were also observed Approximately 2% of the dredged material was lost at the dredging site Of this quantity 61% was due to the dredging itself and 38% was due to intentional barge overflow Approximately 3 7% of the dredged material was lost at the Mud Dump Site during disposal Total loss of dredged material during these clamshell dredging and ocean disposal operations was calculated to be 5 6% Observations revealed that turbidity plumes were local features which traveled along the bottom for several hundred feet These plumes only persisted while dredging was occuring, and ambient conditions were established within a relatively short time after dredging ceased

  5. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  6. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  7. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

  8. Environmental effects of dredging. Use of daphnia magna to predict consequences of bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    Results reported herein represent a portion of the laboratory research evaluating the relationship between mercury and cadmium tissue residues and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part of its regulatory and dredging programs, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of the potential for bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediment scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. There is, at present, no generally accepted guidance available to aid in the interpretation of the biological consequences of bioaccumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory is conducting both literature database analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

  9. 77 FR 23668 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a 20-Year Dredged Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... will be available on the internet at: http://www.sas.usace.army.mil/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... the Georgia-Florida border are naturally 12 feet deep or deeper and have not required dredging...

  10. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  11. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  12. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  14. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49mg/kg of Cd and 82.5mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1mg/kg of Cd and 10.19mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation. PMID:23436151

  15. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: possibilities and barriers from a consumers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, Valrie; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers' risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents' belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product. PMID:25618756

  16. Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

  17. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I.

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of simulated calcareous dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus.

    PubMed

    Partridge, G J; Michael, R J

    2010-07-01

    The direct and indirect effects of a simulated, calcarenite-based dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus were assessed. Direct effects were assessed by measuring hatch rate or survival of eggs and pre-feeding larvae, respectively, over a range of concentrations and exposure durations. Exposure of eggs to suspended solid concentrations up to 10 000 mg l(-1) for 24 h did not affect egg buoyancy or hatch rate, despite sediment adherence occurring at the two highest concentrations tested. Newly hatched larvae, whose mouths were still closed, were relatively tolerant of suspended solids, with a 12 h lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality, LC(50), of 2020 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 150 mg l(-1). Once the larvae's mouths opened, tolerance was significantly reduced, with a 12 h LC(50) of 157 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 4 mg l(-1). Tolerance of larvae to suspended solids was negatively correlated with suspended solids concentration and exposure time, with exposure durations of

  1. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present. PMID:27000319

  4. The effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messieh, S. N.; Rowell, T. W.; Peer, D. L.; Cranford, P. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of current knowledge on the effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed. The impact of trawling and dredging for fish and shellfish on marine habitats has recently attracted international attention among fisheries and environmental scientists. In Atlantic Canada, trawling and dredging are the principal methods of harvesting groundfish and scallops and ocean clams, respectively. It is estimated that fish trawlers and scallop dredges have swept tracks, cris-crossing the Canadian continental shelf, approximately 4.3 million km in length in 1985. In the past few years several studies were carried out by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe to assess the impacts of trawling and dredging but results were inconclusive. Some studies showed physical damage as well as biological effects, whereas others indicated that the adverse effects were not considered to be serious. Fishermen are not the only potential users of the resources of the continental shelf. There is an increasing demand for good-quality sand and gravel aggregate and the ocean seabed is being seen as a possible source. The eastern Canadian continental shelf also exhibits hydrocarbon potential and operational and accidental discharges are an environmental concern. Increased marine transportation and expansion of the fishing fleet have resulted in a greater need for harbour dredging. Dredging and dredge spoil disposal were controlled by the Ocean Dumping Control Act and now the Canadian Environmental Protection Act which places restrictions on the composition of material that can be disposed of in the sea. Nevertheless some harbours contain contaminant concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable limits. It is concluded that the impacts of human activities on the continental shelf seabed environment are inevitable and the long-term effects, while difficult to determine, must be assessed. The sub-lethal effects of increased suspended sediment loads on benthic organisms and potential changes to benthic community structure are major concerns and should be the focus of further research.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  6. Environmental effects of dredging, initial comparisons of six assays for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.; Jarvis, S.

    1995-01-01

    This technical note reports and compares initial results of six genotoxicity bioassays applied to dredged sediments and describes progress toward development of a testing protocol to aid in regulatory decisionmaking when genotoxic chemicals are an issue of concern. The Long-term Effects of Dredging Operations Program work unit Genotoxicity of Contaminated Dredged Material was initiated in fiscal year 1990 to develop methods for assessing the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The impetus driving this new research and development effort was specific regulatory language in section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act (Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972) prohibiting the open-water discharge of mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic substances in other than trace amounts, and language less specific but of similar intent in section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  7. STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

  8. 9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE OUT AT ALTERNATING TIMES. WHILE STARBOARD IS HAULED IN, PORT IS RELEASED OUT TO DREDGE. - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  9. Interpretation of tracer experiments with fine-grained dredging material at the Belgian Continental Shelf by the use of numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Eynde, Dries

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive tracer experiments were used by HAECON NV to give insight into the transport of the dredged material in Belgian coastal waters. The experiments showed that material dumped less than 25 km from the coast recirculated rapidly to the coast, while material dumped further from the coast disappeared from the Belgian Continental Shelf. The degree of recirculation was however not well determined, due to large uncertainties in the experiments. A vertically integrated sediment transport model is therefore used to simulate the dispersion of dredged material in the Belgian coastal waters. The model is a semi-Lagrangian model, based on the Second Moment Method. The bottom stress is calculated under the influence of prevailing currents and waves. Although many uncertainties still remain in the modelling of sediment transport, this simple sediment transport model gives satisfying results in simulating the tracer experiments. By a careful interpretation of the experimental and model results, new insight is obtained about the existence of the turbidity maximum in the Belgian coastal waters.

  10. Field verification program (aquatic disposal). A field and laboratory study using adenylate energy charge as an indicator of stress in Mytilus edulis and Nephtys incisa treated with dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaroogian, G.E.; Rogerson, P.F.; Hoffman, G.; Johnson, M.; Johns, D.M.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to test the applicability of adenylate energy charge (AEC) and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations as measures of biological response in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the marine polychaete, Nephtys incisa, after exposure in the laboratory an field to contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Conn. A second objective was to include field verification of laboratory results, and a third objective was to investigate residue-effect relationships between tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants and AEC and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations. Tissue residue concentrations, particularly of persistent compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were found to be closely related to exposure concentration. The biological responses evaluated in this report included the adenine nucleotide measures of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenylate pool, and AEC. Adenine nucleotides and AEC are important in energy transformation and in regulation of metabolic processes. Responses in adenine nucleotide pools correlate with tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants in exposed organisms. Measurement of the adenine nucleotide concentrations may help to characterize the energy costs incurred by organisms under stressful conditions.

  11. Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

    2007-12-01

    The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using dredged sediments and the possibility of natural attenuation of the contaminated dredged sediment in the constructed tidal flat system.

  12. EFFECTS OF A CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL ON LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF THE TUBICOLOUS AMPHIPOD, AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term and full life cycle toxicity tests have been conducted with Ampelisca ubdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP): These studies comprised a portion of the effects assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with a...

  13. AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL. (R825513C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Computer Model Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-19

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material.

  15. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

  16. Review of technical documents supporting revisions to the portion of EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) ocean-dumping regulations relating to the ocean disposal of dredged materials. Report of the Environmental Engineering Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-14

    Although the Committee is in agreement with the EPA that there are significant differences in the properties of most sewage sludge and dredged materials, significant exceptions exist. Clearly defined, consistent, rigorous, and peer-reviewed procedures must exist to identify these exceptions. The EPS Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection maintains that existing procedures for evaluating dredged materials (under Part 227.13) are adequate; however, based on the documents provided to the Committee, a rigorous protocol for identifying exceptions do not appear to exist.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  19. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Effects of sediment organic-matter composition on bioaccumulation of sediment organic contaminants: Interim results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.; Pennington, J.C.; McFarland, V.A.

    1991-06-01

    The relationship of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and fluoranthene to bioaccumulation by worms and clams and the relationship of sediment-bound PCB 153 and fluoranthene to concentrations in the interstitial water were examined. Bioaccumulation by both worms and clams was observed in all sediments. Apparent preference factor (APF) values showed that steady state was reached between sediment-bound contaminants and organism lipid pools. The APF values of organisms were close to the theoretical value for both contaminants in all sediments. These results showed that sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in conjunction with octanol water partition coefficients of nonpolar organic contaminants is a viable approach for predicting bioaccumulation of such compounds by infaunal organisms. Actual concentrations of contaminants in interstitial water were either overestimated or underestimated by the relationship between TOC and humic + fulvic acid organic matter fractions and sediment contaminant concentrations. Prediction of interstitial water concentrations was not as successful as use of APFs. The lack of agreement between predicted and actual interstitial water results was due to factors such as the presence of interstitial water contaminants bounds to microparticulates and dissolved organic material and the kind of organic material in the sediment.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  2. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  3. Lights, camera and acoustics: Assessing macrobenthic communities at a dredged material disposal site off the North East coast of the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Boyd, Sin E.; Coggan, Roger A.; Limpenny, David S.; Meadows, William J.; Rees, Hubert L.

    2006-10-01

    This study presents the results of a trial assessment based on a combination of sampling techniques at a dredged material disposal site located off the North East coast of the UK, over 2001 to 2004. The site was surveyed with a high-resolution sidescan sonar system producing a mosaic with 100% coverage of the survey area. Benthic communities and sediments were ground-truthed using a Hamon grab with a video camera. Additionally, the area was also sampled in 2003 with a Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) camera, which complemented other techniques by providing in situ information on sediment quality, and biogenic activities. An assessment is made of the benefits of combining the results from conventional methods, principally using grab samples, with those from acoustic techniques and optical imaging devices to determine seafloor and macrobenthic conditions. This information has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of routine monitoring programmes within UK waters.

  4. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  5. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    PubMed

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. PMID:25304520

  6. Heavy metal immobilization through phosphate and thermal treatment of dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Ndiba, Peter; Axe, Lisa; Boonfueng, Thipnakarin

    2008-02-01

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 degrees C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction. PMID:18323123

  7. Heavy Metal Immobilization Through Phosphate and Thermal Treatment of Dredged Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ndiba,P.; Axe, L.; Boonfueng, T.

    2008-01-01

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction.

  8. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Richard S.; Black, Kenny D.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and Experimental Approach Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables. Results and Discussion Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1%) concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01) than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C) exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01) compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C). Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1) with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species’ resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis. Summary Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and temperature during sedimentation events may lead to an overestimation of the tolerance of benthic species to smothering from dredged material. PMID:26809153

  9. Effects of Black Rock Harbor dredged material on the scope for growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, after laboratory and field exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Phelps, D.K.; Galloway, W.B.; Rogerson, P.F.; Pruell, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate residue-effect relationships between tissue residue concentrations and the scope for growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, after exposure in the laboratory and the field to dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. A second objective included field verification of the laboratory results. Residue concentrations in mussels, particularly stable compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were found to be closely related to exposure concentration. Scope for growth, clearance rates, and shell growth measurements were inversely related to BRH exposure and subsequent tissue residues, with concentration as low as 1.5 mg/L of BRH material causing negative biological effects. In the field, mussels were placed along a transect from the center of the disposal mound to a clean area distant from the disposal mound. Exposure estimates indicated that the maximum concentration BRH material occurred during the disposal operation, after which both exposure and tissue residue concentrations decreased dramatically. Of the measurements made at the four field stations during the course of the study, a reduction in the scope for growth of mussels, attributable to BRH material, was observed only once. The estimated concentration of BRH suspended material during that collection was very close to the lowest concentration affecting the scope for growth in the laboratory experiments. 33 refs., 30 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Nonmetallic materials contamination studies. [space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Beverlin, G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to impose adequate contamination control requirements in the selection of Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC) materials and to develop a data base of potential optical degradation of the WFPC charge-couple device window, the outgassing properties of WFPC materials and the collected volatile condensed material (CVCM) effects on MgF2 transmittance were measured. Changes in the transmittance were monitored in the wavelength region from 115 nm to 300 nm for selected CVCM thicknesses up to 150 nm. The outgassing properties of reemitted CVCM were also studied.

  11. Ocean dumping of dredged material in the New York Bight Apex. Hearing before the Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, April 11, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    New York City's proposal to dump contaminated dredge spoil six miles out in the Atlantic Ocean prompted a hearing on the possible environmental and economic effects. Test samples taken in 1981 showed unacceptable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), while samples taken in 1983 were approved by the Army Corps of Engineers for dumping. Questions about the sampling procedures, siltation, and contamination of fish and beaches were raised. The 21 witnesses included local and state officials of the affected areas and representatives of the Corps, environmental groups, and the fishing industry. (DCK)

  12. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL: SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the overall objective of evaluating the usefulness of dredged sediments as landfill material. The study is limited to the deposition of polluted fresh water dredgings from the Great Lakes area, and the major effort was centered around four...

  13. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. May 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for May 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, and the disposal of dredged material, are discussed, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials are considered. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 352 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality in the upper Patapsco aquifer deep water-bearing zone does not seem to have been impacted by the DMCA.

  15. PHYTOREMEDIATING DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A BENEFICIAL REUSE PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor Wisconsin, receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwaukee's waterways. Like many CDFs they face the dilemma of steady inputs and no feasible alternative for expansion. The Army Corps of...

  16. Dredging with the Blake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the early part of the 19th century it was commonly thought that marine life existed only in the upper levels of the oceans. In later years, animals were recovered from successively greater depths, so that by the time of the Challenger expedition in 1873, life seemed to exist almost everywhere in the ocean and on the sea floor. The remarkable abundance of the deep sea fascinated naturalists world-wide, and in 1877 the U.S. Coast Survey steamer Blake was outfitted for deep dredging and trawling, to be done in conjunction with sounding surveys of the eastern U.S. continental shelf and slope. With a waterline length of only 140 feet (43 m), the Blake was a rather small vessel for such arduous service, but these limitations were more than compensated for by Alexander Agassiz, who directed the first dredging survey, and Lieutenant Sigsbee, who commanded the vessel.

  17. Geological and geochemical criteria for the continental nature of the Mendeleev Rise (the Arctic Ocean) from the data of drilling and dredging of seabed rock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Oleg; Kremenetskiy, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey; Rekant, Pavel; Gusev, Eugene; Shokalskiy, Sergey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey; Artyushkov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    The results are presented of geological and geophysical studies on the Mendeleev Rise at 10 test sites at 79°N to 83°N (expedition "Arktika-2012" in August-September 2012). During the expedition, for the first time, three boreholes were drilled in the bedrocks of the Mendeleev Rise basement at a depth of 1700-2600 m, and more than 20 thousand fragments of seabed rock material were dredged. Among them carbonate-bearing rocks including dolomite with relicts of trilobites and ostracoderms (D3-C) constitute up 65 %. Up to 20% are terrigenous rocks with a predominance of quartz sandstones. Magmatic rocks constitute 10-15% of the samples (including 8% of gabbro-dolerite and 2 % of granite) with 5% of metamorphic rocks. The boreholes revealed magmatic mafic rocks of basalt to basaltic andesite to trachyandesite series (SiO2-48-58% K2O+Na2O-3,4-9,2%) including epigenically altered volcanic breccias. All fragments of magmatic mafic rocks have a similar mineral and chemical composition and are grouped with gabbro dolerite (SiO2-49-51%, K2O+Na2O-2,5-3,0%). Preliminary results of mineralogic, geochemical and of isotopic geochemical (ICP-OEC, ICP-MS, RFA, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, EPMA and others) analyses suggest the continental nature of the studied rocks and show a distinct difference from rocks of the Gakkel Ridge in the Eurasian part of the ocean, which are of the oceanic origin. U-Pb dating of zircons from the core rocks and seabed rock material (SIMS SHRIMP II) indicate a wide range of their formation age: 2940-995, 639-385 and 303-203 Ma and thus suggest that they belong to volcanogenic terrigeneous carbonate-bearing bed of the ancient platform composing the floor of Amerasian part of the Arctic Ocean.

  18. Contamination Barrier For Contour-Molding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Release agent prevents molding compound from adhering to or contaminating surface. Cleaning agent, Turco 4215 NCLT, forms barrier preventing silicone molding compound from sticking to surface and leaving contaminating residue. Also see MFS-29243.

  19. Implications of aerated stabilization basin dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Kovacs, Tibor; Gibbons, Sharon; Paradis, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Benthal solids accumulated in aerated stabilization basins (ASBs) must be dredged to regain treatment capacity. While dredging restores treatment performance, it has been associated occasionally with the failure to meet regulatory effluent toxicity limits at the time of dredging. A first study of its kind was undertaken to investigate the implications of ASB dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish. The study showed that benthal solid slurry removed from the quiescent zone of an ASB with a hydraulic dredge was toxic to rainbow trout with a 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.2%. The high ammonia concentration in the sample was the main cause of fish mortality. Hydrogen sulfide and resin and fatty acids also were present in the dredged material at concentrations that could cause fish mortality. These findings have led to best management practices that can be used to mitigate or eliminate fish toxicity issues during dredging operations. PMID:20480765

  20. REMEDIAL DREDGING AND EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: EXAMPLES FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is an on-going national debate questioning whether remedial dredging can be conducted without causing environmental harm. Two common assertions are that: 1) dredging contaminated sediment will do more harm than good, and 2) natural processes will eventually mitig...

  1. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  2. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V. [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  3. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

  4. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

    1991-06-01

    This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

  5. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  6. Lake restoration by dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, R.F.

    1992-04-01

    This paper is a summary overview of the $17 million Vancouver Lake Restoration Project, the largest project of its type ever undertaken through the Federal Clean Lakes Program. It was funded jointly by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Port of Vancouver. Although the project was conceived in 1965, a nationwide program to help fund such projects did not exist until 1976. Then, final approval was not received until 1981, after many volumes of studies and reviews. Construction was completed in June 1983, after 30 months--6 months ahead of schedule and underbudget. A great deal of time, money, and energy was expended to demonstrate to Federal and state environmental agencies that dredging was a key tool in effecting this lake's restoration.

  7. THE EFFICIENCY OF CAPPING TO CONTROL AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND DREDGED MATERIAL. (R825513C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Polyethylene passive samplers to determine sediment-pore water distribution coefficients of persistent organic pollutants in five heavily contaminated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Charrasse, Benoit; Tixier, Cline; Hennebert, Pierre; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Pore concentration and partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five distinct contaminated sites in France (marine harbour, rivers canals and highway sedimentation tank). The assessment of the risk caused by such micropollutants requires, in most cases, the measurement of their availability. To assess this availability, low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane samplers were exposed to these sediments under constant and low-level agitation over a period of 46 days. Freely dissolved pore water contaminant concentrations were estimated from the concentration at equilibrium in the LDPE membrane. The depletion of contaminants in the sediments was monitored by the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations and resulting sediment-pore water partition coefficients between these five sediments were observed. Data set was tested onto different empirical and mechanistic models. As final findings, triple domain sorption (a total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phase model) could model PCB data successfully whereas the best fitting for PAH partitioning was obtained by Raoult's Law model. PMID:24360917

  9. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. PMID:26590871

  10. Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area. PMID:20821674

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site due to high sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. An initial remedial dredging operation removed the most contaminated sediments from the upper harbor ("Hot Spot"). During remediation, a monitoring program assess...

  12. Determination of contamination character of materials in space technology testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, D. L.; Coulson, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    The contamination character of selected materials used in space technology testing is presented. Many of these materials contain components that become volatile in a space environment. Most previous data were limited to weight loss or vapor pressure. However, these parameters are not necessarily a direct measure of the contamination character of these materials. Selected materials were exposed to a thermal-vacuum environment, and the degree of contamination was measured by collecting the outgases from these materials on a cold test mirror surface. The degradation of reflectivity of the mirror was measured over a spectral range from 1100 A to 2.5 microns. Half the mirror's surface was also exposed to UV irradiation to determine its effects on the contaminative character of the depositing outgases. The amount of deposit per unit area was measured by microbalances mounted near the mirror; the sensor of one microbalance was UV irradiated. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to determine the composition of the outgases.

  13. VEGETATIVE MODEL FOR RESTORATION, CONSERVATION AND HABITAT ENHANCEMENT ON BENEFICIAL USE DREDGE SEDIMENTS MX974606

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study site for this project is approximately 230 acres of confined dredge materials located north of Port Fourchon, LA. The specific objectives of the study are 1) to implement a comprehensive program of dredge materials/plant species research; 2) to initiate steps ...

  14. Effect of dredging on the fate of nutrients in drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredging of drainage ditches is necessary to ensure that agricultural fields are drained adequately. The objective of this research was to quantify the potential impacts of dredging on nutrient transport within these fluvial systems. Ditch bed material was collected from ditches before and after d...

  15. Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. Russ

    1992-01-01

    When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

  16. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. II: Effects on macrobenthic assemblages in channels and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Massimo; Pasteris, Andrea; Guerra, Roberta; Abbiati, Marco

    2009-10-01

    Coastal lagoons are ephemeral habitats whose conservation requires human intervention, such as maintenance dredging of inner channels. Dredging can reduce the abundance of benthic species due to the removal of individuals with the sediment, modify sediment properties, and resuspend fine sediment, nutrients and pollutants, which can lead to eutrophication, hypoxic events and increasing toxicity. Both direct effects in the dredged channel and possible indirect effects in surrounding shallow areas could be expected. This study assesses the effects of the channel maintenance dredging, performed between October 2004 and August 2005, on the invertebrate assemblages both in channels and adjacent ponds in the northern Adriatic coastal lagoon of Pialassa Baiona. The lagoon is affected by eutrophication, chemical and thermal pollution from wastewater treatment and power plants. Three impacted sites were located in the dredged channel and three in the adjacent interconnected shallow water ponds, while three non-impacted sites were located in a channel and in a pond far from the dredged area. Replicate samples were collected from each site one time before and one time after the dredging operations. Despite the extent of the intervention, effects of the dredging on macrobenthic assemblages were detected only within the dredged channel, while in the surrounding ponds no clear and unequivocal effects were found. In particular the dredging could have promoted the increase of the abundance of the polychaete Streblospio shrubsolii in the southern and central parts of the dredged channel and the increase in abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum in the northern side, compared to the controls. Instead, species diversity was reduced in the central and northern parts of the dredged channel. These effects on the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages could be related to the observed changes of sediment characteristics, contamination and toxicity. Overall, direct effects on benthic assemblages in the dredged channels were more detectable than the possible secondary effects in the surrounding shallow ponds, where the higher spatial heterogeneity can mask any relevant effects.

  17. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  18. Methodology of management of dredging operations I. Conceptual developments.

    PubMed

    Abriak, N E; Junqua, G; Dubois, V; Gregoire, P; Mac Farlane, F; Damidot, D

    2006-04-01

    This article presents a new methodology for the management of dredging operations. Partly derived from existing methodologies (OECD, UNEP, AIPCN), its aim is to be more complete, by integrating the qualities and complementarities of former methodologies. Moreover, it was carried out in a context of sustainable development. Indeed, it supports, according to a framework of industrial ecology, the development and the implementation of solutions of waste improvement of dredged materials, in order to minimize the environmental impact of dredging. It also uses a tool of MultiCriteria Decision-Making Aid (M.C.D.M.A.), in order to integrate local characteristics. In addition, this tool, called DRAGSED, allows to a dialogue to be established between all the parties concerned with a dredging project (harbour's authorities, industrialists, municipalities, administrations, populations, associations,...). Thus, the implementation of this methodology enables consensus to be reached for the dredging solution retained. It also proposes an environmental follow-up, which will allow an evaluation during its application. PMID:16583826

  19. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  20. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2015-02-01

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with 1 or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome to the long-term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc DTPA. PMID:25455668

  1. Estuarine dredge and fill activities: A review of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sam A.

    1981-09-01

    Dredge and fill activities in estuaries have many environmental effects, most, although not all, of them deleterious. These effects include reduced light penetration by increased turbidity; altered tidal exchange, mixing, and circulation; reduced nutrient outflow from marshes and swamps; increased saltwater intrusion; and creation of an environment highly susceptible to recurrent low dissolved oxygen levels. Coral, oysters, and barnacles are particularly vulnerable to the effects of siltation. Both estuarine flora and fauna may be harmed by contaminants released into the water column by dredging operations. Ways to mitigate the effects of dredge and fill operations include careful pre- and post-construction environmental studies; use of bridging to create roadbeds where coastal wetlands cannot be avoided; use of a turbidity diaper and other means to control turbidity; dredging during periods of low benthic populations or during tides that would carry coarser sediments away from productive areas such as oyster reefs; and thoughtful disposal of spoil, such as locating spoil sites on the uplands with proper diking.

  2. TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

  3. 25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  4. 26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  5. STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. e2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the co...

  6. LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...

  7. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  8. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  9. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  10. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  11. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  12. Outgassing and contamination properties of prospective Apollo Telescope Mount materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehlmann, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the test techniques used to evaluate the outgassing and contamination characteristics of prospective Apollo telescope mount (ATM) materials are reviewed. These include a screening test providing information on weight losses of materials, weights of their condensed outgas products, and white-light scattered by the condensed products. They also include an ultraviolet-region screening test and a comprehensive continuous in situ weight-loss test. Examples are presented of data obtained from each of the tests on various prospective ATM materials.

  13. Determining the fates of contaminated wastes dumped in the New York Bight apex by use of metal enrichment factors

    SciTech Connect

    Zdanowicz, V.S. )

    1991-10-01

    The major sources of contaminants to the New York Bight apex in 1983 were sewage sludge and dredged spoils dumping and the outflow of the Hudson-Raritan estuary. Metal distributions were determined in sediments collected during a 1983 survey and metal enrichment factors, based on ratios of trace metals to iron, were used to distinguish fates of sewage sludge and dredged spoils dumped in the Bight apex. Lead enrichment factors indicated that the portion of the apex that was directly affected by dredged spoils dumping was in the immediate vicinity of that site, even though this activity constituted the largest source of solid materials to the apex. Sewage sludge dumping, in contrast, while contributing much less total mass than dredged spoils dumping, appeared to directly affect {approximately}8 times as much area.

  14. Risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option.

    PubMed

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option. Descriptions using case studies of the newly integrated, holistic and staged framework were followed. The first stage utilized the historical dredging monitoring data and the contamination level in media data into Ecological Risk Assessment phases, which have been altered for benefits in cost, time and simplicity. How Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used to analyze and prioritize dredging areas based on environmental, socio-economic and managerial criteria was described for the next stage. The results from MCDA will be integrated into Ecological Risk Assessment to characterize the degree of contamination in the prioritized areas. The last stage was later described using these findings and analyzed using MCDA, in order to identify the best sediment dredging option, accounting for the economic, environmental and technical aspects of dredging, which is beneficial for dredging and sediment management industries. PMID:25108801

  15. Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. PMID:24792880

  16. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  17. Organizational change and marine environmental protection: The dredge spoil siting record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, R. H.

    1991-07-01

    Dredge spoil siting activities are reviewed over a decade to determine whether organizational changes within the Corps of Engineers produced changes in the environmental performance of the agency. Over the period neither the total amount of marine and estuarine dredging nor the incidence of siting spoil inside the baseline declined. Therefore, internal organizational changes do not appear to have affected the above measures of agency performance concerning protection of the marine environment. Furthermore, at least 3% of the spoil is estimated to be highly contaminated. In recent years this magnitude of contaminated spoils has been equivalent to ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

  18. Risk assessment methodology for evaluating releases of radioactively contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    Extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D D) activities are expected to be required in the near future in association with license termination of nuclear power facilities and cleanup efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons production facilities. In advance of these D D activities, it is becoming increasingly urgent that standards be established for the release of materials with residual radioactive contamination. The only standards for unrestricted release that currently exist address surface contamination. The methods used to justify those standards were developed some 20 yr ago and may not satisfy today's criteria. Furthermore, the basis of setting standards has moved away from the traditional [open quotes]instrumentation-based[close quotes] concept toward a [open quotes]risk-based[close quotes] approach. Therefore, as new release standards are developed, it will be necessary that risk assessment methodology consistent with modern concepts be incorporated into the process. This paper discusses recent developments in risk methodology and issues and concerns regarding the future development of standards for the release of radioactively contaminated materials.

  19. Effect of ditch dredging on the fate of nutrients in deep drainage ditches of the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredging of drainage ditches in artificially drained systems is necessary to ensure that agricultural fields are drained adequately. This study compared the potential impacts of dredging on water quality. Using a fluvarium (stream simulator), bed material collected from drainage ditches prior to d...

  20. Effect of Dredging an Agricultural Drainage Ditch on Water Column Herbicide Concentration, as Predicted by Fluvarium Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In artificially drained agricultural areas, dredging of drainage ditches is often necessary to ensure drainage of fields adequate to permit field operations. Fluvarium experiments were performed in order to evaluate the potential of the bed material changes associated with ditch dredging to impact ...

  1. Contaminant Transport Through Subsurface Material from the DOE Hanford Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, M.N.; Mayes, M.A.; Jardine, P.M.; Fendorf, S.E.; Nehlhorn, T.L.; Yin, X.P.; Ladd, J.; Teerlink, J.; Zachara, J.M.

    2003-03-26

    Accelerated migration of contaminants in the vadose zone has been observed beneath tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation. This paper focuses on the geochemical processes controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the sediments beneath the Hanford tank farms. Laboratory scale batch sorption experiments and saturated transport experiments were conducted using reactive tracers U(VI), Sr, Cs, Co and Cr(VI) to investigate geochemical processes controlling the rates and mechanisms of sorption to Hanford subsurface material. Results indicate that the rate of sorption is influenced by changes in solution chemistry such as ionic strength, pH and presence of competing cations. Sediment characteristics such as mineralogy, iron content and cation/anion exchange capacity coupled with the dynamics of flow impact the number of sites available for sorption. Investigative approaches using a combination of batch and transport experiments will contribute to the conceptual and Hanford vadose zone.

  2. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  3. Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, T.

    1992-03-01

    Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

  4. Operational strategies for contamination control of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials, used on many instruments, are a potential contamination source for sensitive sensors, especially for sensors or detectors cooled below -80 C. It is a well known fact that composite materials absorb water during fabrication, integration, test, and launch activities and desorb this water under vacuum conditions. Water absorption can be divided into two types: shallow water and deep water. Shallow water is generally about 500 A thick on a clean material surface and is easily desorbed under vacuum conditions. Deep water is a function of the material and is absorbed into the bulk of the material. Deep water can outgas for weeks, months, or years, depending on the vent path, the amount of absorbed water, and the temperature of the material. Several operational strategies have been successfully employed on the Wide Field Planetary Camera. The operational strategies include ultradry gaseous nitrogen purge, dew point of less than -80 C, and vacuum bake-out with verification of outgassing rates. The nitrogen purge is instituted during the fabrication phase and is continued through launch activities. Great care is taken to avoid extended periods of time that the material is exposed to the ambient environment (50 percent relative humidity). On-orbit operational strategies include heat-up and cool-down scenarios which allow the deep water to be sufficiently outgassed before cooling the sensors or detectors.

  5. Genesis Concentrator Target Particle Contamination Mapping and Material Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of surface particles were found to be < 5 microns in diameter with increasing numbers close to the optical resolution limit of 0.3 microns. Acceleration grid EDS results show that the majority of materials appear to be from the SRC shell and SLA materials which include carbon-carbon fibers and Si-rich microspheres in a possible silicone binder. Other major debris material from the SRC included white paint, kapton, collector array fragments, and Al. Image analysis also revealed that SRC materials were also found mixed with the Utah mud and salt deposits. The EDS analysis of the acceleration grid showed that particles < 1 m where generally carbon based particles. Chemical cleaning techniques with Xylene and HF in an ultrasonic bath are currently being investigated for removal of small particles by the Genesis science team as well as ultra-pure water megasonic cleaning by the JSC team [4]. Removal of organic contamination from target materials is also being investigated by the science team with the use of UV-ozone cleaning devices at JSC and Open University [5]. In preparation for solar wind oxygen analyses at UCLA and Open University [1, 2], surface particle contamination on three Genesis concentrator targets was closely examined to evaluate cleaning strategies. Two silicon carbide (Genesis sample # 60001 and 60003) and one chemical vapor deposited (CVD) 13C concentrator target (60002) were imaged and mosaic mapped with optical microscopes. The resulting full target mosaic images and particle feature maps were subsequently compared with non-flight, but flight-like, concentrator targets and sample return capsule (SRC) materials. Contamination found on the flown concentrator acceleration grid was further examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle identification was subsequently compared with the optical images from the flown targets. Figure 1 show that all three targets imaged in this report are fully intact and do not show any signs of material fractures. However, previous ellipsometry results and overview imaging of both flown SiC targets show a solar wind irradiation gradient from the center focal point to the outer edge [3]. In addition, due to the hard landing, each target has experienced varying degrees of impacts, scratches, and particle debris from the spacecraft and Utah impact site.

  6. Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C.; Scales, Charlie R.; Deegan, David

    2007-07-01

    The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

  7. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  8. Solidification/stabilization of dredged marine sediments for road construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong Xing; Abriak, Nor Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Xu, WeiYa

    2012-01-01

    Cement/lime-based solidification is an environmentally sound solution for the management of dredged marine sediments, instead of traditional solutions such as immersion. Based on the mineralogical composition and physical characteristics of Dunkirk sediments, the effects of cement and lime are assessed through Atterberg limits, modified Proctor compaction, unconfined compressive strength and indirect tensile strength tests. The variation of Atterberg limits and the improvement in strength are discussed at different binder contents. The potential of sediments solidified with cement or lime for road construction is evaluated through a proposed methodology from two aspects: I-CBR value and material classification. The test results show the feasibility of solidified dredged sediments for beneficial use as a material in road construction. Cement is superior to lime in terms of strength improvement, and adding 6% cement is an economic and reasonable method to stabilize fine sediments. PMID:22519092

  9. Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee: Limited alteration of riverine-reservoir benthic invertebrate community following dredging of ash-contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Buys, David J; Stojak, Amber R; Stiteler, William; Baker, Tyler F

    2015-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities were assessed after the December 2008 release of approximately 4.1 million m(3) coal fly ash from a disposal dredge cell at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Roane County, Tennessee, USA. Released ash filled the adjacent embayments and the main channel of the Emory River, migrating into reaches of the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers. Dredging was completed in summer 2010, and the benthic community sampling was conducted in December 2010. This study is part of a series that supported an Ecological Risk Assessment for the Kingston site. Benthic invertebrate communities were sampled at transects spread across approximately 20 miles of river that includes both riverine and reservoirlike conditions. Community composition was assessed on a grab sample and transect basis across multiple cross-channel transects to gain an understanding of the response of the benthic community to a fly ash release of this magnitude. This assessment used invertebrate community metrics, similarity analysis, geospatial statistics, and correlations with sediment chemistry and habitat. The community composition was reflective of a reservoir system, with dominant taxa being insect larva, bivalves, and aquatic worms. Most community metric results were similar for ash-impacted areas and upstream reference areas. Variation in the benthic community was correlated more with habitat than with sediment chemistry or residual ash. Other studies have reported that a benthic community can take several years to a decade to recover from ash or ash-related constituents. Although released ash undoubtedly had some initial impacts on the benthic community in this study, the severity of these effects appears to be limited to the initial smothering of the organisms followed by a rapid response and the initial start of recovery postdredging. PMID:25158124

  10. Decontaminating materials used in ground water sampling devices: Organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.V.; Ranney, T.A.

    2000-12-31

    In these studies, the efficiency of various decontamination protocols was tested on small pieces of materials commonly used in ground water sampling devices. Three materials, which ranged in ability to sorb organic solutes, were tested: stainless steel (SS), rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The test pieces were exposed to two aqueous test solutions: One contained three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one nitroaromatic compound, and the other contained four pesticides. Also, three types of polymetic tubing were exposed to pesticide solutions. Generally, the contact times were 10 minutes and 24 hours for sorption and desorption. The contaminants were removed from the nonpermeable SS and the less-sorptive rigid PVC test pieces simply by washing with a hot detergent solution and rinsing with hot water. Additional treatment was required for the PTFE test pieces exposed to the VOCs and for the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubing exposed to the pesticide test solution. Solvent rinsing did not improve removal of the three VOCs form the PTFE and only marginally improved removal of the residual pesticides from the LDPE. However, a hot water and detergent wash and rinse followed by oven drying at approximately 105 C was effective for removing the VOCs from the PTFE and substantially reduced pesticide contamination from the LDPE.

  11. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely α-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA. PMID:24652576

  12. Effects of surfactants on the desorption of organic contaminants from aquifer materials. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Brickell, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The efficiency of removing organic contaminants from groundwater aquifers by the pump and treat process is adversely affected by the retardation of the contaminant's mobility due to adsorption onto aquifer material. The use of surfactants in conjunction with the pump and treat process has the potential for improving contaminant mobility by solubilizing the adsorbed contaminant.

  13. Long-term dredged material management plan within the context of Maumee river watershed sediment management strategy. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    This technical report draws several preliminary conclusions about the Investigations needed to develop specific management options. It recommends moving ahead to the Phase 2 Study to address these options that would meet the goals of sediment load reduction, improvement in sediment and water quality, beneficial uses of the material, and a reduced dependency on constriction of new Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF).

  14. FTIR Study on Molecular Contamination on Surface of Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Masahiro; Okano, Nobuaki; Horikawa, Toshihide; Tomida, Tahei; Itoh, Nobunari

    The IR spectra of the molecular contaminants on surface of optical materials were measured. The optical disks used were SiO2, BK7 (SiO2 70%, B2O3 10%, K2O 8%, N2O 8%), CaF2, ZnSe and Al2O3. N2, O2, H2O, and CO2 were adopted as contamination gases. IR spectra of H2O (2.7kPa) on BK7 at 373K showed two absorption bands (OH stretching vibration: around 4000cm-1-3500cm-1 and OH bending vibration: around 2000cm-1-1500cm-1). The absorption intensity decreased with a decrease in temperature and a new band (around 3250cm-1) appeared at 173K. The new band was attributed to phase transition of H2O. These phenomena were also observed on the other three discs, except for SiO2. IR spectra of SiO2 showed OH stretching band (3676cm-1). The absorption intensity decreased with a decrease in temperature. But two new bands (3720cm-1 and 3620cm-1) appeared under an atmosphere of N2 (66.5kPa), O2 (66.5kPa), H2O (2.7kPa) or CO2 (0.7 or 13.3kPa). A similar phenomenon was also observed for BK7, which has OH group. These results suggested the functional group of SiOH interacted with contamination molecules.

  15. Application of Bioassays in Toxicological Hazard, Risk and Impact Assessment of Dredged Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the potential environmental consequences of dumped dredged harbour sediments it is vital to establish the potential risks from exposure before disposal at sea. Currently, European legislation for disposal of contaminated sediments at sea is based on chemical analysis of a l...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the 'Hot Spot') removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations gr...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF MARINE SEDIMENTS AND DREDGE SPOILS WITH THE MICROTOXR BIOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with...

  18. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  19. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on the post-dredging increase in internal phosphorus loading across the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Shao, Shiguang; Shen, Qiushi; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-04-01

    Dredging is frequently used in the river mouths of eutrophic lakes to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading from the sediment. However, the accumulation of P-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the inflowing rivers negatively affects the post-dredging sediment-water interface and ultimately increases internal P loading. Here, a 360-d experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of riverine SPM on the efficacy of dredging in reducing internal P loading. SPM was added to dredged and undredged sediments collected from the confluence area of Lake Chaohu. Several parameters related to internal P loading, including oxygen profile, soluble reactive P, and ferrous iron across the sediment-water interface, organic matter, alkaline phosphatase activity, and P fractions, were measured throughout the experimental period. The results showed that the P content (especially mobile P) in the sediment increased to the pre-dredging level with the accumulation of SPM in the dredged sediment. In addition, the P flux across the sediment-water interface increased with the accumulation of SPM. Several characteristics of SPM, including high organic matter content, mobile P, high activity of alkaline phosphatase, and high biological activity, were considered correlated with the post-dredging increase in internal P loading. Overall, this study showed that the heavily contaminated riverine SPM regulates the long-term efficacy of dredging as a nutrient management option in the confluence area. Management is needed to avoid or reduce this phenomenon during dredging projects of this nature. PMID:26766534

  20. Effects of hopper dredging and sediment dispersion, chesapeake bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Maynard; Diaz, Robert J.; Schaffner, Linda C.

    1990-01-01

    Hopper dredging operations release suspended sediment into the environment by agitation of the bed and by discharge of overflow slurries. Monitoring of turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations in central Chesapeake Bay revealed two plumes: (1) an upper plume produced by overflow discharge and (2) a near-bottom plume produced by draghead agitation and rapid settling from the upper plume. The upper plume dispersed over 5.7 km2 extending 5,200 meters form the discharge point. Redeposited sediment accumulated on channel flanks covering an area of 6.4 km2 and reached a thickness of 19 cm. Altogether dredging redistributed into the environment an estimated 100,000 tons of sediment or 12 percent of the total material removed. Near-field concentrations of suspended sediment, less than 300 m from the dredge, reach 840 to 7,200 mg/L or 50 to 400 times the normal background level. Far-field concentrations (>300 m) are enriched 5 to 8 times background concentrations and persist 34 to 50 percent of the time during a dredging cycle (1.5 to 2.0 h). The overflow discharge plume evolves through three dispersion phases: (1) convective descent, (2) dynamic collapse, and (3) long-term passive diffusion (Clark and others 1971). The bulk of the material descends rapidly to the bottom during the convective descent phase, whereas the cloud that remains in suspension is dispersed partly by internal waves. Although suspended sediment concentrations in the water column exceed certain water quality standards, benthic communities survived the perturbation with little effect.

  1. Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrcia; Vale, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation. PMID:24271735

  2. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 1. ENGINEERING CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTED DREDGINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The engineering properties of most dredgings were found to be quite similar to those of fine-grained, organic soils, and the general notion that maintenance dredgings are soft and weak is only partially due to their inherent nature; the primary reason for this condition seems to ...

  3. Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contaminated Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Groboillot, Anne; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Le Derf, Franck; Feuilloley, Marc J. G.; Orange, Nicole; Poc, Cécile Duclairoir

    2011-01-01

    To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France) allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production. PMID:21673923

  4. Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

    1977-01-01

    The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

  5. AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL 1. EXPERIMENTAL DATA IN LABORATORY MICROCOSMS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING. (R825513C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT VACUUMING FOR REMEDIATION OF FUNGALLY CONTAMINATED DUCT MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental fungi become a potential Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problem when adequate moisture and nutrients are present in building materials. Because of their potential to rapidly spread contamination throughout a building, ventilation system materials are of particular signifi...

  7. Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1963-01-01

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  8. Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Engel, A E

    1963-06-21

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope. PMID:17802173

  9. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  10. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  11. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  12. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  13. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  14. The Effect of Time after Ditch Dredging on Phosphorus Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ditch dredging is a critical management practice for agricultural catchments in the Midwestern region of the United States that enhances the removal of water from agricultural fields. Recently, short-term ditch dredge studies have shown that the newly exposed sediments following dredging has a less ...

  15. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  16. The influence of commonly used materials and compounds on spacecraft contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Diane J.; Maag, Carl R.

    The United States and other countries have had earth orbiting vehicles for over 30 years. During that period of time, aluminum has been used extensively as the structural material of choice. As weight tolerances have grown tighter, advanced materials have begun replacing aluminum in many applications. The outgassing complexity of these new materials, along with the inability to model thin layers and material interactions, reduces the confidence level in comparison to aluminum. Another issue which makes contamination control more difficult, is the reduced operating temperature of current optics and their heightened sensitivity to contamination. In many attempts at contamination control of sensitive optical instruments, there is a tendency to let the selection of materials by handbooks eclipse the impact of mass transport, outgassing rates and the subsequent effects of any condensate. Several indepth contamination assessments for optical instruments and sensors based on low-earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft and platforms have recently been conducted. This paper will discuss the effects of molecular contamination on several of these instruments and their sensitivity levels to contamination. There are a number of manuals and documents which screen materials on the basis of outgassing, primarily with respect to the criteria of ASTM method E595. While useful for screening materials, this approach does not provide the collected ratio of volatile condensible material (VCM) to the total VCM (total weight loss) as a function of receptor temperature. In general, there are three (3) levels of effort that, when used in series, can attain acceptable spacecraft contamination control. These levels are: (1) materials selection, (2) contamination modeling of the existing design, and (3) a thermal vacuum test of the hardware with contamination monitors. This paper will also discuss improvements to the ASTM method when a material will coexist on a spacecraft or platform with optical instruments.

  17. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Miller, D.H.

    1980-05-06

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated through the processing are fed to an afterburner where the combustible gases are burned and are discharged from the afterburner into a stack. A portion of the hot combusted gases are returned from the stack to the discharge end of the retort to thereby minimize oxidation of the scrap metal being treated as well as conserving fuel.

  18. Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a sensitive monitor of materials contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Jeffrey S.; Hilfiker, James N.; Spady, Blaine; Synowicki, R.; Woollam, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to contamination layers in the thickness range from 0.1 nm to 10 microns. In the present experiments we deposit either a thin lubricating oil (WD-40) or mineral oil continuously onto Ir, Cu, Al, Au, and V substrates from a bubbler, and monitor its thickness growth from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers as a function of time. Re-evaporation of contaminant oils is also monitored in real-time by ellipsometry.

  19. An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

  20. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided. PMID:26611082

  1. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR REMOVAL OF SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realizing the need to improve the capabilities of response personnel in dealing with cleanup operations involving contaminated sediments, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointly funded a research project to: (a) identify, characterize, and c...

  2. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Howard; Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Boothe, Richard; Finchum, Charles; Finckenor, Miria

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been recognized for its contributions supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft development programs. These programs include the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Effects Group, with the Materials Contamination Team and the Space Environmental Effects Team has been an integral part of NASA's success by the testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials, hardware, and processes. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team. The Materials Contamination Team's realm of responsibility includes establishing contamination control during all phases of hardware development, including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment. The team continues its mission of reducing the risk of equipment failure due to molecular or particulate contamination. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitive bond-lines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for spacecraft with sensitive optics, such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection, identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) system, the Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (UVF) surface contamination detection, and the Surface Optics Corporation 400 (SOC 400) portable hand-held Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are state-of-the-art tools for in-process molecular contamination detection. The team of engineers and technicians also develop contamination calibration standards and evaluate new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. The team utilizes facilities for on-orbit simulation testing of materials for outgassing and molecular film deposition characteristics in the presence of space environmental effects, such as Atomic Oxygen (AO) and UV radiation exposure. The Materials Contamination Team maintains databases for process materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

  3. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. PMID:25553545

  4. TOOLS FOR ASSESSING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches at this time for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how we...

  5. An equation that describes material outgassing for contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heslin, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    A generalization of the Clausius-Claperon equation for vapor pressure is made for an outgassing material. The expression is derived using Langmuir's equation for the outgassing rate of a material and using an empirical equation for the vapor pressure of a material as a function of its molecular weight and temperature. Also, outgassing rate equations are derived in terms of the vapor pressure of the outgassing material for three general geometries.

  6. Effect of remedial dredging on bullhead tumor frequency in a recovering river

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.

    1995-12-31

    In 1980 and 1981 high tumor frequencies in brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio were correlated with high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment. Surficial sediment levels of PAH dropped after a decline in the steel industry in 1982 followed by closure of the USX coke plant in 1983. By 1987 PAH concentrations had declined to less than one-hundredth of those found in 1980. During this same period liver cancer in age 3+ brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) underwent a significant decline to about one quarter of the 1982 frequency (38.5%) by 1987 (10%). Then in mid to late 1990, in a delayed reaction to a US EPA consent decree, PAH contaminated sediments were dredged from the river. Surveys in 1992 and 1993 revealed that the cancer frequency in age 3+ brown bullhead had increased to more than 45%. Preliminary 1994 data indicates a decline in grossly observable liver tumors (usually diagnosed as biliary cancers), along with declines in external tumors and eye pathology. The data fit the following hypothesis: Contaminated sediments become less bioavailable with time after a point source is removed, possibly due to deposition of cleaner sediment. Dredging temporarily restores bioavailability (and consequent effects). These data support the position that in some locations controlling contaminants in situ may be preferable to dredging on a cost-benefit basis.

  7. Environmental effects of dredging: The use of population modeling to interpret chronic sublethal sediment bioassays. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-08-01

    This technical note provides a brief introduction to population modeling and describes the application and utility of such techniques for dredged material bioassays. The use of population modeling as a source of interpretive guidance for chronic sublethal dredged material bioassays is emphasized. Current laws and regulations governing the discharge of dredged material stress the importance of assessing the chronic (long-term) sublethal effects of dredging operations. Regulations implementing section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (PL 92-532) state that, `Materials shall be deemed environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping only when . . . no significant undesirable effects will occur due either to chronic toxicity or to bioaccumulation........`. Similar language is used in regulations implementing section 404(b)(1) of the Clean Water Act (FL 92-500) which reads: `The permitting authority shall determine in writing the potential short-term or long-term effects of a proposed discharge of dredged or fill material on the physical, chemical, and biological components of the aquatic environment.........It also stipulates that tests may be required to provide information on the effect of the discharge material on communities or populations of organisms.`

  8. Food contamination by hydrocarbons from packaging materials determined by coupled LC-GC.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Biedermann, M; Artho, A; Egli, J

    1991-09-01

    Paraffins from raw extracts of foods and packing materials were isolated by LC and directly transferred to GC, applying concurrent eluent evaporation and a loop-type interface. Paraffins from various packing materials have been characterized: sisal bags, cardboard boxes, plastic films, wax-coated paper and cardboard as well as paraffin coatings. Important food contamination was found for sisal bags, cardboard boxes, and wax-coated paper/cardboard. Contamination by paraffin coatings on cheese was surprisingly small. PMID:1962505

  9. Moving fluid mud sondes, optical and acoustic sensing methods in support of coastal waterway dredging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Rotkiske, Tyler

    2015-10-01

    Airborne, Satellite and In-Situ optical and acoustical imaging provides a means to characterize surface and subsurface water conditions in shallow marine systems. An important research topic to be studied during dredging operations in harbors and navigable waterways is the movement of fluidized muds before, during and after dredging operations. The fluid movement of the surficial sediments in the form of flocs, muck and mud is important to estimate in order to model the transport of solids material during dredging operations. Movement of highly turbid bottom material creates a lutocline or near bottom nephelometric layers, reduces the penetration of light reaching the water bottom. Monitoring and measurement systems recently developed for use in shallow marine areas, such as the Indian River Lagoon are discussed. Newly developed passive sondes and subsurface imaging are described. Methods and techniques for quantifying the mass density flux of total particulate matter demonstrate the use of multiple sensor systems for environmental monitoring and provide directional fluxes and movement of the fluidized solids. Airborne imaging of dredge site provide wide area surveillance during these activities. Passive sondes, optical imaging and acoustical sensors are used to understand horizontal and vertical mass flux processes. The passive sondes can be directionally oriented and are deployed during optical particle velocimetry system (OPVS) imaging of the flocs, particles and colloidal material motion. Comparison of the image based particle velocities are compared to electromagnetic and acoustic velocity imaging results. The newly developed imaging system provides a pathway for integration of subsurface hyperspectral imaging for particle compositional analysis.

  10. Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

  11. The Effects of Surface Contamination and Roughening on Diffuse Optical Reflection and Photoyields of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Amberly; Dennison, J. R.

    2009-10-01

    Modification of a material's surface affects the optical properties (reflection, transmission and absorption) and charge accumulation of that material. This project has been designed to study the properties of Kapton HN and gold and the affects that surface modification (roughening and contamination) have on them. Samples of each material were roughened with varying sizes of roughening compounds or contaminated with diffusion pump oil. Reflectivity and transmission measurements were compared for all samples. It is evident that modifying the surface changes the reflectance, implying a change in absorbance. Absorbed photons can contribute to charge accumulation in materials through photoemission, whereas reflected and transmitted photons do not. However, reflection and transmission are readily measured and can be related to absorbance. In the harsh space environment, materials are going to be damaged and contaminated, affecting the optical properties of the material and, in turn, charge accumulation. Understanding absorbance and charge accumulation is important in spacecraft construction because charging can inflict serious damage on spacecraft.

  12. Study of Morphologic Change in Poyang Lake Basin Caused by Sand Dredging Using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, D.; Zhu, J.; Fang, C.

    2014-11-01

    Sand dredging has been practiced in rivers, lakes, harbours and coastal areas in recent years in China mostly because of demand from construction industry as building material. Sand dredging has disturbed aquatic ecosystems by affecting hydrological processes, increasing content of suspended sediments and reducing water clarity. Poyang Lake, connecting with Yangtze River in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is the largest fresh water lake in China. Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has been intensified since 2001 because such practice was banned in Yangtze River and profitable. In this study, the morphologic change caused by sand dredging in Poyang Lake basin was analysed by overlaying two DEMs acquired in 1952 and 2010 respectively. Since the reflectance of middle infrared band for sand dredging vessel is much higher than that of water surface, sand dredging vessels were showed as isolated grey points and can be counted in the middle infrared band in 12 Landsat images acquired in flooding season during 2000~2010. Another two Landsat images (with low water level before 2000 and after 2010) were used to evaluate the morphologic change by comparing inundation extent and shoreline shape. The following results was obtained: (1) vessels for sand dredging are mainly distributed in the north of Poyang Lake before 2007, but the dredging area was enlarged to the central region and even to Gan River; (2) sand dredging area reached to about 260.4 km2 and is mainly distributed in the north of Songmen Mountain and has been enlarged to central of Poyang Lake from the distribution of sand vessels since 2007. Sand dredged from Poyang Lake was about 1.99 109 m3 or 2448 Mt assuming sediment bulk density of 1.23 t m-3. It means that the magnitude of sand mining during 2001-2010 is almost ten times of sand depositions in Poyang Lake during 1955-2010; (3) Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has alternated the lake capacity and discharge section area, some of the watercourse in the northern channel was enlarged by more than 1 km when in low lake level. This study is useful to understand the change of hydrological system, especially the drying up trend in Poyang Lake in recent autumns and winters.

  13. Characterization and Removal of Deposited Surface Contamination on Materials for Use in Low-Background Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Alex; Khizar, Muhammad; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Materials used in Low-Background experiments, such as PTFE and Germanium crystals, require high levels of cleanliness to avoid false positives and noise in experiments. The storage and standard process of preparing these materials for use causes this contamination, such as organic material from photoresist treatment of germanium samples or dust from the environment. The purpose of this study is to determine the most effective way to remove these surface contaminants from the materials through the development of certain procedures for use with each material. The procedures use a combination of treatment techniques involving the use of acids, bases, oxidizers, and solvents. These different procedures target certain contaminants, such as removing surface grease and oxidizing and removing organic films. Testing the different procedures with contaminated samples of material and analyzing the result yields the most cost and time effective methods for cleaning these materials. The number of particles counted on the surface before and after the cleaning procedure determines the effectiveness of the procedure for a given material. In this project I have discovered a method that can reach near 100% particulate removal from PTFE for levels of contamination from a normal lab environment.

  14. Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Springsteen, Arthur W.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed chemical analysis was carried out on Spectralon, a highly Lambertian, diffuse reflectance material. Results of this investigation unambiguously identified the presence of an organic (hydrocarbon) impurity intrinsic to the commercial material. This impurity could be removed by a vacuum bake-out procedure and was identified as the cause of optical changes (degradation) that occur in the material when exposed to UV light. It was found that when this impurity was removed, the Spectralon material was photochemically stable and maintained its reflectance properties even after extensive solar UV exposure.

  15. Subchronic toxicological investigations of Fusarium moniliforme-contaminated corn, culture material, and ammoniated culture material.

    PubMed

    Voss, K A; Norred, W P; Bacon, C W

    1992-02-01

    The fungus Fusarium moniliforme is ubiquitous on corn throughout the world and is a likely co-contaminant on corn infested with aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Ammoniation has been used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated commodities. To determine the effect of ammoniation on the toxic potential of Fusarium moniliforme, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either diets containing 10% sound corn, ammoniated corn, corn culture material of hepatotoxic F. moniliforme strain MRC 826 (CM), or ammoniated CM for four weeks. They were observed for signs of toxicity and hematological, serum chemical and histopathological evaluations were made. Groups of male Balb/c mice were fed diets fortifies with 10% sound corn or CM for four weeks and evaluated by serum chemical and histopathological means to determine the suitability of mice as a model species for investigation of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity. Ammoniation was ineffective for detoxification of the CM. Hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity of CM and ammoniated CM were qualitatively similar, although renal tubular lesions appeared more advanced in rats fed ammoniated CM. Adrenal cortical cellular vacuolation was also found in CM and ammoniated CM-fed rats, while focal seminiferous tubular degeneration and aspermia were found only in the testes of ammoniated CM-fed rats. Fumonisin B1 concentrations of the CM and ammoniated CM diets averaged 99 and 75 ppm, respectively. CM containing 99 ppm fumonisin B1 also produced hepatotoxicity in mice similar to that found in CM-fed rats. Thus, mice may be useful for investigations of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:1513377

  16. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  17. Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Christine; Pironi, Paolo; Gerhard, Jason I; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2014-03-15

    Smouldering remediation is a process that has been introduced recently to address non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in soils and other porous media. Previous work demonstrated this process to be highly effective across a wide range of contaminants and soil conditions at the bench scale. In this work, a suite of 12 experiments explored the effectiveness of the process as operating scale was increased 1000-fold from the bench (0.003m(3)) to intermediate (0.3m(3)) and pilot field-scale (3m(3)) with coal tar and petrochemical NAPLs. As scale increased, remediation efficiency of 97-99.95% was maintained. Smouldering propagation velocities of 0.6-1410(-5)m/s at Darcy air fluxes of 1.54-9.15cm/s were consistent with observations in previous bench studies, as was the dependence on air flux. The pilot field-scale experiments demonstrated the robustness of the process despite heterogeneities, localised operation, controllability through airflow supply, and the importance of a minimum air flux for self-sustainability. Experiments at the intermediate scale established a minimum-observed, not minimum-possible, initial concentration of 12,000mg/kg in mixed oil waste, providing support for the expectation that lower thresholds for self-sustaining smouldering decreased with increasing scale. Once the threshold was exceeded, basic process characteristics of average peak temperature, destructive efficiency, and treatment velocity were relatively independent of scale. PMID:24468525

  18. Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, Jos Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

    2014-03-01

    The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

  19. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

  20. Bacterial, fungal and yeast contamination in six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.

    PubMed

    Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires; Panzeri, Heitor; Ito, Isabel Yoko

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the level of contamination of six commercially available irreversible hydrocolloids (two containing chlorhexidine) and identified the contamination present in the materials. Petri dishes containing selective and enriched culture media were inoculated with alginate powder (0.06 g), in triplicate. After incubation (37 degrees C/7 days), the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and Gram stained. Biochemical identification of the different morphotypes was also performed. The contamination levels for the materials were: Jeltrate--389 CFU/g; Jeltrate Plus--516 CFU/g; Jeltrate Chromatic--135 CFU/g; Hydrogum--1,455 CFU/g; Kromopan--840 CFU/g; and Greengel--59 CFU/g. Gram staining revealed the presence of Gram-positive bacillus and Gram-positive cocci. The bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp., Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, and Nocardia sp.; the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Neurospora sp.; and the yeast Candida sp. were isolated. The contamination detected in the impression materials points out the need for adopting measures to improve the microbiological quality of these materials. The use of contaminated materials in the oral cavity goes against the basic principles for controlling cross-contamination and may represent a risk for debilitated or immunocompromised patients. PMID:17589644

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in three freshwater mussel species exposed in situ during and after dredging at a coal ash spill site (Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant).

    PubMed

    Otter, Ryan R; McKinney, David; Brown, Bobby; Lainer, Susan; Monroe, William; Hubbs, Don; Read, Bob

    2015-06-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing coal fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant (TN, USA) failed, and within months, dredging operations began to remove ash-contaminated sediments. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the bioaccumulation of metals in three mussel species during and after dredging operations. Mussels were caged for approximately 1 year during dredging and after, and then mussel condition index values and As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Se, Hg, U, Fe, Mg, Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ag, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn concentrations in soft tissue were determined via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometery. Overall, the differences observed in metal bioaccumulation and mussel health suggest that mussels in the immediate downstream area of the dredging site may have been impacted, as evidenced by a significant decrease in mussel condition index values, but that this impact did not result in increased tissue concentrations of metals. PMID:25957195

  2. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON DETERMINATIONS IN NATURAL AND CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) content of soils and aquifer materials is essential for understanding subsurface chemistry during environmental site characterization. ontaminant fate and transport, microbial ecology, and effective treatment methodology are all influenc...

  3. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  4. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products significantly decreased phosphate amounts. For the 38 specific filter materials evaluated, based on a 60 percent contaminant reduction level, 12 materials removed nitrate, 26 materials removed phosphate, and 21 materials removed atrazine. Furthermore, 2 materials removed zero contaminants, 16 materials removed one contaminant, 17 materials removed two contaminants, and 3 of the materials removed all three contaminants. The most effective filter materials proved to be a steam activated carbon, a zero valent iron and sulfer modified iron mixture, and a surfactant modified clay. The findings of this study indicate that there are a variety of filter materials, either separately or in combination, which have the potential to treat agricultural drainage waters.

  5. Study of abyssal seafloor isolation of contaminated sediments concluded

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.

    1998-12-31

    Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) conducted and managed the assessment, which was funded during its first year by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and in the following two years by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. NRL carried out the projects in collaboration with participants from academic institutions and industrial organizations. The seafloor isolation concept is an attractive management option for contaminated dredged material because, if abyssal isolation is feasible and environmentally sound, air, land, or water supplies would not be contaminated. The participants concluded that it is technically and environmentally feasible. In ports where shipping costs are high, abyssal seafloor isolation is a cost-competitive strategy. They also outlined the architecture of a system to monitor conditions at the site and to detect and measure possible leaks of contaminated material.

  6. Versatile process recycles contaminated soil and other solid waste into construction material for commercial application

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.; King, L.; Reith, C.C.

    1998-12-31

    Many industrial sites along the gulf coast have soils, sediments and other solid wastes that are contaminated with metals and hydrocarbons. Depending on the concentration and mobility of contaminants, these may be classified as non-hazardous solid waste (NSW) or characteristic hazardous waste. Recycling and reuse (R and R) is an excellent alternative for mitigating the environmental hazards of the contaminated materials. R and R is faster and more effectively controlled than bioremediation, and it avoids the adverse potential environmental impacts associated with thermal technologies or land disposal. Properly stabilized R and R materials have no residual liability, and they provide an economic and environmental benefit by converting a noxious substance into a useful material. Environmental Recycling, LLC, (ER) uses its proprietary process to convert contaminated materials into engineered backfill or asphalt stabilized base. The process generates minimum air emissions, and produces materials with proven environmental and engineering properties. Numerous applications in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Wyoming and Arkansas have shown the R and R process to be fast, reliable, and cost-effective in stabilizing contaminated soils, including NSW and characteristic hazardous waste. The R and R process has provided construction materials for roads, parking lots, dikes, and work areas. The process has proven effective even with clay-rich soils that have been especially difficult to remediate.

  7. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. D.; Finckenor, M. M.; Boothe, R. E.; Albyn, K. C.; Finchum, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team of the Environmental Effects Group, Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, has been recognized for its contribution to space flight, including space transportation, space science and flight projects, such as the reusable solid rocket motor, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station. The Materials Contamination Team s realm of responsibility encompasses all phases of hardware development including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch-site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment if required. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitivity bondlines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for sensitive optics, particularly spacecraft such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The team of engineers and technicians also develop and evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. Databases are maintained by the team for proces! materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

  8. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  9. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate four iron-based filter materials for trace element contaminant water treatment. The iron-based filter materials evaluated were zero valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Only fi...

  10. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

  11. FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

  12. Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Christopher; Turner, R. Eugene

    1987-11-01

    Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on: marsh type, canal location, canal age, marsh soil characteristics, the presence or absence of a plug at the canal mouth, whether mitigation was on- or off-site, and dredge operator performance. Backfilling reduced median canal depth from 2.4 to 1.1 m, restored marsh vegetation on the backfilled spoil bank, but did not restore emergent marsh vegetation in the canal because of the lack of sufficient spoil material to fill the canal and time. Median percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on the canal spoil banks was 51.6%. Median percentage of cover in the canal was 0.7%. The organic matter and water content of spoil bank soils were restored to values intermediate between spoil bank levels and predredging marsh conditions. The average percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on backfilled spoil banks was highest in intermediate marshes (68.6%) and lowest in fresh (34.7%) and salt marshes (33.9%). Average canal depth was greatest in intermediate marshes (1.50 m) and least in fresh marshes (0.85 m). Canals backfilled in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana were shallower (average depth = 0.61 m) than in the eastern Deltaic Plain (mean depth range = 1.08 to 1.30 m), probably because of differences in sediment type, lower subsidence rate, and lower tidal exchange in the Chenier Plain. Canals backfilled in marshes with more organic soils were deeper, probably as a result of greater loss of spoil volume caused by oxidation of soil organic matter. Canals ten or more years old at the time of backfilling had shallower depths after backfilling. Depths varied widely among canals backfilled within ten years of dredging. Canal size showed no relationship to canal depth or amount of vegetation reestablished. Plugged canals contained more marsh reestablished in the canal and much greater chance of colonization by submerged aquatic vegetation compared with unplugged canals. Dredge operator skill was important in leveling spoil banks to allow vegetation reestablishment. Wide variation in dredge performance led to differing success of vegetation restoration. Complete reestablishment of the vegetation was not a necessary condition for successful restoration. In addition to providing vegetation reestablishment, backfilling canals resulted in shallow water areas with higher habitat value for benthos, fish, and waterfowl than unfilled canals. Spoil bank removal also may help restore water flow patterns over the marsh surface. Increased backfilling for wetland mitigation and restoration is recommended.

  13. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

  14. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  15. Environmental assessment of dredged sediment in the major Latin American seaport (Santos, São Paulo-Brazil): an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Cesar, A; Lia, L R B; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Cortez, F S; Choueri, R B; De Orte, M R; Rachid, B R F

    2014-11-01

    This work offers an environmental assessment of a dredged sediment disposal area in Santos bay, situated on the central coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Sediment quality was evaluated through physicochemical analysis and toxicity tests of sediments collected in the disposal site and adjacent area. The physicochemical characterization of the sediments involved grain size distribution, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, metals and nutrients. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were employed, using amphipods (Tiburonella viscana) and sea urchins (Lythechinus variegatus), respectively. Results revealed toxicity by all the methods applied here, suggesting that the area of disposal of dredged material is significantly altered with respect to sediment quality and probably capable of generating deleterious effects on the local biota. Aiming to elucidate the association between the distinct environmental variables and the biological effects measured in laboratory, Factor Analysis was performed. Results revealed that despite most contaminant concentrations were found below the limits established by Brazilian legislation, biological effects were related to metals (chronic toxicity) and organic compounds (acute toxicity). The application of multivariate analysis proved to be particularly useful to assess and interpret the results in an integrated way, particularly due to the large number of parameters analyzed in environmental assessments, and should be applied in future studies. PMID:25179961

  16. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  17. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  18. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments: A greenhouse feasibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted t...

  19. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 1: Sediment exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Gailani, Joseph Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; King, David B; Bryant, Duncan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Shafer, Deborah J

    2016-03-01

    Model studies were conducted to investigate the potential coral reef sediment exposure from dredging associated with proposed development of a deepwater wharf in Apra Harbor, Guam. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to quantify the exposure of coral reefs to material suspended by the dredging operations at two alternative sites. Key PTM features include the flexible capability of continuous multiple releases of sediment parcels, control of parcel/substrate interaction, and the ability to efficiently track vast numbers of parcels. This flexibility has facilitated simulating the combined effects of sediment released from clamshell dredging and chiseling within Apra Harbor. Because the rate of material released into the water column by some of the processes is not well understood or known a priori, the modeling approach was to bracket parameters within reasonable ranges to produce a suite of potential results from multiple model runs. Sensitivity analysis to model parameters is used to select the appropriate parameter values for bracketing. Data analysis results include mapping the time series and the maximum values of sedimentation, suspended sediment concentration, and deposition rate. Data were used to quantify various exposure processes that affect coral species in Apra Harbor. The goal of this research is to develop a robust methodology for quantifying and bracketing exposure mechanisms to coral (or other receptors) from dredging operations. These exposure values were utilized in an ecological assessment to predict effects (coral reef impacts) from various dredging scenarios. PMID:26692413

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  1. 21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  2. Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Neira, I.; Gronheid, R.

    2011-04-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high source power (pre-) productions tools. In this area it is important to characterize for the different chemistries which resist components are critical for EUV induced outgassing and - more important - which can result in non-cleanable mirror contamination. In this paper, we will explore the outgassing and contamination behavior of CAR and non-CAR resist by using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for identifying the resist outgassing characteristics, and by Witness Sample (WS) testing to evaluate the tendency for contamination. For CAR resists, it has been found that the PAG cation is a key component contributing to the contamination, but its impact can be changed by changing the resist formulation. In this investigation several model resists have been evaluated in order to understand which chemical components have - or don't have - an impact on the contamination. This has led to a proposal of a definition for a resist family. For non-CAR materials, the investigation has focused to a number of example resists. Most results are related to poly(-olefin sulfones), which have been proven to be good candidate materials for outgassing and contamination learning. The tests have confirmed that aromatic groups present in resist outgassing are playing an important role. As an opposite example of non-CAR material, the inorganic Inpria resist was tested, which revealed that its resist outgassing (water and oxygen) can remove carbon contamination. The combined work on CAR and non-CAR outgassing and contamination has learned significantly on the relationship between resist chemistry, its outgassing and contamination, and provided understanding on how to design good performing EUV resists with minimal risk for optics contamination in EUV device manufacturing.

  3. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? 134, 137Cs 1000?kBq m?2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21?Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  4. Application of discriminant analysis and manova to grain-size data on a study of the distribution and movement of dredged sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alther, George R.; Wyeth, Robert K.

    1981-07-01

    A dredged material disposal operation was monitored at a location in Lake Erie, 8 km offshore at Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1975. Approximately 200 sediment cores were collected from 12 experimental and 4 control locations before and after dredging and analyzed for the grain-size distribution and related heavy-metal content. The dredged sediments were similar to those from the lake bottom at the disposal and control sites. Because of this similarity, it was extremely difficult to distinguish between the dredged material and the lake bottom sediments without tagging the material with dyes or radioactive isotopes. A sequence consisting of a linear discriminant analysis followed by a univariate and multivariate analysis of variance was successfully applied to discriminate between the dredged and the original lake sediments. Results indicate that 4 months after the disposal operation some stations had returned to predisposal conditions, a probable result of currents stripping dredged material off the lake bottom. The analysis of variance indicated that the clay-size fraction was responsible for initial changes in the grain-size distribution. Storm induced scouring caused an eventual return of the grain-size distribution to predisposal conditions. In support of this observation, the concentrations of iron and zinc, which were statistically correlated to the clay size fraction, also exhibited the same trends.

  5. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  6. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  7. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  8. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 4. WATER QUALITY STUDY FOR A DREDGINGS DISPOSAL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to quantitatively evaluate the effects of the settling-basin concept on the water quality associated with a typical disposal site for polluted maintenance dredgings, as well as to assess the fate of pollutants during a typical dredging and disposal cycle, an extensiv...

  9. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  10. 24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232z, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232-z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 210: Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 210, Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, is identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. This Corrective Action Unit consists of four Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 10, 12, and 15 of the Nevada Test Site. This report documents that the closure activities conducted meet the approved closure standards.

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

  13. Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

    2004-11-09

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

  14. The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-03

    There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy soils (clay-type should) to which current soil washing practices are not applied. WRI is not aware of any other soil washing technologies that demonstrate this ability at the expected cost on a per ton basis. The market for this technology is considered excellent for Superfund and other inorganic contaminated sites.

  15. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  16. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  17. Recyclability of bottom ash mixed with dredged soils according to the transportation distance and mixing ratio through the estimation of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sookack; Son, Younghwan; Yoon, Taegang; Bong, Taeho

    2015-06-01

    Bottom ash and dredged soils can be used as construction materials because they are similar in physical characteristics to natural aggregates. However, whenever such byproducts as bottom ash and dredged soils are used, the energy efficiency of recycling is offset to a certain degree by emissions from transportation. The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental efficiency of recycling bottom ash and dredged soils through the estimation of CO2 emissions, considering both transportation distance and the mixing ratio. Agricultural reservoirs were selected as the final destinations of these recycled materials. This analysis demonstrated that using 100% bottom ash emits less CO2 than using natural aggregates when the ash is transported less than 35.15 km. This breakeven distance increases exponentially with the mass fraction of admixed dredged soil. However, admixture with natural soils does not affect the breakeven distance. Using the breakeven distances, the effective area with which it is efficient to recycle bottom ash was delineated. When dredged soil is admixed to a mass fraction of 70%, the effective area covers most of South Korea. In addition, 100% bottom ash was efficient in 1622 reservoirs (9.45%) in terms of CO2 emissions, and the mixture with 30% bottom ash and 70% dredged soils is efficient in 98.83% of all of the reservoirs in Korea. Bottom ash is most useful for reducing CO2 emissions when it is mixed with dredged soils, which are a byproduct of construction found on-site. This result is meaningful because bottom ash and dredged soils are complementary in their physical characteristics, and they need to be mixed before use as construction materials. The recycling of bottom ash becomes even more attractive with anticipated improvements in fuel efficiency. PMID:25867102

  18. Use of neutralized industrial residue to stabilize trace elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Mo, and Cr) in marine dredged sediment from South-East of France.

    PubMed

    Taneez, Mehwish; Marmier, Nicolas; Hurel, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Management of marine dredged sediments polluted with trace elements is prime issue in the French Mediterranean coast. The polluted sediments possess ecological threats to surrounding environment on land disposal. Therefore, stabilization of contaminants in multi-contaminated marine dredged sediment is a promising technique. Present study aimed to assess the effect of gypsum neutralized bauxaline(®) (bauxite residue) to decrease the availability of pollutants and inherent toxicity of marine dredged sediment. Bauxaline(®), (alumia industry waste) contains high content of iron oxide but its high alkalinity makes it not suitable for the stabilization of all trace elements from multi-contaminated dredged sediments. In this study, neutralized bauxaline(®) was prepared by mixing bauxaline(®) with 5% of plaster. Experiments were carried out for 3 months to study the effect of 5% and 20% amendment rate on the availability of Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Mo, and Cr. Trace elements concentration, pH, EC and dissolved organic carbon were measured in all leachates. Toxicity of leachates was assessed against marine rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. The Results showed that both treatments have immobilization capacity against different pollutants. Significant stabilization of contaminants (Cu, Cd, Zn) was achieved with 20% application rate whereas As, Mo, and Cr were slightly stabilized. Toxicity results revealed that leachates collected from treated sediment were less toxic than the control sediment. These results suggest that application of neutralized bauxaline(®) to dredged sediment is an effective approach to manage large quantities of dredged sediments as well as bauxite residue itself. PMID:26894678

  19. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  20. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  1. Estimating source terms for far field dredge plume modelling.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johannes; van Eekelen, Erik; van Wiechen, Joost; de Lange, William; Damsma, Thijs; Smolders, Tijmen; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Far field modelling of dredging induced suspended sediment plumes is important while assessing the environmental aspects of dredging. Realistic estimation of source terms, that define the suspended sediment input for far field dredge plume modelling, is key to any assessment. This paper describes a generic method for source term estimation as it is used in practice in the dredging industry. It is based on soil characteristics and dredge production figures, combined with empirically derived, equipment and condition specific 'source term fractions'. A source term fraction relates the suspended fine sediment that is available for dispersion, to the amount of fine sediment that is present in the soil and the way it is dredged. The use of source term fractions helps to circumvent modelling of complicated near field processes, at least initially, enabling quick assessments. When further detail is required and extra information is available, the applicability of the source term fractions can/should be evaluated by characterisation monitoring and/or near field modelling. An example of a fictitious yet realistic dredging project demonstrates how two different work methods can trigger two distinctly different types of stress to the environmental system in terms of sediment concentration and duration. PMID:25463591

  2. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  3. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  4. USING SPMDS TO ASSESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Dredging in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an...

  5. Environmental impacts of dredging on seagrasses: a review.

    PubMed

    Erftemeijer, Paul L A; Lewis, Roy R Robin

    2006-12-01

    Main potential impacts on seagrasses from dredging and sand mining include physical removal and/or burial of vegetation and effects of increased turbidity and sedimentation. For seagrasses, the critical threshold for turbidity and sedimentation, as well as the duration that seagrasses can survive periods of high turbidity or excessive sedimentation vary greatly among species. Larger, slow-growing climax species with substantial carbohydrate reserves show greater resilience to such events than smaller opportunistic species, but the latter display much faster post-dredging recovery when water quality conditions return to their original state. A review of 45 case studies worldwide, accounting for a total loss of 21,023 ha of seagrass vegetation due to dredging, is indicative of the scale of the impact of dredging on seagrasses. In recent years, tighter control in the form of strict regulations, proper enforcement and monitoring, and mitigating measures together with proper impact assessment and development of new environmental dredging techniques help to prevent or minimize adverse impacts on seagrasses. Costs of such measures are difficult to estimate, but seem negligible in comparison with costs of seagrass restoration programmes, which are typically small-scale in approach and often have limited success. Copying of dredging criteria used in one geographic area to a dredging operation in another may in some cases lead to exaggerated limitations resulting in unnecessary costs and delays in dredging operations, or in other cases could prove damaging to seagrass ecosystems. Meaningful criteria to limit the extent and turbidity of dredging plumes and their effects will always require site-specific evaluations and should take into account the natural variability of local background turbidity. PMID:17078974

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

  7. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100-500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10-80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light 'caliginous' or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80-180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2-3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such, attempts to understand the potential biological impacts must consider impacts across telescoping-time frames and changes to extreme conditions in addition to comparing central tendency (mean/median). An analysis technique to capture the entire range of likely conditions over time-frames from hours to weeks is described using a running means/percentile approach. PMID:26444284

  8. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100–500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10–80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light ‘caliginous’ or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80–180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2–3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such, attempts to understand the potential biological impacts must consider impacts across telescoping-time frames and changes to extreme conditions in addition to comparing central tendency (mean/median). An analysis technique to capture the entire range of likely conditions over time-frames from hours to weeks is described using a running means/percentile approach. PMID:26444284

  9. Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

  10. Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zden?k; Kubeov, Marie; Ku?era, Jan; Mat?jkov, Stanislava; Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of graphene materials is typically carried out by oxidizing graphite to graphite oxide followed by a reduction process. Numerous methods exist for both the oxidation and reduction steps, which causes unpredictable contamination from metallic impurities into the final material. These impurities are known to have considerable impact on the properties of graphene materials. We synthesized several reduced graphene oxides from extremely pure graphite using several popular oxidation and reduction methods and tracked the concentrations of metallic impurities at each stage of synthesis. We show that different combinations of oxidation and reduction introduce varying types as well as amounts of metallic elements into the graphene materials, and their origin can be traced to impurities within the chemical reagents used during synthesis. These metallic impurities are able to alter the graphene materials electrochemical properties significantly and have wide-reaching implications on the potential applications of graphene materials. PMID:25201990

  11. Studies of channel sediments contaminated with organics and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria Claudia; de Almeida, Mrcio de Souza Soares; Mariz, Digna Faria; de Almeida, Jos Luis Duarte Silva Serzedelo

    2004-07-01

    The paper discusses the geo-environmental studies carried out to revitalise a silted up channel in Guanabara Bay. A dredging operation has been planned to remove about 1.5 million cubic meters of contaminated sediment. Investigations were performed to characterise the sediment in terms of its physical and chemical properties and to evaluate the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH. Finally, dredging and disposal schemes are briefly outlined based on measured contamination levels. PMID:15177724

  12. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  13. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants.

    PubMed

    Allred, Barry J; Tost, Brian C

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory investigation provided preliminary comparison of trace element contaminant water treatment capabilities for four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Two types of trace element contaminant solutions were tested, one combined As, Cr, and Se (added as AsO4(3-), CrO4(2-), and SeO4(2-), respectively), while the second combined Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal-desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Hydraulic conductivity test results indicate that all four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. Essentially, 100% of each trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Se) was removed by SMI during the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and during the column tests, while IOH exhibited good removal of each trace element except Se. Results from the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and from the column tests showed ZVI and PIC were effective in treating Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. With the exception of Se adsorption/precipitation onto IOH, the desorption/dissolution portion of the batch tests showed that once As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, or Se are adsorbed/precipitated onto ZVI, PIC, SMI, or IOH particle surfaces, these trace elements are then not readily desorbed or dissolved back into solution. PMID:25509527

  14. Brownfield reuse of dredged New York Harbor sediment by cement-based solidification/stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Loest, K.; Wilk, C.M.

    1998-12-31

    Newly effective federal regulations restrict the ocean disposal of sediments dredged from the harbors of New York and Newark. The New York Port Authority is faced with a critical situation: find land-based disposal/uses for 10`s of millions cubic yards of sediments or lose standing as a commercial port for ocean-going ships. One of the technologies now being employed to manage the sediments is portland cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. At least 4 million cubic yards of the sediments will undergo cement-based S/S treatment. This treatment will immobilize heavy metals, dioxin, PCBs and other organic contaminants in the sediment. The treatment changes the sediment from a environmental liability into a valuable structural fill. This structural fill is being used at two properties. The first property is an old municipal landfill in Port Newark, New Jersey. The treated sediments are being used as structural fill to cover about 20 acres of the landfill. This will allow planned redevelopment of the landfill property into a shopping mall. The second property called the Seaboard site, was the location of a coal gasification facility and later a wood preservation facility. This 160-acre property has been designated for brownfield redevelopment. Over 4 million cubic yards of treated sediments will eventually cover this site. Portland cement is the selected S/S binding reagent. Nearly 500,000 tons of cement will eventually be used to treat the sediments. Cement was selected for its ability to (a) change the peanut butter-like consistency of the sediments into a structural material and (b) to physically and chemically immobilize hazardous constituents in the sediment.

  15. Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials

    DOEpatents

    Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

  16. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:15238660

  17. 4. AERIAL OBLIQUE FROM EAST, SHOWING DREDGING, BULKHEAD, CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL OBLIQUE FROM EAST, SHOWING DREDGING, BULKHEAD, CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY AT BASE IN BACKGROUND. USN PHOTO, C. SEPTEMBER, 1940. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. 27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS IN MAIN CHANNEL FOR FIRST STEP COFFERDAM. BRADFORD ISLAND IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  20. DISSIPATION OF PAHs IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...

  1. Assessing the impacts of sediments from dredging on corals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Bessell-Browne, Pia; Fisher, Rebecca; Klonowski, Wojciech; Slivkoff, Matthew

    2016-01-15

    There is a need to develop water quality thresholds for dredging near coral reefs that can relate physical pressures to biological responses and define exposure conditions above which effects could occur. Water quality characteristics during dredging have, however, not been well described. Using information from several major dredging projects, we describe sediment particle sizes in the water column/seabed, suspended sediment concentrations at different temporal scales during natural and dredging-related turbidity events, and changes in light quantity/quality underneath plumes. These conditions differ considerably from those used in past laboratory studies of the effects of sediments on corals. The review also discusses other problems associated with using information from past studies for developing thresholds such as the existence of multiple different and inter-connected cause-effect pathways (which can confuse/confound interpretations), the use of sediment proxies, and the reliance on information from sediment traps to justify exposure regimes in sedimentation experiments. PMID:26654296

  2. Laboratory investigation into the contribution of contaminants to ground water from equipment materials used in sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Dresel, P. Evan; Sklarew, Deborah S.

    2004-07-31

    Benzene contamination was detected in water samples from the Ogallala aquifer beneath and adjacent to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. DOE assembled a Technical Assistance Team to evaluate the source of benzene. One of the team's recommendations was to assess whether the sampling equipment material could be a source of benzene and other volatile organic compounds. As part of this investigation, laboratory testing of the sample equipment material was conducted. Results from the laboratory tests indicated that the equipment material did, in fact, contribute volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds to the groundwater samples. Specifically, three materials were identified as contributing contaminants to water samples. The nylon-11 tubing used contributed benzene and the plasticizer N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBSA), the urethane-coated nylon well liner contributed toluene and trace amounts of NBSA, while the sampling port "spacer" material made of nylon/polypropylene/polyester-composite contributed trace amounts of toluene and NBSA. While the concentrations of benzene and toluene measured in the laboratory tests are below the concentrations measured in actual groundwater samples, the equipment material was found to contribute organics to the test water rendering the results reported for the groundwater samples highly suspect.

  3. Assessment of the suitability of food colouring materials as indicators of bacterial contamination of enteral feeds.

    PubMed

    Anderton, A

    1988-04-01

    The suitability of using food colouring materials in enteral feeds as indicators of bacterial contamination was examined. Experiments using Triosorbon, Clinifeed ISO or Vivonex Standard plus amaranth, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine or erythrosine demonstrated that although the change in appearance of coloured feed could be linked with the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the feed, the converse was not always true. PMID:2899111

  4. 14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  5. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  6. International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J

    2013-05-01

    The paper addresses the international policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residue, its main aim being to describe the misunderstandings, evolution and status of the international paradigms in this area. Thus, the denotation and connotation of the 'remediation' and 'contamination' concepts are explored, including the ambiguity they produce in understanding of the issues by a sceptical public. Then, the international radiation protection approaches for remediation are portrayed. They derive from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are described including their basic principles and characterization of exposure situations. Prolonged exposure situations, which are typical in cases of contaminated land, are analysed with particular detail. The newer ICRP general recommendations, as well as recent ICRP recommendations for excluding and exempting exposure situations from regulatory control and for living in long-term contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency, are examined. Remediation vis-à-vis environmental protection is discussed and the non-technical factors usually involved in decision-making on remediation are examined. Finally, the international safety standards on remediation, which are being established under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are explored. These include the well established International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, or BSS, as well as the specific international safety requirements for remediation; a brief overview of the current process of revising the BSS is also included. In its outcome the paper suggests that the time is ripe for a simple and clear international agreement on the levels of radioactivity in territorial contamination with radioactive material that may be considered unambiguously safe. PMID:20880618

  7. Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Spadaro, P.R.; Smith, J.E.; Speer, E.L.; Cecconi, A.L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a vacuum system having a vacuum source for collecting radiologically contaminated material for disposal, comprising: an inlet nozzle for collecting the material; a cyclone separator connected to the inlet nozzle to receive the material. The cyclone separator has a material discharge and an air flow discharge; a product container positioned at the material discharge for receiving material discharged from the cyclone separator. The product container is transparent for allowing observation of a level of material collected; a first prefilter downstream of the air flow discharge for filtering air from the air flow discharge; a second prefilter connected between the vacuum source and the first prefilter for filtering air from the first prefilter. The second prefilter has means for visually observing the air flow in the second prefilter; means for monitoring a pressure drop across the first prefilter; and means for supporting the product container against the material discharge during operation and for facilitating removal of the product container from the material discharge for disposal of the material.

  8. Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

  9. Laboratory Investigation into the Contribution of Contaminants to Ground Water from Equipment Materials Used in Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Dresel, P Evan; Sklarew, Debbie S.

    2004-08-30

    Benzene contamination was detected in well water samples from the Ogallala Aquifer beneath and adjacent to the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. This study assessed whether or not the materials used in multilevel sampling equipment at this site could have contributed to the contaminants found in well water samples. As part of this investigation, laboratory testing of the sample equipment material was conducted. Results from the laboratory test indicated three different materials from two types of multilevel samplers did, in fact, contribute volatile and semivolatile organic compounds to the ground water samples from static leach tests that were conducted during an eight week period. The nylon-11 tubing contributed trace concentrations of benzene (1.37 ?g/L) and relatively high concentrations of the plasticizer N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBSA) (764 mg/L) to the water; a urethane-coated nylon well liner contributed relatively high concentrations of toluene (278 ?g/L) and trace amounts of NBSA; and a sampling port spacer material made of nylon/polypropylene/polyester-composite contributed trace amounts of toluene and NBSA. While the concentrations of benzene and toluene measured in the laboratory tests were below the concentrations measured in actual ground water samples, the concentrations of organics from these equipment materials were sufficient to render the results reported for the ground water samples suspect.

  10. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  11. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V Italica in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project BAMBi (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  12. Selection of a halophytic plant for assessing the phytotoxicity of dredged seaport sediment stored on land.

    PubMed

    Bedell, J-P; Ferro, Y; Bazin, C; Perrodin, Y

    2014-01-01

    The filling of dry quarries in coastal areas with sediments dredged in seaports represents a potentially interesting method of recycling of these materials. However, this recycling requires the prior carrying out of an Environmental Risk Assessment of the scenario concerned. For this, the question arose as to the type of plants capable of developing on the surface of such a deposit and the method to implement for assessing the possible phytotoxicity of dredged sediments. To answer this question, we chose to work with halophytic plants to be free from the salt-related effect and to assess only the effect related to the toxic compounds present. Based on the objectives set, these works led to the use of common plants of the French coast, with direct seeding, and with pollution-sensitive plants. Three species of angiosperms, Armeria maritima, Anthemis maritima and Plantago coronopus, were finally tested. As a result of this work, Armeria maritima was retained as the most suitable plant for testing the possible phytotoxic effect of dredged marine sediments stored on land. The results obtained with this plant are as follows: germination of 40 % of the seeds in 31 days, produced biomass of 493 mg FW in 6 months and a capacity to bioaccumulate metal pollutants in roots with 350 and 720 mg/kg DW for Zn and Cu, respectively. PMID:23955497

  13. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  14. Contaminated biomass fly ashes - Characterization and treatment optimization for reuse as building materials.

    PubMed

    Doudart de la Grée, G C H; Florea, M V A; Keulen, A; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    The incineration of treated waste wood generates more contaminated fly ashes than when forestry or agricultural waste is used as fuel. The characteristics of these biomass fly ashes depend on the type of waste wood and incineration process parameters, and their reuse is restricted by their physical, chemical and environmental properties. In this study, four different fly ash types produced by two different incineration plants were analysed and compared to Dutch and European standards on building materials. A combined treatment was designed for lowering the leaching of contaminants and the effect of each treatment step was quantified. A pilot test was performed in order to scale up the treatment. It was found that chlorides (which are the main contaminant in all studied cases) are partly related to the amount of unburnt carbon and can be successfully removed. Other contaminants (such as sulphates and chromium) could be lowered to non-hazardous levels. Other properties (such as particle size, LOI, oxide and mineralogical compositions) are also quantified before and after treatment. PMID:26786402

  15. The effect of contaminant desorption on assimilation of sediment-sorbed hydrophobic contaminants by deposit-feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, B.; Lamoureux, E.; McElroy, A.; Lopez, G.; Ahrens, M.

    1995-12-31

    The literature shows that assimilation efficiencies of lab-spiked nonpolar contaminants by deposit-feeders are generally much greater than the assimilation of the organic carbon sorbent matrix. Thus the rate and extent of contaminant desorption into the aqueous gut environment is likely to play a significant role in uptake from sediments. Contaminated New York Harbor sediments were examined in parallel desorption kinetic and bioaccumulation studies with the clam Yoldia limatula. A clear relationship was observed between the contaminant desorption rates over the first two days and organism/sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) determined across a wide range of individual PCBs, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes. Bioavailability was affected by hydrophobicity, shape of the contaminant, and contaminant class/source. Lower bioavailability of PAH may be the result of matrix associations with soot or fine coal particles. Interestingly, contaminant desorption/bioavailability were not influenced greatly by depth in the sediment core. The authors have initiated a study to determine the critical chemical and biological factors that control contaminant assimilation. They hope that it will become possible to replace expensive biological exposure studies with simple desorption tests when assessing the risk associated with contaminated sediments or dredge materials.

  16. Pilot study of dredging and disposal alternatives for the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Bottom sediments in New Bedford Harbor are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and heavy metals to the extent that the site is considered one of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites and is being studied by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Superfund program. At the request of EPA, the Corps of Engineers has evaluated the feasibility of dredging and disposal alternatives for the upper estuary of New Bedford, an area where PCB concentrations in the percent levels have been detected in the sediments. Between May 1988 and February 1989 a pilot study was performed as part of this effort. This study involved the evaluation of three hydraulic pipeline dredges with the contaminated sediments being placed in a confined disposal facility and a contained aquatic disposal cell. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of our approach and the results of this $6.5 million effort. The study provided for a site-specific technical evaluation of the methods used which has allowed the Corps of Engineers to make recommendations to EPA which will be critical in their final evaluation of remedial alternatives for the site.

  17. PAMAM dendrimers and graphene: Materials for removing aromatic contaminants from water

    SciTech Connect

    DeFever, Ryan S.; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Ding, Feng; Ke, Pu Chun; Sarupria, Sapna

    2015-04-07

    We present results from experiments and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the association of naphthalene with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and graphene oxide (GrO). Specifically, we investigate 3rd-6th generation (G3-G6) PAMAM dendrimers and GrO with different levels of oxidation. The work is motivated by the potential applications of these materials in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants from water. Our experimental results indicate that graphene oxide outperforms dendrimers in removing naphthalene from water. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the prominent factors driving naphthalene association to these seemingly disparate materials are similar. Interestingly, we find that cooperative interactions between the naphthalene molecules play a significant role in enhancing their association to the dendrimers and graphene oxide. Our findings highlight that while selection of appropriate materials is important, the interactions between the contaminants themselves can also be important in governing the effectiveness of a given material. The combined use of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations allows us to comment on the possible factors resulting in better performance of graphene oxide in removing naphthalene from water.

  18. Contaminant tailing in highly heterogeneous porous formations: Sensitivity on model selection and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mahdi; Jankovic, Igor; Weissmann, Gary S.; Matott, L. Shawn; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Rabideau, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled impacts of slow advection, diffusion and sorption were investigated using two heterogeneity models that differ in structure and in the mathematical framework that was used to simulate flow and transport and to quantify contaminant tailing. Both models were built using data from a highly heterogeneous exposure of the Borden Aquifer at a site located 2 km north-west of the Stanford-Waterloo experimental site at Canadian Forces Base Borden, Ontario, Canada. The inclusions-based model used a simplified representation of the different materials found at the site, while the second model was based on transitional probability geostatistics of the formation. These two models were used to investigate sensitivity of contaminant tailing on model selection and on geometric and material properties. While simulations were based on data collected at Borden, models were exercised beyond the geometric and material properties that characterize the site. Various realizations have identified very low conductive silty clay, found at volume fraction of 23.4%, as the material with dominant influence on tailing, and vertical diffusion in and out of low conductive units, affected by sorption, as the dominant transport mechanism causing tailing. The two models yielded almost identical transport results when vertical correlation lengths of silty clay were matched. Several practical implications relevant for characterization of low conductive units were identified and briefly discussed.

  19. A new type of environment-friendly material and its removal efficiency for nitrate contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Guo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, nitrate contaminated groundwater problem is a growing concern for scholars both at home and abroad. This study developed a new type of environment-friendly material which has the ability to remove nitrate from contaminated groundwater. The material has a certain degree of mechanical strength and uniform sphericity, with waste wood and straw as raw material, to achieve the purpose of using waste treat waste. In this study, the material and fine sand are mixed and filled in glass column, which is wrapped by black tape in order to avoid light, to test the removal ability toward nitrate nitrogen with influent nitrate nitrogen concentration of 50 mg N/L. The material surface is porous, which could facilitate the reaction between the active sites in the material and nitrate in polluted groundwater, and facilitate microbes implanting on the surface. After running for two months, the nitrate nitrogen removal rate is greater than 90%, and the nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen of effluent are lower than the EPA prescribed maximum limit concentration of nitrate in drinking water(N03--N<10mg N/L, NO2--N<1mg N/L), while the ammonia nitrogen in the effluent is less than 1 mg N/L, lower than the maximum limit concentration of ammonia nitrogen in drinking water made by WHO(NH4+-N<1.5mg N/L), indicating its effective removal rate for nitrate and the absence of serious nitrite and ammonia accumulation. The developed material will have a good prospect in removing nitrate from polluted groundwater.

  20. Sediment pass-through, an alternative to reservoir dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lee, W.H.; Tu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is studying an alternative {open_quotes}Sediment Management Plan{close_quotes} (SMP) to control sediments at Rock Creek Reservoir and the downstream Cresta Reservoir on the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County. The reservoirs are part of the 182,000 kW Rock Creek-Cresta Project hydroelectric development. Approximately 5.4 million cubic meters of sediments, deposited in the two reservoirs since they were placed in service in 1949 and 1950, partially obstruct the dams` low level outlets and pipe inlets supplying water for spillway gate operations. The sediments jeopardize the reliable and efficient operation of the dams and powerhouses. The SMP includes retrofitting Rock Creek and Cresta Dams with additional low-level gated outlets and modification of trash racks at the existing low level outlet pipes at each dam to improve sediment pass-through (SPT) capacity during high flows. Also, to enable construction of the dam modifications and to facilitate the initiation of SPT operation, dredging of approximately 46,000 cubic meters at Rock Creek Reservoir and 57,000 cubic meters at Cresta Reservoir can be accomplished using a new slurry pump dredging technology to minimize turbidity and re-suspension of solids during dredging. It is proposed to deposit the sediment on the reservoir bottoms, upstream of the areas to be dredged. The dredged sediments subsequently would be flushed from the reservoirs during SPT operations to ultimately be deposited in the dead storage volume of a large downstream reservoir, Lake Oroville. The SPT management plan supersedes more costly plans for major dredging, and may preclude the need for future maintenance dredging at the reservoirs.

  1. The effect of shoe soling tread groove width on the coefficient of friction with different sole materials, floors, and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Chen, Chin Jung

    2004-11-01

    Tread groove design is very common in footwear. However, coefficient of friction (COF) measurements between the footwear material and floor using a slipmeter were commonly performed using flat footwear pads. Such measurements might underestimate the actual slip resistance of the footwear pad. This research investigates the effects of the tread groove width on the measured COF using four footwear materials, three floors, and four liquid-contamination conditions using a Brungraber Mark II slipmeter. The analysis of variance results indicated that the footwear material, floor, contamination conditions, and groove width were all significant (p < 0.0001) factors affecting the measured COF. The hypothesis that wider tread grooves result in higher COF values was true with some exceptions especially on oil contaminated floors. A regression model, with an R2 of 0.91, was established to describe and predict the relationship between the COF and the tread groove width under footwear material/floor/contamination conditions. PMID:15374757

  2. Influence of fermentation and drying materials on the contamination of cocoa beans by ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Dano, Sbastien Djdj; Manda, Pierre; Dembl, Ardjourma; Kouassi Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Ze Maria Sika, Charles Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D'Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

  3. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Dano, Sbastien Djdj; Manda, Pierre; Dembl, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cte dIvoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

  4. Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued exposures to contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce

    2012-03-01

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. PMID:22395282

  5. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  6. Study of organic contamination induced by outgassing materials. Application to the Laser MégaJoule optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrat, O.; Mangote, B.; Tovena-Pécault, I.; Néauport, J.

    2014-02-01

    Organic contamination may decrease the targeted performances of coated surfaces. To study the contamination induced by surrounding materials, a method using a thermal extractor is presented in the first part of this work. Besides its normal operation (analyses of outgassing compounds from a material), this device is used in an original way to contaminate and decontaminate samples. Efficiency of contamination and decontamination protocols are assessed by automated thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled with a time of flight mass analyzer. This enables to study the contamination induced by a bulk material outgassing and to take in consideration the possible competition between outgassed species. This method is then applied to investigate contamination of Laser MégaJoule sol-gel coated optics by a retractable sheath. The impact of the temperature on the outgassing of the sheath has been highlighted. Increasing temperature from 30 to 50 °C enables the outgassing of organophosphorous compounds and increases the outgassing of oxygenated compounds and phthalates. Chemical analyses of contaminated optics have highlighted affinities between the sol-gel coating and phthalates and organophosphorous, and low affinities with aromatics and terpens. Finally, samples with increasing levels of contamination have been realized. However a saturation phenomenon is observed at 90 ng cm-2.

  7. DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

  8. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  9. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  10. Properties of a surface contaminated by gaseous products of polymer composition materials under vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, E. V.; Kalashnikova, S. N.; Tomeev, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Optical properties and chemical composition of a surface that is contaminated by molecular flows consisting of gaseous products of polymer composition materials (e.g., EKOM-2 enamel) are experimentally studied. The polymer materials are irradiated using a short-wavelength source with a luminous intensity of 6 10-4 W/cm2 sr in the wavelength interval 90-320 nm in a vacuum chamber that is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4-10-3 Pa. An analytical solution is obtained for the problem of radiation fluxes in scattering and absorbing medium of precipitate on a mirror surface, and a relation of model absorption and scattering coefficients for optical radiation in such medium and transport coefficients of the Gurevich theory of turbid medium is demonstrated.

  11. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  12. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    PubMed Central

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  13. INVESTIGATION OF AMENDMENTS TO REDUCE METALS LEACHABILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredged material can be a valuable resource for environmental ehnacement projects such as restoring or establishing new wetlands for beach restoration and stabilization, and fill material for flood rotection and new developments Few studies have addressed both the ecological and ...

  14. Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) for the determination of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Kucklick, John R; Lopez de Alda, Maria J; Porter, Barbara J; Pugh, Rebecca; Wise, Stephen A

    2004-03-01

    Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) have been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the determination of the concentrations of organic contaminants. The most recently prepared material, SRM 1974b, is a fresh frozen tissue homogenate prepared from mussels ( Mytilus edulis) collected in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. The other two materials, SRMs 2977 and 2978, are freeze-dried tissue homogenates prepared from mussels collected in Guanabara Bay, Brazil and Raritan Bay, New Jersey, respectively. All three new mussel tissue SRMs complement the current suite of marine natural-matrix SRMs available from NIST that are characterized for a wide range of contaminants (organic and inorganic). SRM 1974b has been developed to replace its predecessor SRM 1974a, Organics in Mussel Tissue, for which the supply is depleted. Similarly, SRMs 2977 and 2978 were developed to replace a previously available (supply depleted) freeze-dried version of SRM 1974a, SRM 2974, Organics in Freeze-Dried Mussel Tissue. SRM 1974b is the third in a series of fresh frozen mussel tissue homogenate SRMs prepared from mussels collected in Boston Harbor starting in 1988. SRM 1974b has certified concentration values for 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 31 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and 7 chlorinated pesticides. Reference values are provided for additional constituents: 16 PAHs, 8 PCBs plus total PCBs, 6 pesticides, total extractable organics, methylmercury, and 11 trace elements. PAH concentrations range from about 2 ng g(-1 )dry mass (cyclopenta[ cd]pyrene) to 180 ng g(-1 )dry mass (pyrene). PCB concentrations range from about 2 ng g(-1 )dry mass (PCB 157) to 120 ng g(-1 )dry mass (PCB 153). The reference value for total PCBs in SRM 1974b is (2020 +/- 420) ng g(-1 )dry mass. Pesticide concentrations range from about 4 ng g(-1 )dry mass (4,4'-DDT) to 40 ng g(-1 )dry mass (4,4'-DDE). SRM 2977 has certified values for 14 PAHs, 25 PCB congeners, 7 pesticides, 6 trace elements, and methylmercury. Reference values for 16 additional PAHs and 9 inorganic constituents are provided, and information values are given for 23 additional trace elements. SRM 2978 has certified and reference concentrations for 41 and 22 organic compounds, respectively, and contains contaminant levels similar to those of SRM 1974b. Organic contaminant levels in SRM 2977 (mussels from Guanabara Bay, Brazil) are typically a factor of 2 to 4 lower than those in SRM 1974b and SRM 2978. The organic contaminant concentrations in each new mussel tissue SRM are presented and compared in this paper. In addition, a chronological review of contaminant concentrations associated with mussels collected in Boston Harbor is discussed as well as a stability assessment of SRM 1974a. PMID:15103441

  15. 16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING OPERATIONS USING TWO LEVERS FROM CEILING, THREE LEVELS ON THE FLOOR, AND TWO FLOOR PEDDLES. RIGHT HAND CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER (BOOM MOVE TO RIGHT WHEN PUSHED FORWARD, LEFT WHEN PULLED BACK, AND, IF LUCKY, STOPPED WHEN IN CENTER POSITION). LEFT HAND CONTROLLED THROTTLE. FLOOR LEVER AND FLOOR PEDDLE ON LEFT CONTROLLED THE BACKING LINE FRICTION. MIDDLE LEVER AND PEDDLE, STUCK IN FLOOR CONTROLLED THE MAIN HOIST FRICTION. LEVER ON RIGHT CONTROLLED THE CYLINDER DRAIN VALVE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Combining trace elements micro-analysis in deposited dredged sediments: EPMA and ?-XRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitevin, A.; Lerouge, C.; Wille, G.; Bataillard, P.; Quinn, P.; Hennet, L.

    2012-03-01

    Since deposited dredged sediments are rich in metallic contaminants, they present a risk for environment. This work aims to study dredged sediments chemical composition, identify metal-carrier minerals and understand their mobility. Combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques at multi-scale for an integrative approach of trace elements (zinc, lead, iron) behaviour is therefore necessary. The global mineralogy and the chemistry of the sediment were determined by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence (XRF), respectively. Zn and Pb enriched fractions were separated using a sequential chemical extraction procedure and measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectroscopy. Microanalyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe microanalysis (EPMA), combined with synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) were carried out to characterize mineralogical phases and identify Zn and Pb carrier minerals. Iron oxyhydroxides and iron sulphides were consistently identify as Zn and Pb carriers. The assumption that carbonate fraction was the major Zn carried phase, as demonstrated by chemical extraction results, was not verified by EPMA or ?-XRF.

  17. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building... REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or... in or on the waters thereof. No building or structure of any kind, whether permanent or...

  18. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building... REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or... in or on the waters thereof. No building or structure of any kind, whether permanent or...

  19. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building... REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or... in or on the waters thereof. No building or structure of any kind, whether permanent or...

  20. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dredging, filling, excavating and building... REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or... in or on the waters thereof. No building or structure of any kind, whether permanent or...

  1. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building... REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or... in or on the waters thereof. No building or structure of any kind, whether permanent or...

  2. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  3. Effect of sodium hypochlorite contamination on microhardness of dental core build-up materials.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Betschart, Jasmin; Attin, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) contamination on the microhardness of build-up composites. Fifty-two samples, from each of three build-up materials (LuxaCore Dual, MultiCore flow and Rebilda DC) were prepared. Half of the samples from each material were stored in physiologic saline (baseline control) while the other halves were stored in NaOCl. After 1 h, the samples were rinsed with tap water, cut axially and measured for Knoop hardness at different depth levels. The results were analysed by ANOVA and unpaired t-tests (p<0.05). Significant differences in microhardness were observed for LuxaCore Dual up to 0.2 mm, Rebilda DC up to 0.3 mm, and for MultiCore flow up to 0.4 mm under the surface level. Contact with sodium hypochlorite on build-up materials causes reduction of the microhardness. The softening is not only limited on the surface, but can also be found in deeper layers of build-up materials. PMID:20668360

  4. Certified reference materials for inorganic and organic contaminants in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Ulberth, Franz

    2006-10-01

    Chemical measurements often constitute the basis for informed decision-making at different levels in society; sound decision-making is possible only if the quality of the data used is uncompromised. To guarantee the reliability and comparability of analytical data an intricate system of quality-assurance measures has to be put into effect in a laboratory. Reference materials and, in particular, certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for achieving traceability and comparability of measurement results between laboratories and over time. As in any other domain of analytical chemistry, techniques used to monitor the levels and fate of contaminants in the environment must be calibrated using appropriate calibration materials, and the methods must be properly validated using fit-for-purpose matrix-matched CRMs, to ensure confidence in the data produced. A sufficiently large number of matrix CRMs are available for analysis of most elements, and the group of chemicals known as persistent organic pollutants, in environmental compartments and biota. The wide variety of analyte/level/matrix/matrix property combinations available from several suppliers enables analysts to select CRMs which sufficiently match the properties of the samples they analyse routinely. Materials value-assigned for the so-called emerging pollutants are scarce at the moment, though an objective of current development programmes of CRM suppliers is to overcome this problem. PMID:16953324

  5. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  6. Attenuation of landfill leachate by clay liner materials in laboratory columns: 2. Behaviour of inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Tellam, J H

    2001-02-01

    The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants in methanogenic landfill leachate, spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Cd, Ni and Zn), by two UK clay liner materials was compared in laboratory columns over 15 months. Ammonium was attenuated by ion-exchange but this attenuation was finite and when exhausted, NH4 passed through the liners at concentrations found in the leachate. The breakthrough behaviour of NH4 could be described by a simple distribution coefficient. Heavy metals were attenuated by sorption and precipitation of metal sulphide and carbonate compounds near the top of the liner. Adequate SO4 and CaCO3 in the liner is necessary to ensure the long term retention of heavy metals, and pH buffering agents added to stabilise reactive metal fractions should be admixed with the liner. Some metals may not be chemically attenuated by clay liners due to the formation of stable complexes with organic and/or colloidal fractions in leachate. Flushing of the liners with oxygenated water after leachate caused mobilisation of attenuated contaminants. Sorbed NH4 was released by the liners but groundwater loadings were manageable. Re-oxidation of metal sulphides under these conditions resulted in the release of heavy metals from the liners when the pH buffering capacity was poor. Contaminant attenuation by the clay liners was similar and the attenuation of NH4 and heavy metals could be predicted from the geochemical properties of the liner using simple tests. A conceptual model of clay liner performance is presented. Chemical attenuation of inorganic pollutants can be included in containment liner design to produce a dual reactive-passive barrier for landfills. PMID:11525477

  7. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well. PMID:18849710

  8. The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.

    PubMed

    Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

    2012-10-01

    Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination. PMID:23091967

  9. Assessing Nutrient Transport Following Dredging of Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are vital for many agricultural landscapes in the U.S. Previous research has indicated that dredging agricultural drainage ditches may degrade water quality. In this study, we monitored nutrient transport in two drainage ditches for six years (2003-2008), during which t...

  10. Assessment Of Bioaccumulation Potential Following Dredging In Mainistique, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the Superfund remedy of the Mainistique River and Harbor that occurred in 1996 to 2001, PCB concentrations in sediment have gone down substantially. Prior to dredging, the average PCB concentration was 28 ppm (all depth intervals) and the current average in sediments is 0....

  11. 83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Francken, Frederic; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Lancker, Vera; Martens, Chantal; Michielsen, Tinne

    2011-02-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub-sampling, was applied to evaluate the effect. The data revealed that the SPM concentration near the bed was on average more than two times higher during the dredging experiment. The disposed material was mainly transported in the benthic layer and resulted in a long-term increase of SPM concentration and formation of fluid mud layers. The study shows that SPM concentration can be used as an indicator of environmental changes if representative time series are available. PMID:21122880

  13. Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Sakanakura, Hirofumi Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko

    2009-05-15

    Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests.

  14. Pathways of material and contaminant transfer within Great Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, P.; Ostrom, N.; Lee, D.; Baker, J.; Kucklick, J.

    1994-12-31

    Pathways of material transfer to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior sculpins were delineated using {delta}{sup 15}N values that will also provide a basis to assess the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in these organisms. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of sculpins increased with depth along a transact from shallow to deep stations. Individuals from shallow, intermediate and deep water stations had {delta}{sup 15}N values of 11.2% {+-} 0.3, 12.99% {+-} 0.5 and 13.7% {+-} 0.7, respectively. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of mysids and amphipods from the deep station were 8.7 and 11.0, respectively. Assuming a 3% shift in {delta}{sup 15}N with trophic level, these data suggest that mysids are the dominant prey item to shallow water sculpins whereas amphipods predominate the diet of deep water sculpins. These data are consistent with stomach content analysis and, therefore, imply that short and long term dietary assessments provide similar information for sculpins. The predominance of amphipods in the diet of deep water sculpins is significant given that amphipods are much less abundant than mysids at this station. The greater attenuation of light at deep station appears to facilitate the capture of small prey, such as amphipods, by sculpins. The discrepancy between interpretations of diet based on isotope analysis and those based on relative abundance of prey items serves to emphasize the importance of a careful assessment of pathways of material transfer in food webs and suggests that isotope analysis are an important first step in delineating mechanisms of contaminant transfer.

  15. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source activities necessary to deliver 100mSv to the full age range of users of the foreshore were estimated. All the estimated activities have been detected and recovered through routine monitoring. PMID:23933503

  16. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions. PMID:22680618

  17. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  18. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set... the District Engineer any additional information he deems necessary or appropriate to evaluate the proposed dumping. (c) Using the information submitted by the District Engineer, and any other...

  19. USING LAKE DREDGED MATERIALS TO ENHANCE PASTURE ESTABLISHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  20. Vitrification of contaminated soils from the Charleston Naval Complex

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Brosnan, D.A.; Mussro, R.; Addison, G.W.; Jackson, V.B.; Teaster, G.F.

    1998-05-01

    Demonstration melting tests for vitrifying chrome- and lead-bearing wastes from the Charleston Naval Complex, and organic-contaminated dredging spoils from the Ashley River (part of the greater Charleston Harbor), were conducted in a 3-phase AC, graphite electrode arc furnace located at the Albany Research Center (ALRC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These tests were conducted in cooperation with the Center for Engineering Ceramic Manufacturing (CECM) of Clemson University, and AJT Enterprises, Inc., of Charleston, South Carolina, and were funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration. The two waste streams were composited into separate furance feed mixtures by blending and agglomeration with readily available industrial minerals. Over 11,340 kg (25,000 lb) of feed was processed during the demonstration melting test, at feed rates up to 523 kg/h (1,150 lb/h). Continuous feeding and glass tapping was achieved for both the dredging spoils feed mixture and the naval complex mixture. Roughly 85% of all feed reported to the glass products, which readily passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). ASTM aggregate tests using the vitrified aggregate in concrete and asphaltic cements indicated a potential for utilization of these materials in concentrations from 5-15% of the total aggregate, without negative impact on the mix. Toxicological tests performed on the galss products found that this material appears to be nonhazardous and its use is not likely to result in a public health risk.

  1. A DEVICE TO MEASURE LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS IN ULTRA-CLEAN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    James H Reeves; Matthew Kauer

    2006-03-17

    The purpose of this research was to develop a radiation detection device so sensitive that a decay rate of only one atom per 11.57 days per kilogram of material could be detected. Such a detector is needed for screening materials that will be used in exotic high energy physics experiments currently being planned for the near future. The research was performed deep underground at the Underground Mine State Park in Soudan, Minnesota. The overburden there is ~1800 meters water equivalent. The reason for performing the research at such depth was to vastly reduce the effects of cosmic radiation. The flux of muons and fast neutrons is about 100,000 times lower than at the surface. A small clean room quality lab building was constructed so that work could be performed in such a manner that radioactive contamination could be kept at a minimum. Glove boxes filled with dry nitrogen gas were used to further reduce contamination from dirt and also help reduce the concentration of the radioactive gas 222Ra and daughter radionuclides which are normally present in air. A massive lead shield (about 20 tons) was constructed in such a manner that an eight inch cube of space in the center was available for the sample and detector. The innermost 4" thick lead walls were made of ~460 year old lead previously used in double beta decay experiments and known to be virtually free of 210Pb. A one and one half inch thick shell of active plastic scintillator was imbedded in the center of the 16" thick lead walls, ceiling, and floor of the shield and is used to help reduce activity due to the few muons and fast neutrons seen at this depth. The thick lead shielding was necessary to shield the detector from gamma rays emitted by radionuclides in the rock walls of the mine. A sealable chamber was constructed and located on top of the shield that included a device for raising and lowering the detector and samples into and out of the center chamber of the shield. A plastic scintillator detector measuring 6"x6"x6" was fitted with wave length shifting fibers that allowed the light from ionizing radiation to be collected and transmitted outside the massive shield to photomultiplier tubes and electronics. The detector was calibrated for energy and detection efficiency and low resolution background spectra were collected. Results from these measurements show the figure of merit (using: efficiency/square root of background) for this plastic scintillation counting technique to be ~15 times better than for a 2 kg germanium detector for measuring surface contamination from atmospheric 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi, and 210Po). These daughter radionuclides are normally deposited everywhere onto all materials exposed to air. The results are encouraging and indicate that plastic scintillation counting techniques can be of benefit to the public by making available very sensitive counters for screening ultra-low background materials at an affordable cost. However, in order to reach the level required a multi element array of thin plastic scintillator sheets must be developed that will allow many thin samples to be counted at one time. In addition, more sophisticated light detection hardware, electronics, and computer software is needed.

  2. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and accumulators, gas cylinders, and associated debris were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. (3) At CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum, as a BMP, an empty drum was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank, approximately 165 gal of lead-impacted liquid were removed and are currently pending disposal as HW, and approximately 10 gal of lead shot and 6 yd{sup 3} of wax embedded with lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. As a BMP, approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, approximately 55 gal of liquid were removed and disposed as sanitary waste, and two metal containers were grouted in place. (5) At CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain, no further action was required; however, as a BMP, approximately l.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, and one metal container was grouted in place.

  4. SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments contain contaminants derived from past activities that seriously degraded the environment.

    During low water, sediments are subject to natural erosion or removal for navigation.

    Erosion or dredging of sediment will release contaminants into the environment ...

  5. Seagrasses, Dredging and Light in Laguna Madre, Texas, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuf, Christopher P.

    1994-07-01

    Light reduction resulting from maintenance dredging was the suspected cause of large-scale loss of seagrass cover in deep parts of Laguna Madre between surveys conducted in 1965 and 1974. Additional changes to 1988, together with an analysis of dredging frequency and intensity for different parts of the laguna, were consistent with this interpretation. Intensive monitoring of the underwater light regime and compilation of detailed environmental data for 3 months before and 15 months after a dredging project in 1988 revealed reduced light attributable to dredging in four of eight subdivisions of the study area, including the most extensive seagrass meadow in the study area. Dredging effects were strongest close to disposal areas used during this project but still were detectable on transects >12 km from the nearest dredge disposal area. In the subdivision of the study area where most of the dredge disposal occurred, light attenuation was increased throughout the 15 months of observation after dredging. In the seagrass meadow and the transition zone at the outer edge of the meadow, effects were evident up to 10 months after dredging. Resuspension and dispersion events caused by wind-generated waves are responsible for the propagation of dredge-related turbidity over space and time in this system.

  6. Dredging Operations Technical-Support Program. A framework for assessing the need for seasonal restrictions on dredging and disposal operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalle, M.W.; Clarke, D.G.; Homziak, J.; Lunz, J.D.; Fredette, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    Seasonal restrictions on dredging and/or disposal operations are based upon concerns about potential dredging- or disposal-induced negative impacts to biological resources. In many cases, however, information on the degree to which either naturally occurring or dredging-induced environmental alterations directly or indirectly affect organisms is poorly quantified, in which case restrictions are based upon a reason to believe notion. This report addresses the general acceptability of seasonal restrictions through a compilation of available information on physical-chemical environmental alterations associated with dredging and disposal operations, and critical information regarding the effects of these alterations on principal biological resources. Based on this information, a method for evaluating existing or proposed seasonal restrictions on dredging and/or disposal operations is presented. This framework reflects the present understanding of effects of dredging- or disposal-induced, as well as naturally occurring, environmental alterations upon biological resources. In many cases, the magnitude of dredging- or disposal-induced alterations falls well within the range of naturally occurring phenomena and imposes little or no additional stress upon resource populations. In some cases, however, the magnitude of alterations may exceed that which occurs naturally, whereby concerns about dredging- or disposal-induced alterations are justified and should be considered when planning a project.

  7. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  8. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  9. North Fork John Day Dredge Tailings Restoration Project Final Report 1997-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, John A.

    2002-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) worked together to rehabilitate 2.1 miles of Clear Creek floodplain, a tributary of the North Fork John Day River Basin. Dredge tailing were deposited from mining operations on Clear Creek's floodplain from the 1930's to the 1950's. These tailing confined the stream channel and degraded the floodplain. The work was completed by moving dredge tailing piles adjacent to the Clear Creek channel, using track-mounted excavators and dump trucks. A caterpillar tractor was used to contour the material placed outside the immediate floodplain, blending it into the hillside. The restored floodplain was very near channel bankfull level following excavation and contoured to accept future flood flows. Monitoring was initiated through pre and post-project photo points and cross-section measurements. Work was completed in two efforts. In 1997 and 1998 floodplain restoration was adjacent to the reconstruction of Road 13 from the junction with Road 10 from Clear Creek River Mile 1.9 to 3.1 for a distance of 1.2 miles. In 1999 the Environmental Assessment for Lower Clear Creek--Granite Creek Floodplain Restoration Project was completed for work proposed on Clear Creek from the mouth up to River mile 1.9 and the Granite Creek floodplain from River miles 5.9 to 7.7. Restoration proposed in the 1999 Environmental Assessment is the subject of this report.

  10. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  11. Comparing Polychaete Bioaccumulation and Passive Sampler Uptake to Assess the Effect of Sediment Resuspension on Contaminant Bioavailability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resettled sediments following remedial dredging is suspected of contributing to elevated organism tissue concentrations at contaminated sites. However, little data exists to evaluate whether increases in bioavaila...

  12. Mechanical impact tests of materials in oxygen effects of contamination. [Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of contaminants on the mechanical impact sensitivity of Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum in a high-pressure oxygen environment was investigated. Uncontaminated Teflon did not ignite under the test conditions. The liquid contaminants - cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmaker dye - caused Teflon to ignite. Raising the temperature lowered the impact energy required for ignition. Stainless steel was insensitive to ignition under the test conditions with the contaminants used. Aluminum appeared to react without contaminants under certain test conditions; however, contamination with cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmakers dye increased the sensitivity of aluminum to mechanical impact. The grit contaminants silicon dioxide and copper powder did not conclusively affect the sensitivity of aluminum.

  13. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    PubMed

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (?), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ? in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ? in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. PMID:25559497

  14. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food. PMID:23993598

  15. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  16. Eddy pump dredging: Does it produce water quality impacts?

    SciTech Connect

    Creek, K.D.; Sagraves, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    During a prototype demonstration at Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s (PG&E`s) Cresta Reservoir, the feasibility of a new dredging technique was tested for its reported ability to produce only minimal water quality impacts. The technique, developed by PBMK Consultants and Engineers, uses the EDDY Pump, a patented submerged slurry pump system with a higher solids-to-liquid ratio and lower re-suspension of sediment than achieved by conventional suction dredging. Turbidity and total suspended solids concentrations of water samples collected adjacent to and downstream of the pump head were similar to those of samples collected adjacent to and upstream of the pump head. Dissolved oxygen downstream of the pump head remained near saturation. The dredged sediment was pumped 600 m upstream of the pump head and discharged back to the surface of Cresta Reservoir. Increases in turbidity and total suspended solids downstream of the discharge site were minor. Throughout the demonstration, turbidity levels and total suspended solids concentrations remained well below allowable levels set by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board - no more than a 25 NTU turbidity increase over ambient background nor more than 80 mg/I total suspended solids, absolute.

  17. Methodology of management of dredging operations II. Applications.

    PubMed

    Junqua, G; Abriak, N E; Gregoire, P; Dubois, V; Mac Farlane, F; Damidot, D

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the new methodology of management of dredging operations. Derived partly from existing methodologies (OECD, PNUE, AIPCN), it aims to be more comprehensive, mixing the qualities and the complementarities of previous methodologies. The application of the methodology has been carried out on the site of the Port of Dunkirk (FRANCE). Thus, a characterization of the sediments of this site has allowed a zoning of the Port to be established in to zones of probable homogeneity of sediments. Moreover, sources of pollution have been identified, with an aim of prevention. Ways of waste improvement have also been developed, to answer regional needs, from a point of view of competitive and territorial intelligence. Their development has required a mutualisation of resources between professionals, research centres and local communities, according to principles of industrial ecology. Lastly, a tool of MultiCriteria Decision-Making Aid (M.C.D.M.A.) has been used to determine the most relevant scenario (or alternative, or action) for a dredging operation intended by the Port of Dunkirk. These applications have confirmed the relevance of this methodology for the management of dredging operations. PMID:16583827

  18. THE EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS ON REPRESENTATIVE ESTUARINE SPECIES AND DEVELOPING BENTHIC COMMUNITIES. CHAPTER 21

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassay techniques developed to examine acute and sublethal effects of dredged sediments on marine life are described. Results are reported for laboratory tests conducted to determine sublethal and acute effects of Kepone-sorbed sediment and dredged spoil material from the James...

  19. Treatment Of Arsenic-Contaminated Materials Using Selected Stabilization And Solidification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated fro...

  20. REMOVAL AND SEPARATION OF SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM IMPOUNDMENT BOTTOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted of a system for removing spilled hazardous materials from pond bottoms and separating the hazardous materials and suspended solids from the resulting dredged slurry. The removal system consisted of a MUD CAT dredge. The processing system consisted of...

  1. Sand dredging and environmental efficiency of artisanal fishermen in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Fatai A; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Agbola, Peter O; Atewamba, Calvin

    2016-03-01

    Environmentally detrimental input (water turbidity) and conventional production inputs were considered within the framework of stochastic frontier analysis to estimate technical and environmental efficiencies of fishermen in sand dredging and non-dredging areas. Environmental efficiency was low among fishermen in the sand dredging areas. Educational status and experience in fishing and sand dredging were the factors influencing environmental efficiency in the sand dredging areas. Average quantity of fish caught per labour- hour was higher among fishermen in the non-dredging areas. Fishermen in the fishing community around the dredging areas travelled long distance in order to reduce the negative effect of sand dredging on their fishing activity. The study affirmed large household size among fishermen. The need to regulate the activities of sand dredgers by restricting license for sand dredging to non-fishing communities as well as intensifying family planning campaign in fishing communities to reduce the negative effect of high household size on fishing is imperative for the sustainability of artisanal fishing. PMID:26896967

  2. Significance of dredging on sediment denitrification in Meiliang Bay, China: A year long simulation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhong, Jicheng; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lu; Edward, Hall; Ding, Shiming; Li, Bao; Liu, Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    An experiment for studying the effects of sediment dredging on denitrification in sediments was carried out through a one-year incubation of undredged (control) and dredged cores in laboratory. Dredging the upper 30 cm of sediment can significantly affect physico-chemical characteristics of sediments. Less degradation of organic matter in the dredged sediments was found during the experiment. Denitrification rates in the sediments were estimated by the acetylene blockage technique, and ranged from 21.6 to 102.7 nmol N2/(g dry weight (dw) x hr) for the undredged sediment and from 6.9 to 26.9 nmol N2/(g dw x hr) for dredged sediments. The denitrification rates in the undredged sediments were markedly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the dredged sediments throughout the incubation, with the exception of February 2006. The importance of various environmental factors on denitrification was assessed, which indicated that denitrification was regulated by temperature. Nitrate was probably the key factor limiting denitrification in both undredged and dredged sediments. Organic carbon played some role in determining the denitrification rates in the dredged sediments, but not in the undredged sediments. Sediment dredging influenced the mineralization of organic matter and denitrification in the sediment; and therefore changed the pattern of inherent cycling of nitrogen.

  3. Dredging impact on an urbanized Florida bayou: effects on benthos and algal-periphyton.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Weber, D E; Stanley, R S; Moore, J C

    2001-01-01

    Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, benthic community composition, whole sediment toxicity, periphytic algal community composition and trace metal tissue quality were determined prior to and after dredging. The effects on surface water pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature were negligible but photosynthetically active radiation was decreased at several stations. Dredging significantly reduced benthic diversity and density (P < 0.05). However, the sediments were not acutely toxic to the epibenthic, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia); survival averaged 93% (post-dredging) and to 98% (pre-dredging). There were several post-dredging taxonomic structural changes in the diatom-dominated, periphyton community but differences in mean density and three diversity indices were not significant. Trace metal concentration in periphyton after dredging were reduced from an average of 4-65% and significantly for mercury, zinc and chromium in several areas. It was concluded that the environmental impact of small-scale dredging events in urbanized near-coastal areas, based on the selected parameters, are likely to be localized and of short-term environmental consequence. The choice of the target biota, response parameters and chemical analysis are important considerations in the environmental impact assessment of these periodic episodic events. PMID:11706789

  4. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  5. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  6. Sensitivity of sediment contamination in the Elbe Estuary to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Haase, Holger; Hentschke, Uwe; Schubert, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the projected climate-induced changes of temperature and precipitation (IPCC, 2007), an increase of the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods, storm surges or of extended periods of low river discharge is to be expected. An increase of flood events would result in an additional input of contaminated sediments from the inland. Contaminated particles will be transported along the rivers to the estuaries and consequently, a deterioration of the quality of estuarine particulate matter may occur. In addition, a sea level rise is predicted to occur along with global warming. In case of sea level rise or more frequent low river discharge situations, the upstream transport of slightly contaminated sediments of marine origin may be intensified, and cause decreasing concentrations of contaminants in particulate matter. The contamination of particulate matter plays an important role for the ecological quality of water bodies and has accordingly to be taken into account in the sediment management of navigable waters. This study focuses on the assessment of potential climate-induced and other man-made changes of particle-bound contaminant concentrations in the estuary of the river Elbe and the resulting challenges for sediment management in this navigable waterway. The estimation of climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations in estuarine particulate matter was based on results of projections on the fluvial particulate matter input into the Elbe estuary in the near (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) and on assumed extreme changes of such inputs. A mixing model using the concentrations of selected contaminants as indicators for marine and fluvial particulate matter was applied. Distinct changes of contaminant concentrations were found only for the far future and with the assumed extreme particulate matter inputs in the inner Elbe estuary. The worst-case scenario indicated that concentrations of some organochlorine contaminants in the far future exceed the national assessment criteria for the handling of dredged material within coastal waterways more distinct than today. Therefore, adaptations of practices for the management of dredged material to higher particulate matter contaminations should be considered there in the medium or long-term perspective. On the one hand, e.g. the practices of depositing dredged- material within the water system might be adapted (BfG 2014). On the other hand, the implementation of remediation measures like those planned under the Water Framework Directive could mitigate the climate-induced increase of contaminants. However, before the planning of adaption measures begins, the respectively prevailing contamination status should be verified, as climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations might be superimposed by direct anthropogenic activities, e.g. remediation measures to reduce contamination or construction works in waterways. Literature: BfG - Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (2014) Sedimentmanagement Tideelbe - Strategien und Potenziale - Systemstudie II. Ökologische Auswirkungen der Unterbringung von Feinmaterial. Band 1, Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamtes Hamburg. Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, BfG-Bericht 1763 IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  7. The impact of dredge-fill on Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: regression and patterns of recovery.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; D'Anna, Giovanni; Terlizzi, Antonio; Di Carlo, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows can be severely damaged by dredge-fill operations. We report on the construction of gas pipelines that occurred between 1981 and 1993 in SW Sicily, Italy. A large portion of the meadow was mechanically removed, and the excavated trench was filled with a mosaic of substrates, ranging from sand to consolidated rock debris. Meadow loss and recovery were quantified over 7 years after the end of operations. We recorded an overall loss of 81.20 ha of meadow. Substrate strongly affected recovery as the percent cover by P. oceanica consistently increased on calcareous rubble, reaching values of 44.37 3.05% in shallow sites after 7 years, whereas no significant increase occurred on other substrates. As in the Mediterranean Sea exploitation of coastal areas continues to grow with consequent impacts on P. oceanica meadows, this case study illustrates how artificial rubble-like materials could be employed to support the restoration of damaged meadows. PMID:21256527

  8. Platform of integrated tools to support environmental studies and management of dredging activities.

    PubMed

    Feola, Alessandra; Lisi, Iolanda; Salmeri, Andrea; Venti, Francesco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Gabellini, Massimo; Romano, Elena

    2016-01-15

    Dredging activities can cause environmental impacts due to, among other, the increase of the Suspended Solid Concentration (SSC) and their subsequent dispersion and deposition (DEP) far from the dredging point. The dynamics of the resulting dredging plume can strongly differ in spatial and temporal evolution. This evolution, for both conventional mechanical and hydraulic dredges, depends on the different mechanisms of sediment release in water column and the site-specific environmental conditions. Several numerical models are currently in use to simulate the dredging plume dynamics. Model results can be analysed to study dispersion and advection processes at different depths and distances from the dredging source. Usually, scenarios with frequent and extreme meteomarine conditions are chosen and extreme values of parameters (i.e. maximum intensity or total duration) are evaluated for environmental assessment. This paper presents a flexible, consistent and integrated methodological approach. Statistical parameters and indexes are derived from the analysis of SSC and DEP simulated time-series to numerically estimate their spatial (vertical and horizontal) and seasonal variability, thereby allowing a comparison of the effects of hydraulic and mechanical dredges. Events that exceed defined thresholds are described in term of magnitude, duration and frequency. A new integrated index combining these parameters, SSCnum, is proposed for environmental assessment. Maps representing the proposed parameters allow direct comparison of effects due to different (mechanical and hydraulic) dredges at progressive distances from the dredging zone. Results can contribute towards identification and assessment of the potential environmental effects of a proposed dredging project. A suitable evaluation of alternative technical choices, appropriate mitigation, management and monitoring measure is allowed in this framework. Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision Support Systems (DSS) may take advantage of the proposed tool. The approach is applied to a hypothetical dredging project in the Augusta Harbour (Eastern coast of Sicily Island-Italy). PMID:26523977

  9. Dewatering of contaminated river sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

  10. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the material be performed upon a mixture of the waste with ocean water rather than on the material... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may release... from the dredging site with four parts water (vol/vol) collected from the dredging site or from...

  11. Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

    2011-02-28

    Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 μg/l and 430-1000 μg/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 μg/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 μg/l to 92-121 μg/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 μg/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 μg/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

  12. Characterization of Boron Contamination in Fluorine Implantation using Boron Trifluoride as a Source Material

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeide, Matthias; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2011-01-07

    Fluorine implantation process purity was considered on different types of high current implanters. It was found that implanters equipped with an indirectly heated cathode ion source show an enhanced deep boron contamination compared to a high current implanter using a cold RF-driven multicusp ion source when boron trifluoride is used for fluorine implantations. This contamination is directly related to the source technology and thus, should be considered potentially for any implanter design using hot cathode/hot filament ion source, independently of the manufacturer.The boron contamination results from the generation of double charged boron ions in the arc chamber and the subsequent charge exchange reaction to single charged boron ions taking place between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode. The generation of the double charged boron ions depends mostly on the source parameters, whereas the pressure in the region between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode is mostly responsible for the charge exchange from double charged to single charged ions. The apparent mass covers a wide range, starting at mass 11. A portion of boron ions with energies of (19/11) times higher than fluorine energy has the same magnetic rigidity as fluorine beam and cannot be separated by the analyzer magnet. The earlier described charge exchange effects between the extraction electrode and the entrance to the analyzer magnet, however, generates boron beam with a higher magnetic rigidity compared to fluorine beam and cannot cause boron contamination after mass-separation.The energetic boron contamination was studied as a function of the ion source parameters, such as gas flow, arc voltage, and source magnet settings, as well as analyzing magnet aperture resolution. This allows process optimization reducing boron contamination to the level acceptable for device performance.

  13. 76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Delaware River while the Dredge Pullen conducts... Hook, PA. This action is necessary to maintain the 42 ft. berth draft in this portion of the...

  14. Nitrogen fate in drainage ditches of the Coastal Plain after dredging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are a key conduit of nitrogen (N) from agricultural fields to surface water. The effect of ditch dredging, a common practice to improve drainage, on the fate of N in ditch effluent is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of dredging on N transport in drainage ditches...

  15. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels - A case study ranging over nine years.

    PubMed

    Edo, Mar; Bjrn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels. PMID:26709051

  16. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Maintenance Dredging of the Mouth of the Columbia River, Summer 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H. ); Williams, Greg D. ); Skalski, John R.

    2003-03-05

    To address concerns about crab entrainment during maintenance dredging at the Mouth of the Columbia River, direct measurements of crab entrainment rates were conducted during the summer of 2002 from River Mile 3 to River Mile+3. The entrainment rate for all age classes over all sampling in the MCR was 0.0603 crabs per cy. The sex ratio of the older crabs entrained in the MCR was significantly skewed to the females. A modified DIM was used to calculate the entrainment (E), Adult Equivalent Loss (AEL) at Age 2+ and Age 3+ and the Loss to the Fishery (LF) for the dredged volumes accomplished in 2002 and for the five-year average dredged volumes (both for the Essayons and the contractor dredges). For both sets of projections, the coefficients of variation on the E, AEL, and LF were all under 5%. For the MCR total dredged volume (4,600,378 cy) in the summer of 2002, the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 180,416 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 163,549 to 197,283 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the summer 2002 in the MCR was 81,187 with 95% confidence limits from 73,597 to 88,777 crabs. The projected LF for summer 2002 in the MCR was 10,471 with 95% confidence limits from 9,537 to 11,405 crabs. For the five-year average total MCR dredged volumes (4,391,872 cy), the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 172,238 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 156,135 to 188,341 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the MCR was 77,507 with 95% confidence limits from 70,261 to 84,753 crabs. The projected LF was 9,997 with 95% confidence limits from 9,105 to 10,889 crabs. Because female crabs appeared in the entrainment samples at a higher rate than did males, about 82% of the AEL at Age 2+ in the MCR was comprised of female crabs. Salinity in dredged materials from the MCR was close to that of ocean water for most of the sampling from July to October 2002 with about 82% of the salinity measurements above 32 o/oo. At the high salinities found in the MCR, entrainment rates did not vary significantly with salinity. These results support the concept discussed in Pearson et al. (2002) that where bottom salinities are high most of the time, factors other than salinity are influencing crab distribution and entrainment rates. The results reported here coupled with those in Pearson et al. (2002) indicate that low salinity influences crab entrainment rates.

  17. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    PubMed

    Pugin, K G; Vaysman, Ya I

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  18. Removal of trace metals and improvement of dredged sediment dewaterability by bioleaching combined with Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Twardowska, Irena; Wei, Shuhe; Sun, Lina; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jianyu; Cai, Jianchao

    2015-05-15

    Bioleaching by Aspergillus niger strain SY1 combined with Fenton-like reaction was optimized to improve trace metal removal and dewaterability of dredged sediments. The major optimized parameters were the duration of bioleaching and H₂O₂ dose in Fenton-like process (5 days and 2g H₂O₂/L, respectively). Bioleaching resulted in the removal of ≈90% of Cd, ≈60% of Zn and Cu, ≈20% of Pb, and in decrease of sediment pH from 6.6 to 2.5 due to organic acids produced by A. niger. After addition of H₂O₂, Fenton-like reaction was initiated and further metal removal occurred. Overall efficiency of the combined process comprised: (i) reduction of Cd content in sediment by 99.5%, Cu and Zn by >70% and Pb by 39% as a result of metal release bound in all mobilizable fractions; (ii) decrease of sediment capillary suction time (CST) from 98.2s to 10.1s (by 89.8%) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) from 37.4×10(12)m/kg to 6.2×10(12)m/kg (by 83.8%), due to reducing amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by 68.7% and bound water content by 79.1%. The combined process was found to be an efficient method to remove trace metals and improve dewaterability of contaminated dredged sediments. PMID:25682517

  19. Flatfish discarding practices in bivalve dredge fishing off the south coast of Portugal (Algarve)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, J.; Reis, C.; Andrade, J. P.

    2003-11-01

    An evaluation of flatfish discards from bivalve dredge fishing on the south coast of Portugal (Algarve) was undertaken through fishing surveys carried out on board a professional dredge fleet. Data collection of the dredge fishery was carried out between November 2000 and February 2002. The data were compared with information gathered from abundance analysis surveys, and analysed independently of the target bivalve species ( Chamelea gallina, Donnax trunculus, and Spisula solida). Flatfish and non-flatfish species accounted for 20.1% and 79.9%, respectively, of the by-catch species of the bivalve dredge fishery. Significant differences have been calculated between length composition of flatfish species in the by-catch and in the abundance surveys. This indicates an optimised performance of the bivalve dredge, which catches a small amount of undersized flatfish as by-catch.

  20. Spatial Patterns in Water Quality Changes during Dredging in Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter; Jones, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Dredging poses a potential risk to tropical ecosystems, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs, filter feeding communities and seagrasses. There is little detailed observational time-series data on the spatial effects of dredging on turbidity and light and defining likely footprints is a fundamental task for impact prediction, the EIA process, and for designing monitoring projects when dredging is underway. It is also important for public perception of risks associated with dredging. Using an extensive collection of in situ water quality data (73 sites) from three recent large scale capital dredging programs in Australia, and which included extensive pre-dredging baseline data, we describe relationships with distance from dredging for a range of water quality metrics. Using a criterion to define a zone of potential impact of where the water quality value exceeds the 80th percentile of the baseline value for turbidity-based metrics or the 20th percentile for the light based metrics, effects were observed predominantly up to three km from dredging, but in one instance up to nearly 20 km. This upper (~20 km) limit was unusual and caused by a local oceanographic feature of consistent unidirectional flow during the project. Water quality loggers were located along the principal axis of this flow (from 200 m to 30 km) and provided the opportunity to develop a matrix of exposure based on running means calculated across multiple time periods (from hours to one month) and distance from the dredging, and summarized across a broad range of percentile values. This information can be used to more formally develop water quality thresholds for benthic organisms, such as corals, filter-feeders (e.g. sponges) and seagrasses in future laboratory- and field-based studies using environmentally realistic and relevant exposure scenarios, that may be used to further refine distance based analyses of impact, potentially further reducing the size of the dredging footprint. PMID:26630575