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1

Modelling air emissions from contaminated dredged materials  

SciTech Connect

A confined disposal facility (CDF) is a diked area for gravity separation and dredged material solids. When contaminated dredged material is placed in a CDF, the potential exists for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) associated with the sediment to be released to the air. Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund Site, MA, contain significant amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some of which may be released to the air during evaporative drying in a CDF. Models for evaluation of volatile emissions to air during dredged material disposal have been developed. These theoretical models may be applied to calculate potential PCB emissions from CDFs proposed for containment of NBH sediment. Four locales associated with a CDF operation were identified as separate volatile sources. These locales were: (1) the sediment (dredged material) relocation locale, (2) the exposed sediment locale, (3) the ponded sediment locale and, (4) the vegetation-covered sediment locale. The exposed sediment locale was ranked the highest. Field or laboratory emission data suitable for comparison to model predictions were not available for any of the locales. Brannon (1989) reported some preliminary data for locale 2 for the emission of Aroclor-1242 from a drying sediment exposed to air under laboratory conditions. This paper compares the experimental values against theoretical predictions.

Thibodeaux, L.J.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

2

Contaminant leaching model for dredged material disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the hydrologic evaluation of leachate production and quality model, a screening-level tool to simulate contaminant leaching from a confined disposal facility (CDF) for dredged material. The model combines hydraulics, hydrology, and equilibrium partitioning, using site-specific design specifications, weather data, and equilibrium partitioning coefficients from the literature or from sequential batch or column leach tests of dredged material. The hydraulics and hydrology are modeled using Version 3 of the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model. The equilibrium partitioning model includes provisions for estuarine sediments that have variable distribution coefficients resulting from saltwater washout. Model output includes contaminant concentrations in the CDF profile, contaminant concentration and mass releases through the bottom of the CDF, and contaminant concentrations and masses captured by leachate collection systems. The purpose of the model is to provide sound information for evaluating the potential leachate impacts on ground water at dredged material CDFs and the effectiveness of leachate control measures.

Schroeder, P.R.; Aziz, N.M.

1999-09-01

3

Modeling air emissions from contaminated sediment dredged materials  

SciTech Connect

Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emission from a CDF. Four emission locales are identified and modeled: the sediment relocation (dredging) locale, the exposed sediment locale, the ponded sediment locale, and the vegetation-covered sediment locale. Rate expressions are derived to estimate the volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission from each locale. Emission rates (in mass of total VOCs per unit time) are primarily dependent on the chemical concentration at the source, the surface area of the source, and the degree to which the dredged material is in direct contact with air. The relative magnitude of these three parameters provides a basis upon which a tentative ranking of emission rates from the different locales can be given. Exposed sediment results in the greatest estimated emissions of volatiles followed by water with high levels of suspended sediments, such as might occur during dredging or during placement in a CDF. Expected to be lower in volatile emissions are dredged materials covered by a quiescent water column or vegetation.

Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

1995-12-31

4

Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2  

E-print Network

1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8 commonly used for similar applications with contaminated soil, but the high water content of dredged10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Settlement of Dredged and Contaminated Material Placement Areas. II: Primary Consolidation, Secondary Compression,  

E-print Network

Settlement of Dredged and Contaminated Material Placement Areas. II: Primary Consolidation, Secondary Compression, and Desiccation of Dredged Fill Input Parameters Timothy D. Stark 1; Hangseok Choi2, Secondary Compression, and Desiccation of Dredged Fill), which is described in a companion paper

6

DREDGED MATERIAL EVALUATION AND  

E-print Network

DREDGED MATERIAL EVALUATION AND DISPOSAL PROCEDURES (USERS' MANUAL) Dredged Material Management 2009) Prepared by: Dredged Material Management Office US Army Corps of Engineers Seattle District #12........................................................................................2-1 2.2 The Dredged Material Evaluation Process

7

Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From the Port of  

E-print Network

Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From environmentaleffectscausedby ocean disposal of the dredged material. Current proposals for solutions to the problem include to produce a complete "treatment train" for processing and decontaminating dredged material is described

Brookhaven National Laboratory

8

Environmental effects of dredging. Biomagnification of contaminants in aquatic food webs as a result of open-water disposal of dredged material  

SciTech Connect

This note provides information regarding the potential extent of biomagnification (the tendency for contaminant concentrations in animal tissues to increase through successively higher trophic levels) of contaminants in aquatic food chains resulting from the open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. The note also provides a technically sound perspective and offers general technical guidance on assessing the environmental importance of biomagnification in aquatic food chains as a result of open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. It does not consider biomagnification in nonaquatic organisms.

Kay, S.H.

1985-06-01

9

Investigations of subaqueous borrow pits as disposal sites for contaminated dredged material from New York Harbor  

SciTech Connect

Past underwater sand mining has left many large depressions, called subaqueous borrow pits, on the floor of the Lower Bay of New York Harbor. Research has shown that borrow pits are natural sinks for contaminant-laden sediment and that they contain stressed benthic communities different from those found in nonpit areas. The disposal and capping of contaminated dredged material into borrow pits would obviate possible impacts at the ocean disposal site while reclaiming lost portions of the sandy bottom of New York Harbor. A demonstration project to prove the feasibility of borrow pit disposal was begun by the New York District (NYD). The project was not completed because of litigation, although research in other parts of the country showed that borrow pit disposal was technically feasible. Based on this information, the NYD is implementing an operational program for dredged material disposal into existing or new borrow pits. A Federal EIS is being prepared.

Tavolaro, J.F.; Paula, M.A.

1992-04-01

10

Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

1986-02-01

11

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project: Acushnet River Estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 2. Sediment and contaminant hydraulic transport investigations. Technical report, February 1986July 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the evaluation of hydraulic conditions and sediment migration associated with the dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives proposed for the upper Acushnet River Estuary upstream of New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dredging and onsite disposal is one remedial measure being considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Assessments of sediment and contaminant migration beyond the upper New Bedford

Teeter

1988-01-01

12

Effects of Contaminants in Dredge Material from the Lower Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered\\u000a in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor,\\u000a Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored\\u000a in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment

P. V. Winger; P. J. Lasier; D. H. White; J. T. Seginak

2000-01-01

13

PURPOSE: This technical note describes the development of an alternative approach to evaluate chronic toxicity and the significance of contaminant bioaccumulation in dredged material assess-  

E-print Network

chronic toxicity and the significance of contaminant bioaccumulation in dredged material assess- ments) require that biological evaluations be conducted to determine the suitability of dredged material sediment, the biological tests are conducted to assess the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contami- nants in dredged

14

Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal area pm the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination.

Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

2000-01-01

15

Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the lower Savannah River.  

PubMed

Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal areas on the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination. PMID:10556380

Winger, P V; Lasier, P J; White, D H; Seginak, J T

2000-01-01

16

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project: Acushnet River Estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 2. Sediment and contaminant hydraulic transport investigations. Technical report, February 1986-July 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the evaluation of hydraulic conditions and sediment migration associated with the dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives proposed for the upper Acushnet River Estuary upstream of New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dredging and onsite disposal is one remedial measure being considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Assessments of sediment and contaminant migration beyond the upper New Bedford Harbor from proposed dredging and disposal alternatives were made based on field, laboratory, and various model studies. The upper estuary was found to be depositional and a reasonably efficient sediment trap. Total suspended material (TSM) concentrations were very low in the system.

Teeter, A.M.

1988-12-01

17

Accumulation by fish of contaminants releases from dredged sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin

James G. Seelye; Robert J. Hesselberg; Michael J. Mac

1982-01-01

18

HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

19

Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination  

E-print Network

Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration for the Port of New York and New Jersey Department of Energy Brookhaven National Laboratory Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration .............................................................................. 3 3.3 Relation to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District Dredged Material Management

Brookhaven National Laboratory

20

DREDGED MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE (DMMO)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the interagency (federal-State) "Dredged Materials management Office" in San Francisco, CA. The DMMO evaluates all proposals for dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area, under guidelines developed through...

21

Commercializationof Dredged-Material Decontamination  

E-print Network

Commercializationof Dredged- Material Decontamination Technologies Keitb U?Jones isa senior Keith375,000 mdmmnentalm@m*ng m3 of dredged material per year. The need to develop public-priuate p r o g r assessmentsand dredged materialmanagemart. He istbe tecbnfcalprogram managerfor tbe WRM NXm Harbor Sediment

Brookhaven National Laboratory

22

Processing of NY/NJ Harbor estuarine dredged material  

SciTech Connect

Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem for the ports and harbors of the US. One attractive solution to processing the dredged material is to remove or stabilize the contaminants and produce a material suitable for beneficial use or unrestricted upland disposal. The components of a comprehensive dredged material processing project designed for treatment of the estuarine sediments found in the Port of NY-NJ are described.

Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Stern, E.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, New York, NY (United States). Region 2; Donato, K. [Army Corps of Engineers, New York, NY (United States); Clesceri, N.L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Engineering

1997-04-01

23

Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

1988-03-01

24

Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (2001) 127143 Dredged material decontamination demonstration  

E-print Network

Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (2001) 127­143 Dredged material decontamination demonstration of contaminated dredged material is a significant challenge in the Port of New York and New Jersey as a result that are intended to treat from 23 000 to 60 000 m3 of dredged material during their first operational period

Brookhaven National Laboratory

25

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 11. Evaluation of conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives. Technical report, August 1985July 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives for the Acushnet River Estuary, a part of the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. Dredging for removal of the highly contaminated sediment and subsequent disposal in upland or nearshore confined disposal facilities or disposal in contaminated aquatic disposal facilities are alternative considered in the Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material

D. E. Averett; M. R. Palermo; M. J. Otis; P. B. Rubinoff

1989-01-01

26

Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials  

SciTech Connect

Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

Askin, R.C. [Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

27

DREDGED MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE (DMMO) MEETINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the interagency (Federal-State) "Dredged material management Office (DMMO)" in San Francisco, CA. The DMMO evaluates all proposals for dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area, under guidelines developed t...

28

New Bedford Harbor Superfund project, Acushnet River estuary engineering-feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 8. Compatibility of liner systems with New Bedford Harbor dredged-material contaminants. Technical report, January-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

New Bedford Harbor sediments contain substantial amounts of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Leaching studies with this sediment indicate that the leachate generated from the disposal of these sediments may contain significant amounts of the same contaminants. This investigation examined the available literature and data pertaining to the chemical compatibility of synthetic and natural liners with both organic and inorganic contaminants. Although compatibility testing with various liner materials and leachate with contaminant concentrations exactly like New Bedford Harbor sediment leachate is not available, testing with contaminant mixtures similar to and with higher concentrations has indicated no significant compatibility problems. Lining experience has shown that, with low contaminant-concentration mixtures such as the leachate generated from disposal of New Bedford Harbor sediments, problems with installation may be of more concern than liner compatibility.

Shafer, R.A.

1988-10-01

29

112 STERN ET AL. Decontamination and BeneficialUse of Dredged Materials  

E-print Network

112 STERN ET AL. Decontamination and BeneficialUse of Dredged Materials E. A. STERN! U. S";.. ABSTRACT: Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture

Brookhaven National Laboratory

30

Accumulation by fish of contaminants releases from dredged sediments  

SciTech Connect

Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 190 day accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

Seelye, J.G.; Hesselberg, R.J.; Mac, M.J.

1982-08-01

31

Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials of contaminated sediments dredged from our nations waterways. More than 400 million cubic yards (CY) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year, close to 60 million CY of this material is disposed

Brookhaven National Laboratory

32

Environmental Effects of Dredging. Current District Dredged Material Dewatering Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted w...

1988-01-01

33

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225...Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send...inform the District Engineer in writing. In...cases, no Dredged Material Permit for...

2011-07-01

34

Comparison of the ames assay and mutatox in assessing the mutagenic potential of contaminated dredged material. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Ames assay and Mutatox were evaluated to compare their ability to identify the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The Ames assay has been used extensively in the testing of environmental contaminants. Mutatox, a bacterial bioluminescence test, was developed as a genotoxicity bioassay. Ten sediments with varying degrees of contamination were soxhlet extracted. These extracts were divided into crude and clean samples. Cleaned samples were prepared using silica-gel chromatography resulting in 20 extract samples. Both the Ames test (TA98 and TAl00) and Mutatox were conducted with and without S9 metabolic activation. TA98+S9 and TA1OO+S9 indicated a positive mutagenic response in 80 and 50 percent, respectively, of the sediment extracts. Half of the extracts indicated a positive mutagenic response with TA98-S9, while only 10 percent did so with TAlOO-S9. Mutatox indicated a positive mutagenic response with S9 activation in 75 percent of the extracts and no mutagenic response in any of the sediment extracts without metabolic activation. In a side-by-side comparison of the Ames assay (TA98+S9) and Mutatox, 80 percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses, both positive and negative. Fifty percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses when tested with TAlOO+S9 and Mutatox. Mutatox compared favorably with the Ames assay and shows promise as a screening tool to assess sediment genotoxicity when used with Ames assay as a confirmation.

Jarvis, A.S.

1995-04-01

35

ReprintedfromDredging and Management of Dredged Material Proceedingsof 3 sessionsheld in conjunction with the  

E-print Network

BNL- 64400 ReprintedfromDredging and Management of Dredged Material Proceedingsof 3 sessionsheld Processing of NY/NJ Harbor Estuarine Dredged Material K. W. Jones', E. A. Stern', K. Donato3, N. L. Clesceri of the United States. One attractive solution to processing the dredged material is to remove or stabilize

Brookhaven National Laboratory

36

Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

1993-01-01

37

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM PORT OF NY/NJ DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF  

E-print Network

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM PORT OF NY/NJ DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive

Brookhaven National Laboratory

38

Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

2013-01-01

39

Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.  

PubMed

In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities. PMID:23666121

Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

2013-11-01

40

Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.  

PubMed

As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. PMID:22240209

Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

2012-05-01

41

Canaveral ODMDS Dredged Material Erosion Rate Analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the erosion properties of four sediments related to the Canaveral Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site have been determined as a function of density, consolidation, and shear stress by means of a high shear stress sediment erosion flume at Sandia National Laboratories. Additional analysis was completed for each sediment to determine mineralogy, particle size, and organic content. This was done to support numerical modeling efforts, aid in effective management, and minimize environmental impact. The motivation for this work is based on concerns of dredged material transporting beyond the designated site and estimates of site capacity.

JEPSEN,RICHARD A.; ROBERTS,JESSE D.; LUCERO,AMY L.; CHAPIN JR.,D. MICHAEL

2001-07-01

42

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL ECONOMICS By Jay R. Lund,1  

E-print Network

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL ECONOMICS By Jay R. Lund,1 Associate Member, ASCE ABSTRACT: Recent difficulties in siting dredged material disposal facilities are increasing interests in alternative disposal or reuse of dredged material and the possible adverse consequences of any increases in the generation

Pasternack, Gregory B.

43

Environmental effects of dredging technical notes. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of dredged material. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes an approach for assessing the genotoxic potential of dredged material. The use of integrated batteries of rapid and mechanistically interpretable in vitro and in vivo assays in a tiered approach is fundamental to applied toxicology. The research described here brings this approach to the testing of sediments. Work completed to date and future work will mesh to form an advanced and cost-effective methodology. The purpose of this methodology is to increase the accuracy of environmental risk assessments and facilitate making decisions concerning open-water disposal of dredged material. A great number of the contaminants typically found in dredged material are toxic to exposed organisms through effects on DNA. Such effects are usually the result of low-level chronic exposures. These effects can result in reproductive failure of organisms, impaired growth and development of offspring, and tumors (often cancerous) in vertebrates. Collectively, such effects are called `genotoxicity` and result from damage to the genome of a cell. The damage is heritable, that is, passed on to future cell generations upon duplication of the affected cells.

NONE

1996-08-01

44

TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Programs for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into waters of the United States specify a tiered testing and evaluation protocol that includes performance of acute and chronic bioassays to assess toxicity of the dredged sediments. Although these evaluations refl...

45

Management of dredged material at Toledo, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Toledo Harbor, at the mouth of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio, is the second most active port and largest single dredging project on the Great Lakes. Over 770,000 cub. m is dredged each year. material has been confined since 1955. Most of this half of the harbor was declared suitable In 1983, over water disposal. Monitoring of the open-water disposal has not shown any adverse impact on water quality. Studies of the release or bioavailability of phosphorus (P) bound to the sediments indicate that P is released from the sediments at a rate of from 10 to 30 percent per day. On an annual basis, dredging and disposal account for 0.4 to 0.6 percent of the total external loading of P to Lake Erie. High-resolution visible data from the French satellite SPOT were used to demonstrate the total extent of the dredging plume. Efforts will be made in the future to use the satellite for routine monitoring.

Adams, J.R.

1992-04-01

46

INCREASING STORAGE CAPAPCITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS  

E-print Network

INCREASING STORAGE CAPAPCITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P 39180 Paper Published in the Proceedings of: 15th Annual Meeting of Western Dredging Association (WEDA XV) San Diego, CA May 1994 #12;2 INCREASING STORAGE CAPAPCITY OF DREDGED MAERIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS

47

Use of cement and quicklime to accelerate ripening and immobilize contaminated dredging sludge.  

PubMed

In this study cement and quicklime are examined as binders to enhance the ripening process and immobilize contaminants in dredging sludge. Ripening comprises the drying in the open air till a dry matter content of 50-55% is reached. For this study, a dredging sludge of the highest contamination category was used. The binders speed up the ripening process substantially since the binders as such increase the dry matter content upon mixing, but they also modify the structure so that evaporation is facilitated. Furthermore, the reaction of cement and quicklime with water generates heat that also stimulates evaporation, and both binders, in combination with dredging sludge, bind water chemically (twice as much as expected). The total time for ripening could be reduced by 70%, which means that existing treatment depots can be used more effectively. The emission of contaminants was determined by a standard leaching test. The cement and quicklime had opposite effects on the leaching of constituents. The addition of cement had negative effects on sulphate, fluoride, and zinc, which were compensated by the addition of quicklime. On the other hand, cement reduced the emission of chloride, copper, and nickel, while quicklime seemed to increase the emission of these constituents. The concentration and emission of contaminants of the treated dredging sludge meet the requirements of the current legislation. It is therefore concluded that the presented method is able to produce, in a much shorter time, an applicable building material from contaminated dredging sludge. PMID:17204367

Brouwers, H J H; Augustijn, D C M; Krikke, B; Honders, A

2007-06-25

48

Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality: contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental\\u000a risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during\\u000a dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the

Ronaldo J. Torres; Denis M. S. Abessa; Fernando C. Santos; Luciane A. Maranho; Marcela B. Davanso; Marcos R. L. do Nascimento; Antonio A. Mozeto

2009-01-01

49

Environmental effects of dredging. Role of contaminant uptake in the potential use of phragmites australis (cav.) trin. On confined disposal facilities. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

PURPOSE: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., common reed, is a plant species that is common to fresh- and brackish-water marshes of the world. P. australis has been recommended as one plant species that could survive and grow after being completely buried during dredged material disposal (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis can also serve as a physical barrier, because of its strong stems, to dredged material flow during hydraulic disposal. Decreasing dredged material flow helps to increase consolidation of hydraulically dredged material (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis is a plant species recommended for habitat development on dredged material disposal sites (Hunt et al. 1978). Plant establishment on marsh creation projects using uncontaminated dredged material poses little threat of increasing environmental cycling of contaminants. However, plant establishment or natural invasion of plants on contaminated dredged material has the potential for increased environmental cycling (mobility) of contaminants. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to determine contaminant uptake by P. australis since many dredged material disposal sites support lush stands of P. australis and contaminant uptake by this species was unknown.

Folsom, B.L.; VanDerWerff, M.

1988-12-01

50

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 10. Evaluation of dredging and dredging control technologies. Technical report, August 1985March 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an evaluation of dredging equipment and techniques for removal of highly contaminated sediments from the upper estuary of the Acushnet River, a portion of the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project. Site conditions as related to dredge selection and operation, factors considered in selection of equipment, various dredge types considered for use, and operational procedures

M. R. Palermo; V. R. Pankow

1988-01-01

51

Update of dredged material capping experiences in the United States  

SciTech Connect

There has been considerable experience in the United States regarding level-bottom capping operations in the New England area and in New York Bight. These operations involve placement of contaminated sediments at open-water sites by bottom dumping from hopper dredges or barges, forming a mound on the bottom followed by placement of a cap of clean sediment. More recent US capping experiences involve hydraulic placement of highly contaminated sediments from a Superfund project in New Bedford, Massachusetts, in preexcavated subaqueous pits. These sediments were capped by hydraulically placing clean sediment using a submerged diffuser. Other recent innovations include controlled placement of materials in thin layers by pipeline and from barges, recently accomplished in Puget Sound. Results from these projects and planned demonstrations of other capping procedures will extend capping experience in the United States to a wide range of project conditions.

Palermo, M.R.

1992-03-01

52

Ocean dredged material disposal site management: An overview  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) was amended to require that site management plans (SMPs) be prepared for all 108 ocean dredged material disposal sites by January 1997. SMPs are to be jointly developed by EPA and the US Army Corps of Engineers and must include: a baseline assessment of conditions at the site; a program for monitoring the site; special management conditions or practices necessary for protection of the environment; consideration of the quantity of the material to be disposed of at the site, and the presence, nature, and bioavailability of contaminants in the material; consideration of the anticipated use of the site over the long term, including the anticipated closure date for the site, and any need for management of the site after closure; and a schedule for review and revision of the plan. SMPs and any revisions, must be made available for public comment.

Baker, B.; Buchholz, K.

1995-12-31

53

Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

NONE

1988-04-01

54

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

1995-02-01

55

Guidelines for Dewatering/Densifying Confined Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary emphasis of Task 5A research was oriented toward dewatering fine-grained dredged material resulting from maintenance operations and placed in confined disposal areas. Based on results of research, as synthesized herein, it was determined that: (a)...

T. A. Haliburton

1978-01-01

56

Chemical and ecotoxicological guidelines for managing disposal of dredged material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different conventions around the world have produced guidelines for the disposal of dredged material (e.g., London Convention 1972 (LC) (www.Londonconvention.org); Oslo\\/Paris Convention (OSPAR) (www.ospar.org); and, the Helsinki and Barcelona Conventions). They suggest the use of different methodologies from physico-chemical to biological approaches to the management of different routes of disposal or uses of the dredged material.Most of these conventions propose

J. Blasco

2004-01-01

57

Modeling transport of disposed dredged material from placement sites in Grays Harbor, WA  

E-print Network

Modeling transport of disposed dredged material from placement sites in Grays Harbor, WA E- to mid- term dredge material management strategies for the Federal Navigation Project at Grays Harbor dredging quantities. However, the most heavily used dredged material placement sites lie in proximity

US Army Corps of Engineers

58

ERDC/ELTR-13-3 Bayou Segnette Waterway Dredged Material  

E-print Network

ERDC/ELTR-13-3 Bayou Segnette Waterway Dredged Material Placement Study Preliminary Assessment-13-3 March 2013 Bayou Segnette Waterway Dredged Material Placement Study Preliminary Assessment requires periodic dredging to maintain its navigability. However, traditional dredged material placement

US Army Corps of Engineers

59

A basin-wide approach to dredged material management in New York/New Jersey Harbor.  

PubMed

In the last decade, an area of increasing estuarine research in the New York/New Jersey Harbor has been the identification of toxic contaminant sources, mapping of contaminant levels in water and sediments, and assessment of contaminant accumulation in biota. The accumulation of anthropogenic contamination in the harbor's sediments has occurred for centuries, primarily from land-based municipal and industrial sources. Contaminants from land-based sources introduced into surface waters rapidly become scavenged by suspended particles that then tend to settle to the bottom, primarily in deep areas, such as berths and navigation channels. Several million cubic meters of sediments must be dredged annually to clear navigation channels. In the past, the dredged material was disposed in a designated ocean site. However, in1992, new testing procedures were implemented, and much of the harbor's dredged material was determined to be unsuitable for ocean placement. It is ironic that these restrictions came at a time when the quality of harbor sediments is improving, largely because of pollution controls implemented as a result of the Clean Water Act and other environmental measures put in place by government and industry. For example, the harbor-wide concentration of mercury has decreased to 0.7-0.8ppm, a level that is approaching the pre-industrial background level. Nevertheless, in certain areas of the harbor, there remain sufficiently high concentrations of contaminants to merit concern and to create serious problems for sponsors of dredging projects. Development of a basin-wide sediment management strategy is necessary to guide port decision-makers in their efforts to clean-up contaminant sources, to dredge regional waterways, and to ameliorate the contaminated sediment disposal problem. The backbone of this strategy is the integration of the data from an ongoing field monitoring and modeling program with a parallel investigation of watershed and airshed sources and sinks using industrial ecology methodology. PMID:11463500

Wakeman, T H; Themelis, N J

2001-07-30

60

A study of offshore benthic communities in natural areas and in areas affected by dredging and dredged material disposal  

E-print Network

A STUDY QF OFFSHORE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES IN NATURAL AREAS AND IN AREAS AFFECTED BY DREDGING AND DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL A Thesis by CLYDE ALLAN HENRY e Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Biology A STCDY OF 0-FSHOBE BENTHIC COMKTNITIES IN NATURAL AREAS AND IN AREAS AFFECTED BY DREDGING AND DREDCFD NATERIAL DISPOSAL A Thesis by CLYDE ALLAN HENRY Approved...

Henry, Clyde Allan

2012-06-07

61

Environmental effects of dredging. Literature review for residue-effects relationships with hydrocarbon contaminants in marine organisms. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this literature review was to identify potential residue-effects relationships involving hydrocarbon contaminants which are described in the scientific literature. That information will be used to develop guidance for interpreting the results of bioaccumulation experiments conducted in the regulatory evaluation of dredged material.

NONE

1990-12-01

62

Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

2003-01-01

63

Environmental effects of dredging. Technical considerations for application of leach tests to sediments and dredged material. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This note summarizes the characteristics of and differences among laboratory leach tests used for preproject evaluation of leachate quality in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) for dredged material. The guidance provided in this note is based on ongoing research conducted under the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

Myers, T.E.; Brannon, J.M.

1991-10-01

64

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent...M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent...

2011-01-01

65

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent...M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent...

2010-01-01

66

Methodology for determining feasibility and cost for converting dredged material to topsoil  

E-print Network

~ Superfund Site ~ Municipal Sanitary Topsoil ~ Landscaping Road Side Cover Parks ~ Bagged Soil Golf Course Figure 1. Manufacturing Soil Process and Its Uses. Although each manufactured soil project is unique, the process requires certain elements... for applications such as landfill cover and construction material. The finished product is shipped to the intended use site or market. Contaminated dredged sediments may be converted to topsoil and used as cover material for Superfund, mining, and landfill sites...

Graalum, Sara Jo Ann

2012-06-07

67

Dredged material isolation on the abyssal seafloor: A feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the result of an examination of the feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The focus is on the technical and environmental factors that constrain the considerations of feasibility. A thorough conceptual design of a dredging to abyssal deposition system is analyzed with regard to each subsystem and to the entire operational concept. These subsystems include: (1) a low leakage dredge, (2) equipment for material handling and loading into geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs), (3) the barge for transport and navigation, and (4) the subsystem for releasing the GFCs to sink to the abyssal seafloor isolation site. Particular consideration is given to the exclusion of dredged material from the ocean`s productive zone in the upper 1000 m. New theoretical models and previous empirical results are used to predict GFC motion through the water column and response to impact on the abyssal seafloor, including the case of potential release of contaminated, turbid water at impact. A geochemical model of the temporal and spatial evolution of the post-deposition geochemistry of the water column, the GFC contents and the sediments below is developed and analyzed; the results show that release of metals into the ocean waters would be insignificant. A model of the biological impacts of the introduction of dredged material in the abyssal environment is used to infer that: (1) biological diversity in the vicinity of the deposition site will be diminished, (2) biomass will be increased by dominance of a few fast growing, opportunistic benthic species, and (3) concentrations of trace elements and organic contaminant.

Valent, P.J.; Young, D.K.

1997-12-01

68

DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect

Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

2000-07-01

69

Data requirements for advancing techniques to predict dredge-induced sediment and contaminant releases -- A review  

SciTech Connect

In many areas of the world, contaminated sediments are being considered a major factor in the redistribution of toxic chemicals in the environment. While removal of contaminated sediments from the aquatic environment is often the preferred alternative for reducing the potential impacts of contaminated sediment, regulatory agencies and the public often express concern about contaminant releases during dredging operations. The US Army Corps of Engineers continues to develop techniques for making a priori estimates of the sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases during hydraulic and mechanical dredging activities. However, appropriate field data to verify and refine these techniques for a wide range of conditions are currently limited. Data needs include physical and operational characteristics of the dredge, waterway characteristics, sediment characteristics, sediment contaminant data, and water quality data collected during the dredging activity. This paper discusses key parameters required to improve the current predictive techniques and outlines the type of monitoring program needed to improve the comparability of the techniques to measured releases. The recommended monitoring program is derived from experiences with previous monitoring efforts. Planners of future dredging demonstrations are encouraged to collect similar data in order to advance the state of the art for predicting sediment and contaminant releases associated with dredging.

Averett, D.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station

1995-12-31

70

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR DREDGING CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is a growing national debate about dredging contaminated sediments, including risks to human health and the environment as well as the overall effectiveness of remedial activities. Presently, monitoring methods are available to address both concerns. This present...

71

CALIBRATION OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUSLY DISCHARGED DREDGED MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes modifications to a computer model originally developed by R.C.Y. Koh and Y.C. Chang for predicting the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into a water column. Changes to the simulation include the calibration and verification of the p...

72

DREDGED MATERIAL PLUME DISPERSAL IN CENTRAL LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

A simulation model based upon in situ current velocity data and records of disposal events was developed to predict the chemical exposure field resulting from dredged material disposal plumes in central Long island Sound (CLIS) during the spring of 1983. n the model, plumes are a...

73

DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

74

Case Study of Undrained Strength Stability Analysis for Dredged Material Placement Areas  

E-print Network

Case Study of Undrained Strength Stability Analysis for Dredged Material Placement Areas Timothy D perimeter dike at the Craney Island Dredged Material Management Area CIDMMA using an undrained strength of the effective overburden stress of the dredged material and the marine clay underlying the dike. An undrained

75

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED MATERIAL USING EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LIGHTWEIGHT  

E-print Network

1 DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED MATERIAL USING EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE an environmentally acceptable and economically beneficial reuse option for the management of dredged material is self/UPCYCLE Associates' technological and commercial approach focuses on the utilization of dredged material

Brookhaven National Laboratory

76

ERDC/CHLTR-12-18 Dredged Material Placement Site Capacity  

E-print Network

ERDC/CHLTR-12-18 Dredged Material Placement Site Capacity Analysis for Navigation Improvement. #12;ERDC/CHL TR-12-18 September 2012 Dredged Material Placement Site Capacity Analysis for Navigation of perfor- ming a dredged material placement (DMP) site capacity analysis for a Navigation Improvement

US Army Corps of Engineers

77

Submitted to Conference on Dredged Material Management: Options and Environmental Considerations  

E-print Network

Submitted to Conference on Dredged Material Management: Options and Environmental Considerations Cambridge, Massachusetts ­ 3-6 December 2000 Decontamination and Beneficial Use of Dredged Materials* E of dredged material decontamination technologies for the NY/NJ Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble

Brookhaven National Laboratory

78

Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and Supplemental Environmental Impact statement (EIS)  

E-print Network

Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and Supplemental Environmental Impact statement (EIS for the management and disposal of dredged material for the Calcasieu River and Pass, Louisiana project. The actions and strategies set forth in the DMMP/SEIS provides for the management of material dredged through operations

US Army Corps of Engineers

79

Environmental effects of dredging: Wetlands created for dredged material stabilization and wildlife habitat in moderate to high wave-energy environments. Technical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note describes successful techniques for developing marsh on dredged material in moderate to high wave-energy environments defined below for habitat creation and substrate stabilization. Marsh creation is often much more economical and practical for dredged material stabilization than the more conventional riprap or revetment methods. Additionally, marsh development on dredged material often offers the advantage of creating wildlife and

H. H. Allen; S. O. Shirley

1988-01-01

80

Regulatory Guidance Letter 87-08 SUBJECT: Testing Requirements for Dredged Material  

E-print Network

Regulatory Guidance Letter 87-08 SUBJECT: Testing Requirements for Dredged Material Evaluations that "The district engineer will review applications for permits for the discharge of dredged or fill)." The guidelines at 40 CFR 230.10(c) state in part that ".. no discharge of dredged or fill material shall

US Army Corps of Engineers

81

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey .K.W. Jones Brookhaven copyrightcoveringthispaper. #12;Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey K. W. Jones the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse

Brookhaven National Laboratory

82

The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material from  

E-print Network

The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers New and Maintenance Navigation Projects Beneficial Uses of Dredged Materials U.S. Environmental'sternsinhabitingamarshcreatedbydredgedmaterialonPoplarIsland,Maryland. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers #12;The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged

US Army Corps of Engineers

83

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 10. Evaluation of dredging and dredging control technologies. Technical report, August 1985-March 1988  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of dredging equipment and techniques for removal of highly contaminated sediments from the upper estuary of the Acushnet River, a portion of the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project. Site conditions as related to dredge selection and operation, factors considered in selection of equipment, various dredge types considered for use, and operational procedures and controls for sediment resuspension during dredging are described. Each of the dredge types is ranked according to the following criteria: compatibility for full-scale cleanup, availability, safety, potential for sediment resuspension, maneuverability, cleanup precision, cost and production flexibility, required water depth for operation, ability to access the site, and compatibility with disposal options.

Palermo, M.R.; Pankow, V.R.

1988-11-01

84

Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.  

PubMed

Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage). PMID:17826971

Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

2008-01-01

85

Environmental effects of dredging, technical notes. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Biomagnification of Contaminants in Aquatic Food Webs as a Result of Open-Water Disposal of Dredged Material ; Fate of Dredged Material During Open-Water Disposal; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Background and Preliminary Planning; Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits-Design Concepts and Placement Techniques; Monitoring Dredged Material Consolidation and Settlement at Aquatic Disposal Sites; Computerized Database for Interpretation of the Relationship Between Contaminant Tissue Residues and Biological Effects in Aquatic Organisms; Use of Daphnia Magna to Predict Consequences of Bioaccumulation; Simplified Approach for Evaluating Bioavailability of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Sediment; A Procedure for Determining Cap Thickness for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits; Acoustic Tools and Techniques for Physical Monitoring of Aquatic Dredged Material Disposal Sites; Contaminant Modeling; Use of Seabed Drifters for Locating and Monitoring Dredged Material Placement Sites.

NONE

1996-08-01

86

Metal solubility as a function of pH in a contaminated, dredged sediment affected by oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility as a function of pH for metals in a reduced dredged sediment, subjected to different redox conditions, was studied in a laboratory experiment. The redox conditions imposed simulated (i) the undisturbed sediment (flooded), (ii) a dredged material stored in a confined pond (aerated once and then flooded), (iii) an upland stored dredged material (drained and dried), and (iv)

F. M. Tack; O. W. J. J. Callewaert; M. G. Verloo

1996-01-01

87

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-06-01

88

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.  

SciTech Connect

The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-06-01

89

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY TO THE OCEAN DISPOSAL OF A DREDGED MATERIAL: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) relates the source input of the dredged material contaminants to the corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. The specific ob...

90

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact...United States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by the...

2014-07-01

91

Environmental effects of dredging. Managing dredged material via thin-layer disposal in coastal marshes. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes how dredged material can be successfully managed in an environmentally sound manner in marshes by placing it in layers of 5 to 15 cm. (Unless otherwise indicated, all layer thicknesses indicated in this report refer to material that has undergone postdisposal consolidation.) Environmental studies of this process and of the regulatory history of thin-layer disposal in marshes are summarized. General planning and monitoring considerations are described, including descriptions of the types of equipment used to place dredged material in thin layers in marshes.

Wilber, P.

1993-07-01

92

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY  

SciTech Connect

The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

93

Environmental effects of dredging. Implementation approach for thalweg disposal of dredged material. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note introduces the concept of thalweg disposal and associated considerations for implementation, including disposal site selection, environmental and regulatory considerations, and suitable dredging methods and equipment. Monitoring procedures are also outlined.

Olin, T.J.; Miller, A.C.; Palermo, M.R.

1993-05-01

94

TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF DREDGED MATERIALS: ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY AS DETERMINED BY BIOASSAYS AND BIOACCUMULATION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever dredged materials are disposed into the ocean, the potential effects of the materials on human health, fishery resources, and marine ecosystems may range from being negligible or unmeasurable to important. Because these effects may differ greatly at each dredged material...

95

Environmental effects of dredging. Evaluating environmental effects of dredged material management alternatives - a technical framework. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Note presents a brief description of a joint U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Technical Framework for the identification of environmentally acceptable alternatives for the management of dredged material. This Technical Note replaces the earlier Technical Note EEDPA-06-14, which should be discarded.

Palermo, M.R.; Francingues, N.R.; Engler, R.M.

1993-02-01

96

Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for disposal sites for dredged material. This variation made risk assessment and interpretation

J Mertens; S Luyssaert; S Verbeeren; P Vervaeke; N Lust

2001-01-01

97

Dredged Material Research. Notes, News, Reviews, Etc. Volume D-76-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The San Francisco District, Corps of Engineers, and the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP) are cooperating in a study of marsh development on dredged material used to fill a salt-production pond along the banks of Alameda Creek in south San Francisc...

1976-01-01

98

75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River, Oregon AGENCY: Environmental Protection...finalizes the designation of the Siuslaw River ocean dredged material disposal sites pursuant...dispose of material dredged from the Siuslaw River navigation channel, and to provide a...

2010-04-29

99

Synchrotron x-ray and electron micro-probe study of contaminated dredged sediments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments originating from periodic dredging of waterways were traditionally disposed of in storage sites without any precautions or treatments. There may be some environmental concerns especially when the dredged material comes from historically contaminated areas such as the North French coal basin. This study aims to characterize the metal mobility (mainly Zn and Pb) in deposited dredged sediments by combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The sediments consist of a silty fraction (~ 40 %: dominant quartz, minor feldspar), carbonates and a clay fraction (illite dominant, illite-smectite mixed layer, kaolinite). This mineralogical heterogeneity and the observed grain-size distribution (70 to 80 % wt of the total sediment is <50µm) lead to a need to use microbeam techniques to identify Zn and Pb carriers. Electron probe micro-analyse (EPMA) combined with microbeam x-ray fluorescence (µXRF) at Synchrotron sources were used to identify Zn and Pb carriers. In particular Zn and Pb distributions in thin-section samples were determined by µ-XRF elemental mappings. EPMA was used to determine the distribution of light elements for which the energy of the emission lines is below 4 keV (Si, S, P…). The presence of reduced (sulphides) and oxidized (sulphates, oxihydroxides) phases strongly suggests that the redox state is one of the major parameters controlling the metal mobility. Therefore x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were also performed to study the oxidation state in both bulk samples and on selected regions of interest in thin section samples. Preliminary chemical analyses In this work, the potential effects of the sample preparation on phase's structure and redox state were also studied and will be presented. In particular measurements using x-ray absorption spectroscopy were carried out on air dried or lyophilised powders and on samples stored in a cryogenic environment after sampling. For the latter, we studied the evolution of the iron oxidation state during the sample warm up (from -190°C to 20°C). To conclude, the need of further investigations will be discussed.

Poitevin, A.; Lerouge, C.; Wille, G.; Bataillard, P.; Hennet, L.

2012-04-01

100

INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RIPARIAN AND MARSH VEGETATION ON DREDGED-MATERIAL ISLANDS IN THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN  

E-print Network

INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RIPARIAN AND MARSH VEGETATION ON DREDGED-MATERIAL ISLANDS IN THE SACRAMENTO establishment and de- velopment were monitored for 3 1/2 years on a new, dredged-material island located within elevations when de- signing future levees, dredged-material deposition areas, and fish and wildlife habitat

Standiford, Richard B.

101

USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 2. STABILIZATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of diked dredge sediments has the potential to provide landfill for community development projects. However, the successful realization of this objective requires that proper attention be given to the problems (a) possible surface water pollution by the effluent from the ...

102

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing  

SciTech Connect

The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1993-10-01

103

Nematodes as Sensitive Indicators of Change at Dredged Material Disposal Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonstration of the recovery of marine habitats from perturbation, or of the effectiveness of protective measures, is dependent on the sensitivity of the target group in responding to change. This paper highlights the utility of the nematode component of the meiofauna as a tool for assessing disturbance from dredgings disposal. Transect surveys were conducted at three major dredged material disposal

S. E. Boyd; H. L. Rees; C. A. Richardson

2000-01-01

104

BIOASSESSMENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE HAZARDS OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 325 million m3 of sediment are dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United States. f this, 46 million m3 are disposed of annually in the ocean (Peddicord, 1987). ecisions regarding the ocean disposal of dredged material result, in large part, from bioasse...

105

Temporal effects of dredging and dredged material disposal on nekton in the offshore waters of Galveston, Texas, with notes on the natural histories of the most abundant taxa  

E-print Network

TEHPORAL 11FFEC S Ol DREDGING Ki'P3 DREDGED HATERIAL D. SPCSAL ON NEKTON IN THE OFF SHOPCE WATERS OI' GALVESTON, TEXAS, WITH NOTES ON THE NATLTAL HISTORIES OF THE HOST ABUNDANT 1'AXA A Thesis by BRMlDT FLYNN HENNINGSEN Submitted... to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment or the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Hajor Subject: Biology TEMPORAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL ON NEKTON IN THE OFFSHORE WATERS...

Henningsen, Brandt Flynn

2012-06-07

106

Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas  

E-print Network

Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass

107

Applicability of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Regulations to the Management of Navigational Dredged Material from  

E-print Network

to the Management of Navigational Dredged Material from the New York/New Jersey Harbor by Thomas John A thesis.........................................................................7 2.1 Interim Guidance for Freshwater Navigational Dredging...............................7 2 Management of Dredged Material........................................12 2.2 New York State Soil Clean Up

Brookhaven National Laboratory

108

Dredged-material disposal and total suspended matter offshore from Galveston, Texas  

E-print Network

consisted of approximately equal amounts of montmorillonite and illite. Monitoring of the disposal of dredged-material indicates that this material disperses as a series of "billowing eddies" in the form of a density current. Concentrations of TSM... consisted of approximately equal amounts of montmorillonite and illite. Monitoring of the disposal of dredged-material indicates that this material disperses as a series of "billowing eddies" in the form of a density current. Concentrations of TSM...

Cool, Thomas Edward

2012-06-07

109

Environmental effects of dredging: Guide to selecting a dredge for minimizing resuspension of sediment. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note contains assessments of conventional and special-purpose dredges in removing sediment with minimal sediment resuspension. If sediment resuspension is a critical factor in dredging areas of contaminated material, the following guidance will aid in specifying the dredge and operating conditions. Investigations were conducted as part of the Corps of Engineers Improvement of Operations and Maintenance Techniques (IOMT) Research Program to evaluate the resuspension of sediment into the water column due to dredging operations. Laboratory, field, and literature studies have been used to define the sediment resuspension characteristics of most conventional and several special-purpose dredges. The natural hydrophobic tendency of most organic contaminants and the high sediment-sorptive capacity for inorganic contaminants limits release to the soluble forms and makes the simple measure of sediment resuspension during dredging a relative measure of the potential for contaminant release.

Hayes, D.F.

1986-12-01

110

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged in a pseudogley soil (pH 8.2­8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zn. This study shows that land deposition of contaminated dredged sediments is a source of Zn for the covered

111

Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

1992-12-01

112

UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

113

Colonial-nesting waterbird utilization of a dredged material island in Sabine Lake, Texas  

E-print Network

COLONIAL-NESTING WATERBIRD UTILIZATION OF A DREDGED MATERIAL ISLAND IN SABINE LAKE, TEXAS A Thesis by EDWIN SHANLEY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences COLONIAL-NESTING WATERBIRD UTILIZATION OF A DREDGED MATERIAL ISLAND IN SABINE LAKE, TEXAS A Thesis by EDWIN SHANLEY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chai...

Shanley, Edwin

2012-06-07

114

Geological criteria for the selection of unconfined dredged material disposal sites in estuaries and lagoons  

E-print Network

GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the rectuirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Ma jor Sub j ect: Geology GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAM Approved as to style and content by...

McHam, Robert Michael

2012-06-07

115

The plant geography of dredged-material islands along the Texas coast  

E-print Network

grouping of selected dredged-material island species. 44 7. Percentage of insular floras which are sand adapted. . 51 B. Soil data ? Last Island. 55 9. Soil data ? Point Comfort Island. 57 10. Soil data ? Crane Island. 62 11. Soil data - Discontinued... for the Texas Goast and during the field surveys of the selected dredged-material islands. Data collected in the field consists of elevational ranges for individual plant species, soil salinity and soil texture. The elevational data was obtained from...

Irish, Gary Joe

2012-06-07

116

Flume experiments on sediment mixtures from the offshore dredged material disposal site, Galveston Texas  

E-print Network

FLUME EXP RIMENTS ON SED IliENT MIXTURES FROM 1'HE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONX JOSEPH MOHEREK Submitted t. o th' Graduate Co1lege of Iexas Atli University in partial Fulfillment... of the requirement for tht degree of MASTER OF SC:ENCE August 1977 Major Sub. :e . t: Oceanograghy FLUME EXPERIMENTS ON SEDIMENT MIXTURES FROM THE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONY JOSEPH MOHEREK Approved...

Moherek, Anthony Joseph

2012-06-07

117

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York  

SciTech Connect

Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-08-01

118

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

119

Reducing the Effects of Dredged Material Levees on Coastal Marsh Function: Sediment Deposition and Nekton Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged\\u000a through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind\\u000a the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition,\\u000a and the effect on estuarine organism

Denise J. Reed; Mark S. Peterson; Brian J. Lezina

2006-01-01

120

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

1996-11-01

121

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

122

A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.  

PubMed

A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ?1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities. PMID:20674146

Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

2010-12-01

123

Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

1996-07-01

124

Suitability of Dredged Material for Reclamation of Surface-Mined Land. Ottawa, Illinois, Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to monitor the impact upon water quality when using dredged material to reclaim coal-mine spoil. An area of severely degraded mine spoil near Ottawa, Illinois, was divided into four plots by dikes of spoil material covered with he...

W. Harrison, A. Van Luik, L. S. Loon, C. Tome, T. A. Bannister

1980-01-01

125

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

126

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York  

SciTech Connect

Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-08-01

127

76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Fort Lauderdale...cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District (USACE), intends...in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the potential construction...

2011-05-09

128

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

129

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

130

Dredge Planning Using Sub-Bottom SONAR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to give students valuable geophysical experience in conducting an environmental assessment of a real-world problem. A scenario is developed in which students work for "Viking Consulting, LLC" as an environmental geologist. The company has been hired by the City of Salem to assess an appropriate confined aqueous disposal (CAD) cell location for contaminated dredge spoils from a proposed dredging project of the South River, Salem, MA. Students utilize sub-bottom SONAR technology to calculate volume of dredge spoils and potential CAD cell locations and analyze which location can accommodate the contaminated material.

Hubeny, Brad

131

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-12-01

132

Chemistry and biology of solid wastes, dredge materials and mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

This book examines in 12 chapters the chemical and mineralogical trace element characteristics of dredged sediments and mine tailings, and the chemical and biological processes that determine the fate of trace elements from these two sources in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. This volume is the first of two, the second entitled Environmental Management of Dredged Material and Mine Tailings. The specific subject matter of this book is prefaced by three review chapters on the chemical and biological processes that determine trace element environmental fate. The remaining nine chapters can be classified into two types: case histories and assessment methodology.

Salomons, W.; Forstner, U. (eds.)

1988-01-01

133

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-10-01

134

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-07-01

135

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives. Report 4. Surface runoff quality evaluation for confined disposal. Technical report, June-February 1987  

SciTech Connect

The thickness of capping material needed to chemically sequests the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor sediment from the overlying water column and aquatic biota was assessed in a small-scale predictive test. Changes in the overlying water concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium-nitrogen, and orthophosphate-phosphorus were monitored following isolation of the water column from the atmosphere by placing a 4-cm layer of mineral oil on the water surface. The chemical tracers (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate-phosphorus) were selected for their mobility under anaerobic conditions, ease of measurement, and generally high concentrations in contaminated dredged material compared with clean sediments. The chemical tracers were used to evaluate the efficiency of the capping material in preventing transfer of contaminants from New Bedford Harbor sediment into the overlying water column.

Skogerboe, J.G.; Price, R.A.; Brandon, D.L.

1988-10-01

136

Minimizing Impacts of Maintenance Dredged Material Disposal in the Coastal Environment: A Habitat Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, coastal disposal of maintenance dredged material constitutes one of the most important problems in coastal zone management and in some coastal areas represents the major anthropogenic disturbance to the benthos. In this review we first propose, based on the classic literature, that macrofaunal communities typical of environmentally stressed habitats are more resilient than those of more environmentally stable

Stefan G. Bolam; Hubert L. Rees

2003-01-01

137

Inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments was compiled on behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. Relevant assays were identified from the literature and experts from several countries contributed to a questionnaire survey on established and developing procedures. The biotest methods are applicable to whole sediment, sediment suspension, sediment elutriate, porewater

Monika Nendza

2002-01-01

138

DREDGED MATERIAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT: SINGLE-SPECIES TOXICITY/BIOACCUMULATION AND MACROBENTHOS COLONIZATION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 have been used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. ur objective was to compar...

139

Enhancing Water Quality and Dredged Material for the Port of Harlingen (Phase I)  

E-print Network

are partially the result of the placement of dredged spoil material on the banks of the stream. In the upper portions of the tidal segment, the steep banks are thought to occasionally impede the flow of air across the surface of the stream, which can reduce...

Berthold, A.

140

A COMPUTER STUDY OF THE KOH-CHANG MODEL FOR DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is on a computer study of the Koh-Chang model for physical fate prediction in dredge material disposal. This computer model can simulate three discharge methods: instantaneous bottom release, jet discharge, and discharge into a wake. Convective descent, dynamic collap...

141

LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (LTMS) FOR PLACEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with the EIS for the "Long Term management Strategy (LTMS) for Placement of Dredged material in the San Francisco Bay Region, Final policy Environmental Impact Statement and Programmatic Environmental Impact Report." Published October, 1...

142

Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines in Ecological Risk Assessment of Dredged Materials: Preliminary Reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risk assessment appears as an useful approach for dredged materials. It is often proposed in the form of a tiered approach, the first tier relying upon a chemical characterisation of sediments, and a simplified risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines. A recently proposed tiered framework, relying upon published sediment quality guidelines and a mean quotient approach at the

M. P. Babut; J. Garric; M. Camusso; P. J. den Besten

2003-01-01

143

Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

Bothner, M. H.; Gill, P. W.; Boothman, W. S.; Taylor, B. B.; Karl, H. A.

1998-01-01

144

Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material  

SciTech Connect

Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

1982-01-01

145

Mechanical Properties of Bottom Ash - Dredged Material Mixtures in Laboratory Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom ash from EC Gda?sk and dredged material taken from the mouth of The Vistula were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. Mixtures with different bottom ash content were tested in laboratory to determine its basic physical and mechanical properties. The optimum bottom ash-dredged material mixture, built in the corps of the test dike, contains 70% of ash. The optimum bottom ash content in the mixture was chosen taking into account high internal friction angle, good compaction and reduced filtration coefficient. The maximum dry density of the mixtures was measured in Proctor test for the mixtures formed in laboratory and on samples taken from the test dike. Minimum and maximum void ratio were also determined.

Ba?achowski, Lech; Sikora, Zbigniew

2013-09-01

146

Assessment of the effectiveness of environmental dredging in South Lake, China.  

PubMed

Environmental dredging is a primary remedial option for removal of the contaminated material from aquatic environment. Of primary concern in environmental dredging is the effectiveness of the intended sediment removal. A 5-year field monitoring study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the environmental dredging in South Lake, China. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphors, and heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, and As) before and after dredging in sediment were determined and compared. Multiple ecological risk indices were employed to assess the contamination of heavy metals before and after dredging. Our results showed that the total phosphorus levels reduced 42% after dredging. Similar changes for Hg, Zn, As Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed, with reduction percentages of 97.0, 93.1, 82.6, 63.9, 52.7, 50.1, 32.0, and 23.6, respectively, and the quality of sediment improved based on the criterion of Sediment Quality Guidelines by USEPA and contamination degree values (Cd) decreased significantly (paired t-test, p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the TN increased 49% after dredging compared to before dredging. Findings from the study demonstrated that the environmental dredging was an effective mechanism for removal of total phosphorus and heavy metals from South Lake. Nevertheless, the dredging was ineffective to remove total nitrogen from sediment. We conclude that the reason for the observed increase in TN after dredging was likely ammonia release from the sediment impairing the dredging effectiveness. PMID:17562102

Wang, Xiao Yu; Feng, Jiang

2007-08-01

147

A field study on phytoremediation of dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals and nutrients: the impacts of sediment aeration.  

PubMed

Compared to traditional chemical or physical treatments, phytoremediation has proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. A field study was conducted in a sediment disposal site predominantly colonized by Typha angustifolia under different sediment moisture conditions to estimate the phytoremediation effects of dredged sediment. The moisture content was 37.30 % and 48.27 % in aerated and waterlogged sediment, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) content was higher in the waterlogged sediment than in the aerated sediment. The total Cd contents were lower in aerated sediment, which was mainly resulted from the lower exchangeable fraction of Cd. The bioaccumulation of P, Cu and Pb in T. angustifolia was promoted by waterlogging, and the belowground tissue concentrations and accumulation factors (AFs) of Cu were higher than that of other metals, which can be explained by that Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants. Consistent with many previous studies, T. angustifolia showed higher metal levels in roots than in above-ground tissues at both the sediment conditions. Due to the improved biomass produced in the aerated sediment, the removals of nutrients and the metals by plant harvest were higher from aerated sediment than from waterlogged sediment. It was indicated that maintaining the dredged sediment aerated can avoid release risk and plant uptake of metals, while the opposite management option can promote phytoextraction of these contaminants. PMID:25012206

Wu, Juan; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

2014-12-01

148

DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

149

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 12. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, have been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and heavy metals. The high levels of contamination have resulted in the New Bedford site being placed on the National Priorities List of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites. The US Army Corps of Engineers has been working since 1986 in efforts to evaluate remedial action alternatives for this site. The purpose of the EFS was to evaluate the engineering feasibility of dredging and selected disposal alternatives for removal and disposal of contaminated sediment from the New Bedford Superfund Site. Results of the EFS are presented in a series fo 12 reports. Reports 1-11 present detailed results of field investigations, laboratory studies, and engineering analyses. This executive summary highlights information from the first 11 reports and presents results of the EFS.

Averett, D.E.; Otis, M.J.

1990-01-01

150

Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

1995-01-01

151

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York  

SciTech Connect

South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

1996-09-01

152

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

153

Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

1996-02-01

154

Bacteriological water quality effects of hydraulically dredging contaminated upper Mississippi River bottom sediment.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriological effects of hydraulically dredging polluted bottom sediment in the navigation channel of the Upper Mississippi River (river mile 827.5 [about 1,332 km] to 828.1 [about 1,333 km]) were investigated. Bottom sediment in the dredging site contained high total coliform densities (about 6,800 most-probable-number total coliform index per g [dry weight] and 3,800 membrane filter total coliforms per g [dry weight]), and fecal coliforms comprised an average 32% of each total coliform count. Total coliform and fecal coliform densities in water samples taken immediately below the dredge discharge pipe were each approximately four times corresponding upstream values; fecal streptococcus densities were approximately 50 times corresponding upstream values. Correlation analysis indicated that mean turbidity values downstream to the dredging operation were directly and significantly (r greater than 0.94) related to corresponding total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus densities. Salmonellae and shigellae were not recovered from either upstream or downstream water samples. Turbidity and indicator bacteria levels had returned to predredge values within less than 2 km below the dredge spoil discharge area at the prevailing current velocity (about 0.15 m/s). PMID:7377776

Grimes, D J

1980-01-01

155

Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

2007-05-07

156

Heavy metal contents in surface soils along the Upper Scheldt river (Belgium) affected by historical upland disposal of dredged materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, periodical dredging of river sediments has been necessary to allow for shipping traffic on the river Scheldt. Sediments were disposed along the shores in the alluvial plain without concern for the potential presence of contaminants. The aim of this study was to survey the alluvial plains of the Upper Scheldt river in Belgium for the presence of

Bart Vandecasteele; Bruno De Vos; Filip M. G. Tack

2002-01-01

157

Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor.  

PubMed

A comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE-NYD) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY/NJ). The primary objective of the DMMP is to identify cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives for the placement of dredged material derived from ongoing and proposed navigation improvements within the PANY/NJ. A significant portion of this dredged material is classified as unsuitable for open-ocean disposal. One suite of alternatives presented within the DMMP is the beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration within the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary. Proposed beneficial use/habitat development projects include the use of dredged material for construction of artificial reefs, oyster reef restoration, intertidal wetland and mudflat creation, bathymetric recontouring, filling dead-end canals/basins, creation of bird/wildlife islands, and landfill/brownfields reclamation. Preliminary screening of the proposed beneficial use alternatives identified advantages, disadvantages, potential volumes, and estimated costs associated with each project type. Continued study of the proposed beneficial use alternatives has identified areas of environmental research or technology development where further investigation is warranted. PMID:15327845

Yozzo, David J; Wilber, Pace; Will, Robert J

2004-10-01

158

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122... 36.96139 ?122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 ?121... 36.80243 ?121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500...

2011-01-01

159

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122... 36.96139 ?122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 ?121... 36.80243 ?121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500...

2012-01-01

160

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122... 36.96139 ?122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 ?121... 36.80243 ?121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500...

2010-01-01

161

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122... 36.96139 ?122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 ?121... 36.80243 ?121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500...

2013-01-01

162

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

...Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122... 36.96139 ?122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 ?121... 36.80243 ?121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500...

2014-01-01

163

Surgical dredging controls turbidity  

SciTech Connect

The need to remove contaminated and uncontaminated sediments located under a column of water is increasing. Small hydraulic dredges offer flexibility in the removal of sediments in industrial lagoons, wetlands, drinking water ponds, and environmentally sensitive areas.

Seagren, E.H. [Ellicott Machine Corp. International, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1994-06-01

164

EnvironmentalEffects of Dredging  

E-print Network

#~ EnvironmentalEffects of Dredging VOL D-91-2 INFORMATION EXCHANGE BULLETIN OCT 1991 Craney Island Experiment Station Fine-grained dredged material usual- ly enters a confined disposal area in a slurry of the soil matrix. The excess pore-water pressures are induced by the weight of overlying dredged material

165

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

166

Estimating the spatial distribution of dredged material disposed of at sea using particle-size distributions and metal concentrations.  

PubMed

We present a method to estimate the spatial distribution of dredged material disposed of at sea. Using both dredged sediments and samples of sea-bed sediment from near the Rame Head disposal site, Plymouth, UK, we applied entropy analysis to the <63 microm sediment fraction and combined the results with the trace metal data in the same fraction, to form a series of groups. We interpret the distribution of sediments in one group (F1) to approximate the distribution of material affected by the disposal site. This distribution includes locations close to the disposal site, and also locations <4 km to the SE and SW, <6 km to the NW and <2 km to the N. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of using trace metal analysis of particular grain size fractions to reduce uncertainty in interpreting the spatial distribution of impacts of dredge disposal. PMID:19464703

Okada, Tomonari; Larcombe, Piers; Mason, Claire

2009-08-01

167

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for discharge in waters of the US - testing manual. Inland testing manual  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) document Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Discharge in Waters of the U.S. - Testing Manual. This document is commonly referred to as the Inland Testing Manual (ITM). The purpose of the ITM is to provide guidance regarding technical protocols under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material associated with navigational dredging projects into waters of the United States. This memorandum provides background information on the ITM, describes its scope and applicability, and outlines a schedule for its implementation. In accordance with that schedule, the ITM will be phased in over the next 18 months.

NONE

1998-02-01

168

Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July 1996 as a result of spraying, and despite initial shallow subsidence and continual erosion through February 1998, water bottom elevation was raised sufficiently to allow S. alterniflora to invade via rhizome growth from the adjacent marsh. Hence, thin-layer deposition of dredged material at this site was effective at restoring and maintaining marsh elevation after 1.5 years. However, if the open water sediment deposits are not soon completely stabilized via further vegetative colonization, erosion may eventually lower elevations to the level where emergent vegetation cannot persist.

Ford, M. A.; Cahoon, D. R.; Lynch, J. C.

1999-01-01

169

Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments  

E-print Network

Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging 31 August 2006; received in revised form 11 January 2007; accepted 11 January 2007 Dredging freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953e1979) and dredged in 1994e1995. Eight years

Levinton, Jeffrey

170

Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five years of research in New England indicates that ocean disposal of dredged material has minimal environmental impacts when carefully managed. This paper summarizes research efforts and resulting conclusions by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, beginning with the Scientific Report Series and continuing with the Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS). Using a tiered approach to monitoring

T. J Fredette; G. T French

2004-01-01

171

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

...S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458 ?122.56900 2 37.74963 ?122.62281 3 37.74152...

2014-01-01

172

Pilot dredging study, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund project  

SciTech Connect

Testing of sediment from the northern portion of New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, has revealed that most of the area is contaminated by polychlorinated. biphenyls (PCBs). In August 1984, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Feasibility Study of Remedial Action Alternatives for this area, which proposed five cleanup alternatives. Four of these dealt specifically with dredging the area to remove the contaminated sediments. In response to comments received, the USEPA asked the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to perform additional studies to better evaluate the engineering feasibility of dredging as a cleanup alternative. This study is a joint effort of the US Army Engineer Division, New England, Waltham, Mass., and the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Miss. This paper describes a proposed pilot study of dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives to support the engineering feasibility study.

Andreliunas, V.L.

1992-04-01

173

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1993-10-01

174

Analyses of native water and dredged material from southern Louisiana waterways, 1975-76  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From June 1975 to July 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted nine dredging and seven postdredging studies related to water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Mississippi River at Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at New Orleans, Bayou Rigaud near Grand Isle, Barataria Bay and Waterway, Bayou La Carpe near Houma, Atchafalaya Bay (Ship Channel), Lower Atchafalaya River area, Intracoastal Waterway near Calumet, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), Petite Anse area, and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. These studies were conductd to determine potential environmental effects of dredging activities in the waterways. The Geological survey collected, treated, and analyzed 383 water and water-sediment mixture samples from 85 dredging sites and 142 postdredging samples (72 sites). Water samples were collected 100 yards upstream and downstream from the dredge effluent, from the disposal area, and from the effluent outfall during the dredge phase of the study; samples were collected at former dredge sites during the postdredging phase. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients, and organic constituents. The analytical data are presented in tables. Sampling sites are shown on maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Demas, Charles R.; Higgins, Patricia C.

1977-01-01

175

A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

1980-01-01

176

Evaluation of the flora and fauna of a Spartina alterniflora marsh established on dredged material in Winyah Bay, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 35 hectares ofSpartina alterniflora marsh has, over a 14-year period, developed naturally on unconfined dredged material placed within the intertidal zone of\\u000a Winyah Bay, South Carolina. The above-and below-ground vegetative structure, benthic macrofauna, and resident fish and shellfish\\u000a assemblages of two varying-aged zones (4 and 8 years) of this marsh were evaluated and compared in September 1988. Vegetative\\u000a structure

Mark W. LaSalle; Mary C. Landin; Jerre G. Sims

1991-01-01

177

National harbors program: report on the need for changes in dredged material disposal policy. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Findings of IWR`s study conducted in response to Section 216 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1992 are presented concerning nationally increasing problems confronting disposal of materials which must be dredged from Federal harbor projects. The study focussed on the Corps of Engineers program and the cost-sharing, financing and Federal/non-Federal responsibility issues arising from growing disposal costs and tightening budgets. An array of policy options was derived from which key components were selected to address all the principal issues. A projective analysis model was developed to estimate the potential effects of varying assumptions on the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund balances through the year 2015. The analysis did not consider the November 1995 ruling of the U.S. Court of International Trade that the Harbor Maintenance Tax is unconstitutional with respect to the tax on exports. While there is need to reduce Federal outlays, there has been a rapidly increasing trust fund balance, and non-Federal interests have expressed strong interest in rolling back the tax. Substantial changes in cost sharing and financing are proposed herein for consideration by Headquarters, USACE. Further consideration of rolling back the tax rate, however, must be deferred pending ultimate disposition of the recent ruling of the Court.

Holliday, W.C.

1996-05-01

178

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin  

SciTech Connect

Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

179

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

180

Zn speciation in a soil contaminated by the deposition of a dredged sediment by synchrotron X-ray techniques  

SciTech Connect

The nature and proportion of Zn species present in an agricultural soil overlaid by a dredged contaminated sediment have been untangled by the novel combination of three non-invasive synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: x-ray microfluorescence ({mu}SXRF), microdiffraction ({mu}XRD), and absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). One primary (franklinite) and two secondary (phyllomanganate and phyllosilicate) Zn-containing minerals were identified in the initial soil, and another primary (ZnS) and a new secondary (Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide) Zn species in the covered soil. The quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra recorded on bulk samples indicated that ZnS and Zn-Fe (oxyhydr)oxides amounted to 71+-10 percent and 27+-10 percent, respectively, and the other Zn species to less than 10 percent. The two new Zn species found in the covered soil result from the gravitational migration of ZnS particles initially present in the sediment, and from their further oxidative dissolution and fixation of leached Zn on F e (oxyhydr) oxides.

Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Laboudigue, Agnes; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

2003-09-01

181

Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.  

PubMed

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. PMID:24933908

Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

2014-01-01

182

Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)  

SciTech Connect

Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a slurry was added to experimental chambers seeded with adult razor clams to produce burial mounds of various thicknesses. The laboratory results presented here have two implications for disposal operations.

Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

2007-05-07

183

Application of neutral red retention assay to caged clams (Ruditapes decussatus) and crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the assessment of dredged material.  

PubMed

Dredged material management is a key issue for the protection of aquatic environments. The in situ approach using caged bioindicator species has been chosen lately as a new methodology for the assessment of dredged material. In a tier testing approach, neutral red retention (NRR) assay has been applied as a screening tool to detect adverse changes in health status associated with contamination. Nevertheless, to authors' knowledge, little is known about the application and validation of this technique in sediment bioindicator species and under field conditions. Caged Ruditapes decussatus and Carcinus maenas were exposed during 28 days to potentially contaminated sediments at three sites in Algeciras Bay (SW Spain) and one site in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain). Lysosomal membrane stability was measured over time in haemolymph samples of exposed clams and crabs using the NRR assay. Sediment characterization of the study sites was performed in parallel. NRR time did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) over time in organisms from Cádiz Bay. Conversely, significant differences (p < 0.05) in NRR time were found in clams and crabs exposed to sediments from Algeciras Bay, which exhibited a 30-70% decrease in haemocyte lysosome membrane stability compared to day 0. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the drop of haemocyte lysosome membrane stability, in both crabs and clams, and the presence of metals (p < 0.05) and PAHs (p < 0.01) in the studied sediments. The results obtained confirmed the use of NRR assay as a suitable and sensitive method to be used in the assessment of sediment quality using as bioindicator species the clam R. philippinarum and the crab C. maenas. PMID:21870173

Buratti, Sara; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Fabbri, Elena; DelValls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

2012-01-01

184

A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.  

PubMed

The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (?7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations. PMID:23813126

Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

2013-12-01

185

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

186

Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. I: Effects on sediment properties, contamination and toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation and management of coastal lagoons envisage direct human intervention. To prevent siltation and to preserve the hydrodynamics features of the lagoon system, the inner channels undergo regular maintenance dredging. Sediment properties (RDP, organic matter, grain size), trace metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb), and toxicity vs. the amphipod Corophium insidiosum and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, were analysed before and after dredging operations in a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Baiona, Italy). To detect the actual impacts, disturbed sites were contrasted with multiple controls in two distinct times, i.e. before and after disturbance, according to a sampling design based on Beyond BACI principles. The integrated methodology here adopted suggests that dredging operations carried out are not likely to pose dramatic effects on environmental quality of the lagoon.

Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Ponti, Massimo

2009-10-01

187

Radiological assessment of dredging application for  

E-print Network

Radiological assessment of dredging application for the port of Lancaster (2008) Cefas Environment 21/2008 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR THE PORT OF LANCASTER (2008) The Centre Marine material disposal ­ Part II FEPA #12;2 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION

188

Radiological assessment of dredging application for  

E-print Network

Radiological assessment of dredging application for Oldbury power station (2009) Cefas Environment 14 /2009 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR OLDBURY POWER STATION (2009) The Centre material disposal ­ Part II FEPA #12;2 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR OLDBURY POWER

189

Why do we dredge? What is beneficial use?  

E-print Network

Why do we dredge? What is beneficial use? Why do we need it? What about contamination? Can my community become involved? Why do we dredge? What is beneficial use? Why do we need it? What about contamination? Can my community become involved? Waste to Resource: Beneficial Use of Great Lakes Dredged

US Army Corps of Engineers

190

Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short-duration disposal scenarios, the shear force and surge currents estimated from the modeling and observed previously in the field at Palos Verdes, California appear to be sufficiently high to mobilize and transport the bottom sediment and at least juvenile crab. Behavioral response to surge currents probably occurs and may reduce the occurrence and extent of movement and any associated impacts. There evidence that burial by dredged materials can effect crab survival, but confounding factors in previous experiments preclude conclusions about thresholds and extent of effects. We recommend that future studies focus on burial effects during shallow water, short duration disposal events and take into account the potential for behavioral responses to mitigate any effects.

Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

2006-02-01

191

Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

Lurry, Dee L.

1983-01-01

192

Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.  

PubMed

The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites. PMID:16359711

Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

2006-06-01

193

Benthic resources assessment technique evaluation of potential dredged material disposal sites in Puget Sound. Pase 2 sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Engineer District, Seattle is currently involved in a decision-making process regarding the designation of open-water dredged-material disposal sites in Puget Sound and adjacent waters. In 1985 a joint effort was initiated to examine long-term requirements and strategies for open-water disposal of dredged materials. The quality of benthic habitats at proposed disposal sites was identified as a major topic of interest in the PSDDA study because of potential impacts to demersal fish feeding habitat. One aspect of benthic habitat quality is the relative amount of trophic support that a given benthic habitat provides demersal bottom-feeding fishes. Analytical procedures have been developed to estimate this aspect of benthic-habitat quality. These procedures are collectively called the Benthic Resources Assessment Technique, or BRAT. The BRAT analysis involves the collection of two data sets; one which describes benthic biomass in terms of size and vertical distribution in sediments at selected sites, and a second which describes the foraging depth and prey size exploitation pattern of demersal fishes at those sites. The BRAT then estimates that portion of the total benthic infaunal biomass that is both available and vulnerable to predation by target fishes.

Clarke, D.G.; Kendall, D.

1987-12-01

194

Quantitative Zn speciation in a contaminated dredged sediment by ?-PIXE, ?-SXRF, EXAFS spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredging and disposal of sediments onto agricultural soils is a common practice in industrial and urban areas that can be hazardous to the environment when the sediments contain heavy metals. This chemical hazard can be assessed by evaluating the mobility and speciation of metals after sediment deposition. In this study, the speciation of Zn in the coarse (500 to 2000

Marie-Pierre Isaure; Agnès Laboudigue; Alain Manceau; Géraldine Sarret; Christophe Tiffreau; Patrick Trocellier; Géraldine Lamble; Jean-Louis Hazemann; Daniel Chateigner

2002-01-01

195

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (US)

1993-07-01

196

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

197

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

198

Bioassessment methodologies for the regulatory testing of freshwater dredged material. Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the second phase of a 3-year (three-phase) project that the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) requested from the St. Paul District as planning assistance under Section 22 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-251). The State of Wisconsin is interested in identifying appropriate bioassessment testing methodologies for the regulatory testing of freshwater sediments scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. The report includes discussions and recommendations for specific approaches to bioassessment methods in the tiered testing protocol. The methods described in this report have the potential to be the most frequently used testing techniques, and represent the backbone of the tiered testing evaluation for regulatory testing of freshwater sediments.

Busacker, G.; Anderson, D.; Gibson, A.; Dillon, T.

1990-03-01

199

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2013-07-01

200

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2011-07-01

201

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2012-07-01

202

A temporal and spatial assessment of TBT concentrations at dredged material disposal sites around the coast of England and Wales.  

PubMed

Despite legislative interventions since the 1980s, contemporary concentrations of organotin compounds in marine sediments still impose restrictions on the disposal of dredged material in the UK. Here, we analyse temporal and spatial data to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the use of TBT paints in reducing concentrations at disposal sites. At a national scale, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of samples in which the concentration was below the limit of detection (LOD) from 1998 to 2010. This was observed for sediments both inside and outside the disposal sites. However, this temporal decline in organotin concentration is disposal site-specific. Of the four sites studied in detail, two displayed significant increases in proportion of samples below LOD over time. We argue that site-specificity in the effectiveness of the TBT ban results from variations in historical practices at source and unique environmental characteristics of each site. PMID:24368118

Bolam, Thi; Barry, Jon; Law, Robin J; James, David; Thomas, Boby; Bolam, Stefan G

2014-02-15

203

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.10.017 The effect of phytostabilization on Zn speciation in a dredged contaminated sediment using  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.10.017 The effect of phytostabilization on Zn speciation in a dredged large amounts of dredged sediments, which are depos- ited on adjacent land surfaces. These sediments © 2005 Elsevier Ltd 1. INTRODUCTION The regular dredging of sediment from waterways is neces- sary

204

Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. ‘Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of

P Vervaeke; S Luyssaert; J Mertens; E Meers; F. M. G Tack; N Lust

2003-01-01

205

Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

1988-01-01

206

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-07-01

207

Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

Hemminger, Carol S.

1992-01-01

208

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

209

STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED  

EPA Science Inventory

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

210

Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

1980-01-01

211

Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-12-01

212

Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal that has become radioactively contaminated in various activities of the nuclear enterprise. The DOE began to move in the early 1970s to manage contaminated scrap metals as a potential resource rather than a waste. In the mid-1980s, Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) initiated moves to involve private industry in responding to DOE needs in dealing with scrap metal. As a result of this action, three firms showed positive moves toward the beneficial reuse of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, both surface and volumetrically contaminated. From among these industrial firms, one was selected to deal with the specified ORO scrap metal inventories and has, at its own expense, developed technologies and constructed processing facilities to deal with large masses of radioactively contaminated metals from any source.

Large, D.E.; Arrowsmith, H.W. (SEG Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-01-01

213

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2011-07-01

214

Dredging elutriate test (DRET) development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The removal of contaminated sediments from waterways by dredging generates concern about the release of contaminants to the water column. The ability to predict the magnitude of these potential releases during the project planning process will improve decision making in regard to water quality impacts and controls or mitigation measures for the dredging project. This report describes the development of a simple laboratory test, the dredging elutriate test (DRET), to predict the concentration of contaminants in the water column at the point of dredging. The DRET is procedurally similar to the modified elutriate test developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict the contaminant concentrations in effluent from a confined disposal facility. The test involves mixing sediment and site water, allowing the heavier solid particles to settle, sampling and supernatant, and analyzing for dissolved and particulate bound contaminants. Results of the laboratory test compared well with field data collected while dredging New Bedford Harbor sediment, which was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Most of the contaminated loading was associated with the suspended particles.

DiGiano, F.A.; Miller, C.T.; Yoon, J.

1995-08-01

215

Temporal changes in the composition and abundance of the macro-benthic invertebrate communities at dredged material disposal sites in the anse à Beaufils, baie des Chaleurs, eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal changes in the composition and abundance of the macro-benthic invertebrate communities were studied at dredged sediment disposal sites located near L'Anse-à-Beaufils, baie des Chaleurs, Québec, Canada, in July and September 1994. A total of 5109 m3, 2485 m3 and 6002 m3 of dredged material from L'Anse-à-Beaufils harbour were damped within the study area in 1992, 1993 and 1994, respectively.

Michel Harvey; Daniel Gauthier; Jean Munro

1998-01-01

216

Direct and indirect effects of simulated calcareous dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus.  

PubMed

The direct and indirect effects of a simulated, calcarenite-based dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus were assessed. Direct effects were assessed by measuring hatch rate or survival of eggs and pre-feeding larvae, respectively, over a range of concentrations and exposure durations. Exposure of eggs to suspended solid concentrations up to 10 000 mg l(-1) for 24 h did not affect egg buoyancy or hatch rate, despite sediment adherence occurring at the two highest concentrations tested. Newly hatched larvae, whose mouths were still closed, were relatively tolerant of suspended solids, with a 12 h lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality, LC(50), of 2020 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 150 mg l(-1). Once the larvae's mouths opened, tolerance was significantly reduced, with a 12 h LC(50) of 157 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 4 mg l(-1). Tolerance of larvae to suspended solids was negatively correlated with suspended solids concentration and exposure time, with exposure durations of

Partridge, G J; Michael, R J

2010-07-01

217

Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-03-01

218

Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01

219

A Dredging Knowledge-Base Expert System for Pipeline Dredges with Comparison to Field Data  

E-print Network

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 200 xi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Sediment and carrier uid variables and descriptions . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Pipeline system and dredged material parameters and descriptions . . 16 3 Equipment class attributes... cost factors from Miertschin and Randall (1998). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 17 Dredged material reduction factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 xii TABLE Page 18 Employee cost factors from Miertschin...

Wilson, Derek Alan

2011-02-22

220

Environmental effects of dredging, initial comparisons of six assays for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note reports and compares initial results of six genotoxicity bioassays applied to dredged sediments and describes progress toward development of a testing protocol to aid in regulatory decisionmaking when genotoxic chemicals are an issue of concern. The Long-term Effects of Dredging Operations Program work unit Genotoxicity of Contaminated Dredged Material was initiated in fiscal year 1990 to develop methods for assessing the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The impetus driving this new research and development effort was specific regulatory language in section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act (Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972) prohibiting the open-water discharge of mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic substances in other than trace amounts, and language less specific but of similar intent in section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.; Jarvis, S.

1995-01-01

221

Dredge Today, Restore Tomorrow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, students role-play members of a task force whose task it is to advise the Director of the National Park Service (their instructor) on the best location for creating a wetland using dredge material from the Potomac River.  Students apply previously learned knowledge about wetland ecology (i.e. hydrology, soils, and plants) to a wetland restoration decision. Through the case, students increase their understanding of the principles of ecosystem ecology and the complexity of natural resource management dilemmas. The case was developed for a wetland ecology course, but would also work well in an ecosystem ecology or natural resource management course.

Hopfensperger, Kristine N.

2011-01-01

222

Nonmetallic materials contamination studies. [space telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to impose adequate contamination control requirements in the selection of Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC) materials and to develop a data base of potential optical degradation of the WFPC charge-couple device window, the outgassing properties of WFPC materials and the collected volatile condensed material (CVCM) effects on MgF2 transmittance were measured. Changes in the transmittance were monitored in the wavelength region from 115 nm to 300 nm for selected CVCM thicknesses up to 150 nm. The outgassing properties of reemitted CVCM were also studied.

Muscari, J. A.; Beverlin, G.

1980-01-01

223

Contamination Level and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Yundang Lake, Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yundang Lake is an important area for living and traveling in Xiamen Island. Severe pollution and sedimentation have been found in the lake, and then the dredging is needed. In order to assess the pollution level of dredged material, sediments from 6 stations in the Yundang Lake were sampled for heavy metal contamination, speciation analysis, and adsorption-desorption experiment in April

Jing Lin; Minggang Cai; Anxiang Qi; Hongyou Hu; Canrong Qiu; Yun Wang; Qingquan Hong

2009-01-01

224

Removal of organic contaminants from lithographic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the critical issues still facing the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into mainstream manufacturing for integrated circuit (IC) production is cleanliness. EUV photons at 13.5 nm are easily absorbed by many species, including dust, thin-film layers, and other debris present in the path of the photons. Carrying out EUVL inside a vacuum helps reduce the amount of photon loss for illumination, however contamination in the sys- tem is unavoidable, especially due to carbon growth on the multilayer mirror collectors and to soft defects in the form of organic contamination on the mask. Traditional cleaning methods employ the use of wet chemicals to etch contamination off of a surface, however this is limited in the sub-micron range of contaminant particles due to lack of transport of sufficient liquid chemical to the surface in order to achieve satisfactory particle removal. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the photomask must be particle free at inspection below 30 nm. However, when analyzing the ability of traditional methods to meet the cleaning needs set forth by the ITRS, these methods fall short and often add more contamination to the surface targeted for cleaning. With that in mind, a new cleaning method is being developed to supplant these traditional methods. Preliminary research into a plasma-based method to clean organic contaminants from lithographic materials constructed an experimental device that demonstrated the removal of both polystyrene latex nanoparticles (representing hydrocarbon contamination) in the range of 30 nm to 500 nm, as well as the removal of 30 nm carbon film layers on silicon wafers. This research, called the Plasma-Assisted Cleaning by Metastable Atomic Neutralization (PACMAN) process is being developed with semiconductor manufacturing cleaning in mind. A model of the helium metastable density within the processing chamber has been developed in addition to experimental measurements of the metastable density at the sample surface. Cleaning efficiency has been linked to both metastable density as well as electric field in the plasma sheath. Electric field calculations in the plasma sheath reveal that an electric field pointing into the plasma is needed for achieving high cleaning rates of hydrocarbons. Operating the PACMAN process in this fashion allows for cleaning rates of approximately 1.2x107 +/- 5.1x105 nm3/min without causing damage to the surrounding structure of the sample being cleaned. Carbon contamination in the form of carbon films on lithographic material have been shown to clean at rates of approximately 3.0x106 +/- 1.3x10 5 nm3/min. The PACMAN process works by utilizing helium metastable atoms to break apart the contamination to be cleaned. As helium metastables interact with the surface of contamination, bonding electrons from the surface are 'stolen' by the metastable helium resulting in 'holes' where a bonding electron used to be. In this way, the structure of the contamination is compromised and allows for the removal either through desorbtion of CxHy molecules or by chain scission of the hydrocarbon backbone. The ultimate goal of this research is to understand the removal mechanism and provide ranges for the important parameters that lead to contamination removal from lithographic materials.

Lytle, Wayne M.

225

EFFECTS OF A CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL ON LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF THE TUBICOLOUS AMPHIPOD, AMPELISCA ABDITA  

EPA Science Inventory

Short-term and full life cycle toxicity tests have been conducted with Ampelisca ubdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP): These studies comprised a portion of the effects assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with a...

226

AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL. (R825513C017)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

227

LTFATE: A model to investigate the long-term fate and stability of dredged material disposal sites. User`s guide. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance on the use of the Long-Term FATE (LTFATE) computer program and describes its use through an interface available for the personal computer. LTFATE is a site evaluation tool that estimates the dispersion characteristics of a dredged material placement site over long periods of time, ranging from days for storm events to a year or more for ambient conditions. Simulations are based on the use of local wave and current condition input. Local, site-specific hydrodynamic input information is developed from numerical model-generated databases; however, user-supplied data files can be substituted for database-generated files described in this report.

Scheffner, N.W.; Thevenot, M.M.; Tallent, J.R.; Mason, J.M.

1995-05-01

228

Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using dredged sediments and the possibility of natural attenuation of the contaminated dredged sediment in the constructed tidal flat system.

Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

2007-12-01

229

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Effects of sediment organic-matter composition on bioaccumulation of sediment organic contaminants: Interim results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and fluoranthene to bioaccumulation by worms and clams and the relationship of sediment-bound PCB 153 and fluoranthene to concentrations in the interstitial water were examined. Bioaccumulation by both worms and clams was observed in all sediments. Apparent preference factor (APF) values showed that steady state was reached between sediment-bound contaminants and organism lipid pools. The APF values of organisms were close to the theoretical value for both contaminants in all sediments. These results showed that sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in conjunction with octanol water partition coefficients of nonpolar organic contaminants is a viable approach for predicting bioaccumulation of such compounds by infaunal organisms. Actual concentrations of contaminants in interstitial water were either overestimated or underestimated by the relationship between TOC and humic + fulvic acid organic matter fractions and sediment contaminant concentrations. Prediction of interstitial water concentrations was not as successful as use of APFs. The lack of agreement between predicted and actual interstitial water results was due to factors such as the presence of interstitial water contaminants bounds to microparticulates and dissolved organic material and the kind of organic material in the sediment.

Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.; Pennington, J.C.; McFarland, V.A.

1991-06-01

230

9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE OUT AT ALTERNATING TIMES. WHILE STARBOARD IS HAULED IN, PORT IS RELEASED OUT TO DREDGE. - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

231

Use of phytostabilisation to remediate mtal polluted dredged V Bert', Ch Lors2  

E-print Network

Use of phytostabilisation to remediate métal polluted dredged sédiment V Bert', Ch Lors2 scale on dredged sédiments polluted with metals. A sédiment deposit contaminated with metals of waterways générâtes numerous dredged sédiment deposits. Due to the local intensive industrial history

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Maintaining Access to America's Intermodal Ports/Technologies for Decontamination of Dredged  

E-print Network

Maintaining Access to America's Intermodal Ports/Technologies for Decontamination of Dredged will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m 3 ) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways

Brookhaven National Laboratory

233

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-09-01

234

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-09-01

235

ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)  

EPA Science Inventory

According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

236

Heavy Metal Immobilization Through Phosphate and Thermal Treatment of Dredged Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction.

Ndiba,P.; Axe, L.; Boonfueng, T.

2008-01-01

237

Upper Hudson Dredging Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

Chiarenzelli, Jeff

238

Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hocking, E.K. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Roberts, R. [Dept. of Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Phillips, J.W. [Analytical Services, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-10-01

239

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOEpatents

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-11-16

240

Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

Attia, Yosry A. (221 Oakland Park Ave., Columbus, OH 43214)

2000-01-01

241

Environmental effects of dredging: Naturally occurring levels of ammonia and sulfide in pore water: An assessment of the literature. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and sulfide are natural constituents of sediment. Both are very toxic to aquatic organisms. Consequently, their presence may bias dredged material toxicity bioassays that are designed to evaluate the toxicity of persistent contaminants such as heavy metals and petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The purpose of this technical note is to summarize published information on sediment pore water ammonia and sulfide concentrations that occur in situ. In a subsequent technical note, this exposure information will be coupled with ammonia and sulfide toxicity data to estimate the potential influence of these constituents on dredged material toxicity bioassays.

NONE

1995-05-01

242

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED ESTUARINE SEDIMENT: THE WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA VITRIFICATION PROCESS  

E-print Network

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED ESTUARINE SEDIMENT: THE WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA of the New York/New Jersey Harbor requires regular dredging. The offshore dumping facility has been closed, dredged material disposal, demonstration testing, process design. 1 McLaughlin, D. F., Fellow Engineer

Brookhaven National Laboratory

243

ERDC/ELTR-14-11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program  

E-print Network

ERDC/ELTR-14-11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Economical Treatment of Dredged Material to Facilitate Beneficial Use EnvironmentalLaboratory Trudy J. Estes and Christian J. Mc, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. #12;Dredging Operations

US Army Corps of Engineers

244

Green Sturgeon, Longfin smelt, and dredging operations in the San Francisco Estuary FINAL AGENDA  

E-print Network

Green Sturgeon, Longfin smelt, and dredging operations in the San Francisco Estuary FINAL AGENDA for Dredged Material 9:15-9:20 Ellen Johnck (Bay Planning Coalition) Welcome 9:20-9:30 Len Cardoza (Weston Solutions) Stakeholder perspective 9:30-9:45 David Woodbury (NMFS) Risk to green sturgeon from dredging

245

Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality in the upper Patapsco aquifer deep water-bearing zone does not seem to have been impacted by the DMCA.

Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

2013-01-01

246

Application of biomarkers for assessing the biological impact of dredged materials in the Mediterranean: the relationship between antioxidant responses and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period 1997–2000, approximately 1,800,000 m3 of material dredged from the Port of Leghorn was discharged into a sea dumping site located 14 miles from the coast. The red mullet (Mullus barbatus) was used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the biological impact of these discharges on a geographical and temporal scale. Organisms were sampled over three years (1998–2000)

Francesco Regoli; David Pellegrini; Gary W. Winston; Stefania Gorbi; Silvia Giuliani; Claudia Virno-Lamberti; Stefano Bompadre

2002-01-01

247

The use of Daphnia magna immobilization tests and soil microcosms to evaluate the toxicity of dredged sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the buffering capacity of natural soil for the remediation of dredged material\\u000a before being disposed in soil landfills. To achieve that, an Integrated Soil Microcosms (ISM) system was designed to produce\\u000a elutriates and leachates from the sediment\\/soil percentage mixtures. Furthermore, to investigate the biological effects of\\u000a the contaminated sediments, the toxicity behavior of

Ana F. Pereira Miranda; José M. L. Rodrigues; Carlos Barata; Carmen Riva; Dayanthi Nugegoda; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares

2011-01-01

248

25c-MS&PMS-III AGB Thermal Pulsing and Dredge-ups  

E-print Network

25c-MS&PMS-III DREDGE-UP AGB Thermal Pulsing and Dredge-ups Pre-AGB Dredge-ups 1st ­ on the RGB;Pre-Dredge-up C:N:O ~ 1 2 : 1 6 :1 After 1 st C:N:O~ 1 3 : 1 3 :1 After 2 nd C:N:O~0. This is the 3rd Dredge-up phase that can bring C-rich material to the surface, changing the star from an M

Sitko, Michael L.

249

22c-MS&PMS-III AGB Thermal Pulsing and Dredge-ups  

E-print Network

22c-MS&PMS-III DREDGE-UP AGB Thermal Pulsing and Dredge-ups Pre-AGB Dredge-ups 1st ­ on the RGB;Pre-Dredge-up C:N:O ~ 1 2 : 1 6 :1 After 1st C:N:O~ 1 3 : 1 3 :1 After 2nd C:N:O~0 to the surface. This is the 3rd Dredge-up phase that can bring C-rich material to the surface, changing the star

Sitko, Michael L.

250

Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

Crutcher, E. Russ

1992-01-01

251

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-07-01

252

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-07-01

253

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-07-01

254

Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.  

PubMed

Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area. PMID:20821674

Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

2010-01-01

255

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

1991-06-01

256

Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systems—a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of mercury contamination in aquatic systems were studied in a comprehensive literature review. The results show that the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems are: (1) atmospheric deposition, (2) erosion, (3) urban discharges, (4) agricultural materials, (5) mining, and (6) combustion and industrial discharges. Capping and dredging are two possible remedial approaches to mercury contamination

Qianrui Wang; Daekeun Kim; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; George A. Sorial; Dennis Timberlake

2004-01-01

257

Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systemsda literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of mercury contamination in aquatic systems were studied in a comprehensive literature review. The results show that the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems are: (1) atmospheric deposition, (2) erosion, (3) urban discharges, (4) agricultural materials, (5) mining, and (6) combustion and industrial discharges. Capping and dredging are two possible remedial approaches to mercury contamination

Qianrui Wang; Daekeun Kim; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; George A. Sorial; Dennis Timberlake

258

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 1. Study overview. Technical report, August 1985March 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments in the New Bedford Harbor and Acushnet River Estuary have been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and heavy metals. The high levels of contamination have resulted in the New Bedford Harbor being placed on the National Priorities List of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites. Efforts are under way to develop and implement remedial actions for protection of the

N. R. Francingues; D. E. Averett; M. J. Otis

1988-01-01

259

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

260

REMEDIAL DREDGING AND EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: EXAMPLES FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is an on-going national debate questioning whether remedial dredging can be conducted without causing environmental harm. Two common assertions are that: 1) dredging contaminated sediment will do more harm than good, and 2) natural processes will eventually mitig...

261

Distribution, movement and availability of Cd and Zn in a dredged sediment cultivated with Salix alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows occur as volunteer vegetation on sediment-derived soils, such as dredged sediments, landfill cover or stockpile deposits, and are used as phytoremediators on such soils. The present study evaluates growth and metal uptake by Salix alba grown on a contaminated dredge sediment for 209 days under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the study, the aerial parts of the S.

Jean-Philippe Bedell; Xavier Capilla; Claire Giry; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel; Yves Perrodin

2009-01-01

262

Implications of aerated stabilization basin dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish.  

PubMed

Benthal solids accumulated in aerated stabilization basins (ASBs) must be dredged to regain treatment capacity. While dredging restores treatment performance, it has been associated occasionally with the failure to meet regulatory effluent toxicity limits at the time of dredging. A first study of its kind was undertaken to investigate the implications of ASB dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish. The study showed that benthal solid slurry removed from the quiescent zone of an ASB with a hydraulic dredge was toxic to rainbow trout with a 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.2%. The high ammonia concentration in the sample was the main cause of fish mortality. Hydrogen sulfide and resin and fatty acids also were present in the dredged material at concentrations that could cause fish mortality. These findings have led to best management practices that can be used to mitigate or eliminate fish toxicity issues during dredging operations. PMID:20480765

Mahmood, Talat; Kovacs, Tibor; Gibbons, Sharon; Paradis, Jean-Claude

2010-05-01

263

Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

2000-01-01

264

Dredging-induced near-field resuspended sediment concentrations and source strengths. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Dredging in riverine, lacustrine, and estuarine environments introduces bottom sediments into overlying waters because of imperfect entrainment and incomplete capture of sediments resuspended during the dredging process and the spillage or leakage of sediments during subsequent transportation and disposal of the dredged sediments. Resuspension of bottom sediments and resulting dispersal may pose water quality problems in waters near dredging operations. Interest in this issue increases when the sediment being dredged is highly contaminated. Resuspension of sediments by dredging is affected by dredge characteristics, dredge operating conditions, properties of bottom and suspended sediments, and site-specific conditions such as bottom topography, ambient current, and depth. This report summarizes field studies conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess the suspended sediment concentrations in the water column in the vicinity of various dredge types. These concentration data are combined with conceptual models for resuspended sediment source strength geometries and velocity patterns to estimate sediment source strengths for cutterhead and clamshell dredges. Although unverified, these models provide a starting point for a more thorough analytical evaluation of the entire resuspension, transport, and deposition process.

Collins, M.A.

1995-08-01

265

Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead  

E-print Network

Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test...

Young, Dustin Ray

2010-07-14

266

AIR EMISSION FLUX FROM CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS STORED IN A PILOT-SCALE CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY. (R825513C017)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

267

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

268

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

269

Evaluating dredged material placement alternatives  

E-print Network

Bivalvia Laevicardium mortoni Tagelus plebeius Cumingia tellinoides Gastropoda Caecum pulchellum Bittium varium Polychaeta Capitella capi tata Melinna maculata Chone duneri Prionospio heterobranchi a Syllis cornuta Eteone heteropoda Crustacea.... Characteristic species in Redfish Bay (White et al. 1983). GRASSFLAT Mollusca Pelecypoda l. ucina pectinata Gastropoda Bittium varium Odostomia impressa Polychaeta Prionospio heterbranchia Capitella capitata Streblospio benedicti Crustacea Elasm opus...

Wooters, Kelly Lynne

2012-06-07

270

Polyethylene passive samplers to determine sediment-pore water distribution coefficients of persistent organic pollutants in five heavily contaminated dredged sediments.  

PubMed

Pore concentration and partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five distinct contaminated sites in France (marine harbour, rivers canals and highway sedimentation tank). The assessment of the risk caused by such micropollutants requires, in most cases, the measurement of their availability. To assess this availability, low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane samplers were exposed to these sediments under constant and low-level agitation over a period of 46 days. Freely dissolved pore water contaminant concentrations were estimated from the concentration at equilibrium in the LDPE membrane. The depletion of contaminants in the sediments was monitored by the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations and resulting sediment-pore water partition coefficients between these five sediments were observed. Data set was tested onto different empirical and mechanistic models. As final findings, triple domain sorption (a total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phase model) could model PCB data successfully whereas the best fitting for PAH partitioning was obtained by Raoult's Law model. PMID:24360917

Charrasse, Benoit; Tixier, Céline; Hennebert, Pierre; Doumenq, Pierre

2014-02-15

271

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1995-10-03

272

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site due to high sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. An initial remedial dredging operation removed the most contaminated sediments from the upper harbor ("Hot Spot"). During remediation, a monitoring program assess...

273

Pilot dredging study, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of sediment from the northern portion of New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, has revealed that most of the area is contaminated by polychlorinated. biphenyls (PCBs). In August 1984, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Feasibility Study of Remedial Action Alternatives for this area, which proposed five cleanup alternatives. Four of these dealt specifically with dredging the area to

Andreliunas

1992-01-01

274

Environmental effects of dredging on sediment nutrients, carbon and granulometry in a tropical estuary.  

PubMed

This monitoring study encompassed a period prior to dredging, during dredging and post dredging between July 1999 to June 2000 in Ponggol estuary located along the northeastern coast of Singapore. Mean concentrations of sediment nutrients in mg x Kg(-1) (+/- standard error of means) prior to dredging, during dredging and post dredging were 9.75 +/- 4.24, 8.18 +/- 4.29 and 11.46 +/- 4.74 for ammonium, 0.08 +/- 0.05, 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 for nitrite, 0.04 +/- 0.04, 0.11 +/- 0.17 and 0.25 +/- 0.30 for nitrate, 4.83 +/- 3.48, 0.77 +/- 0.48 and 8.33 +/- 9.73 for phosphate respectively. Pre dredge, dredge and post dredge levels of total carbon (TC) were 18.5 +/- 3.7, 20.2 +/- 3.5 and 34.6 +/- 12.0, of total organic carbon (TOC) were 10.5 +/- 2.9, 19.5 +/- 3.6 and 34.6 +/- 12.0 and of total inorganic carbon (TIC) were 7.9 +/- 1.0, 0.7 +/- 0.4 and non detectable in the sediments, respectively. Both, sediment nutrients and carbon registered lower concentrations with onset of dredging, with the exception of nitrate and TOC. A shift in sedimentary carbon from inorganic carbon to organic carbon was also observed with the onset of the dredging activities when the organically enriched historically contaminated layer was exposed. Sediment granulometry showed that the sediments in the estuary were predominantly silt and clay prior to dredging, which changed to sand with onset of dredging. Silt load in the sediments was highest post-dredge. Sediment nutrients and sediment organic carbon were observed to associate with the finer fractions (silt and clay) of sediments. Finer fractions of sediments get resuspended during a dredging event and are dispersed spatially as the result of tides and water movements. Prior to this study, the potential for nutrient release and sediment granulometry due to dredging have been suggested, but there have been few studies of it, especially in the tropics. The baseline information gathered from this study could be used to work out effective management strategies to protect similar tropical ecosystems elsewhere, should there be no other alternative to dredging. PMID:16897509

Nayar, S; Miller, D J; Hunt, A; Goh, B P L; Chou, L M

2007-04-01

275

Organic Enrichment Associated with Outwash from Marine Aggregates Dredging: A Probable Explanation for Surface Sheens and Enhanced Benthic Production in the Vicinity of Dredging Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent studies of dispersion of sediment plumes generated by marine aggregates dredging, including those reported here, suggest that the zone of settlement of fine material temporarily suspended by the dredging and screening process is smaller than estimates based on Gaussian diffusion models. There is, however, often a relatively larger zone of visible impact which can extend for several kilometres

R. C Newell; D. R Hitchcock; L. J Seiderer

1999-01-01

276

Contaminant Transport Through Subsurface Material from the DOE Hanford Reservation  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated migration of contaminants in the vadose zone has been observed beneath tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation. This paper focuses on the geochemical processes controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the sediments beneath the Hanford tank farms. Laboratory scale batch sorption experiments and saturated transport experiments were conducted using reactive tracers U(VI), Sr, Cs, Co and Cr(VI) to investigate geochemical processes controlling the rates and mechanisms of sorption to Hanford subsurface material. Results indicate that the rate of sorption is influenced by changes in solution chemistry such as ionic strength, pH and presence of competing cations. Sediment characteristics such as mineralogy, iron content and cation/anion exchange capacity coupled with the dynamics of flow impact the number of sites available for sorption. Investigative approaches using a combination of batch and transport experiments will contribute to the conceptual and Hanford vadose zone.

Pace, M.N.; Mayes, M.A.; Jardine, P.M.; Fendorf, S.E.; Nehlhorn, T.L.; Yin, X.P.; Ladd, J.; Teerlink, J.; Zachara, J.M.

2003-03-26

277

Cadmium and Zinc uptake by volunteer willow species and elder rooting in polluted dredged sediment disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix species and Sambucus nigra L. (elder) naturally invade dredged sediment landfills and are commonly encountered on substrates contaminated with heavy metals. Foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in four Salix species and elder were explored in the field. Metal contents in dredged sediment derived soils were elevated compared to baseline concentration levels reported for Flanders. To evaluate foliar concentrations,

Bart Vandecasteele; Bruno De Vos; Filip M. G Tack

2002-01-01

278

Test of opticlean strip coating material for removing surface contamination.  

PubMed

The strip coating material, Opticlean, which has been reformulated, has been shown to remove 1-5-microm-diameter particles as well as contamination remaining from previous drag wipe cleaning on a used silicon wafer. In addition, no residue that produced scattering was found on a fresh silicon wafer when Opticlean was applied and then stripped off. The total integrated scattering technique used for the measurements could measure scattering levels of He-Ne laser light as low as a few ppm (parts in 10(6)), corresponding to a surface roughness of <1 A rms. PMID:18345196

Bennett, J M; Rönnow, D

2000-06-01

279

The influence of commonly used materials and compounds on spacecraft contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of molecular contamination on the operation of optical instruments and sensors based on low-earth orbiting spacecraft and platforms and the sensitivity levels of these instruments to contamination are discussed. Material outgassing products and propulsion system plume products are examined as two major sources of spacecraft contamination. The two main mechanism of spacecraft system degradation are contaminants on a

Diane J. Martin; Carl R. Maag

1992-01-01

280

Decontaminating materials used in ground water sampling devices: Organic contaminants  

SciTech Connect

In these studies, the efficiency of various decontamination protocols was tested on small pieces of materials commonly used in ground water sampling devices. Three materials, which ranged in ability to sorb organic solutes, were tested: stainless steel (SS), rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The test pieces were exposed to two aqueous test solutions: One contained three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one nitroaromatic compound, and the other contained four pesticides. Also, three types of polymetic tubing were exposed to pesticide solutions. Generally, the contact times were 10 minutes and 24 hours for sorption and desorption. The contaminants were removed from the nonpermeable SS and the less-sorptive rigid PVC test pieces simply by washing with a hot detergent solution and rinsing with hot water. Additional treatment was required for the PTFE test pieces exposed to the VOCs and for the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubing exposed to the pesticide test solution. Solvent rinsing did not improve removal of the three VOCs form the PTFE and only marginally improved removal of the residual pesticides from the LDPE. However, a hot water and detergent wash and rinse followed by oven drying at approximately 105 C was effective for removing the VOCs from the PTFE and substantially reduced pesticide contamination from the LDPE.

Parker, L.V.; Ranney, T.A.

2000-12-31

281

The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.  

PubMed

The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely ?-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA. PMID:24652576

Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

2014-10-01

282

Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. II: Effects on macrobenthic assemblages in channels and ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are ephemeral habitats whose conservation requires human intervention, such as maintenance dredging of inner channels. Dredging can reduce the abundance of benthic species due to the removal of individuals with the sediment, modify sediment properties, and resuspend fine sediment, nutrients and pollutants, which can lead to eutrophication, hypoxic events and increasing toxicity. Both direct effects in the dredged channel and possible indirect effects in surrounding shallow areas could be expected. This study assesses the effects of the channel maintenance dredging, performed between October 2004 and August 2005, on the invertebrate assemblages both in channels and adjacent ponds in the northern Adriatic coastal lagoon of Pialassa Baiona. The lagoon is affected by eutrophication, chemical and thermal pollution from wastewater treatment and power plants. Three impacted sites were located in the dredged channel and three in the adjacent interconnected shallow water ponds, while three non-impacted sites were located in a channel and in a pond far from the dredged area. Replicate samples were collected from each site one time before and one time after the dredging operations. Despite the extent of the intervention, effects of the dredging on macrobenthic assemblages were detected only within the dredged channel, while in the surrounding ponds no clear and unequivocal effects were found. In particular the dredging could have promoted the increase of the abundance of the polychaete Streblospio shrubsolii in the southern and central parts of the dredged channel and the increase in abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum in the northern side, compared to the controls. Instead, species diversity was reduced in the central and northern parts of the dredged channel. These effects on the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages could be related to the observed changes of sediment characteristics, contamination and toxicity. Overall, direct effects on benthic assemblages in the dredged channels were more detectable than the possible secondary effects in the surrounding shallow ponds, where the higher spatial heterogeneity can mask any relevant effects.

Ponti, Massimo; Pasteris, Andrea; Guerra, Roberta; Abbiati, Marco

2009-10-01

283

Dredging the Depths of Maths -Mathematics of Dredging By Prof. Onno Bokhove, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK  

E-print Network

Dredging the Depths of Maths -Mathematics of Dredging By Prof. Onno navigation channels are maintained by dredging sand and slurries off sea and river removal by dredging. Some progress has already been made, both at Leeds

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

284

The effect of organic materials on the mobility and toxicity of metals in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic materials such as compost are often proposed as suitable materials for the remediation of contaminated brownfield sites intended for soft end-use. In addition to vitalising the soil, they are also believed to immobilise metals thereby breaking contaminant-receptor pathways and reducing the ecotoxicity of the contaminants. However, some research has demonstrated contradictory effects between composts on metal immobilisation. In the

René van Herwijnen; Tim Laverye; Jane Poole; Mark E. Hodson; Tony R. Hutchings

2007-01-01

285

Channel to Newport News, Virginia (Maintenance Dredging).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes dredging required to maintain the 800-foot wide channel to Newport News. The channel extends westwardly approximately 4.8 miles from Norfolk Harbor Channel to Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company coal piers. Maintenance dredging will r...

1973-01-01

286

Environmental Effects of Hydraulic Dredging in Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydraulic channel and shell dredging and open water spoil disposal have little significant immediate effect on water quality in Alabama estuaries. Almost all of the sediment discharged by dredges settles very rapidly and is transported by gravity along th...

E. B. May

1973-01-01

287

Stability and transport of inorganic colloids through contaminated aquifer material  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. Fe2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the columns under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, electrolyte composition, and colloid concentration. Column influent and effluent were evaluated by photon correlation spectroscopy and scintillation-counting techniques. Effluent breakthrough concentrations of the colloid were as high as 57 percent of the influent concentration under conditions. In all cases where significant transport occurred, the colloids arrived at approximately the same time as a conservative tracer, tritium. Conditions favoring colloidal transport in the system were low ionic strength and a pH in the range where the colloids are stable. Arsenate was used as a model reactive contaminant to evaluate its facilitated transport on the Fe2O3 colloids. The calculated sorption capacity of the colloids from batch tests was 1 percent by weight for arsenate. Compared to dissolved arsenate transport in the same columns, the colloids were transported more than 21 times faster.

Puls, R.W.; Powell, R.M.; Rees, T.F.

1991-01-01

288

MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

289

MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.  

SciTech Connect

One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

1998-05-01

290

Superfund Dredging Restoration Results in Widespread Regional  

E-print Network

Superfund Dredging Restoration Results in Widespread Regional Reduction in Cadmium in Blue Crabs J connected to the Hudson River estuary. A major Superfund dredging cleanup in 1994-1995 removed most ofcadmiumsedimentconcentrationswithinthecovefollowing the cleanup. This unique study demonstrates the efficacy of a major dredging cleanup

Levinton, Jeffrey

291

Environmental effects of dredging program: Leachate testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, sediment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Sediment leaching studies of Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, NC, were conducted in laboratories at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of these studies was to provide quantitative information on the potential for leachate impacts on groundwaters if dredged material from Hamlet City Lake were placed in a confined disposal facility (CDF) or under disposal conditions similar to land-farming. The study involved three elements: batch leach tests, column leach tests, and simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Batch tests were conducted to determine intrinsic leaching characteristics of solids in Hamlet City Lake sediment. Column tests were conducted as a physical analog of continuous flow leaching in a CDF. HELP model simulations were conducted to simulate the generation of leachate by infiltration and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a disposal site liner. Results of this study showed that, under disposal conditions similar to land-farming, organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPHs) will decrease in concentration as the result of volatilization and or biodegradation.... Dredged material, Leachate, Permeameter, Hamlet city lake, Leaching, Heavy metals, Mass transport.

Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1992-11-01

292

Bioremediation of soils, sludges, and materials contaminated with toxic metals or radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation stabilizes and reclaims radionuclide or toxic metal-contaminated materials, soils, sediments, or wastes; it then recovers the contaminating radionuclides and metals. Waste materials are stabilized and reduced in volume using anaerobic bacteria; or alternatively, materials are treated with citric acid before bioremediation begins. Photolysis is used after bioremediation to release radionuclides.

Francis, A.J.

1993-04-01

293

The influence of commonly used materials and compounds on spacecraft contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of molecular contamination on the operation of optical instruments and sensors based on low-earth orbiting spacecraft and platforms and the sensitivity levels of these instruments to contamination are discussed. Material outgassing products and propulsion system plume products are examined as two major sources of spacecraft contamination. The two main mechanism of spacecraft system degradation are contaminants on a surface affecting properties and contaminants in the field of view of an optical system. The discussion also covers improvements to the ASTM method E595 for materials that coexist on a spacecraft or a platform with optical instruments.

Martin, Diane J.; Maag, Carl R.

1992-08-01

294

Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.  

PubMed

The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of the plants and the sediment characteristics, approaching those of an uncontaminated natural soil (technosoil), indicated the efficiency and success of this technology for brackish sediments reclamation. PMID:23183938

Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

2013-07-01

295

Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal).  

PubMed

This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. PMID:24792880

Cabrita, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

296

Dredge Disposal Study San Francisco Bay and Estuary. Appendix K. Marshland Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marsh development study was initiated to formulate workable procedures for the artificial propagation of intertidal marsh land plants upon a dredge material substrate. on the intertidal margins of San Francisco Bay are two dominant marshland plants: C...

1976-01-01

297

Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

1984-05-01

298

The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.  

PubMed

We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. PMID:23871519

O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

2013-09-01

299

Effects of the contamination environment on surfaces and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the issues that have always existed, demands are being placed on space systems for increased contamination prevention/control. Optical surveillance sensors are required to detect low radiance targets. This increases the need for very low scatter surfaces in the optical system. Particulate contamination levels typically experienced in today's working environments/habits will most likely compromise these sensors. Contamination (molecular and particulate) can also affect the survivability of space sensors in both the natural and hostile space environments. The effects of di-octyl phthalate (DOP) on sensors are discussed.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

300

Laboratory modeling of hydraulic dredges and design of dredge carriage for laboratory facility  

E-print Network

The deepening and maintenance of the world's ports and navigable waterways has been an integral part of the world economy for centuries. In recent years, cutterhead and draghead hydraulic suction dredges have performed a majority of the dredging...

Glover, Gordon Jason

2012-06-07

301

Environmental effects of dredging: Predicting and monitoring dredge-induced dissolved oxygen reduction. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This note summarizes the results of research into the potential for dissolved oxygen (DO) reduction associated with dredging operations. Efforts toward development of a simple computational model for predicting the degree of dredge-induced DO reduction are described along with results of a monitoring program around a bucket dredge operation.

Houston, L.; LaSalle, M.W.; Lunz, J.D.

1989-11-01

302

MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR  

SciTech Connect

One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

1998-05-01

303

ERDCTR-11-2 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program  

E-print Network

ERDCTR-11-2 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program and Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology Office Application of Long Distance Conveyance (LDC) of Dredged Sediments 2011 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. #12;Dredging Operations and Environmental

US Army Corps of Engineers

304

NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys  

E-print Network

NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys January 7, 2004 Prepared by: Members..................................................................................................................................... 5 NOAA Fisheries Sea Scallop Dredge Survey Protocols............................................................................................................................. 10 Changes to Regional Scallop Dredge Protocols

305

NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Hydro-dynamic Dredge Surveys  

E-print Network

NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Hydro-dynamic Dredge Surveys: Surf Clams and Ocean Quahogs December 19..................................................................................................................................... 1 NOAA Fisheries Hydro-dynamic Clam Dredge Survey Protocols........................................................................... 5 Clam Dredge Construction and Repair

306

Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials  

DOEpatents

Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

307

The influence of commonly used materials and compounds on spacecraft contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States and other countries have had earth orbiting vehicles for over 30 years. During that period of time, aluminum has been used extensively as the structural material of choice. As weight tolerances have grown tighter, advanced materials have begun replacing aluminum in many applications. The outgassing complexity of these new materials, along with the inability to model thin layers and material interactions, reduces the confidence level in comparison to aluminum. Another issue which makes contamination control more difficult, is the reduced operating temperature of current optics and their heightened sensitivity to contamination. In many attempts at contamination control of sensitive optical instruments, there is a tendency to let the selection of materials by handbooks eclipse the impact of mass transport, outgassing rates and the subsequent effects of any condensate. Several indepth contamination assessments for optical instruments and sensors based on low-earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft and platforms have recently been conducted. This paper will discuss the effects of molecular contamination on several of these instruments and their sensitivity levels to contamination. There are a number of manuals and documents which screen materials on the basis of outgassing, primarily with respect to the criteria of ASTM method E595. While useful for screening materials, this approach does not provide the collected ratio of volatile condensible material (VCM) to the total VCM (total weight loss) as a function of receptor temperature. In general, there are three (3) levels of effort that, when used in series, can attain acceptable spacecraft contamination control. These levels are: (1) materials selection, (2) contamination modeling of the existing design, and (3) a thermal vacuum test of the hardware with contamination monitors. This paper will also discuss improvements to the ASTM method when a material will coexist on a spacecraft or platform with optical instruments.

Martin, Diane J.; Maag, Carl R.

308

Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a sensitive monitor of materials contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry is demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to contamination layers in the thickness range from 0.1 nm to 10 microns. In the present experiments we deposit either a thin lubricating oil (WD-40) or mineral oil continuously onto Ir, Cu, Al, Au, and V substrates from a bubbler, and monitor its thickness growth from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers as a function of time. Re-evaporation of contaminant oils is also monitored in real-time by ellipsometry.

Hale, Jeffrey S.; Hilfiker, James N.; Spady, Blaine; Synowicki, R.; Woollam, John A.

1995-01-01

309

Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contaminated Sediments  

PubMed Central

To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France) allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production. PMID:21673923

Groboillot, Anne; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Le Derf, Franck; Feuilloley, Marc J. G.; Orange, Nicole; Poc, Cecile Duclairoir

2011-01-01

310

Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Contamination Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been recognized for its contributions supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft development programs. These programs include the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Effects Group, with the Materials Contamination Team and the Space Environmental Effects Team has been an integral part of NASA's success by the testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials, hardware, and processes. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team. The Materials Contamination Team's realm of responsibility includes establishing contamination control during all phases of hardware development, including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment. The team continues its mission of reducing the risk of equipment failure due to molecular or particulate contamination. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitive bond-lines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for spacecraft with sensitive optics, such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection, identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) system, the Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (UVF) surface contamination detection, and the Surface Optics Corporation 400 (SOC 400) portable hand-held Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are state-of-the-art tools for in-process molecular contamination detection. The team of engineers and technicians also develop contamination calibration standards and evaluate new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. The team utilizes facilities for on-orbit simulation testing of materials for outgassing and molecular film deposition characteristics in the presence of space environmental effects, such as Atomic Oxygen (AO) and UV radiation exposure. The Materials Contamination Team maintains databases for process materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

Burns, Howard; Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Boothe, Richard; Finchum, Charles; Finckenor, Miria

2003-01-01

311

BUILDING MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION USING A CONCRETE FLOOR AND WALL CONTAMINATION PROFILING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Certain radioisotopes can penetrate concrete and contaminate the concrete well below the surface. The challenge is to determine the extent and magnitude of the contamination problem in real-time. The concrete profiling technology, TRUPROSM in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the material being sampled. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk. Performing a volumetric concrete or metal characterization safer and faster (without lab intervention) is the objective of this characterization technology. This way of determining contamination can save considerable time and money. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilizes or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the area around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated. The goal is to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release.

Aggarwal, Dr. S.,; Charters, G.; Thacker, Dr. D.

2003-02-27

312

Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

Maekawa, T.

1992-03-01

313

Long-term dredged material management plan within the context of Maumee river watershed sediment management strategy. Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report draws several preliminary conclusions about the Investigations needed to develop specific management options. It recommends moving ahead to the Phase 2 Study to address these options that would meet the goals of sediment load reduction, improvement in sediment and water quality, beneficial uses of the material, and a reduced dependency on constriction of new Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF).

NONE

1993-03-01

314

Studies on the dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated materials using a novel dialysis tubing experimental method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of risk and remediation strategies at contaminated sites requires that both the amounts of contaminants present and their potential for release from materials and soils be evaluated. The release, or dissolution, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated materials to water was therefore investigated. To facilitate investigations of PAH dissolution from physically disparate materials such as solid coal tars,

Paula J. Woolgar; Kevin C. Jones

1999-01-01

315

An equation that describes material outgassing for contamination modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalization of the Clausius-Claperon equation for vapor pressure is made for an outgassing material. The expression is derived using Langmuir's equation for the outgassing rate of a material and using an empirical equation for the vapor pressure of a material as a function of its molecular weight and temperature. Also, outgassing rate equations are derived in terms of the vapor pressure of the outgassing material for three general geometries.

Heslin, T. M.

1977-01-01

316

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the 'Hot Spot') removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations gr...

317

Application of Bioassays in Toxicological Hazard, Risk and Impact Assessment of Dredged Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the potential environmental consequences of dumped dredged harbour sediments it is vital to establish the potential risks from exposure before disposal at sea. Currently, European legislation for disposal of contaminated sediments at sea is based on chemical analysis of a l...

318

An evaluation of technologies for the heavy metal remediation of dredged sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments dewatering is frequently necessary after dredging to remediate and treat contaminants. Methods include draining of the water in lagoons with or without coagulants and flocculants, or using presses or centrifuges. Treatment methods are similar to those used for soil and include pretreatment, physical separation, thermal processes, biological decontamination, stabilization\\/solidification and washing. However, compared to soil treatment, few remediation techniques

Catherine N. Mulligan; Raymond N. Yong; Bernard F. Gibbs

2001-01-01

319

Heavy metal concentrations in organisms from an actively dredged Texas Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Organisms from San Antonio Bay have been shown to have low heavy metal concentrations. This is most likely the result of low natural metal levels in the area and minimal man-introduced contamination due to the bay's location far from any dense industrial or population centers. In addition, vigorous shell dredging activity in the bay for more than 50 years

R. R. Jr. Sims; B. J. Presley

1976-01-01

320

Environmental Monitoring Of Remedial Dredging At The New Bedford Harbor, Ma, Superfund Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the “Hot Spot”) removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations greater than 4000?g\\/g) from the upper harbor. During remediation, a monitoring program assessed the potential environmental impacts to NBH and

Barbara J. Bergen; William G. Nelson; Joseph Mackay; David Dickerson; Saro Jayaraman

2005-01-01

321

Framework for real-time decision making: New Bedford Harbor pilot dredging study  

SciTech Connect

New Bedford Harbor is located along Buzzards Bay between the cities of New Bedford and Fairhaven, Mass. Since the 1940s, electronics and manufacturing companies in the area have discharged effluents containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the Acushnet River and the harbor. Over the past 15 years, nearly 18,000 acres of PCB- and heavy metals-contaminated sediment have been identified, with PCB concentrations as high as 100,000 parts per million (ppm) in some areas of the upper harbor. In 1982, the site was added to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites slated for cleanup under the Superfund Act. A feasibility study conducted by EPA in 1984 proposed several alternatives for the remediation of NBH including dredging contaminated sediments out of the harbor. Federal, State, and local officials, as well as the public, expressed concern over dredging. Many believed that sediments resuspended during dredging would cause the release of contaminants that would affect biota inhabiting both the harbor and Buzzards Bay. Others cited potential pollution problems from contaminated water (leachate) leaking from the proposed disposal site. In order to address these concerns, the EPA decided to pre-test dredging and possible disposal options.

Nelson, W.G.

1989-11-01

322

Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

2014-01-01

323

External contamination of hair with cocaine: evaluation of external cocaine contamination and development of performance-testing materials.  

PubMed

The National Laboratory Certification Program undertook an evaluation of the dynamics of external contamination of hair with cocaine (COC) while developing performance testing materials for Federal Drug-Free Workplace Programs. This characterization was necessary to develop performance materials that could evaluate the efficacy of hair testing industry's decontamination procedures. Hair locks (blonde to dark brown/black) from five different individuals were contaminated with cocaine HCl. Hair locks were then treated with a synthetic sweat solution and hygienic treatments to model real-life conditions. Hair locks were shampooed daily (Monday through Friday) for 10 weeks, and samples of the hair locks were analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE), and norcocaine (NCOC). Three commercial analytical laboratories analyzed samples under three protocols: no decontamination procedure, individual laboratory decontamination, or decontamination by an extended buffer procedure at RTI International. Results indicated substantial and persistent association of all four compounds with all hair types. Hair that was not decontaminated had significantly greater quantities of COC and BE than did hair that was decontaminated. The only hair samples below detection limits for all four compounds were those decontaminated 1 h after contamination. Additionally, BE/COC ratios increased significantly over the 10-week study (regardless of decontamination treatment). From 21 days postcontamination until the end of the study, the mean BE/COC ratio for all hair types exceeded 0.05, the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines requirement. The largest variability in results was observed for samples decontaminated by participant laboratories. This suggests that current laboratory decontamination strategies will increase variability of performance testing sample results. None of the decontamination strategies used in the study were effective at removing all contamination, and some of the contaminated hair in this study would have been reported as positive for cocaine use based on the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines. PMID:17132242

Stout, Peter R; Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Baylor, Michael R; Mitchell, John M

2006-10-01

324

The Performance and Environmental Effects of a Hydraulic Clam Dredge  

E-print Network

The Performance and Environmental Effects of a Hydraulic Clam Dredge THOMAS L MEYER, RICHARD A to Nantucket, Mass. Hydraulic clam dredges with 0.76 m and 1.2 m (30 and 48 inch) wide blades were used during these surveys (Serchuk et aI., 1979). The efficiency of these dredges and the general effect of dredging

325

Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

1997-03-01

326

Low-contamination digestion bomb method using a Teflon double vessel for biological materials  

SciTech Connect

Through the NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) CRM (certified reference material), it has been required to investigate and develop a contamination-free digestion system for biological materials, since trace element levels in these matrices are so low that contamination during sample dissolution procedure often became a limiting factor for trace analysis. At an earlier stage, a Teflon bomb developed by Iida et al. was used for the decomposition of NIES Chlorella and Freeze-Dried Serum reference materials. Recently, an improved Teflon bomb method has been developed. The method uses a small screw cap vial for sample decomposition inside the Teflon digestion vessel. This digestion system can reduce the risk of sample leakage and contamination with extraneous materials and can be applied to biological materials up to approximately 300 mg of dry weight. 7 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Okamoto, K.; Fuwa, K.

1984-08-01

327

COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSKS IN DREDGED AND UN-DREDGED PORTIONS OF AN ESTUARY, WITH A SYSTEMATIC LIST  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSKS IN DREDGED AND UN- DREDGED PORTIONS OF AN ESTUARY in dredged canals than In the predominantly sand and shell sediments In undredged This report compares the numbers and vari~ eties of mollusks in fine sediments of dredged canals with those found in undisturbed

328

Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products significantly decreased phosphate amounts. For the 38 specific filter materials evaluated, based on a 60 percent contaminant reduction level, 12 materials removed nitrate, 26 materials removed phosphate, and 21 materials removed atrazine. Furthermore, 2 materials removed zero contaminants, 16 materials removed one contaminant, 17 materials removed two contaminants, and 3 of the materials removed all three contaminants. The most effective filter materials proved to be a steam activated carbon, a zero valent iron and sulfer modified iron mixture, and a surfactant modified clay. The findings of this study indicate that there are a variety of filter materials, either separately or in combination, which have the potential to treat agricultural drainage waters.

Allred, B. J.

2007-12-01

329

Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Contamination Team of the Environmental Effects Group, Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, has been recognized for its contribution to space flight, including space transportation, space science and flight projects, such as the reusable solid rocket motor, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station. The Materials Contamination Team s realm of responsibility encompasses all phases of hardware development including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch-site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment if required. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitivity bondlines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for sensitive optics, particularly spacecraft such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The team of engineers and technicians also develop and evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. Databases are maintained by the team for proces! materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

Burns, H. D.; Finckenor, M. M.; Boothe, R. E.; Albyn, K. C.; Finchum, C. A.

2003-01-01

330

Hospital preparedness for hazardous materials incidents and treatment of contaminated patients.  

PubMed Central

Hospital-based facilities providing emergency care in the state of Washington were surveyed to determine their level of preparedness for hazardous materials incidents including the treatment of contaminated patients. Responses to a faxed questionnaire were received from 95 (94%) of the 101 emergency care facilities in Washington State. Only 42 (44%) of the facilities reported the ability to receive any chemically exposed patient. Of the 95 responding emergency care facilities, 39 (41%) had no designated decontamination facilities; 67 (70%) had protocols for handling chemical contamination and possible evacuation from hazardous materials spills, and 52 (55%) had protocols for handling medical facility contamination and possible evacuation from treating chemically contaminated patients. Twelve (13%) facilities had evacuated their emergency department or other part of the hospital for contamination incidents in the past 5 years. Despite the frequent occurrence of hazardous materials incidents, most emergency care facilities in Washington State are not fully prepared to handle contaminated patients and chemical spills. This may have important implications for the care of persons with exposure to hazardous materials and for implementing Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations standards and federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations. PMID:9426476

Burgess, J L; Blackmon, G M; Brodkin, C A; Robertson, W O

1997-01-01

331

Simulation of resuspended sediments resulting from dredging operations by a numerical flocculent transport model.  

PubMed

Environmental remediations such as dredging operations cause contaminated sediments from the bottom of water bodies to become suspended into the water column. These resuspended particles are significant water quality concerns and cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. In this paper, we present a vertically integrated two-dimensional flocculent sediment transport model to better model concentration changes of resuspended bottom sediments. The flocculent transport model has been applied to the Savannah River cutterhead dredge field study involving the resuspension of bottom sediments. The results showed that the model predictions correlate reasonably well with field data. These comparisons suggest that the flocculent sediment transport model can be used to predict the concentration profiles of a plume of toxic compounds resulting from cutterhead dredge operation. PMID:17697700

Je, Chung-hwan; Hayes, Donald F; Kim, Kyung-sub

2007-12-01

332

AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL 1. EXPERIMENTAL DATA IN LABORATORY MICROCOSMS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING. (R825513C017)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

333

AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL 2. DIFFUSION FROM LABORATORY-SPIKED AND AGED FIELD SEDIMENTS. (R825513C017)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

334

SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediments contain contaminants derived from past activities that seriously degraded the environment. During low water, sediments are subject to natural erosion or removal for navigation. Erosion or dredging of sediment will release contaminants into the environment ...

335

FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

336

Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.  

PubMed

This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation. PMID:24271735

Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

2014-03-01

337

In situ remediation of contaminated sediments using carbonaceous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonaceous materials (CM), such as activated carbons or biochars, have been shown to significantly reduce porewater concentrations and risks by binding hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) present in aquatic sediments. In the present study, the authors review the current state-of-the-art use of CM as an extensive method for sediment remediation, covering both technical and ecological angles. The review addresses how factors

M. I. Rakowska; D. Kupryianchyk; J. Harmsen; J. T. C. Grotenhuis; A. A. Koelmans

2012-01-01

338

Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials have opened new avenues in various scientific fields and are providing novel opportunities in environmental science. The increased surface area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles, quantum size effects, and the ability to tune surface properties through molecular modification make nanostructures ideal for many environmental remediation applications. We describe herein the fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications,

Sherine O. Obare; Gerald J. Meyer

2004-01-01

339

Environmental assessment of dredged sediment in the major Latin American seaport (Santos, São Paulo - Brazil): An integrated approach.  

PubMed

This work offers an environmental assessment of a dredged sediment disposal area in Santos bay, situated on the central coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Sediment quality was evaluated through physicochemical analysis and toxicity tests of sediments collected in the disposal site and adjacent area. The physicochemical characterization of the sediments involved grain size distribution, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, metals and nutrients. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were employed, using amphipods (Tiburonella viscana) and sea urchins (Lythechinus variegatus), respectively. Results revealed toxicity by all the methods applied here, suggesting that the area of disposal of dredged material is significantly altered with respect to sediment quality and probably capable of generating deleterious effects on the local biota. Aiming to elucidate the association between the distinct environmental variables and the biological effects measured in laboratory, Factor Analysis was performed. Results revealed that despite most contaminant concentrations were found below the limits established by Brazilian legislation, biological effects were related to metals (chronic toxicity) and organic compounds (acute toxicity). The application of multivariate analysis proved to be particularly useful to assess and interpret the results in an integrated way, particularly due to the large number of parameters analyzed in environmental assessments, and should be applied in future studies. PMID:25179961

Cesar, A; Lia, L R B; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Cortez, F S; Choueri, R B; De Orte, M R; Rachid, B R F

2014-11-01

340

A study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop systems  

E-print Network

Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with unused and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants.

Colafranceschi, S; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Ferrini, M; Greci, T; Saviano, G; Vendittozzi, C; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Sharma, A

2012-01-01

341

A study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop systems  

E-print Network

Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with unused and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants.

S. Colafranceschi; R. Aurilio; L. Benussi; S. Bianco; L. Passamonti; D. Piccolo; D. Pierluigi; A. Russo; M. Ferrini; T. Greci; G. Saviano; C. Vendittozzi; M. Abbrescia; C. Calabria; A. Colaleo; G. Iaselli; M. Maggi; S. Nuzzo; G. Pugliese; P. Verwilligen; A. Sharma

2012-10-05

342

Comparison of the basin-scale effect of dredging operations and natural estuarine processes on suspended sediment concentration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data from San Pablo Bay, California, were analyzed to compare the basin-scale effect of dredging and disposal of dredged material (dredging operations) and natural estuarine processes. The analysis used twelve 3-wk to 5-wk periods of mid-depth and near-bottom SSC data collected at Point San Pablo every 15 min from 1993-1998. Point San Pablo is within a tidal excursion of a dredged-material disposal site. The SSC data were compared to dredging volume, Julian day, and hydrodynamic and meteorological variables that could affect SSC. Kendall's ??, Spearman's ??, and weighted (by the fraction of valid data in each period) Spearman's ??w correlation coefficients of the variables indicated which variables were significantly correlated with SSC. Wind-wave resuspension had the greatest effect on SSC. Median water-surface elevation was the primary factor affecting mid-depth SSC. Greater depths inhibit wind-wave resuspension of bottom sediment and indicate greater influence of less turbid water from down estuary. Seasonal variability in the supply of erodible sediment is the primary factor affecting near-bottom SSC. Natural physical processes in San Pablo Bay are more areally extensive, of equal or longer duration, and as frequent as dredging operations (when occurring), and they affect SSC at the tidal time scale. Natural processes control SSC at Point San Pablo even when dredging operations are occurring.

Schoellhamer, D. H.

2002-01-01

343

USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 1. ENGINEERING CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTED DREDGINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The engineering properties of most dredgings were found to be quite similar to those of fine-grained, organic soils, and the general notion that maintenance dredgings are soft and weak is only partially due to their inherent nature; the primary reason for this condition seems to ...

344

46 CFR 44.330 - Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. 44.330 Section 44.330 Shipping...Assigning Working Freeboards to Hopper Dredges § 44.330 Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. A hopper dredge may be...

2013-10-01

345

46 CFR 44.330 - Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. 44.330 Section 44.330 Shipping...Assigning Working Freeboards to Hopper Dredges § 44.330 Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. A hopper dredge may be...

2012-10-01

346

46 CFR 44.330 - Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. 44.330 Section 44.330 Shipping...Assigning Working Freeboards to Hopper Dredges § 44.330 Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. A hopper dredge may be...

2010-10-01

347

46 CFR 44.330 - Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. 44.330 Section 44.330 Shipping...Assigning Working Freeboards to Hopper Dredges § 44.330 Obtaining working freeboards for hopper dredges. A hopper dredge may be...

2011-10-01

348

THE CLOSING PROCESS OF CLAMSHELL DREDGES IN WATER-SATURATED SAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature reveals little about the prediction of the closing process of clamshell dredging buckets when cutting sand or clay under water. The results of research carried out, mostly relates to the use of clamshells in dry bulk materials. While good prediction of the forces (in dry materials) involved are possible by measuring the closing curve, the very prediction of

S. A. Miedema; S. Becker; P. S. de Jong; S. Wittekoek

1992-01-01

349

Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of spacecraft in the aerospace environment is examined. The optical systems, thermal control systems and solar power systems were deemed to be most vulnerable to particle damage. It was decided that all orbits should be considered. Specific issues concern whether there are changes in transmittance of optics and the radiative properties of protective coatings.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

350

Study of abyssal seafloor isolation of contaminated sediments concluded  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) conducted and managed the assessment, which was funded during its first year by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and in the following two years by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. NRL carried out the projects in collaboration with participants from academic institutions and industrial organizations. The seafloor isolation concept is an attractive management option for contaminated dredged material because, if abyssal isolation is feasible and environmentally sound, air, land, or water supplies would not be contaminated. The participants concluded that it is technically and environmentally feasible. In ports where shipping costs are high, abyssal seafloor isolation is a cost-competitive strategy. They also outlined the architecture of a system to monitor conditions at the site and to detect and measure possible leaks of contaminated material.

Valent, P.

1998-12-31

351

Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of polymeric materials (polystyrene and polyHIPE) by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents (i.e. iron hydroxides) was investigated in the present work, in order to apply the modified media in the removal of inorganic arsenic anions from contaminated water sources. The method, termed adsorptive filtration, has been classified as an emerging technology in water treatment processes as

Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis; Anastasios I. Zouboulis

2002-01-01

352

24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232z, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232-z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

353

Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

2004-11-09

354

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding ho...

355

A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

356

Cost estimating projects for large cutter and hopper dredges  

E-print Network

Estimating the cost of a dredging project is the most important part of a project's life cycle. A precise account of the costs associated with performing dredging work begins with the production estimate and ends with the cost estimate...

Belesimo, Francesco John

2012-06-07

357

Cost Estimation and Production Evaluation for Hopper Dredges  

E-print Network

Dredging projects are expensive government funded projects that are contracted out and competitively bid upon. When planning a trailing suction hopper dredge project or bidding on the request for proposal for such a project, having an accurate cost...

Hollinberger, Thomas E.

2010-07-14

358

Cost and production estimation for a cutter suction dredge  

E-print Network

The need for accurate cost estimates is well recognized in the dredging industry. In order for a dredging contractor to efficiently execute a project from its conception to its completion, an accurate estimate of the final cost is imperative...

Miertschin, Michael Wayne

2012-06-07

359

IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

2009-06-30

360

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

361

Hydraulic dredging, a sediment removal technique  

SciTech Connect

Sediment was successfully removed from a Peabody Coal Company pond near Macon, Missouri, by a Mud Cat Model SP-810 hydraulic dredge. Previous attempts using land-based equipment had been unsatisfactory. The hydraulic-powered auger and submerged pump easily removed 882 m/sup 3/ (1154 yd/sup 3/) and pumped the slurry a distance of 305 m (1000 ft) to a disposal area. The hydraulic dredge was more effective and cheaper to operate than land-based equipment. The dredge cost was $1.31/m/sup 3/ ($1.00/yd/sup 3/), the dragline cost was $6.54/m/sup 3/ ($5.00/yd/sup 3/) and the front-end loader cost was $15.70/m/sup 3/ ($12.00/yd/sup 3/), under optimum conditions.

Spotts, J.W.

1980-12-01

362

Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

Engel, C. G.; Engel, A. E. J.

1963-01-01

363

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation...RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on...

2011-07-01

364

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation...RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on...

2012-07-01

365

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation...RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on...

2010-07-01

366

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMAPCT OF DREDGING BURNABY LAKE  

E-print Network

#12;EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMAPCT OF DREDGING BURNABY LAKE FINAL REPORT DOE FRAP 1997 the environmental impacts of dredging Burnaby Lake. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential environmental implications of dredging the lake for environmental rejuvenation in order to assist decision

367

SOME EFFECTS OF DREDGING ON POPULATIONS OF MACROBENTHIC ORGANISMS  

E-print Network

SOME EFFECTS OF DREDGING ON POPULATIONS OF MACROBENTHIC ORGANISMS EUGENE H. KAPLAN,' J. R. WELKER after a navigation channel was dredged through a small, shallow lagoon. A new sampler which penetrated of certain particulate and dissolved nutrients changed after dredging, but no correlation was observed

368

Predicting effects of dredging on a crab population  

E-print Network

Predicting effects of dredging on a crab population: An equivalent adult loss approach Thomas C! a University of Washington. seattle. Washington 98 J95 Abstract.-The effect of benthic dredging on coastal entrainment on fishery stocks. Several important dif· ferences between power plant and dredge operations

369

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation...RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on...

2013-07-01

370

Experiments to assess the relative dredging performances of research  

E-print Network

Experiments to assess the relative dredging performances of research and commercial vessels RESEARCH FISHERIES RESEARCH TECHNICAL REPORT NUMBER 96 Experiments to assess the relative dredging ............................................................................................................................................. 9 #12;1. INTRODUCTION 4.44I Dredge surveys to assessthe spatial distributionand abundance of scallop

371

Stratified random dredge surveys have been conducted in Chesapeake  

E-print Network

410 Stratified random dredge surveys have been conducted in Chesapeake Bay yearly since 1989 during large. Nevertheless, catch per unit of effort (CPUE) from the annual dredge surveys gene- rally provides. A method for estimating dredge catching efficiency for blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, in Chesapeake Bay

372

Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.  

PubMed

A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

2013-09-01

373

Monitoring water-quality during pilot-dredging operations in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality was monitored in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers during a pilot dredging operation on December 16, 1977. Monitoring included in-situ measurements of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers; analyses of dissolved ammonia, dissolved manganese, suspended-sediment concentration and particle size, loss on ignition, and total organic carbon in river-water samples; and analyses of percent moisture, particle size, density, selected nutrients, total organic carbon, and loss on ignition in dredged material and barge-overflow samples. (Woodard-USGS)

Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

1978-01-01

374

An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

Silver, R. H.

1978-01-01

375

Contamination rates of optical surfaces at 157 nm: impurities outgassed from construction materials and from photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-induced contamination rates on 157-nm optical surfaces have been studied in controlled experiments with contaminants containing fluorocarbon, sulfur and iodine. The compounds investigated represent species generated in controlled outgassing studies of common construction materials and photoresists used in 157 nm steppers. No photocontamination was measured for highly fluorinated alkanes and ethers on an anti-reflective coating, at levels exceeding 10 ppm. Photocontamination with sulfur based compounds was similar to the behavior observed with hydrocarbon based derivatives. Sulfur containing residues, even from oxidized precursors, are fully cleanable in oxygen, with cleaning rates scaling proportionally with the level of oxygen. In contrast, at elevated levels of oxygen, non-volatile iodate complexes can form from iodine based contaminants. Sulfonium salts should therefore be considered over iodonium species in photoacid generators in 157 nm photoresists. In addition to studying these new classes of compounds, cleaning rates of hydrocarbon residues in trace levels of water were also studied.

Bloomstein, Theodore M.; Sedlacek, Jan H. C.; Palmacci, Stephen T.; Hardy, Dennis E.; Liberman, Vladimir; Rothschild, Mordechai

2003-06-01

376

PRE- AND POST-DREDGING AT A MARINE SUPERFUND SITE: COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE, HABITAT, AND ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a marine Superfund site due to severely PCB-contaminated sediments. Prior to initial remedial activities, a comprehensive long-term monitoring program was developed to assess the effectiveness of dredging at this site, both spatially and temporal...

377

Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements.  

PubMed

The synthesis of graphene materials is typically carried out by oxidizing graphite to graphite oxide followed by a reduction process. Numerous methods exist for both the oxidation and reduction steps, which causes unpredictable contamination from metallic impurities into the final material. These impurities are known to have considerable impact on the properties of graphene materials. We synthesized several reduced graphene oxides from extremely pure graphite using several popular oxidation and reduction methods and tracked the concentrations of metallic impurities at each stage of synthesis. We show that different combinations of oxidation and reduction introduce varying types as well as amounts of metallic elements into the graphene materials, and their origin can be traced to impurities within the chemical reagents used during synthesis. These metallic impurities are able to alter the graphene materials' electrochemical properties significantly and have wide-reaching implications on the potential applications of graphene materials. PMID:25201990

Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zden?k; Kubešová, Marie; Ku?era, Jan; Mat?jková, Stanislava; Pumera, Martin

2014-09-23

378

Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

379

A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.  

PubMed

The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:15238660

Jones, C Rick

2004-01-01

380

Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials  

DOEpatents

A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

1987-01-01

381

Regeneration of sand waves after dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand waves are large bed waves on the seabed, being a few metres high and lying hundreds of metres apart. In some cases, these sand waves occur in navigation channels. If these sand waves reduce the water depth to an unacceptable level and hinder navigation, they need to be dredged. It has been observed in the Bisanseto Channel in Japan

M. A. F. Knaapen; S. J. M. H. Hulscher

2002-01-01

382

Environmental studies on impacts of dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal zone acts as a major interface between the ocean and continents. Harbours located in this zone face grave problems from sedimentation, which is a global issue for most of the harbours of the world. Dredging which counter acts sedimentation, brings about innumerable environmental impacts — both positive and negative. As a case study, this paper reports the impacts

K. Rasheed; A. N. Balchand

2001-01-01

383

International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues.  

PubMed

The paper addresses the international policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residue, its main aim being to describe the misunderstandings, evolution and status of the international paradigms in this area. Thus, the denotation and connotation of the 'remediation' and 'contamination' concepts are explored, including the ambiguity they produce in understanding of the issues by a sceptical public. Then, the international radiation protection approaches for remediation are portrayed. They derive from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are described including their basic principles and characterization of exposure situations. Prolonged exposure situations, which are typical in cases of contaminated land, are analysed with particular detail. The newer ICRP general recommendations, as well as recent ICRP recommendations for excluding and exempting exposure situations from regulatory control and for living in long-term contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency, are examined. Remediation vis-à-vis environmental protection is discussed and the non-technical factors usually involved in decision-making on remediation are examined. Finally, the international safety standards on remediation, which are being established under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are explored. These include the well established International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, or BSS, as well as the specific international safety requirements for remediation; a brief overview of the current process of revising the BSS is also included. In its outcome the paper suggests that the time is ripe for a simple and clear international agreement on the levels of radioactivity in territorial contamination with radioactive material that may be considered unambiguously safe. PMID:20880618

González, Abel J

2013-05-01

384

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

PubMed

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

385

76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Delaware River while the Dredge Pullen conducts dredging operations at the Sunoco Marcus Hook...hazards associated with dredging. Background On March 3, the Dredge Pullen will begin dredging in the vicinity of Sunoco...

2011-03-04

386

USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

387

USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

388

The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

2009-01-01

389

The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

Storlazzi, Curt, D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.

2011-01-01

390

Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

1999-07-01

391

The contamination of the surface of Vesta by impacts and the delivery of the dark material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft recently observed the presence of dark material, which in turn proved to be associated with the presence of OH and H-rich material, on the surface of Vesta. The source of this dark material has been almost unanimously identified with the low albedo asteroids, likely analogous to the carbonaceous chondrites found on Earth, that impacted on Vesta over its lifetime. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the delivery of the dark material is associated with a few large impact events, to micrometeorites or to the continuous, secular flux of impactors on Vesta. The “continuous flux” scenario, in particular, predicts that a significant fraction of the exogenous material accreted by Vesta should be due to non-dark impactors likely analogous to ordinary chondrites, which instead represent only a minor contaminant in the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites. In this work, we explored the “continuous flux” scenario and its implications for the composition of the vestan regolith, taking advantage of the data from the Dawn mission and the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites to constrain the contamination history of Vesta. We developed a model for the delivery of the exogenous material to Vesta and verified how the results it supplies are sensitive to the different parameters we consider. We calibrated the flux of impactors predicted by our model with the number of dark craters observed inside the Rheasilvia basin and we tested the assumptions on the impact conditions by studying the formation of Cornelia crater and of its dark deposits with a hydrocode simulation. We used our calibrated model to show that the “stochastic events” scenario and the “micrometeoritic flux” scenario are just natural consequences of the “continuous flux” scenario. We then used the model to estimate the amounts of dark and hydroxylate materials that were delivered on Vesta since the Late Heavy Bombardment and we showed how our results match well with the values estimated by the Dawn mission. We finally used our model to assess the amount of Fe and siderophile elements that the continuous flux of impactors would mix in the vestan regolith: concerning the siderophile elements, we focused our attention on the role of Ni. The results we obtained are in agreement with the data available on the Fe and Ni content of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites and can be used as a reference frame in future studies of the data from the Dawn mission and of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites. Our model cannot yet provide an answer to the conundrum of the fate of the missing non-carbonaceous contaminants, but we discuss some possible reasons for this discrepancy with the otherwise coherent picture described by our results.

Turrini, D.; Combe, J.-P.; McCord, T. B.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; Consolmagno, G. J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Le Corre, L.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Russell, C. T.

2014-09-01

392

Influence of fermentation and drying materials on the contamination of cocoa beans by ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D'Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Kouassi Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Ze Maria Sika, Charles Bruno

2013-12-01

393

Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Côte d’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sebastien Djedje; Manda, Pierre; Dembele, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

2013-01-01

394

Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D. M.

1984-01-01

395

Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued exposures to contaminated materials.  

PubMed

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. PMID:22395282

Napier, Bruce

2012-03-01

396

Development of dredged ash disposal area, Paradise fossil plant  

SciTech Connect

Paradise Steam-Electric Plant coal-fired facility in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. This project is to construct a dredge pond near the Jacobs Creek ash pond capable of storing fly ash dredged from the ash pond. This will provide approximately 10 years of additional fly ash storage in the fly ash pond. Effluent from the dredge pond will be returned to the Jacobs Creek ash pond for discharge to Jacobs Creek. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1989-02-01

397

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON HARD CLAMS OF HAND RAKING AND POWER DREDGING  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON HARD CLAMS OF HAND RAKING AND POWER DREDGING Marine Biobgical Laboratory DEC7 ........ Bullraking operations ............. Dredging operations .............. Underwater photography in relation to available population for bullraking and dredging (Figure 7) · · 32 Appendix "C

398

76 FR 63547 - Security Zone; Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Dredge Vessels Patriot and Liberty  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...since the Dredge Vessels Patriot and Liberty would have started...safeguard the Dredge Vessels Patriot and Liberty from sabotage, other subversive acts, or accidents, and otherwise...Purpose The Dredge Vessels Patriot and Liberty will be...

2011-10-13

399

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S. J.; Wilson, S. A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H. M. S.; Yang, S. -Y.; Long, S. E.

2008-01-01

400

Investigation of airborne molecular contamination adsorption rate as storage materials in mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The haze issue has gradually increased in the 65 nm node technology and beyond. This issue has been reporting that it is caused by chemical reaction among ions like SO 4 2-, NH 4 + and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (AHCs) such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), toluene and etc. on mask by 193 nm laser in general. This haze growth causes defects with accumulation of exposure energy. Finally, it decreases the lifetime of photomask with an increase in defects. The source of this haze is generated from storage materials as well as chemical residue in the photomask process. Therefore, we investigated the adsorption rate of airborne molecular contamination (AMC) on each layer with storage materials which were assumed to be the source of the haze. We analyzed adsorbed ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on each layer to verify the effects of storage materials for some storage periods by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (ATD GC/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Also, we investigated the contact angle of each layer as AMC concentration of storage materials. From the experimental results, we confirmed that the adsorption rate of AMC was different on each layer as storage materials.

Yang, Chul-Kyu; Cha, Han-Sun; Yang, Sin-Ju; Kang, Ju-Hyun; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Nam, Kee-Soo

2007-10-01

401

22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR DRIVE OF MAIN (HOISTING) ENGINE. ARM ON RIGHT IS PART OF VALVE LINKAGE. BOX ABOVE THAT IS THE CYLINDER OIL LUBRICATOR. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

402

21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

403

44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, DECEMBER 10, 1898. BY SPECIAL AGREEMENT, CONTRACTORS MASON & HODGE WERE PERMITTED TO BEGIN EXCAVATION OVER THE POWER HOUSE LOCATION WITH DREDGES, COMPLETING THE WORK LATER BEHIND THE COFFER DAM BEING CONSTRUCTED ON THE FAR RIGHT SIDE OF THE PICTURE. (21) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

404

Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds lo- cated on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds on natural substrates,

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1999-01-01

405

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-06-01

406

Hydrologic considerations associated with dredging spring ponds in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring ponds (small spring-fed bodies of water) are natural features of some glaciated areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrology of three spring ponds in northeastern Wisconsin and the effects that dredging has had on the ponds. Sediments were dredged from Sunshine and Krause Ponds. Maxwell Pond, which was not dredged, was used as a hydrologic control. Sediment accumulation since glaciation caused a 2-fold reduction in the surface area of Sunshine Pond and a 4-fold reduction in the area of Krause Pond. Volume reduction caused by sediment accumulation was 9-fold in Sunshine Pond and 28-fold in Krause Pond. Dredging 4.2 acre-feet of sediment from Sunshine Pond caused a 41-percent increase in ground-water inflow. Dredging 4.0 acre-feet of sediments from Krause Pond caused only a 2-percent increase in ground-water inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

Rose, William J.

1977-01-01

407

Zinc contamination in the cathodic material of exhausted alkaline manganese dioxide batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cathodic compartment of the alkaline manganese batteries is contaminated by zinc ions from the anodic compartment during discharging: in this work we consider how discharging conditions affect the zinc concentration in the cathodic compartment. Various conditions of discharging have been tested and the mean and local concentration of zinc in the cathodic compartment has been determined. Experimental results show that the cathodic compartment of discharged batteries contains a small concentration of zinc, and that the discharge conditions and the discharging level affect the concentration of the zinc in this compartment. A deeper knowledge of the chemical composition of spent batteries improves recycling processes and allows the cathodic and anodic materials to be recovered separately.

Vatistas, Nikos; Bartolozzi, Mauro

408

Brick production with dredged harbour sediments. An industrial-scale experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A volume of 600.000 m3 harbour sediments is annually dredged out of the harbour basin of Bremen to maintain a certain water depth. Because of its perpetual availability, homogeneity and mineralogical, petrographic and chemical composition, the sediment is regarded as a suitable raw material for brick production. A pilot experiment was conducted at a full-scale industrial brickworks. During production, the

Kay Hamer; Volker Karius

2002-01-01

409

Hydrogen burning and dredge-up during the major core helium flash in a Z = 0 model star  

SciTech Connect

The basic evolution of the core helium flash in a Z = 0 model star is studied, analyzing the manner in which both a hydrogen-burning and a helium-burning convective shell can form. The manner in which CN-enhanced material is dredged up to the stellar surface is addressed. A numerical experiment is presented to determine the importance of opacity during the dredge-up phase. The implications that the Z = 0 model has for understanding of Population III stars is discussed. 23 refs.

Hollowell, D.; Iben, I. Jr.; Fujimoto, M.Y. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA) Niigata Univ. (Japan))

1990-03-01

410

An electrical resistivity logging study of the marine sediments at the offshore dredge disposal site, Galveston, Texas  

E-print Network

and in the disposal area. They were collected prior to the time of the dredging operation. This analysis showed that in the Ship Channel the clays are composed of 45 to 60 percent montmorillonite and 30 to 40 percent illite, which both act as colloidal electrolytes..., and 1 D%%d to 205 kaolinite. As was expected the samples taken directly within the dredged material dumping area (Buoy D flat and MNM of Buoy D) dis- played higher concentrations of illite rather than montmorilloni te. This occurance was found...

Hill, Gerhard William

2012-06-07

411

Pathways of material and contaminant transfer within Great Lake food webs  

SciTech Connect

Pathways of material transfer to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior sculpins were delineated using {delta}{sup 15}N values that will also provide a basis to assess the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in these organisms. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of sculpins increased with depth along a transact from shallow to deep stations. Individuals from shallow, intermediate and deep water stations had {delta}{sup 15}N values of 11.2% {+-} 0.3, 12.99% {+-} 0.5 and 13.7% {+-} 0.7, respectively. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of mysids and amphipods from the deep station were 8.7 and 11.0, respectively. Assuming a 3% shift in {delta}{sup 15}N with trophic level, these data suggest that mysids are the dominant prey item to shallow water sculpins whereas amphipods predominate the diet of deep water sculpins. These data are consistent with stomach content analysis and, therefore, imply that short and long term dietary assessments provide similar information for sculpins. The predominance of amphipods in the diet of deep water sculpins is significant given that amphipods are much less abundant than mysids at this station. The greater attenuation of light at deep station appears to facilitate the capture of small prey, such as amphipods, by sculpins. The discrepancy between interpretations of diet based on isotope analysis and those based on relative abundance of prey items serves to emphasize the importance of a careful assessment of pathways of material transfer in food webs and suggests that isotope analysis are an important first step in delineating mechanisms of contaminant transfer.

Ostrom, P.; Ostrom, N. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Groton, CT (United States); Baker, J.; Kucklick, J. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

1994-12-31

412

Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

Ankley, G. T.; Hoke, R. A.; Giesy, J. P.; Winger, P. V.

1989-01-01

413

Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the Microtox (trade name) bioassay  

SciTech Connect

The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge-spoil elutriates from several potentially contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically adjusted distilled deionized water.

Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

1989-01-01

414

Studies on the dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated materials using a novel dialysis tubing experimental method  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of risk and remediation strategies at contaminated sites requires that both the amounts of contaminants present and their potential for release from materials and soils be evaluated. The release, or dissolution, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated materials to water was therefore investigated. To facilitate investigations of PAH dissolution from physically disparate materials such as solid coal tars, creosote, oil, and spent oxide, an experimental method for measuring dissolved PAHs was developed employing dialysis tubing in batch-type system. This was validated and compared to aqueous-phase PAH concentrations measured using more traditional techniques and also predicted using Raoult's law. The experimental procedure was successfully used to determine near equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PAHs, but it could only be used to determine relative rates of approach to equilibrium as the dialysis tubing effected the rate constants. It was found that the contaminant materials influenced dissolution, in particular the close to equilibrium concentrations. For materials chemically similar to PAHs, such as nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs), the concentrations could be predicted using Raoult's law. For materials that were chemically dissimilar to PAHs, such as spent oxide, release was more thermodynamically favorable than for NAPLs.

Woolgar, P.J. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom) Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling (United Kingdom)); Jones, K.C. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))

1999-06-15

415

A MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOR A TIERED RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING BIOACCUMULATION DATA COLLECTED DURING REGULATORY EVALUATIONS OF DREDGED  

E-print Network

): Organic Arsenic : Metal Gobas Model is used for BCF approach is used for ters: Body Weight, kg Ingest-02 2.17E-01 6.29E-01 4.29E+00 Summer Flounder : G 100 Arsenic : Metal PCBs (Total) : Organi 7.32 0/USACE 1991; 1998), involves comparing dredged material to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action levels

US Army Corps of Engineers

416

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

417

Brownfield reuse of dredged New York Harbor sediment by cement-based solidification/stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Newly effective federal regulations restrict the ocean disposal of sediments dredged from the harbors of New York and Newark. The New York Port Authority is faced with a critical situation: find land-based disposal/uses for 10`s of millions cubic yards of sediments or lose standing as a commercial port for ocean-going ships. One of the technologies now being employed to manage the sediments is portland cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. At least 4 million cubic yards of the sediments will undergo cement-based S/S treatment. This treatment will immobilize heavy metals, dioxin, PCBs and other organic contaminants in the sediment. The treatment changes the sediment from a environmental liability into a valuable structural fill. This structural fill is being used at two properties. The first property is an old municipal landfill in Port Newark, New Jersey. The treated sediments are being used as structural fill to cover about 20 acres of the landfill. This will allow planned redevelopment of the landfill property into a shopping mall. The second property called the Seaboard site, was the location of a coal gasification facility and later a wood preservation facility. This 160-acre property has been designated for brownfield redevelopment. Over 4 million cubic yards of treated sediments will eventually cover this site. Portland cement is the selected S/S binding reagent. Nearly 500,000 tons of cement will eventually be used to treat the sediments. Cement was selected for its ability to (a) change the peanut butter-like consistency of the sediments into a structural material and (b) to physically and chemically immobilize hazardous constituents in the sediment.

Loest, K. [ECDC Environmental L.C., Pembroke, MA (United States). Eastern Operations; Wilk, C.M. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

418

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1991-06-01

419

SOME EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC DREDGING AND COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN BOCA CIEGA BAY, FLORIDA 1  

E-print Network

SOME EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC DREDGING AND COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN BOCA CIEGA BAY, FLORIDA 1 BY JOHN L. PETERSBURG BEACH, FLA. 33706 ABSTRACT Filling of 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) of bay by hy- draulic dredging in dredged ItreltS wit.h those in relatively undisturbed ttreas. Hydl'ltulic dredging becmue. ltll ltccepted

420

ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTED FUNDS (33 U.S.C. 701h) FOR O&M DREDGING  

E-print Network

MODEL MOA ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTED FUNDS (33 U.S.C. 701h) FOR O&M DREDGING WHERE SUCH DREDGING&M dredging that is a Federal expense; there are no Federal funds available; and the Contributor provides ALL funds needed to perform the dredging and related activities (engineering and design work, environmental

US Army Corps of Engineers

421

The effect of dredging off Great Yarmouth on the wave conditions and erosion of the  

E-print Network

The effect of dredging off Great Yarmouth on the wave conditions and erosion of the North Norfolk Paper 97 #12;The effect of dredging off Great Yarmouth on the wave conditions and erosion of the North and seabed lowering due to dredging off Great Yarmouth. A scenario of extreme dredging was defined and used

Watson, Andrew

422

ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTED FUNDS (33 U.S.C. 701h) FOR O&M DREDGING  

E-print Network

i MODEL MOA ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTED FUNDS (33 U.S.C. 701h) FOR O&M DREDGING WHERE SUCH DREDGING be used for O&M dredging that is a Federal expense; there is enough Federal funds for Corps to award a reasonable dredging contract; and the Contributor provides a specified amount to allow additional O

US Army Corps of Engineers

423

Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Forces on a Model Dredge Cutterhead  

E-print Network

Dredging is a critical part of maintaining the nation’s ports and harbors that play a major role in international trade. The design of dredge equipment requires knowledge of the forces expected on an average dredge. For a cutter suction dredge one...

Permenter, Rusty

2011-02-22

424

A DEVICE TO MEASURE LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS IN ULTRA-CLEAN MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a radiation detection device so sensitive that a decay rate of only one atom per 11.57 days per kilogram of material could be detected. Such a detector is needed for screening materials that will be used in exotic high energy physics experiments currently being planned for the near future. The research was performed deep underground at the Underground Mine State Park in Soudan, Minnesota. The overburden there is ~1800 meters water equivalent. The reason for performing the research at such depth was to vastly reduce the effects of cosmic radiation. The flux of muons and fast neutrons is about 100,000 times lower than at the surface. A small clean room quality lab building was constructed so that work could be performed in such a manner that radioactive contamination could be kept at a minimum. Glove boxes filled with dry nitrogen gas were used to further reduce contamination from dirt and also help reduce the concentration of the radioactive gas 222Ra and daughter radionuclides which are normally present in air. A massive lead shield (about 20 tons) was constructed in such a manner that an eight inch cube of space in the center was available for the sample and detector. The innermost 4" thick lead walls were made of ~460 year old lead previously used in double beta decay experiments and known to be virtually free of 210Pb. A one and one half inch thick shell of active plastic scintillator was imbedded in the center of the 16" thick lead walls, ceiling, and floor of the shield and is used to help reduce activity due to the few muons and fast neutrons seen at this depth. The thick lead shielding was necessary to shield the detector from gamma rays emitted by radionuclides in the rock walls of the mine. A sealable chamber was constructed and located on top of the shield that included a device for raising and lowering the detector and samples into and out of the center chamber of the shield. A plastic scintillator detector measuring 6"x6"x6" was fitted with wave length shifting fibers that allowed the light from ionizing radiation to be collected and transmitted outside the massive shield to photomultiplier tubes and electronics. The detector was calibrated for energy and detection efficiency and low resolution background spectra were collected. Results from these measurements show the figure of merit (using: efficiency/square root of background) for this plastic scintillation counting technique to be ~15 times better than for a 2 kg germanium detector for measuring surface contamination from atmospheric 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi, and 210Po). These daughter radionuclides are normally deposited everywhere onto all materials exposed to air. The results are encouraging and indicate that plastic scintillation counting techniques can be of benefit to the public by making available very sensitive counters for screening ultra-low background materials at an affordable cost. However, in order to reach the level required a multi element array of thin plastic scintillator sheets must be developed that will allow many thin samples to be counted at one time. In addition, more sophisticated light detection hardware, electronics, and computer software is needed.

James H Reeves; Matthew Kauer

2006-03-17

425

Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials.  

PubMed

The modification of polymeric materials (polystyrene and polyHIPE) by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents (i.e. iron hydroxides) was investigated in the present work, in order to apply the modified media in the removal of inorganic arsenic anions from contaminated water sources. The method, termed adsorptive filtration, has been classified as an emerging technology in water treatment processes as it presents several advantages towards conventional technologies: the production of high amounts of toxic sludge can be avoided and it is considered as economically more efficient; whereas it has not yet been applied in full-scale treatment plants for low-level arsenic removal. The present experiments showed that both modified media were capable in removing arsenic from the aqueous stream, leading to residual concentration of this toxic metalloid element below 10 microg/L, which is the new maximum concentration limit set recently by the European Commission and imposed by the USEPA. Though, among the examined materials, polyHIPE was found to be more effective in the removal of arsenic, as far as it concerns the maximum sorptive capacity before the filtration bed reaches the respective breakthrough point. PMID:12448563

Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

2002-12-01

426

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

427

COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

2004-05-25

428

More than scratching the surface: dredge-up in simulations of double white dwarf mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that the strange isotopic abundances of R Corona Borealis stars (e.g. 16O / 18O ~ 1) as well as other properties of these unusual stars may naturally be explained if they originate from the merger of a He white dwarf with a CO white dwarf. However, the merger process that reignites these stellar remnants is highly dynamic and violent. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the accreting star will dredge up oxygen 16 from the accretor at the same time that material from the donor star is fusing to form oxygen 18. Recent stellar evolution calculations have indicated that if dredge up is strongly suppressed, the merger remnant will appear as an R Corona Borealis star but it is not clear how or if dredge up can be shut down. In this presentation we will compare double white dwarf merger simulations performed with three independent codes (SPH, fixed grid Eulerian and adaptive mesh refinement) to ascertain how much accretor material is lifted into the proto-envelope of the merged object.

Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, J. E.; Raskin, C.; Marcello, D.; Clayton, G. C.; Fryer, C.; Frank, J.

2014-01-01

429

Third-dredge-up oxygen in planetary nebulae  

E-print Network

The planetary nebulae He 2-436 and Wray 16-423 in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy appear to result from nearly twin stars, except that third-dredge-up carbon is more abundant in He 2-436. A thorough photoionization-model analysis implies that ratios Ne/O, S/O and Ar/O are significantly smaller in He 2-436, indicative of third-dredge-up oxygen enrichment. The enrichment of oxygen with respect to carbon is (7 +/- 4)%. Excess nitrogen in Wray 16-423 suggests third dredge-up of late CN-cycle products even in these low-mass, intermediate-metallicity stars.

D. Pequignot; J. R. Walsh; A. A. Zijlstra; G. Dudziak

2000-08-29

430

Development and evaluation of novel sensing materials for detecting food contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid detection of food-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as organic acids and alcohols released by bacterial pathogens is being used as an indicator for detecting bacterial contamination in food by our research group. One of our current research thrusts is to develop novel sensors that will be sensitive to specific compounds (at low operating temperature) associated with food safety. This study evaluates two approaches employed to develop sensors for detecting acid and alcohols at low concentrations. Chemoresistive and piezoelectric sensors were developed based on metal oxides and olfactory system based biomaterials, respectively to detect acetic acid, butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The metal oxide based sensors were developed by the sol-gel method. A zinc oxide (ZnO) sensor was found to be sensitive to acetic acid with lower detection limit ranging from 13-40 ppm. The three-layered dip-coated gold electrode based ZnO sensors had a LDL of 18 ppm for acetic acid detection. The ZnO-iron oxide (Fe2O3) based nanocomposite sensors were developed to detect butanol operating at 100°C. The 5% Fe/Zn mole ratio based ZnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite sensors had high correlation coefficients (>0.90) of calibration curves, low butanol LDLs (26 +/- 7 ppm), and lower variation among the sensor responses. The ZnO and ZnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite sensors showed potential to detect acetic acid and butanol at low concentrations, respectively at 100°C. QCM based olfactory sensors were developed from olfactory receptor and odorant binding protein based sequences to detect low concentrations of acetic acid and alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol and 1-hexanol), respectively. The average LDLs for acetic acid as well as alcohols detection of the QCM sensors were < 5 ppm. The linear calibration curve based correlation coefficients of the QCM sensors were > 0.80. Finally, a computational simulation based peptide sequences was designed from olfactory receptors and evaluated as sensor material for the detection of alcohols at low concentrations. The results indicated that the QCM sensors exhibited a good sensitivity to 1-hexanol and 1-pentanol with the estimated LDLs in the range of 2-3 ppm and 3-5 ppm, respectively. This research work was successful in developing multiple novel sensing materials to detect alcohols and acid associated with meat contaminations at low concentrations.

Sankaran, Sindhuja

431

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-print Network

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, =0.05) differences in median, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET-bottles (0.33 vs

Filzmoser, Peter

432

Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-print Network

Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, a = 0.05) differences in median, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21Ã? higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs

Short, Daniel

433

Mechanical impact tests of materials in oxygen effects of contamination. [Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of contaminants on the mechanical impact sensitivity of Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum in a high-pressure oxygen environment was investigated. Uncontaminated Teflon did not ignite under the test conditions. The liquid contaminants - cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmaker dye - caused Teflon to ignite. Raising the temperature lowered the impact energy required for ignition. Stainless steel was insensitive to ignition under the test conditions with the contaminants used. Aluminum appeared to react without contaminants under certain test conditions; however, contamination with cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmakers dye increased the sensitivity of aluminum to mechanical impact. The grit contaminants silicon dioxide and copper powder did not conclusively affect the sensitivity of aluminum.

Ordin, P. M.

1980-01-01

434

DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

435

Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.  

PubMed

Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food. PMID:23993598

Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

2013-12-15

436

Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

437

Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

1984-01-01

438

Pilot study of dredging and disposal alternatives for the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Bottom sediments in New Bedford Harbor are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and heavy metals to the extent that the site is considered one of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites and is being studied by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Superfund program. At the request of EPA, the Corps of Engineers has evaluated the feasibility of dredging and disposal alternatives for the upper estuary of New Bedford, an area where PCB concentrations in the percent levels have been detected in the sediments. Between May 1988 and February 1989 a pilot study was performed as part of this effort. This study involved the evaluation of three hydraulic pipeline dredges with the contaminated sediments being placed in a confined disposal facility and a contained aquatic disposal cell. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of our approach and the results of this $6.5 million effort. The study provided for a site-specific technical evaluation of the methods used which has allowed the Corps of Engineers to make recommendations to EPA which will be critical in their final evaluation of remedial alternatives for the site.

Otis, M.J.

1992-03-01

439

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

440

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

441

Estimating production and cost for clamshell mechanical dredges  

E-print Network

and project cost. The production calculation also factors in soil type and region of the United States. The spreadsheet is capable of operating with basic site characteristics, or with details about the dredge, bucket size, and region. Once the production...

Adair, Robert Fletcher

2005-02-17

442

Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch.  

PubMed

The exponential growth of the human population and its increasing industrial development often involve large scale modifications of the environment. In the marine context, coastal urbanisation and harbour expansion to accommodate the rising levels of shipping and offshore energy exploitation require dredging to modify the shoreline and sea floor. While the consequences of dredging on invertebrates and fish are relatively well documented, no study has robustly tested the effects on large marine vertebrates. We monitored the attendance of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to a recently established urbanised foraging patch, Aberdeen harbour (Scotland), and modelled the effect of dredging operations on site usage. We found that higher intensities of dredging caused the dolphins to spend less time in the harbour, despite high baseline levels of disturbance and the importance of the area as a foraging patch. PMID:23816305

Pirotta, Enrico; Laesser, Barbara Eva; Hardaker, Andrea; Riddoch, Nicholas; Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

2013-09-15

443

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

444

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.  

PubMed

Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

445

Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

2011-01-01

446

Selection of a halophytic plant for assessing the phytotoxicity of dredged seaport sediment stored on land.  

PubMed

The filling of dry quarries in coastal areas with sediments dredged in seaports represents a potentially interesting method of recycling of these materials. However, this recycling requires the prior carrying out of an Environmental Risk Assessment of the scenario concerned. For this, the question arose as to the type of plants capable of developing on the surface of such a deposit and the method to implement for assessing the possible phytotoxicity of dredged sediments. To answer this question, we chose to work with halophytic plants to be free from the salt-related effect and to assess only the effect related to the toxic compounds present. Based on the objectives set, these works led to the use of common plants of the French coast, with direct seeding, and with pollution-sensitive plants. Three species of angiosperms, Armeria maritima, Anthemis maritima and Plantago coronopus, were finally tested. As a result of this work, Armeria maritima was retained as the most suitable plant for testing the possible phytotoxic effect of dredged marine sediments stored on land. The results obtained with this plant are as follows: germination of 40 % of the seeds in 31 days, produced biomass of 493 mg FW in 6 months and a capacity to bioaccumulate metal pollutants in roots with 350 and 720 mg/kg DW for Zn and Cu, respectively. PMID:23955497

Bedell, J-P; Ferro, Y; Bazin, C; Perrodin, Y

2014-01-01

447