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1

Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2  

E-print Network

contaminated site remediation operations.42 The term `measurement' is used deliberately instead of `analysis1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

1986-02-01

3

Effects of Contaminants in Dredge Material from the Lower Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered\\u000a in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor,\\u000a Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored\\u000a in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment

P. V. Winger; P. J. Lasier; D. H. White; J. T. Seginak

2000-01-01

4

Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal area pm the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination.

Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

2000-01-01

5

Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the lower Savannah River.  

PubMed

Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal areas on the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination. PMID:10556380

Winger, P V; Lasier, P J; White, D H; Seginak, J T

2000-01-01

6

Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

Tatem, H.E.

1990-12-01

7

HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

8

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

2000-12-03

9

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

10

Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

1991-09-01

11

Methods To Characterize Contaminant Residuals After Environmental Dredging  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental dredging is a common remedial action for managing contaminated sediments. However, post dredging contaminant concentrations in surface sediment are difficult to predict prior to initiating dredging actions. In some cases, post surface concentrations have been high...

12

Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials  

SciTech Connect

Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

Askin, R.C. [Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

13

Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From the Port of  

E-print Network

environmentaleffectscausedby ocean disposal of the dredged material. Current proposals for solutions to the problem include ocean disposal of uncontam- inated material, use of confined disposal facilities (both upland facilitiesResearch Federation 646 cleaned sediments can be returned to the ocean, placed in a landfill, or reused in various

Brookhaven National Laboratory

14

DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER  

EPA Science Inventory

In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

15

DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

16

Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

1982-01-01

17

Chemical Stability of Capped Dredged Material Disposal Mounds in Long Island Sound, Usa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical analysis and visual inspection of cores collected from capped dredged material mounds revealed that in many cores, cap material was clearly distinguishable, both visually and chemically, from mound material. Contaminated dredged sediments were disposed in Long Island Sound eleven and seven years prior to sampling, and capped with uncontaminated dredged sediments. Core data provided no conclusive evidence of physical

Thomas J. Fredette; Joseph D. Germano; Drew A. Carey; Peggy M. Murray; Paula G. Kullberg

1992-01-01

18

Dredging/dredged material management risk assessment. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note explains the use of risk assessment to facilitate dredged material management decision-making in navigable waterways by US Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) project managers and field operations personnel. The document does not promote risk assessment as a tool for use in every dredged material management decision. It is likely to be most useful, and most used, in those cases that constitute the exception rather than the rule. The use of risk assessment is intended to supplement the analytical options currently available to dredged material managers by building on the existing technical framework (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/USACE 1992) and the existing tiered approaches (USEPA/USACE 1991, 1998).

NONE

1998-09-01

19

Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

1993-01-01

20

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated estuarine dredged material placed in both upland and wetland environments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the Field Verification Program (FVP), conducted during the period 1981-1986. Laboratory tests were conducted on the sediment prior to dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under each of the disposal alternatives. Prior to dredging for upland disposal and wetland creation at the FVP field site, upland tests (i.e., plant and earthworm bioassays) and wetland tests (i.e., plant, sandworm, snail, and mussel bioassays) were conducted. Laboratory test results were sub-subsequently field verified at the field test site at Tongue Point, Bridgeport, CT. The results of the upland disposal and wetland creation portions of the FVP, and the changes occurring since completion of the FVP for each disposal environment, are summarized herein. The emphasis of this report is on the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. This interim report includes data collected through 1989. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland and wetland ecosystems at this site will be evaluated until September 1985.

Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.; Wilhelm, G.S.

1991-09-01

21

Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.  

PubMed

In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities. PMID:23666121

Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

2013-11-01

22

Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

2013-01-01

23

Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.  

PubMed

As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. PMID:22240209

Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

2012-05-01

24

Physical factors affecting the siting of dredged material islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredge material islands are significant features formed very rapidly in comparison to normal geologic processes. Most geologic, engineering, and environmental studies of dredging and dredged material islands are short term analyses directed toward their environmental impacts. Since these islands are located in a dynamic environment, geologic processes actively erode, transport and redistribute the island material. In many cases, the siting

Christopher C. Mathewson; Robert M. McHam

1977-01-01

25

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by...environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing...in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with...dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not meet the...

2012-07-01

26

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by...environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing...in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with...dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not meet the...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

...States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by...environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing...in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with...dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not meet the...

2014-07-01

28

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by...environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing...in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with...dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not meet the...

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated by...environmentally acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing...in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with...dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not meet the...

2010-07-01

30

Stakeholder engagement in dredged material management decisions.  

PubMed

Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as multi-stakeholder, multi-criteria decision problems. In this paper, we describe a case study in which multi-criteria decision analysis was implemented in a multi-stakeholder setting in order to generate recommendations on dredged material placement for Long Island Sound's Dredged Material Management Plan. A working-group of representatives from various stakeholder organizations was formed and consulted to help prioritize sediment placement sites for each dredging center in the region by collaboratively building a multi-criteria decision model. The resulting model framed the problem as several alternatives, criteria, sub-criteria, and metrics relevant to stakeholder interests in the Long Island Sound region. An elicitation of values, represented as criteria weights, was then conducted. Results show that in general, stakeholders tended to agree that all criteria were at least somewhat important, and on average there was strong agreement on the order of preferences among the diverse groups of stakeholders. By developing the decision model iteratively with stakeholders as a group and soliciting their preferences, the process sought to increase stakeholder involvement at the front-end of the prioritization process and lead to increased knowledge and consensus regarding the importance of site-specific criteria. PMID:25089686

Collier, Zachary A; Bates, Matthew E; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

2014-10-15

31

Management of dredged material at Toledo, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Toledo Harbor, at the mouth of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio, is the second most active port and largest single dredging project on the Great Lakes. Over 770,000 cub. m is dredged each year. material has been confined since 1955. Most of this half of the harbor was declared suitable In 1983, over water disposal. Monitoring of the open-water disposal has not shown any adverse impact on water quality. Studies of the release or bioavailability of phosphorus (P) bound to the sediments indicate that P is released from the sediments at a rate of from 10 to 30 percent per day. On an annual basis, dredging and disposal account for 0.4 to 0.6 percent of the total external loading of P to Lake Erie. High-resolution visible data from the French satellite SPOT were used to demonstrate the total extent of the dredging plume. Efforts will be made in the future to use the satellite for routine monitoring.

Adams, J.R.

1992-04-01

32

Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

1986-01-01

33

VANCOUVER LAKE: DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL AND RETURN FLOW MANAGEMENT IN A LARGE LAKE DREDGING PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of Vancouver Lake required the dredging of 6.5 × 10mof material from the Lake, the construction of 17 km of land based retaining dikes to enclose 180 ha of disposal area, and the disposal of nearly 3 × 10mof material in the lake to form an island. The requirement that all dredge return flow be returned to the

Richard Raymond; Fred Cooper

1984-01-01

34

Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged material. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability in waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants in dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated substrates and the concentrations in the tissues of earthworms exposed to these substrates over a 28-day period may be used to establish their potential as biomonitor organisms.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1988-02-01

35

Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (2001) 127143 Dredged material decontamination demonstration  

E-print Network

for the port of New York / New Jersey Keith W. Jonesa,, Huan Fenga,1, Eric A. Sternb, James Lodgec, Nicholas L of contaminated dredged material is a significant challenge in the Port of New York and New Jersey as a result are commonly found in waterways surrounding industrialized areas. Trace amounts

Brookhaven National Laboratory

36

78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of...

2013-06-24

37

Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated

Kamali Siham; Bernard Fabrice; Abriak Nor Edine; Degrugilliers Patrick

2008-01-01

38

MODELING SHORT-TERM BEHAVIOR OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSED IN VERY SHALLOW AND VERY DEEP COASTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Modifications have been made to the model for Disposal From an Instantaneous Dump (DIFID), commonly used to simulate transport and fate of dredged material rapidly disposed from a dredge or barge into aquatic systems. hanges include simulation of particulate and contaminant detac...

39

Impact of remobilized contaminants in Mytilus edulis during dredging operations in a harbour area: bioaccumulation and biomarker responses.  

PubMed

Dredging operations in harbours are recurrent to maintain accessibility and navigational depths. One of the main environmental risks of these operations is the remobilization of contaminants trapped in the sediments, rendering them more bioavailable to the biota. However, regulatory policies regarding the contamination risk of dredging chiefly apply to the disposal of dredged materials rather than the direct impact of the procedure itself. In order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of harbour dredging operations in a polluted estuary (the Tagus, W Portugal), the present study compared bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in field-deployed mussels before and after the beginning of operations, complemented by sediment characterization and risk analysis based on standardized sediment quality guidelines. The results revealed a very significant increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress from the beginning of dredging onwards, which was accompanied by increased bioaccumulation of toxicants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Overall, the results indicate the importance of surveying the direct impacts of these procedures on local contamination, especially considering these sediments had been previously classified as "trace contaminated", according to normative guidelines, and therefore safe for disposal. This study shows the importance of obtaining both chemical and biological data in standard monitoring procedures and that the remobilization of contaminants by dredging operations may be grossly underestimated, which calls for caution when assessing the impact of these activities even in low to moderately polluted areas. PMID:22938960

Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H

2012-11-01

40

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

1995-02-01

41

Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

NONE

1988-04-01

42

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1993-10-01

43

A basin-wide approach to dredged material management in New York/New Jersey Harbor.  

PubMed

In the last decade, an area of increasing estuarine research in the New York/New Jersey Harbor has been the identification of toxic contaminant sources, mapping of contaminant levels in water and sediments, and assessment of contaminant accumulation in biota. The accumulation of anthropogenic contamination in the harbor's sediments has occurred for centuries, primarily from land-based municipal and industrial sources. Contaminants from land-based sources introduced into surface waters rapidly become scavenged by suspended particles that then tend to settle to the bottom, primarily in deep areas, such as berths and navigation channels. Several million cubic meters of sediments must be dredged annually to clear navigation channels. In the past, the dredged material was disposed in a designated ocean site. However, in1992, new testing procedures were implemented, and much of the harbor's dredged material was determined to be unsuitable for ocean placement. It is ironic that these restrictions came at a time when the quality of harbor sediments is improving, largely because of pollution controls implemented as a result of the Clean Water Act and other environmental measures put in place by government and industry. For example, the harbor-wide concentration of mercury has decreased to 0.7-0.8ppm, a level that is approaching the pre-industrial background level. Nevertheless, in certain areas of the harbor, there remain sufficiently high concentrations of contaminants to merit concern and to create serious problems for sponsors of dredging projects. Development of a basin-wide sediment management strategy is necessary to guide port decision-makers in their efforts to clean-up contaminant sources, to dredge regional waterways, and to ameliorate the contaminated sediment disposal problem. The backbone of this strategy is the integration of the data from an ongoing field monitoring and modeling program with a parallel investigation of watershed and airshed sources and sinks using industrial ecology methodology. PMID:11463500

Wakeman, T H; Themelis, N J

2001-07-30

44

Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-09-01

45

Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.  

PubMed

Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. PMID:23524396

Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

2013-05-30

46

Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

47

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 3. Characterization and elutriate testing of Acushnet River Estuary sediment. Technical report, August 1985-March 1988  

SciTech Connect

Several of the alternatives being considered for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project involve dredging of contaminated sediment from the Acushnet River Estuary and placement of the contaminated dredged material in confined disposal areas. Evaluation of these alternatives requires testing sediment from the site to determine chemical and physical characteristics, settling properties, contaminant releases for various migration pathways, and treatment requirements for disposal area effluent. The purpose of this report is to describe the estuary composite sediment sample and the hot-spot-sediment sample tested at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Bulk sediment chemistry, physical characteristics, and elutriate testing for the sediments are included.

Averett, D.E.

1989-03-01

48

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR DREDGING CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is a growing national debate about dredging contaminated sediments, including risks to human health and the environment as well as the overall effectiveness of remedial activities. Presently, monitoring methods are available to address both concerns. This present...

49

DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect

Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

2000-07-01

50

CALIBRATION OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUSLY DISCHARGED DREDGED MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes modifications to a computer model originally developed by R.C.Y. Koh and Y.C. Chang for predicting the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into a water column. Changes to the simulation include the calibration and verification of the p...

51

Beneficial Use of Dredged Material in Yangtze Estuary: Review and Prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredging is essential for the maintenance and development of ports, harbors and waterways. As the developing of harbors and waterways in China, more and more dredged material is produced, and gradually considered as a nature resource. This paper focuses on introducing the management and utilization of enormous dredged material in deepwater channel regulation project of Yangtze Estuary during past decades,

G. J. Hong; J. A. Jiang; F. Lin

2009-01-01

52

DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVE OF LAKE-DREDGED MATERIALS FOR BAHIAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT IN SUBTROPICAL BEEF PASTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The continued need to dredge lakes, rivers, and canals in Florida, both for maintenance and environmental improvement, will produce millions of cubic meters of dredged materials. Productive disposal options of lake-dredged materials (LDM) may provide substantial and intangible benefits that will enh...

53

Environmental effects of dredging. Procedures for examining the relationship between sediment geochemistry and biological impacts of contaminants. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between sediment-bound contaminants and biological uptake of these contaminants is complex because of the many physical, chemical, and biological factors that can affect the relationship (McElroy and Means 1988). Operational and procedural problems encountered in determining how a sediment- associated contaminant affects aquatic organisms cause additional complications. If sediment quality criteria (SQC) are to be used to regulate dredged material disposal, prediction of biological responses based on changes in sediment geochemistry, i.e., sediment physical and chemical properties, and sediment contaminant levels must be possible. Radioactive tracers can be used to evaluate the effects of changing concentrations of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms if the assumption can be made that the contaminant does not degrade during the study. Spiking a sediment with contaminants has generally been accomplished by the addition of organic solvent carriers containing the contaminant to the soil or sediment (Adams, pg1 2.)

Brannon, J.M.; McFarland, V.; Pennington, J.C.; Price, C.B.; Reilley, F.J.

1989-12-01

54

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY TO THE OCEAN DISPOSAL OF A DREDGED MATERIAL: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) relates the source input of the dredged material contaminants to the corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. The specific ob...

55

Establishing bahiagrass in subtropical beef cattle pastures with lake-dredged materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dredged materials (DM) are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess lake-dredged materials...

56

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY  

SciTech Connect

The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

57

TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF DREDGED MATERIALS: ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY AS DETERMINED BY BIOASSAYS AND BIOACCUMULATION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever dredged materials are disposed into the ocean, the potential effects of the materials on human health, fishery resources, and marine ecosystems may range from being negligible or unmeasurable to important. Because these effects may differ greatly at each dredged material...

58

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey .K.W. Jones Brookhaven copyrightcoveringthispaper. #12;Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey K. W. Jones,manyrefineriesarein operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant

Brookhaven National Laboratory

59

Synchrotron x-ray and electron micro-probe study of contaminated dredged sediments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments originating from periodic dredging of waterways were traditionally disposed of in storage sites without any precautions or treatments. There may be some environmental concerns especially when the dredged material comes from historically contaminated areas such as the North French coal basin. This study aims to characterize the metal mobility (mainly Zn and Pb) in deposited dredged sediments by combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The sediments consist of a silty fraction (~ 40 %: dominant quartz, minor feldspar), carbonates and a clay fraction (illite dominant, illite-smectite mixed layer, kaolinite). This mineralogical heterogeneity and the observed grain-size distribution (70 to 80 % wt of the total sediment is <50µm) lead to a need to use microbeam techniques to identify Zn and Pb carriers. Electron probe micro-analyse (EPMA) combined with microbeam x-ray fluorescence (µXRF) at Synchrotron sources were used to identify Zn and Pb carriers. In particular Zn and Pb distributions in thin-section samples were determined by µ-XRF elemental mappings. EPMA was used to determine the distribution of light elements for which the energy of the emission lines is below 4 keV (Si, S, P…). The presence of reduced (sulphides) and oxidized (sulphates, oxihydroxides) phases strongly suggests that the redox state is one of the major parameters controlling the metal mobility. Therefore x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were also performed to study the oxidation state in both bulk samples and on selected regions of interest in thin section samples. Preliminary chemical analyses In this work, the potential effects of the sample preparation on phase's structure and redox state were also studied and will be presented. In particular measurements using x-ray absorption spectroscopy were carried out on air dried or lyophilised powders and on samples stored in a cryogenic environment after sampling. For the latter, we studied the evolution of the iron oxidation state during the sample warm up (from -190°C to 20°C). To conclude, the need of further investigations will be discussed.

Poitevin, A.; Lerouge, C.; Wille, G.; Bataillard, P.; Hennet, L.

2012-04-01

60

Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden.  

PubMed

Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. PMID:25084063

Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun; Kaczala, Fabio; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

2015-01-01

61

UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

62

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York  

SciTech Connect

Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-08-01

63

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

64

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL ECONOMICS By Jay R. Lund,1  

E-print Network

of the Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 4, July/August, 1991. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733- 950X/91/0004-0390/$1.00 + $.15 per page. Paper No. 26015. 390 ! J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean of existing dredged waterways, either as part of general project expansion or to implement advance maintenance

Pasternack, Gregory B.

65

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

1996-11-01

66

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

67

A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.  

PubMed

A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ?1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities. PMID:20674146

Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

2010-12-01

68

Dredge Planning Using Sub-Bottom SONAR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to give students valuable geophysical experience in conducting an environmental assessment of a real-world problem. A scenario is developed in which students work for "Viking Consulting, LLC" as an environmental geologist. The company has been hired by the City of Salem to assess an appropriate confined aqueous disposal (CAD) cell location for contaminated dredge spoils from a proposed dredging project of the South River, Salem, MA. Students utilize sub-bottom SONAR technology to calculate volume of dredge spoils and potential CAD cell locations and analyze which location can accommodate the contaminated material.

Hubeny, Brad

69

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

70

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York  

SciTech Connect

Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-08-01

71

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

72

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-12-01

73

The Bioavailability of Copper and Mercury to the Common Nettle (Urtica Dioica) and the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida from Contaminated Dredge Spoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contaminants Hg and Cu, as well as Fe, Mn and K were sequentially extracted from upland disposed dredge spoil using DTPA and 10% nitric acid. Concentrations of these metals in aerial plant tissue and roots of Urtica dioica growing on the dredge spoil were also determined and used to correlate the biological absorption coefficients (BACs) and mobile element absorption

Sion C. Edwards; Cecilia L. MacLeod; John N. Lester

1998-01-01

74

LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (LTMS) FOR PLACEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with the EIS for the "Long Term management Strategy (LTMS) for Placement of Dredged material in the San Francisco Bay Region, Final policy Environmental Impact Statement and Programmatic Environmental Impact Report." Published October, 1...

75

Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials Focus: New York / New Jersey Harbor Region In the New York / New Jersey Harbor Region, the effect operations of the large scale facility will be funded by the State of New Jersey, Maritime Reso

Brookhaven National Laboratory

76

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

2010-01-01

77

Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material  

SciTech Connect

Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

1982-01-01

78

78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island Sound; Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island AGENCY...Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern Long Island Sound Region. The public meeting was originally...

2013-01-07

79

Environmental effects of dredging, initial comparisons of six assays for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity. Technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note reports and compares initial results of six genotoxicity bioassays applied to dredged sediments and describes progress toward development of a testing protocol to aid in regulatory decisionmaking when genotoxic chemicals are an issue of concern. The Long-term Effects of Dredging Operations Program work unit Genotoxicity of Contaminated Dredged Material was initiated in fiscal year 1990 to develop

V. A. McFarland; M. Honeycutt; S. Jarvis

1995-01-01

80

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment  

E-print Network

in a pseudogley soil (pH 8.2­8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zndoi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged and dissolved Zn from the sediment downwards to a soil depth of 20 cm over a period of 18 months. Gravitational

81

78 FR 73097 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...future maintenance dredging from the SNWW CIP...6WQ-EC), Environmental Protection Agency...2011 ``Final Environmental Impact Statement...future maintenance dredging along the SNWW...effects). The Final Environmental Impact Statement...past maintenance dredging...

2013-12-05

82

Mechanical Properties of Bottom Ash - Dredged Material Mixtures in Laboratory Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom ash from EC Gda?sk and dredged material taken from the mouth of The Vistula were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. Mixtures with different bottom ash content were tested in laboratory to determine its basic physical and mechanical properties. The optimum bottom ash-dredged material mixture, built in the corps of the test dike, contains 70% of ash. The optimum bottom ash content in the mixture was chosen taking into account high internal friction angle, good compaction and reduced filtration coefficient. The maximum dry density of the mixtures was measured in Proctor test for the mixtures formed in laboratory and on samples taken from the test dike. Minimum and maximum void ratio were also determined.

Ba?achowski, Lech; Sikora, Zbigniew

2013-09-01

83

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

2010-01-01

84

Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

1996-02-01

85

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York  

SciTech Connect

South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

1996-09-01

86

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

87

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

1996-08-01

88

Bacteriological water quality effects of hydraulically dredging contaminated upper Mississippi River bottom sediment.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriological effects of hydraulically dredging polluted bottom sediment in the navigation channel of the Upper Mississippi River (river mile 827.5 [about 1,332 km] to 828.1 [about 1,333 km]) were investigated. Bottom sediment in the dredging site contained high total coliform densities (about 6,800 most-probable-number total coliform index per g [dry weight] and 3,800 membrane filter total coliforms per g [dry weight]), and fecal coliforms comprised an average 32% of each total coliform count. Total coliform and fecal coliform densities in water samples taken immediately below the dredge discharge pipe were each approximately four times corresponding upstream values; fecal streptococcus densities were approximately 50 times corresponding upstream values. Correlation analysis indicated that mean turbidity values downstream to the dredging operation were directly and significantly (r greater than 0.94) related to corresponding total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus densities. Salmonellae and shigellae were not recovered from either upstream or downstream water samples. Turbidity and indicator bacteria levels had returned to predredge values within less than 2 km below the dredge spoil discharge area at the prevailing current velocity (about 0.15 m/s). PMID:7377776

Grimes, D J

1980-01-01

89

Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

2007-05-07

90

78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...overall annual maintenance dredging effort needed for the ARBC...access prior to a maintenance dredging event. Therefore, there...this proposed rule and draft Environmental Impact Statement must...

2013-05-21

91

Flume experiments on sediment mixtures from the offshore dredged material disposal site, Galveston Texas  

E-print Network

of the requirement for tht degree of MASTER OF SC:ENCE August 1977 Major Sub. :e . t: Oceanograghy FLUME EXPERIMENTS ON SEDIMENT MIXTURES FROM THE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONY JOSEPH MOHEREK Approved..., most investigators resorted to usage of Prandtl-von Karman's universal velocity distribution law for fully developed turbulent flow: = 2. 5 ln /2 U Y u* 0 (2) 15 where (U) is defined as the flow speed at elevation (Y) above the bed, (2...

Moherek, Anthony Joseph

2012-06-07

92

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

93

Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July 1996 as a result of spraying, and despite initial shallow subsidence and continual erosion through February 1998, water bottom elevation was raised sufficiently to allow S. alterniflora to invade via rhizome growth from the adjacent marsh. Hence, thin-layer deposition of dredged material at this site was effective at restoring and maintaining marsh elevation after 1.5 years. However, if the open water sediment deposits are not soon completely stabilized via further vegetative colonization, erosion may eventually lower elevations to the level where emergent vegetation cannot persist.

Ford, M.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

1999-01-01

94

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2012-07-01

95

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2013-07-01

96

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2011-07-01

97

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2014-07-01

98

75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ER-FRL-8991-4] Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of the...action alternative is defined as not designating an additional ocean disposal site. The existing Jacksonville ODMDS would...

2010-07-09

99

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

As of January 1, 1993, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458 ?122.56900 2 37.74963...

2011-01-01

100

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

As of January 1, 1993, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458 ?122.56900 2 37.74963...

2014-01-01

101

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

As of January 1, 1993, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the following dredged material disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458 ?122.56900 2 37.74963...

2013-01-01

102

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2010-07-01

103

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B  

SciTech Connect

Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1993-11-01

104

Materials surface contamination analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

1992-01-01

105

In situ monitoring of dredged material spoil sites using the oyster Crassostrea virginica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ and laboratory bioassays using the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, were undertaken in the Wright River Estuary, South Carolina, to determine the toxic potential of effluent and sediment from recently dredged sediments. Current standards (ASTM, USEPA, and USACE) rely solely on laboratory-based bioassays to assess toxicity of dredge spoils prior to disposal. These bioassays do not necessarily replicate the

E. F. Wirth; G. I. Scott; M. H. Fulton; R. F. Van Dolah; P. P. Maier; N. Hadley; J. W. Daugomah; P. B. Key

1996-01-01

106

Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.  

PubMed

Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox® SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area. PMID:25497354

Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

2015-03-01

107

Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials from lake panasoffkee, florida: Implication to environment and agriculture part 1: Soil and environmental quality aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope  Dredged materials because of its variable but unique physical and chemical properties are often viewed by society and regulators\\u000a as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials,\\u000a and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. Environmental impact assessment is an important pre-requisite to many dredging\\u000a initiatives. The ability

Gilbert C. Sigua; Mike L. Holtkamp; Samuel W. Coleman

2004-01-01

108

Minerals as additives for decreasing the toxicity of Mediterranean contaminated dredged sediments.  

PubMed

The management of dredged sediments is a priority issue in the Mediterranean sea where sediments are historically polluted. The aims of this study were to evaluate the toxicity of port sediment samples and the effect of three mineral additives (hematite, zerovalent iron (ZVI) and natural zeolite (NZ)) on sediment elutriate toxicity. Four sediments (A, B, C and D) were provided by port authorities after composting procedure; particle size, particulate organic carbon, metals and organic pollutants (TBT, PAHs, PCBs) were determined in whole sediments. Elutriates from these composted sediments were analyzed by determining toxicity level using oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae bioassay, metal and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Toxicity, measured on undiluted elutriates (250 g/L), decreased as follows: A?B>C?D. The treatment of sediments with mineral additives (5%) revealed that hematite tends to decrease the elutriate toxicity in all samples, particularly in samples B and C. This effect may be related to metal concentration decrease in elutriates, in particular Cu and Zn, that have a significant toxic effect on oyster larvae. ZVI and NZ have a variable influence on elutriate toxicity. Results suggest that hematite may be a possible candidate for decreasing chemical concentration and improving the quality of elutriates. Hematite could be used for sediment stabilization prior to the deposit in a specific site or landfill. PMID:20708265

Mamindy-Pajany, Y; Galgani, F; Roméo, M; Hurel, C; Marmier, N

2010-10-01

109

A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

1980-01-01

110

Analyses of native water and dredged material from southern Louisiana waterways, 1975-76  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From June 1975 to July 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted nine dredging and seven postdredging studies related to water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Mississippi River at Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at New Orleans, Bayou Rigaud near Grand Isle, Barataria Bay and Waterway, Bayou La Carpe near Houma, Atchafalaya Bay (Ship Channel), Lower Atchafalaya River area, Intracoastal Waterway near Calumet, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), Petite Anse area, and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. These studies were conductd to determine potential environmental effects of dredging activities in the waterways. The Geological survey collected, treated, and analyzed 383 water and water-sediment mixture samples from 85 dredging sites and 142 postdredging samples (72 sites). Water samples were collected 100 yards upstream and downstream from the dredge effluent, from the disposal area, and from the effluent outfall during the dredge phase of the study; samples were collected at former dredge sites during the postdredging phase. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients, and organic constituents. The analytical data are presented in tables. Sampling sites are shown on maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Demas, Charles R.; Higgins, Patricia C.

1977-01-01

111

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

112

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

113

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

114

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

115

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

116

Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.  

PubMed

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. PMID:24933908

Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

2014-01-01

117

Zn speciation in a soil contaminated by the deposition of a dredged sediment by synchrotron X-ray techniques  

SciTech Connect

The nature and proportion of Zn species present in an agricultural soil overlaid by a dredged contaminated sediment have been untangled by the novel combination of three non-invasive synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: x-ray microfluorescence ({mu}SXRF), microdiffraction ({mu}XRD), and absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). One primary (franklinite) and two secondary (phyllomanganate and phyllosilicate) Zn-containing minerals were identified in the initial soil, and another primary (ZnS) and a new secondary (Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide) Zn species in the covered soil. The quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra recorded on bulk samples indicated that ZnS and Zn-Fe (oxyhydr)oxides amounted to 71+-10 percent and 27+-10 percent, respectively, and the other Zn species to less than 10 percent. The two new Zn species found in the covered soil result from the gravitational migration of ZnS particles initially present in the sediment, and from their further oxidative dissolution and fixation of leached Zn on F e (oxyhydr) oxides.

Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Laboudigue, Agnes; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

2003-09-01

118

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin  

SciTech Connect

Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

119

Desorption kinetics of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for different contaminated dredged  

E-print Network

and landfilled. Reuse in public works is considered. The environmental impact must be assessed, and in particular environmental media, their bioavailability, and the effect of remediation processes at contaminated sites-EPA and a broader range of PCB than usual (40 congeners vs typically 7) for 3 sediments from different location

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

The stability of butyltin compounds in a dredged heavily-contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatment process for marine sediment heavily contaminated with tributyltin (TBT) was designed that included dehydrating, sunlight drying and dumping processes. The time course in butyltin (BTs) compounds, TBT, dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin concentrations were investigated in the sediment treated under various conditions (light (UV, sunlight and light exclusion), moisture (air-drying and water saturation) and wetting and drying cycles). Significant

Kazutoshi Saeki; Akiko Nabeshima; Takashi Kunito; Yuji Oshima

2007-01-01

121

Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)  

SciTech Connect

Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a slurry was added to experimental chambers seeded with adult razor clams to produce burial mounds of various thicknesses. The laboratory results presented here have two implications for disposal operations.

Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

2007-05-07

122

A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.  

PubMed

The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (?7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations. PMID:23813126

Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

2013-12-01

123

Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.  

PubMed

Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area. PMID:24474563

Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

2014-05-01

124

Spatio-temporal pattern of community development in dredged material used for habitat enhancement: A study case in a brackish lagoon.  

PubMed

Dredged material is a potential resource for beneficial use for create/improve subtidal habitats. In a northwestern Adriatic lagoon, dredged sand was placed in inner areas with the management objective of improving the characteristics of the muddy areas being recharged. With this study we investigated the recolonization dynamics of benthic communities following the placement of dredged sand in a microtidal lagoon. The disposal of dredged sand had an immediate and negative effect on resident fauna. After an initial reduction, benthic communities followed different recovery pathways. One year after disposal, we recorded an almost complete recovery of the benthic invertebrates in terms of univariate parameters. Despite multivariate analyses still showed significantly different community structures, the trajectories of recovery for disposal areas converged towards the same basin of attraction of control areas. The ecological quality of sites, assessed with benthic indices, did not improve, thus no new beneficial habitat was created for macrobenthos. PMID:25308327

Munari, C; Mistri, M

2014-12-15

125

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

...System) and are calculated using the North American Datum of 1983] Point ID No. Latitude Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122.00056 2 36.9625 ?121.99861 3 36.96139 ?121.99833...

2014-01-01

126

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...System) and are calculated using the North American Datum of 1983] Point ID No. Latitude Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122.00056 2 36.9625 ?121.99861 3 36.96139 ?121.99833...

2013-01-01

127

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut,

E. S. Barrows; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; J. J. S. Tokos

1996-01-01

128

AGRICULTURAL EFFICANCY OF CARBONATIC LAKE-DREDGED MATERIALS IN ENHANCING PASTURE ESTABLISHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disposal and environmental quality of dredged sediments from navigational channels, lakes and rivers have been judged as beneficial by combinations of physical, chemical, and biological analyses for over 30 years. However, many people in the scientific community find this approach objectionable sinc...

129

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

130

Radiological assessment of dredging application for  

E-print Network

Radiological assessment of dredging application for the port of Lancaster (2008) Cefas Environment 21/2008 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR THE PORT OF LANCASTER (2008) The Centre Marine material disposal ­ Part II FEPA #12;2 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION

131

Radiological assessment of dredging application for  

E-print Network

Radiological assessment of dredging application for Oldbury power station (2009) Cefas Environment 14 /2009 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR OLDBURY POWER STATION (2009) The Centre material disposal ­ Part II FEPA #12;2 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR OLDBURY POWER

132

77 FR 23668 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a 20-Year Dredged Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the maintenance dredging of the Atlantic Intracoastal...to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement...of the maintenance dredging of this portion of...anticipated 20-year dredging needs and alternative...requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act, the...

2012-04-20

133

Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short-duration disposal scenarios, the shear force and surge currents estimated from the modeling and observed previously in the field at Palos Verdes, California appear to be sufficiently high to mobilize and transport the bottom sediment and at least juvenile crab. Behavioral response to surge currents probably occurs and may reduce the occurrence and extent of movement and any associated impacts. There evidence that burial by dredged materials can effect crab survival, but confounding factors in previous experiments preclude conclusions about thresholds and extent of effects. We recommend that future studies focus on burial effects during shallow water, short duration disposal events and take into account the potential for behavioral responses to mitigate any effects.

Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

2006-02-01

134

Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

Lurry, Dee L.

1983-01-01

135

Quantitative Zn speciation in a contaminated dredged sediment by ?-PIXE, ?-SXRF, EXAFS spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredging and disposal of sediments onto agricultural soils is a common practice in industrial and urban areas that can be hazardous to the environment when the sediments contain heavy metals. This chemical hazard can be assessed by evaluating the mobility and speciation of metals after sediment deposition. In this study, the speciation of Zn in the coarse (500 to 2000

Marie-Pierre Isaure; Agnès Laboudigue; Alain Manceau; Géraldine Sarret; Christophe Tiffreau; Patrick Trocellier; Géraldine Lamble; Jean-Louis Hazemann; Daniel Chateigner

2002-01-01

136

Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.  

PubMed

The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites. PMID:16359711

Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

2006-06-01

137

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (US)

1993-07-01

138

Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed,\\u000a i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the\\u000a polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted

Valérie Bert; Piet Seuntjens; Winnie Dejonghe; Sophie Lacherez; Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Bart Vandecasteele

2009-01-01

139

76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...needed to provide the environmental information necessary...evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated...potential construction dredging at Port Everglades...considered, specific environmental issues to be...

2011-05-09

140

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2011-07-01

141

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2013-07-01

142

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (a) Generally...maintenance of existing Civil Works water resource and navigation projects...and have little, if any, potential for significant degradation...compliance requirements including water quality certifications...

2012-07-01

143

33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 338.2 Section 338.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2014-07-01

144

Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

145

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

146

Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. ‘Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of

P Vervaeke; S Luyssaert; J Mertens; E Meers; F. M. G Tack; N Lust

2003-01-01

147

PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

148

Effects in fish during dredging of Lake Jaernsjoen, River Emaan, Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the investigation was to study biochemical, physiological and morphological effects in fish during dredging of sediment in a heavily PCB contaminated lake (Lake Jaernsjoen, River Emaan), and to provide a biological control program employing fish for the lake after dredging and restoration. Dredging of the PCB contaminated sediments in Lake Jaernsjoen took place in 1993 and 1994 (see Helgee and Troedsson, this conference). Three different caging studies were performed with one study each year of 1992, 1993 and 1994. Cages with fish were placed at different sites including sites both upstream and downstream the lake and sites at the lake. The fish were caged for four weeks. In 1992 a parallel study was performed of feral perch from the contaminated area. Caging of rainbow trout in Lake Jaernsjoen during dredging resulted in liver enlargement, induction of liver detoxification enzymes (for example EROD activity) and liver morphological changes such as degeneration and vacualization. Induction of EROD activity was also observed in the caged fish in 1992 study (before start of dredging). However no effect was seen on EROD activity in feral perch. The effects caused by dredging in the caged fish were more pronounced in 1994 study than in 1993 study. In the 1994 study effects were also observed in fish caged at sites downstream the lake. In 1993 the dredging area was closed off by a silt curtain whereas in 1994 no silt curtain was used. Therefore, the results seem to indicate that the more pronounced effect picture in the 1994 study seems to be caused by a higher release of suspended material during dredging without a protecting silt curtain (1994).

Foerlin, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology; Norrgren, L.

1995-12-31

149

Environmental effects of dredging. Use of daphnia magna to predict consequences of bioaccumulation  

SciTech Connect

Results reported herein represent a portion of the laboratory research evaluating the relationship between mercury and cadmium tissue residues and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part of its regulatory and dredging programs, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of the potential for bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediment scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. There is, at present, no generally accepted guidance available to aid in the interpretation of the biological consequences of bioaccumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory is conducting both literature database analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

NONE

1987-03-01

150

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-07-01

151

Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

1988-01-01

152

77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EA will provide the environmental information necessary...evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated...proposed harbor deepening dredging at Charleston Harbor...considered, specific environmental issues to be...

2012-12-31

153

STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED  

EPA Science Inventory

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

154

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-06-01

155

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-06-01

156

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

157

Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.  

PubMed

The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation. PMID:23436151

Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

2013-07-01

158

Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

1980-01-01

159

Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-12-01

160

IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIVE DREDGING TECHNIQUES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental effects of dredging and dredged material disposal have been an issue in the Chesapeake Bay Region for some time. Recent concerns over dredging and disposal in the Baltimore Harbor area have been particularly strong, and have resulted in significant project delay...

161

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2011-07-01

162

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2010-07-01

163

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2012-07-01

164

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2014-07-01

165

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION...material so composed is generally found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal...

2013-07-01

166

Dredged sediment as a substrate for biomass production of willow trees established using the SALIMAT technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic dredging of inland waterways and the subsequent disposal of the dredged sediment result in the continuous establishment of contaminated sites. As this dredged sediment is rich in nutrients, occupies extended areas and is often unsuitable for agriculture and public works due to the presence of contaminants, planting energy crops is one option for the remediation of this waste

P Vervaeke; S Luyssaert; J Mertens; B De Vos; L Speleers; N Lust

2001-01-01

167

Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

168

Environmental effects of dredging. Interim results: The relationship between sediment organic carbon and biological uptake of contaminants. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes testing conducted to determine the partitioning of contaminants between sediment organic carbon and sediment interstitial water, assess the effects of sediment organic carbon upon bioaccumulation of a selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) by two organisms, and investigate the accuracy of the apparent preference factor as a predictive tool by comparing predicted uptake with actual uptake.

Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.

1991-11-01

169

Environmental effects of dredging. Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; subcellular effects  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the first in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the subcellular level.

NONE

1995-07-01

170

Dredge Today, Restore Tomorrow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, students role-play members of a task force whose task it is to advise the Director of the National Park Service (their instructor) on the best location for creating a wetland using dredge material from the Potomac River.  Students apply previously learned knowledge about wetland ecology (i.e. hydrology, soils, and plants) to a wetland restoration decision. Through the case, students increase their understanding of the principles of ecosystem ecology and the complexity of natural resource management dilemmas. The case was developed for a wetland ecology course, but would also work well in an ecosystem ecology or natural resource management course.

Hopfensperger, Kristine N.

2011-01-01

171

Nonmetallic materials contamination studies. [space telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to impose adequate contamination control requirements in the selection of Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC) materials and to develop a data base of potential optical degradation of the WFPC charge-couple device window, the outgassing properties of WFPC materials and the collected volatile condensed material (CVCM) effects on MgF2 transmittance were measured. Changes in the transmittance were monitored in the wavelength region from 115 nm to 300 nm for selected CVCM thicknesses up to 150 nm. The outgassing properties of reemitted CVCM were also studied.

Muscari, J. A.; Beverlin, G.

1980-01-01

172

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-09-01

173

EFFECTS OF A CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL ON LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF THE TUBICOLOUS AMPHIPOD, AMPELISCA ABDITA  

EPA Science Inventory

Short-term and full life cycle toxicity tests have been conducted with Ampelisca ubdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP): These studies comprised a portion of the effects assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with a...

174

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Effects of sediment organic-matter composition on bioaccumulation of sediment organic contaminants: Interim results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and fluoranthene to bioaccumulation by worms and clams and the relationship of sediment-bound PCB 153 and fluoranthene to concentrations in the interstitial water were examined. Bioaccumulation by both worms and clams was observed in all sediments. Apparent preference factor (APF) values showed that steady state was reached between sediment-bound contaminants and organism lipid pools. The APF values of organisms were close to the theoretical value for both contaminants in all sediments. These results showed that sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in conjunction with octanol water partition coefficients of nonpolar organic contaminants is a viable approach for predicting bioaccumulation of such compounds by infaunal organisms. Actual concentrations of contaminants in interstitial water were either overestimated or underestimated by the relationship between TOC and humic + fulvic acid organic matter fractions and sediment contaminant concentrations. Prediction of interstitial water concentrations was not as successful as use of APFs. The lack of agreement between predicted and actual interstitial water results was due to factors such as the presence of interstitial water contaminants bounds to microparticulates and dissolved organic material and the kind of organic material in the sediment.

Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.; Pennington, J.C.; McFarland, V.A.

1991-06-01

175

[Simulation research on the release of internal nutrients affected by different dredging methods in lake].  

PubMed

A simulated experiment was carried out to study release features of internal source under different sediment dredging methods and the difference between two lake areas in Lake Taihu was also studied. The contaminated sediments were sampled from two sites in Meiliang Bay which were the Inner Bay (A) and the Outer Bay(B). Release rates of phosphorus after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 20% and 72% of the control and the phosphorus release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 80% of Outer Bay(B). Release rates of ammonia after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 40% and 83% of the scallop dredging, but dredging process may even promote the release of ammonia in a short time, the ammonia release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 150% higher than that in Outer Bay(B). Under the microcosm experiment condition, the ideal dredging method and the suction dredging method may have a better control of internal source in contrast with the scallop dredging. Altogether, sediment dredging may be a useful approach to decrease the release of internal source in the selected sites when the external nutrients are effectively controlled. Consider all kinds of dredging projects, the suction dredging should be the ideal option for sediment dredging in Lake Taihu. PMID:24364305

Chen, Chao; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin; Kong, Ming; Yu, Ju-Hua

2013-10-01

176

Satellite contamination and materials outgassing effects databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a program for consolidating data from quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) that will enable one to rapidly locate previous measurements on specific materials and data from past space flight experiments. When complete, the databases will contain information on materials outgassing obtained using the ASTM-E-1559 standard, and flight observations of mass accumulations. Once established, these databases will be available to the entire community and will provide a valuable source of material outgassing information. The data should be useful to those working in the Contamination area for mission design and materials specification. Data are being accumulated from both national and international sources. The space flight database will include data from past NASA missions, as well as DOD [including the BMDO-sponsored Mid-course Space Experiment (MSX) program], Canadian Space Agency, European Space Agency, Russian MIR space station, and eventually, the International Space Station. A website is being generated which will be the vehicle for storing the data that are accumulated. Once completed, the databases will be managed by the NASA/Space and Environmental Effects (SEE) Program Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Wood, Bob E.; Green, B. David; Uy, O. Manuel; Cain, Russell P.; Thorpe, Jason

1999-10-01

177

ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)  

EPA Science Inventory

According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

178

Upper Hudson Dredging Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

Chiarenzelli, Jeff

179

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOEpatents

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-11-16

180

Environmental management for dredging sediments - The requirement of developing nations.  

PubMed

Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. PMID:25304520

Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2015-01-01

181

Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

Attia, Yosry A. (221 Oakland Park Ave., Columbus, OH 43214)

2000-01-01

182

USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL: SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was initiated with the overall objective of evaluating the usefulness of dredged sediments as landfill material. The study is limited to the deposition of polluted fresh water dredgings from the Great Lakes area, and the major effort was centered around four...

183

Use of phytostabilisation to remediate mtal polluted dredged V Bert', Ch Lors2  

E-print Network

Use of phytostabilisation to remediate métal polluted dredged sédiment V Bert', Ch Lors2 scale on dredged sédiments polluted with metals. A sédiment deposit contaminated with metals, sédiments are often rich in métal contaminants. Because heavy metals hâve undesirable effects on ecosystems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality in the upper Patapsco aquifer deep water-bearing zone does not seem to have been impacted by the DMCA.

Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

2013-01-01

185

PHYTOREMEDIATING DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A BENEFICIAL REUSE PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor Wisconsin, receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwaukee's waterways. Like many CDFs they face the dilemma of steady inputs and no feasible alternative for expansion. The Army Corps of...

186

Contamination and Materials Risk Management in Solid State Laser Systems  

E-print Network

Contamination and materials degradation are among the highest risks associated with the deployment of high intensity solid-state laser systems. Although high intensity laser induced optical damage has been studied for decades, the field is still in its infancy. There is little concrete information concerning the relationship of contamination and laser induced optical damage. Further, little information exists in the measurement and evaluation of contamination at the levels of significance for high intensity solid-state lasers. The interconnection of the physical sciences in the area of laser induced optical damages disjointed at best. As a result, much of the information concerning the risk of contamination induced laser optical damage is conjecture. A number of valuable insights with respect to the potential problems, potential solutions and the mechanisms behind contamination induced laser optic damage are presented. For the purposes of this discussion, there are two typical categories of lasers sealed and vented. These two types of laser environments each present their own issues with respect to contamination and materials reliability. The selection of materials and processes for each type of system is in part dependent upon the type of the laser system in use. There will be trade-offs between material

John S. Canham, Ph.D.

187

Contaminant characterization of five satellite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive laboratory test program was performed to characterize outgassing of five satellite materials. The materials were Chemglaze Z-306 over 9922 primer, M-773 adhesive, multilayer insulation, polyurethane foam, and silverized Teflon. The souces were prepared to the specifications of a typical satellite program. Dynamic thermogravimetric mass loss characteristics of these five materials were obtained in vacuum with a beam microbalance. The temperature of the material was linearly raised from 25 C to over 650 C while monitoring the mass loss, rate of mass loss, temperature, and the composition of the outgassed material by residual gas analysis. Isothermal source emission/capture coefficients/reemission parameters were obtained with an array of quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). A detailed test matrix in which the temperatures of the QCMs (-160 C, - 100 C, -40 C, and +10 C) and the source material (125 C, and 90 C, and 50 C) were varied was performed. The array of QCMs was also used to measure the spatial distribution of the source emission. The effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on the deposition and reemission parameters was determined.

Muscari, J. A.

1982-01-01

188

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2014-07-01

189

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-07-01

190

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-07-01

191

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-07-01

192

75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...causing any impacts to the wave environment at, or near...material found suitable for ocean disposal pursuant to the...legitimate uses of the ocean. Disposals at the Sites...legitimate uses of the ocean through careful timing...necessary in the event wave energy projects or...

2010-04-29

193

75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...causing any impacts to the wave environment at, or near...material found suitable for ocean disposal pursuant to the...legitimate uses of the ocean. Disposals at the Sites...legitimate uses of the ocean through careful timing...necessary in the event wave energy projects or...

2010-02-04

194

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-07-01

195

REMEDIAL DREDGING AND EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: EXAMPLES FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is an on-going national debate questioning whether remedial dredging can be conducted without causing environmental harm. Two common assertions are that: 1) dredging contaminated sediment will do more harm than good, and 2) natural processes will eventually mitig...

196

Combining trace elements micro-analysis in deposited dredged sediments: EPMA and ?-XRF analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since deposited dredged sediments are rich in metallic contaminants, they present a risk for environment. This work aims to study dredged sediments chemical composition, identify metal-carrier minerals and understand their mobility. Combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques at multi-scale for an integrative approach of trace elements (zinc, lead, iron) behaviour is therefore necessary. The global mineralogy and the chemistry of the

A Poitevin; C Lerouge; G Wille; P Bataillard; P Quinn; L Hennet

2012-01-01

197

Distribution, movement and availability of Cd and Zn in a dredged sediment cultivated with Salix alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows occur as volunteer vegetation on sediment-derived soils, such as dredged sediments, landfill cover or stockpile deposits, and are used as phytoremediators on such soils. The present study evaluates growth and metal uptake by Salix alba grown on a contaminated dredge sediment for 209 days under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the study, the aerial parts of the S.

Jean-Philippe Bedell; Xavier Capilla; Claire Giry; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel; Yves Perrodin

2009-01-01

198

Dredge Material Stabilization Using the Pozzolanic or Sulfo-Pozzolanic Reaction of Lime By-Products to Make an Engineered Structural Fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large contracts are being awarded to remove and find beneficial uses for dredge spoil. An example is the Delaware Deepening Project which encompasses over 100 miles of the Delaware River. One of the challenges is to find economical and environmentally suitable means to stabilize and solidify (S\\/S) the solids so they can be reused for structural fill and\\/or cover soil.

Joel Beeghly; Michael Schrock

2010-01-01

199

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

200

Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

2000-01-01

201

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants; cellular and organ/organism effects. Technical Notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the second in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants for causing mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. This technical note describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/ organism level.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

202

LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...

203

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

204

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

205

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site due to high sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. An initial remedial dredging operation removed the most contaminated sediments from the upper harbor ("Hot Spot"). During remediation, a monitoring program assess...

206

Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination  

E-print Network

in the United States of America Available from National Technical Information Service U.S. Department), and 1996 (Section 226). United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 2 United States Army Corps of Engineers New York District EPA·ACE·DOE-BNL WRDA DECON DEMO NEWYORK NEWJERSEY United States Department

Brookhaven National Laboratory

207

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1995-10-03

208

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01

209

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1996-02-13

210

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01

211

VEGETATIVE MODEL FOR RESTORATION, CONSERVATION AND HABITAT ENHANCEMENT ON BENEFICIAL USE DREDGE SEDIMENTS MX974606  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed study site for this project is approximately 230 acres of confined dredge materials located north of Port Fourchon, LA. The specific objectives of the study are 1) to implement a comprehensive program of dredge materials/plant species research; 2) to initiate steps ...

212

MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS\\/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK\\/NEW JERSEY HARBOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m³) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close

Eric A. Stern; Keith W. Jones; Kerwin Donato; John D. Pauling; J. G. SONTAG; N. L. CLESCERI; M. C. MENSINGER; C. L. WILDE

1998-01-01

213

Effects of Suction Dredging on Streams: a Review and an Evaluation Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suction dredging for gold in river channels is a small-scale mining practice whereby streambed material is sucked up a pipe, passed over a sluice box to sort out the gold, and discarded as tail- ings over another area of bed. Natural resource managers should be concerned about suction dredging because it is common in streams in western North America that

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1998-01-01

214

Genesis Concentrator Target Particle Contamination Mapping and Material Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of surface particles were found to be < 5 microns in diameter with increasing numbers close to the optical resolution limit of 0.3 microns. Acceleration grid EDS results show that the majority of materials appear to be from the SRC shell and SLA materials which include carbon-carbon fibers and Si-rich microspheres in a possible silicone binder. Other major debris material from the SRC included white paint, kapton, collector array fragments, and Al. Image analysis also revealed that SRC materials were also found mixed with the Utah mud and salt deposits. The EDS analysis of the acceleration grid showed that particles < 1 m where generally carbon based particles. Chemical cleaning techniques with Xylene and HF in an ultrasonic bath are currently being investigated for removal of small particles by the Genesis science team as well as ultra-pure water megasonic cleaning by the JSC team [4]. Removal of organic contamination from target materials is also being investigated by the science team with the use of UV-ozone cleaning devices at JSC and Open University [5]. In preparation for solar wind oxygen analyses at UCLA and Open University [1, 2], surface particle contamination on three Genesis concentrator targets was closely examined to evaluate cleaning strategies. Two silicon carbide (Genesis sample # 60001 and 60003) and one chemical vapor deposited (CVD) 13C concentrator target (60002) were imaged and mosaic mapped with optical microscopes. The resulting full target mosaic images and particle feature maps were subsequently compared with non-flight, but flight-like, concentrator targets and sample return capsule (SRC) materials. Contamination found on the flown concentrator acceleration grid was further examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle identification was subsequently compared with the optical images from the flown targets. Figure 1 show that all three targets imaged in this report are fully intact and do not show any signs of material fractures. However, previous ellipsometry results and overview imaging of both flown SiC targets show a solar wind irradiation gradient from the center focal point to the outer edge [3]. In addition, due to the hard landing, each target has experienced varying degrees of impacts, scratches, and particle debris from the spacecraft and Utah impact site.

Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

2007-01-01

215

Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste  

SciTech Connect

The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Scales, Charlie R. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Deegan, David [Tetronics Ltd., 5, Lechlade Road, Faringdon, Oxfordshire, SN7 8AL (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

216

The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.  

PubMed

The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely ?-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA. PMID:24652576

Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

2014-10-01

217

Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) major goals is to clean up its contaminated facilities by the year 2019. The primary contaminants at DOE sites are radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals. The most common radioactive materials are isotopes of uranium and plutonium, although lesser quantities of thorium, technetium, neptunium and americium are also found. Organic contamination

S. J. Bossart; J. Hyde

1993-01-01

218

[Influence of dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in lake: a simulation study].  

PubMed

A simulated experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of sediment dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in the summer and winter seasons under the common wind-wave disturbance, and the contaminated sediment used in this study was from Meiliang Bay, Taihu lake. The result showed that 20 cm dredging could effectively inhibit the sediment resuspension in study area, dredging in winter has a better effect than that in summer, and the higher values of the total suspended solid (TSS) in undredged and dredged water column during the process of wind wave disturbance were 7.0 and 2.2, 24.3 and 6.4 times higher than the initial value in summer and winter simulation respectively. The paired-samples t-test result demonstrated that total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) loading positively correlated to TSS content in dredged (P<0.01) and undredged water column (P<0.05), which proved that internal phosphorus fulminating release induced by wind-wave disturbance would significantly increase the TP and PO4(3-)-P loading in the water column. The effect of dredging conducted in summer on the TP and PO4(3)-P loading in the water column was negative, but not for winter dredging (P<0.01). The pore water dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) profile at water-sediment interface in summer simulation was also investigated by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Diffusion layer of the DRP profile in undredged sediment was wider than that in dredged sediment. However, the DRP diffusion potential in dredged sediment was greater than that in undredged sediment, showing that dredging can effectively reduce the risk of the DRP potential release in dredged pore water, but also would induce the DRP fulminating release in the short time under hydrodynamic action. Generally, dredging was usually deployed during the summer and the autumn. Considering Taihu Lake is a large, shallow, eutrophic lake and the contaminant distribution is spatially heterogeneous, it is vital to determine the optimal time, depth and scope of dredging. PMID:23233961

Yu, Ju-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Yin-Long; Fan, Cheng-Xin; He, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Zhen-Wu

2012-10-01

219

MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.  

SciTech Connect

One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

1998-05-01

220

Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion  

E-print Network

" and "Björn") was set up on 45,000 m² of a metal contaminated dredged sediment landfill site located: trace elements, phytoextraction, Salix, combustion, dredged sediment landfill site Abstract. In the particular case of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated with metals, phytoextraction may contribute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

Estuarine dredge and fill activities: A review of impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dredge and fill activities in estuaries have many environmental effects, most, although not all, of them deleterious. These effects include reduced light penetration by increased turbidity; altered tidal exchange, mixing, and circulation; reduced nutrient outflow from marshes and swamps; increased saltwater intrusion; and creation of an environment highly susceptible to recurrent low dissolved oxygen levels. Coral, oysters, and barnacles are particularly vulnerable to the effects of siltation. Both estuarine flora and fauna may be harmed by contaminants released into the water column by dredging operations. Ways to mitigate the effects of dredge and fill operations include careful pre- and post-construction environmental studies; use of bridging to create roadbeds where coastal wetlands cannot be avoided; use of a turbidity diaper and other means to control turbidity; dredging during periods of low benthic populations or during tides that would carry coarser sediments away from productive areas such as oyster reefs; and thoughtful disposal of spoil, such as locating spoil sites on the uplands with proper diking.

Johnston, Sam A.

1981-09-01

222

TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

223

Risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option. Descriptions using case studies of the newly integrated, holistic and staged framework were followed. The first stage utilized the historical dredging monitoring data and the contamination level in media data into Ecological Risk Assessment phases, which have been altered for benefits in cost, time and simplicity. How Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used to analyze and prioritize dredging areas based on environmental, socio-economic and managerial criteria was described for the next stage. The results from MCDA will be integrated into Ecological Risk Assessment to characterize the degree of contamination in the prioritized areas. The last stage was later described using these findings and analyzed using MCDA, in order to identify the best sediment dredging option, accounting for the economic, environmental and technical aspects of dredging, which is beneficial for dredging and sediment management industries. PMID:25108801

Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2014-10-15

224

Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal).  

PubMed

This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. PMID:24792880

Cabrita, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

225

Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

1984-05-01

226

The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.  

PubMed

We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. PMID:23871519

O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

2013-09-01

227

INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT VACUUMING FOR REMEDIATION OF FUNGALLY CONTAMINATED DUCT MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental fungi become a potential Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problem when adequate moisture and nutrients are present in building materials. Because of their potential to rapidly spread contamination throughout a building, ventilation system materials are of particular signifi...

228

Low-contamination digestion bomb method using a Teflon double vessel for biological materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) CRM (certified reference material), it has been required to investigate and develop a contamination-free digestion system for biological materials, since trace element levels in these matrices are so low that contamination during sample dissolution procedure often became a limiting factor for trace analysis. At an earlier stage, a Teflon bomb developed by

Kensaku. Okamoto; Keiichiro. Fuwa

1984-01-01

229

MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR  

SciTech Connect

One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

1998-05-01

230

Effects of the contamination environment on surfaces and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the issues that have always existed, demands are being placed on space systems for increased contamination prevention/control. Optical surveillance sensors are required to detect low radiance targets. This increases the need for very low scatter surfaces in the optical system. Particulate contamination levels typically experienced in today's working environments/habits will most likely compromise these sensors. Contamination (molecular and particulate) can also affect the survivability of space sensors in both the natural and hostile space environments. The effects of di-octyl phthalate (DOP) on sensors are discussed.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

231

Laboratory modeling of hydraulic dredges and design of dredge carriage for laboratory facility  

E-print Network

has a fully adjustable dredge ladder, a 14.9 kW (20 hp) cutter drive, and a 2.54 cm (3 in) dredge pump. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) provides computer numerical control and real-time data collection and analysis during model dredging...

Glover, Gordon Jason

2012-06-07

232

Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contaminated Sediments  

PubMed Central

To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France) allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production. PMID:21673923

Groboillot, Anne; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Le Derf, Franck; Feuilloley, Marc J. G.; Orange, Nicole; Poc, Cécile Duclairoir

2011-01-01

233

Mercury Concentration and Monomethylmercury Production in Sediment: Effect of Dredged Sediment Reuse on Bioconcentration for Ragworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dredged sediment reuse on the production and bioconcentration of monomethylmercury (MMHg) was investigated by\\u000a examining sediments and ragworms found in dredge material banks and surrounding sites in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Total Hg\\u000a concentrations in the surface 20 cm of sediments were higher in the banks than in the surrounding sites, but MMHg concentrations\\u000a were similar, which suggests

Seunghee Han; Magali Porrachia; Elisa Volpato; Joris Gieskes; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

234

Solar absorptance of optical surfaces contaminated with spacecraft material outgassing products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As satellite applications become more sophisticated and satellite lifetimes are extended, the roles of contamination prediction and control become increasingly important. Contamination can alter the spectral characteristics of cryogenically cooled optical systems, increase the solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces causing the spacecraft to overheat, or degrade the power output of solar cells. The Solar Absorptance Measurements Chamber was developed to measure the change in integrated solar absorptance of aluminum coated mirrors by condensed outgassing contaminants irradiated by a solar simulator under vacuum. In previous tests, the location of the solar simulator did not allow irradiation of the sample mirror during the contamination phase. The test chamber was modified, and measurements were made to compare the solar absorptance change for samples irradiated during contamination to samples with no irradiation during contamination. Sources of the contaminants were two spacecraft materials, Furane Products Uralane 5753-AB (LV) encapsulant and Dow Corning 93-500 encapsulant.

Bertrand, W. T.; Wood, B. E.

1993-07-01

235

Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee: Limited alteration of riverine-reservoir benthic invertebrate community following dredging of ash-contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Benthic invertebrate communities were assessed after the December 2008 release of approximately 4.1 million m(3) coal fly ash from a disposal dredge cell at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Roane County, Tennessee, USA. Released ash filled the adjacent embayments and the main channel of the Emory River, migrating into reaches of the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers. Dredging was completed in summer 2010, and the benthic community sampling was conducted in December 2010. This study is part of a series that supported an Ecological Risk Assessment for the Kingston site. Benthic invertebrate communities were sampled at transects spread across approximately 20 miles of river that includes both riverine and reservoirlike conditions. Community composition was assessed on a grab sample and transect basis across multiple cross-channel transects to gain an understanding of the response of the benthic community to a fly ash release of this magnitude. This assessment used invertebrate community metrics, similarity analysis, geospatial statistics, and correlations with sediment chemistry and habitat. The community composition was reflective of a reservoir system, with dominant taxa being insect larva, bivalves, and aquatic worms. Most community metric results were similar for ash-impacted areas and upstream reference areas. Variation in the benthic community was correlated more with habitat than with sediment chemistry or residual ash. Other studies have reported that a benthic community can take several years to a decade to recover from ash or ash-related constituents. Although released ash undoubtedly had some initial impacts on the benthic community in this study, the severity of these effects appears to be limited to the initial smothering of the organisms followed by a rapid response and the initial start of recovery postdredging. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:43-55. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25158124

Buys, David J; Stojak, Amber R; Stiteler, William; Baker, Tyler F

2015-01-01

236

IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR REMOVAL OF SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Realizing the need to improve the capabilities of response personnel in dealing with cleanup operations involving contaminated sediments, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointly funded a research project to: (a) identify, characterize, and c...

237

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the 'Hot Spot') removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations gr...

238

Long-term dredged material management plan within the context of Maumee river watershed sediment management strategy. Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report draws several preliminary conclusions about the Investigations needed to develop specific management options. It recommends moving ahead to the Phase 2 Study to address these options that would meet the goals of sediment load reduction, improvement in sediment and water quality, beneficial uses of the material, and a reduced dependency on constriction of new Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF).

NONE

1993-03-01

239

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from packaging materials determined by coupled LC-GC.  

PubMed

Paraffins from raw extracts of foods and packing materials were isolated by LC and directly transferred to GC, applying concurrent eluent evaporation and a loop-type interface. Paraffins from various packing materials have been characterized: sisal bags, cardboard boxes, plastic films, wax-coated paper and cardboard as well as paraffin coatings. Important food contamination was found for sisal bags, cardboard boxes, and wax-coated paper/cardboard. Contamination by paraffin coatings on cheese was surprisingly small. PMID:1962505

Grob, K; Biedermann, M; Artho, A; Egli, J

1991-09-01

240

Study of organic contamination induced by outgassing materials. Application to the Laser MégaJoule optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic contamination may decrease the targeted performances of coated surfaces. To study the contamination induced by surrounding materials, a method using a thermal extractor is presented in the first part of this work. Besides its normal operation (analyses of outgassing compounds from a material), this device is used in an original way to contaminate and decontaminate samples. Efficiency of contamination and decontamination protocols are assessed by automated thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled with a time of flight mass analyzer. This enables to study the contamination induced by a bulk material outgassing and to take in consideration the possible competition between outgassed species. This method is then applied to investigate contamination of Laser MégaJoule sol-gel coated optics by a retractable sheath. The impact of the temperature on the outgassing of the sheath has been highlighted. Increasing temperature from 30 to 50 °C enables the outgassing of organophosphorous compounds and increases the outgassing of oxygenated compounds and phthalates. Chemical analyses of contaminated optics have highlighted affinities between the sol-gel coating and phthalates and organophosphorous, and low affinities with aromatics and terpens. Finally, samples with increasing levels of contamination have been realized. However a saturation phenomenon is observed at 90 ng cm-2.

Favrat, O.; Mangote, B.; Tovena-Pécault, I.; Néauport, J.

2014-02-01

241

Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water quality and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water injection dredging (WID) is increasing in the UK’s inland waterways and marinas. Jets of water are injected under low pressure directly into bottom sediment creating a turbulent water-sediment mixture that flows under the influence of gravity. Many of these sediments are highly contaminated and little is known of the effects of contaminant release on water quality

K. L. Spencer; R. E. Dewhurst; P. Penna

2006-01-01

242

Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

2014-01-01

243

Characterization of Organic Contaminants Outgassed from Materials Used in Semiconductor Fabs/Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As ULSI technology continues to advance, semiconductor manufacturers are facing new contamination control and monitoring challenges, including airborne molecular contamination (AMC). AMC is being recognized as one of the yield limiting factors in newer generation microelectronics fabrication processes. A major AMC source, materials' outgassing can introduce a variety of organic contaminants into semiconductor fabs, impacting many processes. This paper provides a brief overview of typical organic outgassing contaminants, their sources, process impacts and analytical techniques used to detect these species. In addition, outgassing study results for polycyclodimethylsiloxanes and several other contaminants using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) analysis are employed to demonstrate the relationships among (1) outgassing level and outgassing time (linear), (2) outgassing quantity and the inverse of outgassing temperature (logarithmic), and (3) outgassing quantity and material surface area (linear). A new method, based on gas diffusion conductivity detection, for ammonia and volatile amines' outgassing analysis is also presented.

Sun, Peng; Ayre, Caroline; Wallace, Matthew

2003-09-01

244

An equation that describes material outgassing for contamination modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalization of the Clausius-Claperon equation for vapor pressure is made for an outgassing material. The expression is derived using Langmuir's equation for the outgassing rate of a material and using an empirical equation for the vapor pressure of a material as a function of its molecular weight and temperature. Also, outgassing rate equations are derived in terms of the vapor pressure of the outgassing material for three general geometries.

Heslin, T. M.

1977-01-01

245

Bacterial, fungal and yeast contamination in six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.  

PubMed

This study assessed the level of contamination of six commercially available irreversible hydrocolloids (two containing chlorhexidine) and identified the contamination present in the materials. Petri dishes containing selective and enriched culture media were inoculated with alginate powder (0.06 g), in triplicate. After incubation (37 degrees C/7 days), the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and Gram stained. Biochemical identification of the different morphotypes was also performed. The contamination levels for the materials were: Jeltrate--389 CFU/g; Jeltrate Plus--516 CFU/g; Jeltrate Chromatic--135 CFU/g; Hydrogum--1,455 CFU/g; Kromopan--840 CFU/g; and Greengel--59 CFU/g. Gram staining revealed the presence of Gram-positive bacillus and Gram-positive cocci. The bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp., Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, and Nocardia sp.; the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Neurospora sp.; and the yeast Candida sp. were isolated. The contamination detected in the impression materials points out the need for adopting measures to improve the microbiological quality of these materials. The use of contaminated materials in the oral cavity goes against the basic principles for controlling cross-contamination and may represent a risk for debilitated or immunocompromised patients. PMID:17589644

Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires; Panzeri, Heitor; Ito, Isabel Yoko

2007-01-01

246

SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediments contain contaminants derived from past activities that seriously degraded the environment. During low water, sediments are subject to natural erosion or removal for navigation. Erosion or dredging of sediment will release contaminants into the environment ...

247

Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated materials.  

PubMed

Smouldering remediation is a process that has been introduced recently to address non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in soils and other porous media. Previous work demonstrated this process to be highly effective across a wide range of contaminants and soil conditions at the bench scale. In this work, a suite of 12 experiments explored the effectiveness of the process as operating scale was increased 1000-fold from the bench (0.003m(3)) to intermediate (0.3m(3)) and pilot field-scale (3m(3)) with coal tar and petrochemical NAPLs. As scale increased, remediation efficiency of 97-99.95% was maintained. Smouldering propagation velocities of 0.6-14×10(-5)m/s at Darcy air fluxes of 1.54-9.15cm/s were consistent with observations in previous bench studies, as was the dependence on air flux. The pilot field-scale experiments demonstrated the robustness of the process despite heterogeneities, localised operation, controllability through airflow supply, and the importance of a minimum air flux for self-sustainability. Experiments at the intermediate scale established a minimum-observed, not minimum-possible, initial concentration of 12,000mg/kg in mixed oil waste, providing support for the expectation that lower thresholds for self-sustaining smouldering decreased with increasing scale. Once the threshold was exceeded, basic process characteristics of average peak temperature, destructive efficiency, and treatment velocity were relatively independent of scale. PMID:24468525

Switzer, Christine; Pironi, Paolo; Gerhard, Jason I; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

2014-03-15

248

Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products significantly decreased phosphate amounts. For the 38 specific filter materials evaluated, based on a 60 percent contaminant reduction level, 12 materials removed nitrate, 26 materials removed phosphate, and 21 materials removed atrazine. Furthermore, 2 materials removed zero contaminants, 16 materials removed one contaminant, 17 materials removed two contaminants, and 3 of the materials removed all three contaminants. The most effective filter materials proved to be a steam activated carbon, a zero valent iron and sulfer modified iron mixture, and a surfactant modified clay. The findings of this study indicate that there are a variety of filter materials, either separately or in combination, which have the potential to treat agricultural drainage waters.

Allred, B. J.

2007-12-01

249

TOOLS FOR ASSESSING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches at this time for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how we...

250

Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Contamination Team of the Environmental Effects Group, Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, has been recognized for its contribution to space flight, including space transportation, space science and flight projects, such as the reusable solid rocket motor, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station. The Materials Contamination Team s realm of responsibility encompasses all phases of hardware development including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch-site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment if required. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitivity bondlines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for sensitive optics, particularly spacecraft such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The team of engineers and technicians also develop and evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. Databases are maintained by the team for proces! materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

Burns, H. D.; Finckenor, M. M.; Boothe, R. E.; Albyn, K. C.; Finchum, C. A.

2003-01-01

251

Environmental assessment of dredged sediment in the major Latin American seaport (Santos, São Paulo-Brazil): an integrated approach.  

PubMed

This work offers an environmental assessment of a dredged sediment disposal area in Santos bay, situated on the central coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Sediment quality was evaluated through physicochemical analysis and toxicity tests of sediments collected in the disposal site and adjacent area. The physicochemical characterization of the sediments involved grain size distribution, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, metals and nutrients. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were employed, using amphipods (Tiburonella viscana) and sea urchins (Lythechinus variegatus), respectively. Results revealed toxicity by all the methods applied here, suggesting that the area of disposal of dredged material is significantly altered with respect to sediment quality and probably capable of generating deleterious effects on the local biota. Aiming to elucidate the association between the distinct environmental variables and the biological effects measured in laboratory, Factor Analysis was performed. Results revealed that despite most contaminant concentrations were found below the limits established by Brazilian legislation, biological effects were related to metals (chronic toxicity) and organic compounds (acute toxicity). The application of multivariate analysis proved to be particularly useful to assess and interpret the results in an integrated way, particularly due to the large number of parameters analyzed in environmental assessments, and should be applied in future studies. PMID:25179961

Cesar, A; Lia, L R B; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Cortez, F S; Choueri, R B; De Orte, M R; Rachid, B R F

2014-11-01

252

Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.  

PubMed

This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation. PMID:24271735

Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

2014-03-01

253

TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON DETERMINATIONS IN NATURAL AND CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) content of soils and aquifer materials is essential for understanding subsurface chemistry during environmental site characterization. ontaminant fate and transport, microbial ecology, and effective treatment methodology are all influenc...

254

FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

255

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

256

LOCATION MAP AREAS ALTERED BY DREDGING  

E-print Network

IV LOCATION MAP · AREAS ALTERED BY DREDGING ST. PETERSBURG ! \\ \\ SITE OF PROPOSED PILL ( ZABEL with unneeried landfills, reclama- t ion of wetland, and alterations of stream nhannels . Local and national

257

Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.  

PubMed

Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

2013-02-01

258

Novel materials for environmental remediation of oil sands contaminants.  

PubMed

The incorporation of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) within the framework structure of copolymer sorbent materials, represents a novel modular design approach with significant potential for controlled tuning of the textural mesoporosity of such sorbent frameworks. ?-CD copolymers represent an innovative design strategy for the development of "smart" or "functional" porous materials with improved solid phase extraction (SPE) and molecular recognition properties because of the porogen characteristics and their unique host-guest properties. Carbohydrate-based copolymers containing cyclodextrins (CDs) are of interest, in part, because of their ability to form stable inclusion complexes in aqueous solution. The inclusion properties of ?-CD copolymers are determined by the surface area, pore structure, and site accessibility of inclusion sites within the copolymer framework. A mini-review of recent research in our group concerning the use of copolymers containing ?-CD as sorbent materials for naphthenic acids is presented herein. PMID:24552956

Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Headley, John V

2014-01-01

259

Biomonitoring of the Genotoxic Potential of Draining Water from Dredged Sediments, Using the Comet and Micronucleus Tests on Amphibian (Xenopus Laevis) Larvae And Bacterial Assays (Mutatox® and Ames Tests)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of contaminated dredged sediments is a matter of great human concern. The present investigation evaluates the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of five sediments from French channels (draining water from dredged sediments), using larvae of the frog Xenopus laevis. Two genotoxic endpoints were analyzed in larvae: clastogenic and\\/or aneugenic effects (micronucleus induction after 12 d of exposure) and DNA-strand

F. Mouchet; L. Gauthier; C. Mailhes; M. J. Jourdain; V. Ferrier; A. Devaux

2005-01-01

260

Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.  

PubMed

The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

1977-07-01

261

Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures for the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments.  

PubMed

This study refers to the performance of Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify the contaminants (i.e. organic compounds, metals and ammonia) exerting toxicity in marine sediments from the Pasaia harbor (Oiartzun estuary, northern Spain). The effectiveness of the manipulations to reduce toxicity was proved with the marine amphipod survival test (whole-sediment) and the sea urchin embryo-larval assay (elutriates). By means of TIEs it was concluded that organic compounds were the major contaminants exerting toxicity, although toxic effects by metals was also demonstrated. Additionally, the combination of Phase I treatments allowed to investigate the toxicity changes associated to the mobility of contaminants during dredging activities. Therefore, the performance of TIE procedures as another line of evidence in the decision-making process is recommended. They show a great potential to be implemented at different steps of the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments. PMID:23465571

Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Gonzalez, J-L; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Etxebarria, N; Nieto, O; Franco, J

2013-06-15

262

Study of abyssal seafloor isolation of contaminated sediments concluded  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) conducted and managed the assessment, which was funded during its first year by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and in the following two years by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. NRL carried out the projects in collaboration with participants from academic institutions and industrial organizations. The seafloor isolation concept is an attractive management option for contaminated dredged material because, if abyssal isolation is feasible and environmentally sound, air, land, or water supplies would not be contaminated. The participants concluded that it is technically and environmentally feasible. In ports where shipping costs are high, abyssal seafloor isolation is a cost-competitive strategy. They also outlined the architecture of a system to monitor conditions at the site and to detect and measure possible leaks of contaminated material.

Valent, P.

1998-12-31

263

The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan  

PubMed Central

There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? 134, 137Cs 1000?kBq m?2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21?Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

2012-01-01

264

Secondary contamination of ED personnel from hazardous materials events, 1995-2001.  

PubMed

Hazardous materials (hazmat) events pose a health threat not only for those individuals in the immediate vicinity of the release (ie, members of the general public, on-site first responders, employees), but also for ED personnel (ie, physicians and nurses) treating the chemically contaminated victims arriving at the hospital. Secondary contamination injuries to ED personnel result when exposed victims enter the ED without being properly decontaminated. Data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System were used to conduct a retrospective analysis on hazmat events occurring in 16 states from 1995 through 2001 that involved secondary injury to ED personnel. Six events were identified in which 15 ED personnel were secondarily injured while treating contaminated victims. The predominant injuries sustained were respiratory and eye irritation. Proper victim decontamination procedures, good field-to-hospital communication, and appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) use can help prevent ED personnel injuries and contamination of the ED. PMID:12811712

Horton, D Kevin; Berkowitz, Zahava; Kaye, Wendy E

2003-05-01

265

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

2002-05-10

266

A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

267

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding ho...

268

24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232z, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232-z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

269

Bulk Building Material Characterization and Decontamination Using a Concrete Floor and Wall Contamination Profiling Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concrete profiling technology, RadPro{trademark} has four major components: a drill with a specialized cutting and sampling head, drill bits, a sample collection unit and a vacuum pump. The equipment in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The drill head is used under hammer action to penetrate hard

S. Aggarwal; G. Charters; D. Blauvelt

2002-01-01

270

Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of polymeric materials (polystyrene and polyHIPE) by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents (i.e. iron hydroxides) was investigated in the present work, in order to apply the modified media in the removal of inorganic arsenic anions from contaminated water sources. The method, termed adsorptive filtration, has been classified as an emerging technology in water treatment processes as

Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis; Anastasios I. Zouboulis

2002-01-01

271

Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

2004-11-09

272

Analysis of electrokinetic sedimentation of dredged Welland River sediment.  

PubMed

The Welland River is a tributary of the Niagara River. In the late 1980s it was discovered that a section of the Welland River was contaminated with heavy metals as a results of two sewer outfalls that has been used by a steel plant and local industrial and municipal operations for the last 50-60 years. One of the major problems encountered in the treatment of the dredged Welland River sediment is a slow rate of sedimentation due to the large proportion of fine solids in the sediment. In this study, the results of electrokinetic sedimentation of the Welland River sediment are analyzed based on the principles of gravitational and electrokinetic sedimentation. It was found that the effects of electric field intensity and the initial solid concentration of the suspension are the dominating factors governing the average particle settling velocity, the coefficient of free settling in the free settling stage and the coefficient of sedimentation in the hindered settling stage. The electrokinetic treatment is proven to be effective in terms of increasing the free and hindered settling velocities, reducing the overall sedimentation time and increasing the final solid concentration of the sediment. Thus, electrokinetics can be used to accelerate sedimentation of dilute solid suspensions, such as dredged sediment, wastewater and mine tailings. PMID:11463505

Mohamedelhassan, E; Shang, J Q

2001-07-30

273

The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials  

SciTech Connect

There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy soils (clay-type should) to which current soil washing practices are not applied. WRI is not aware of any other soil washing technologies that demonstrate this ability at the expected cost on a per ton basis. The market for this technology is considered excellent for Superfund and other inorganic contaminated sites.

Terry Brown

2009-03-03

274

IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

2009-06-30

275

Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope. PMID:17802173

Engel, C G; Engel, A E

1963-06-21

276

Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.

1963-01-01

277

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

278

Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.  

PubMed

A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

2013-09-01

279

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

2011-07-01

280

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

2014-07-01

281

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

2013-07-01

282

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

2012-07-01

283

An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

Silver, R. H.

1978-01-01

284

Phytoremediation and Bio-physical Conditioning of Dredged Marine Sediments for Their Reuse in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meso-scale pilot plant was set up to test the efficiency of a phytoremediation technique applied to slightly contaminated\\u000a marine sediments dredged from the port of Livorno (central Italy). The technique applied involved the use of plants (a grass\\u000a species, Paspalum vaginatum and a shrub species, Tamarix gallica) and earthworms (Eisenia foetida sp.) in order to recreate an active ecosystem

Veronica Bianchi; Grazia Masciandaro; Brunello Ceccanti; Serena Doni; Renato Iannelli

2010-01-01

285

Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

Austin, J. D.

1974-01-01

286

Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants.  

PubMed

A laboratory investigation provided preliminary comparison of trace element contaminant water treatment capabilities for four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Two types of trace element contaminant solutions were tested, one combined As, Cr, and Se (added as AsO4(3-), CrO4(2-), and SeO4(2-), respectively), while the second combined Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal-desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Hydraulic conductivity test results indicate that all four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. Essentially, 100% of each trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Se) was removed by SMI during the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and during the column tests, while IOH exhibited good removal of each trace element except Se. Results from the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and from the column tests showed ZVI and PIC were effective in treating Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. With the exception of Se adsorption/precipitation onto IOH, the desorption/dissolution portion of the batch tests showed that once As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, or Se are adsorbed/precipitated onto ZVI, PIC, SMI, or IOH particle surfaces, these trace elements are then not readily desorbed or dissolved back into solution. PMID:25509527

Allred, Barry J; Tost, Brian C

2014-11-01

287

Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.  

PubMed

Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. PMID:25553545

Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

2015-04-01

288

Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead  

E-print Network

cutting force calculations are shown. Also, the effects of undercutting and overcutting are demonstrated in the figure. Figure 5: Description of forces on cutter when overcutting (Top) and undercutting (Bottom) (Miedema 1989) ?o ?1 11... Example of spud carriage cuttersuction dredge ......................................... 4 4 Two-dimensional cutting process ............................................................... 8 5 Description of forces on cutter when overcutting...

Young, Dustin Ray

2010-07-14

289

Morphodynamic Evolution of Dredged Sandpits M. Gonzalez{  

E-print Network

. The simple model provides good estimates of the infill rate and migration velocities of the offshore pits(3), 485­502. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Numerical modeling of dredged pits is conducted on an analytical formulation, a semianalytical numerical model (MEMPITS) has been developed to study

Martin, Daniel

290

Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials  

DOEpatents

A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

1987-01-01

291

A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

292

Study of Morphologic Change in Poyang Lake Basin Caused by Sand Dredging Using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sand dredging has been practiced in rivers, lakes, harbours and coastal areas in recent years in China mostly because of demand from construction industry as building material. Sand dredging has disturbed aquatic ecosystems by affecting hydrological processes, increasing content of suspended sediments and reducing water clarity. Poyang Lake, connecting with Yangtze River in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is the largest fresh water lake in China. Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has been intensified since 2001 because such practice was banned in Yangtze River and profitable. In this study, the morphologic change caused by sand dredging in Poyang Lake basin was analysed by overlaying two DEMs acquired in 1952 and 2010 respectively. Since the reflectance of middle infrared band for sand dredging vessel is much higher than that of water surface, sand dredging vessels were showed as isolated grey points and can be counted in the middle infrared band in 12 Landsat images acquired in flooding season during 2000~2010. Another two Landsat images (with low water level before 2000 and after 2010) were used to evaluate the morphologic change by comparing inundation extent and shoreline shape. The following results was obtained: (1) vessels for sand dredging are mainly distributed in the north of Poyang Lake before 2007, but the dredging area was enlarged to the central region and even to Gan River; (2) sand dredging area reached to about 260.4 km2 and is mainly distributed in the north of Songmen Mountain and has been enlarged to central of Poyang Lake from the distribution of sand vessels since 2007. Sand dredged from Poyang Lake was about 1.99 × 109 m3 or 2448 Mt assuming sediment bulk density of 1.23 t m-3. It means that the magnitude of sand mining during 2001-2010 is almost ten times of sand depositions in Poyang Lake during 1955-2010; (3) Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has alternated the lake capacity and discharge section area, some of the watercourse in the northern channel was enlarged by more than 1 km when in low lake level. This study is useful to understand the change of hydrological system, especially the drying up trend in Poyang Lake in recent autumns and winters.

Qi, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, D.; Zhu, J.; Fang, C.

2014-11-01

293

A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

1981-05-01

294

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

PubMed

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

295

Microbial respiration as an indication of metal toxicity in contaminated organic materials and soil.  

PubMed

The effect of heavy metals on microbial respiration in organic materials used as soil amendments was evaluated to assess the stability of the materials. Solutions of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) at rates of 5, 10 and 50mg metal g(-1) were added to green waste compost, peat, coir and wood bark. Metal toxicity led to a significant decrease in carbon dioxide evolved by the contaminated materials, up to 80% less at the highest rate of addition compared to the untreated material. There was a significant negative correlation between the organic carbon content of an amendment and the inhibition of CO(2) evolution by all three heavy metals. There was also a significant negative correlation between an amendment's cation exchange capacity and the inhibition of CO(2) evolution caused by Cu and Zn. The ability of the organic materials to enhance respiration in a soil from the vicinity of a Pb/Zn mine was also evaluated, by applying them to the soil at rates of 1, 10 and 20%. CO(2) evolution from the contaminated soil was enhanced significantly by the addition of all of the amendments, with coir causing up to 90% enhancement at high levels of addition. PMID:21041022

Nwachukwu, O I; Pulford, I D

2011-01-30

296

USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

297

USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

298

The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

2009-01-01

299

Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying to apply these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects. These logic flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the US regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic flow diagrams adapted to the IAEA regulations, and demonstrates how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements.

Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boyle, R.W. [Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States); Easton, E.P.; Cook, J.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-02-01

300

The effect of contaminant desorption on assimilation of sediment-sorbed hydrophobic contaminants by deposit-feeders  

SciTech Connect

The literature shows that assimilation efficiencies of lab-spiked nonpolar contaminants by deposit-feeders are generally much greater than the assimilation of the organic carbon sorbent matrix. Thus the rate and extent of contaminant desorption into the aqueous gut environment is likely to play a significant role in uptake from sediments. Contaminated New York Harbor sediments were examined in parallel desorption kinetic and bioaccumulation studies with the clam Yoldia limatula. A clear relationship was observed between the contaminant desorption rates over the first two days and organism/sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) determined across a wide range of individual PCBs, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes. Bioavailability was affected by hydrophobicity, shape of the contaminant, and contaminant class/source. Lower bioavailability of PAH may be the result of matrix associations with soot or fine coal particles. Interestingly, contaminant desorption/bioavailability were not influenced greatly by depth in the sediment core. The authors have initiated a study to determine the critical chemical and biological factors that control contaminant assimilation. They hope that it will become possible to replace expensive biological exposure studies with simple desorption tests when assessing the risk associated with contaminated sediments or dredge materials.

Brownawell, B.; Lamoureux, E.; McElroy, A.; Lopez, G.; Ahrens, M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

1995-12-31

301

Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

1984-01-01

302

Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Côte d’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

2013-01-01

303

Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S.

1993-06-01

304

Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials  

SciTech Connect

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

Napier, Bruce A.

2012-03-26

305

Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued exposures to contaminated materials.  

PubMed

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. PMID:22395282

Napier, Bruce

2012-03-01

306

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks...resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of pipelines, or any...

2012-07-01

307

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks...resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of pipelines, or any...

2013-07-01

308

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks...resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of pipelines, or any...

2014-07-01

309

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks...resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of pipelines, or any...

2010-07-01

310

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10...banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks...resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of pipelines, or any...

2011-07-01

311

Deposition and Long-Shore Transport of Dredge Spoils to Nourish Beaches: Impacts on Benthic Infauna of an Ebb-Tidal Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BISHOP, M.J.; PETERSON, C.H.; SUMMERSON, H.C.; LENIHAN, H.S., and GRABOWSKI, J.H., 2005. Deposition and long-shore transport of dredge spoils to nourish beaches: impacts on benthic infauna of an ebb-tidal delta. Journal of Coastal Research, 00(0), 000-000. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Dredged materials from maintenance and deepening of inlets on coastal barriers are typically transported for disposal in deep

Melanie J. Bishop; Charles H. Peterson; Henry C. Summerson; Hunter S. Lenihan; Jonathan H. Grabowski

2006-01-01

312

Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

Himmel, R. P.

1975-01-01

313

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

2008-01-01

314

Dredging, Bioinvasions and Andrew Cohen and Paul Crozier  

E-print Network

or Establishment of Exotic Organisms Dredging #12;· Altering ship traffic · Altering ballast practices · Altering local environmental conditions #12;· Dredging Alters Ship Traffic ­ Number of Vessels ­ Sizes or Types of Vessels ­ Sources of Vessels and Ballast ­ Routes and Transit Times #12;Vessel transport sites ­ Ballast

315

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

316

The Performance and Environmental Effects of a Hydraulic Clam Dredge  

E-print Network

The Performance and Environmental Effects of a Hydraulic Clam Dredge THOMAS L MEYER, RICHARD A since 1965 (excluding 1968, 1973, and 1975) to establish the distribution and abundance of the surf clam to Nantucket, Mass. Hydraulic clam dredges with 0.76 m and 1.2 m (30 and 48 inch) wide blades were used during

317

Removal of mixed contaminants by Fe 0 -based biobarrier in flow-through columns using recycled waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the reactivity and ability of permeable reactive barriers [zero-valent iron (ZVI)-barrier plus\\u000a biobarrier) to remove various contaminants (Cd, As, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, NO3\\u000a ?, NH4\\u000a +, and CODcr) from synthetic leachate. Two different reactive materials were used in this study, namely ZVI and autoclaved lightweight\\u000a concrete (ALC). After 90 days of column operation, the contaminant

Jai-Young Lee; Sun Young Youm; Sang-Il Choi; Byung-Taek Oh

2009-01-01

318

The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.  

PubMed

Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination. PMID:23091967

Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

2012-10-01

319

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-06-01

320

Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

1989-01-01

321

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

322

Brownfield reuse of dredged New York Harbor sediment by cement-based solidification/stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Newly effective federal regulations restrict the ocean disposal of sediments dredged from the harbors of New York and Newark. The New York Port Authority is faced with a critical situation: find land-based disposal/uses for 10`s of millions cubic yards of sediments or lose standing as a commercial port for ocean-going ships. One of the technologies now being employed to manage the sediments is portland cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. At least 4 million cubic yards of the sediments will undergo cement-based S/S treatment. This treatment will immobilize heavy metals, dioxin, PCBs and other organic contaminants in the sediment. The treatment changes the sediment from a environmental liability into a valuable structural fill. This structural fill is being used at two properties. The first property is an old municipal landfill in Port Newark, New Jersey. The treated sediments are being used as structural fill to cover about 20 acres of the landfill. This will allow planned redevelopment of the landfill property into a shopping mall. The second property called the Seaboard site, was the location of a coal gasification facility and later a wood preservation facility. This 160-acre property has been designated for brownfield redevelopment. Over 4 million cubic yards of treated sediments will eventually cover this site. Portland cement is the selected S/S binding reagent. Nearly 500,000 tons of cement will eventually be used to treat the sediments. Cement was selected for its ability to (a) change the peanut butter-like consistency of the sediments into a structural material and (b) to physically and chemically immobilize hazardous constituents in the sediment.

Loest, K. [ECDC Environmental L.C., Pembroke, MA (United States). Eastern Operations; Wilk, C.M. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

323

COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

2004-05-25

324

The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.  

PubMed

The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source activities necessary to deliver 100mSv to the full age range of users of the foreshore were estimated. All the estimated activities have been detected and recovered through routine monitoring. PMID:23933503

Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

2013-09-01

325

More than scratching the surface: dredge-up in simulations of double white dwarf mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that the strange isotopic abundances of R Corona Borealis stars (e.g. 16O / 18O ~ 1) as well as other properties of these unusual stars may naturally be explained if they originate from the merger of a He white dwarf with a CO white dwarf. However, the merger process that reignites these stellar remnants is highly dynamic and violent. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the accreting star will dredge up oxygen 16 from the accretor at the same time that material from the donor star is fusing to form oxygen 18. Recent stellar evolution calculations have indicated that if dredge up is strongly suppressed, the merger remnant will appear as an R Corona Borealis star but it is not clear how or if dredge up can be shut down. In this presentation we will compare double white dwarf merger simulations performed with three independent codes (SPH, fixed grid Eulerian and adaptive mesh refinement) to ascertain how much accretor material is lifted into the proto-envelope of the merged object.

Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, J. E.; Raskin, C.; Marcello, D.; Clayton, G. C.; Fryer, C.; Frank, J.

2014-01-01

326

Estimating source terms for far field dredge plume modelling.  

PubMed

Far field modelling of dredging induced suspended sediment plumes is important while assessing the environmental aspects of dredging. Realistic estimation of source terms, that define the suspended sediment input for far field dredge plume modelling, is key to any assessment. This paper describes a generic method for source term estimation as it is used in practice in the dredging industry. It is based on soil characteristics and dredge production figures, combined with empirically derived, equipment and condition specific 'source term fractions'. A source term fraction relates the suspended fine sediment that is available for dispersion, to the amount of fine sediment that is present in the soil and the way it is dredged. The use of source term fractions helps to circumvent modelling of complicated near field processes, at least initially, enabling quick assessments. When further detail is required and extra information is available, the applicability of the source term fractions can/should be evaluated by characterisation monitoring and/or near field modelling. An example of a fictitious yet realistic dredging project demonstrates how two different work methods can trigger two distinctly different types of stress to the environmental system in terms of sediment concentration and duration. PMID:25463591

Becker, Johannes; van Eekelen, Erik; van Wiechen, Joost; de Lange, William; Damsma, Thijs; Smolders, Tijmen; van Koningsveld, Mark

2015-02-01

327

A DEVICE TO MEASURE LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS IN ULTRA-CLEAN MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a radiation detection device so sensitive that a decay rate of only one atom per 11.57 days per kilogram of material could be detected. Such a detector is needed for screening materials that will be used in exotic high energy physics experiments currently being planned for the near future. The research was performed deep underground at the Underground Mine State Park in Soudan, Minnesota. The overburden there is ~1800 meters water equivalent. The reason for performing the research at such depth was to vastly reduce the effects of cosmic radiation. The flux of muons and fast neutrons is about 100,000 times lower than at the surface. A small clean room quality lab building was constructed so that work could be performed in such a manner that radioactive contamination could be kept at a minimum. Glove boxes filled with dry nitrogen gas were used to further reduce contamination from dirt and also help reduce the concentration of the radioactive gas 222Ra and daughter radionuclides which are normally present in air. A massive lead shield (about 20 tons) was constructed in such a manner that an eight inch cube of space in the center was available for the sample and detector. The innermost 4" thick lead walls were made of ~460 year old lead previously used in double beta decay experiments and known to be virtually free of 210Pb. A one and one half inch thick shell of active plastic scintillator was imbedded in the center of the 16" thick lead walls, ceiling, and floor of the shield and is used to help reduce activity due to the few muons and fast neutrons seen at this depth. The thick lead shielding was necessary to shield the detector from gamma rays emitted by radionuclides in the rock walls of the mine. A sealable chamber was constructed and located on top of the shield that included a device for raising and lowering the detector and samples into and out of the center chamber of the shield. A plastic scintillator detector measuring 6"x6"x6" was fitted with wave length shifting fibers that allowed the light from ionizing radiation to be collected and transmitted outside the massive shield to photomultiplier tubes and electronics. The detector was calibrated for energy and detection efficiency and low resolution background spectra were collected. Results from these measurements show the figure of merit (using: efficiency/square root of background) for this plastic scintillation counting technique to be ~15 times better than for a 2 kg germanium detector for measuring surface contamination from atmospheric 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi, and 210Po). These daughter radionuclides are normally deposited everywhere onto all materials exposed to air. The results are encouraging and indicate that plastic scintillation counting techniques can be of benefit to the public by making available very sensitive counters for screening ultra-low background materials at an affordable cost. However, in order to reach the level required a multi element array of thin plastic scintillator sheets must be developed that will allow many thin samples to be counted at one time. In addition, more sophisticated light detection hardware, electronics, and computer software is needed.

James H Reeves; Matthew Kauer

2006-03-17

328

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and accumulators, gas cylinders, and associated debris were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. (3) At CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum, as a BMP, an empty drum was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank, approximately 165 gal of lead-impacted liquid were removed and are currently pending disposal as HW, and approximately 10 gal of lead shot and 6 yd{sup 3} of wax embedded with lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. As a BMP, approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, approximately 55 gal of liquid were removed and disposed as sanitary waste, and two metal containers were grouted in place. (5) At CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain, no further action was required; however, as a BMP, approximately l.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, and one metal container was grouted in place.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-08-01

329

Modeling of Elza Gate contaminated material for use as fill material at the United Nuclear Corporation Waste Disposal Site, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of groundwater impact modeling to predict the migration of contaminants of concern from the UNC Waste Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This analysis considers contaminants in the current UNC site waste materials (nitrates and Sr-90) and contaminants in soils from the Elza Gate FUSRAP site (U-238, Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, and PCBs) proposed for disposal at the UNC site. Results are presented both for a conservative screening evaluation which assumes immediate introduction of contaminants into the groundwater, and for a more reasonable, but still conservative, approach which considers contaminant migration and dispersion through the soil column. Results are presented both for the proposed remedial alternative, which includes construction of a RCRA multilayered cap over the waste materials, and for a no action alternative which considers emplacement of the waste materials at the site with no cap or cover system. For the RCRA cap alternative, predicted contaminant concentrations appear to be within acceptable levels in all cases. The numerical values predicted by these simulations are estimates which are limited by the availability and suitability of the model input data and the applicability of the models themselves. However, the values can be used to provide an indication of the relative effectiveness of the closure alternatives considered. In both cases, the simulations are based upon very conservative assumptions, and actual concentrations and resultant risks could very likely be much smaller. In particular, the radiological decay of the source strength over time was not considered, infiltrating water and contaminants were assumed to reach the groundwater immediately and the receptor well location was assumed to be at the disposal pit boundary. 8 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

Weston, R.F. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1991-09-01

330

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

331

Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-print Network

Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21Ã? higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs

Short, Daniel

332

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-print Network

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET- QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET-bottles (0.33 vs

Filzmoser, Peter

333

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.  

PubMed

Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

334

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

335

Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch.  

PubMed

The exponential growth of the human population and its increasing industrial development often involve large scale modifications of the environment. In the marine context, coastal urbanisation and harbour expansion to accommodate the rising levels of shipping and offshore energy exploitation require dredging to modify the shoreline and sea floor. While the consequences of dredging on invertebrates and fish are relatively well documented, no study has robustly tested the effects on large marine vertebrates. We monitored the attendance of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to a recently established urbanised foraging patch, Aberdeen harbour (Scotland), and modelled the effect of dredging operations on site usage. We found that higher intensities of dredging caused the dolphins to spend less time in the harbour, despite high baseline levels of disturbance and the importance of the area as a foraging patch. PMID:23816305

Pirotta, Enrico; Laesser, Barbara Eva; Hardaker, Andrea; Riddoch, Nicholas; Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

2013-09-15

336

Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

1984-01-01

337

Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

338

14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

339

Treatment Of Arsenic-Contaminated Materials Using Selected Stabilization And Solidification Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated fro...

340

Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

Himmel, R. P.

1975-01-01

341

Versatile, automated sample preparation and detection of contaminants and biological materials  

E-print Network

Contamination of food, water, medicine and ingestible household products is a public health hazard that episodically causes outbreaks worldwide. Existing laboratory methods are often expensive, require a laboratory environment ...

Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

2013-01-01

342

Investigations into the Contamination of Lunar Return Material. Part 1; Surface Analysis and Imaging Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suite of lunar soils has been investigated by imaging and in-situ spectroscopy techniques. A suite of contaminant plastics and potential microbes has been found. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Steele, A.; Toporski, J. K. W.; Avci, R.; Agee, C. B.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

343

ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

344

Fractionation of copper and cadmium and their binding with soil organic matter in a contaminated soil amended with organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. Organic amendments can be used for the immobilization\\u000a and binding of heavy metal ions in soils by complexation, adsorption, and precipitation. A field trial was carried out to\\u000a evaluate the influence of some low-cost organic materials such as rice straw (RS), green manure (GM), and pig manure (PM)

Ibrahim Mohamed; Bocar Ahamadou; Ming Li; Changxiu Gong; Peng Cai; Wei Liang; Qiaoyun Huang

2010-01-01

345

Comparing Polychaete Bioaccumulation and Passive Sampler Uptake to Assess the Effect of Sediment Resuspension on Contaminant Bioavailability  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resettled sediments following remedial dredging is suspected of contributing to elevated organism tissue concentrations at contaminated sites. However, little data exists to evaluate whether increases in bioavaila...

346

Combining trace elements micro-analysis in deposited dredged sediments: EPMA and ?-XRF analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since deposited dredged sediments are rich in metallic contaminants, they present a risk for environment. This work aims to study dredged sediments chemical composition, identify metal-carrier minerals and understand their mobility. Combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques at multi-scale for an integrative approach of trace elements (zinc, lead, iron) behaviour is therefore necessary. The global mineralogy and the chemistry of the sediment were determined by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence (XRF), respectively. Zn and Pb enriched fractions were separated using a sequential chemical extraction procedure and measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectroscopy. Microanalyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe microanalysis (EPMA), combined with synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) were carried out to characterize mineralogical phases and identify Zn and Pb carrier minerals. Iron oxyhydroxides and iron sulphides were consistently identify as Zn and Pb carriers. The assumption that carbonate fraction was the major Zn carried phase, as demonstrated by chemical extraction results, was not verified by EPMA or ?-XRF.

Poitevin, A.; Lerouge, C.; Wille, G.; Bataillard, P.; Quinn, P.; Hennet, L.

2012-03-01

347

78 FR 6079 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment Dredging Activities at John...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment Dredging Activities at John...purpose of the Environmental Impact Statement...alternatives and environmental impacts associated with proposed dredging (sediment...

2013-01-29

348

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

349

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

...2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2014-10-01

350

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2010-10-01

351

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2013-10-01

352

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2011-10-01

353

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2012-10-01

354

The effect of rocket plume contamination on the optical properties of transmitting and reflecting materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results of plume contamination from a 5-pound thrust single-doublet, bipropellant rocket engine on the transmittance of quartz and the reflectance of a silicon monoxide overcoated aluminum mirror are presented. Changes in quartz transmittance were found to be significant and were due to both absorption and scattering effects. Contaminant absorption effects were predominant at the short wavelengths and scattering effects were greatest in the visible wavelengths. Measured changes in mirror reflectance were due primarily to contaminant absorption. Scattering effects were found to be as much as 9 percent of the total reflected energy from the mirror. There were no noticeable chemical or erosion effects on either the quartz or the front surface mirror.

Jack, J. R.; Spisz, E. W.; Cassidy, J. F.

1971-01-01

355

The effect of rocket plume contamination on the optical properties of transmitting and reflecting materials.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results of plume contamination from a 5-pound thrust single-doublet, bipropellant rocket engine on the transmittance of quartz and the reflectance of a silicon monoxide overcoated aluminum mirror have been presented. Changes in quartz transmittance were found to be significant and were due to both absorption and scattering effects. Contaminant absorption effects were predominant at the short wavelengths and scattering effects were greatest in the visible wavelengths. Measured changes in mirror reflectance were due primarily to contaminant absorption. Scattering effects were found to be as much as 9% of the total reflected energy from the mirror. There were no noticeable chemical or erosion effects on either the quartz or the front surface mirror.

Jack, J. R.; Spisz, E. W.; Cassidy, J. F.

1972-01-01

356

Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.  

PubMed

Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 ?g/l and 430-1000 ?g/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 ?g/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 ?g/l to 92-121 ?g/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 ?g/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 ?g/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

2011-02-28

357

THE EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS ON REPRESENTATIVE ESTUARINE SPECIES AND DEVELOPING BENTHIC COMMUNITIES. CHAPTER 21  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay techniques developed to examine acute and sublethal effects of dredged sediments on marine life are described. Results are reported for laboratory tests conducted to determine sublethal and acute effects of Kepone-sorbed sediment and dredged spoil material from the James...

358

Evaluation Of Sorption Materials For Use In Remediation Of Mercury-Contaminated Fresh Water Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to characterize the extent of mercury methylation under conditions simulating those at a mercury-contaminated superfund site in southern Alabama, both during baseline (non-reactive capping) conditions and with the implementaion of reactive capping m...

359

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF ASBESTOS CONTAMINATED WITH RADIONUCLIDES AND\\/OR OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste asbestos from abatement activities at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is typically (as is most asbestos waste in the United States) disposed of in landfills. However, some of the asbestos from DOE facilities is contaminated with radionuclides, PCBs, metals regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and perhaps other regulated components that may require treatment instead of landfill

Dale M. Timmons; James H. Cahill

360

16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING OPERATIONS USING TWO LEVERS FROM CEILING, THREE LEVELS ON THE FLOOR, AND TWO FLOOR PEDDLES. RIGHT HAND CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER (BOOM MOVE TO RIGHT WHEN PUSHED FORWARD, LEFT WHEN PULLED BACK, AND, IF LUCKY, STOPPED WHEN IN CENTER POSITION). LEFT HAND CONTROLLED THROTTLE. FLOOR LEVER AND FLOOR PEDDLE ON LEFT CONTROLLED THE BACKING LINE FRICTION. MIDDLE LEVER AND PEDDLE, STUCK IN FLOOR CONTROLLED THE MAIN HOIST FRICTION. LEVER ON RIGHT CONTROLLED THE CYLINDER DRAIN VALVE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

361

Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issuance of the guidance in 1997.

Pope, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards] [and others

1997-04-01

362

Development of a consistent geochemical modelling approach for leaching and reactive transport prosesses in contaminated materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste materials often contain increased levels of potentially toxic trace elements compared to natural materials such as soils. In many countries, the recycling of waste materials in the environment, such as in construction works, is regulated by environmental criteria that aim to ensure long-term environmental protection. These criteria are increasingly based on the potential \\

J. J. Dijkstra

2007-01-01

363

Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

364

USING LAKE DREDGED MATERIALS TO ENHANCE PASTURE ESTABLISHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

365

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

2012-07-01

366

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

2011-07-01

367

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

2010-07-01

368

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

2014-07-01

369

40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

2013-07-01

370

AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION IN SEDIMENTS AND DREDGED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The identification of toxicants affecting aquatic benthic systems is critical to sound assessment and management of our nation?s waterways. Identification of toxicants can be useful in designing effective sediment remediation plans and reasonable options for sediment disposal. K...

371

83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

372

U.S. Allows Atlantic Scallop Dredging, Limits Groundfishery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the National Marine Fisheries Service ignored advice from fishery scientists and environmental organizations by granting final approval to a measure that allows scallop dredging in ecologically sensitive areas off New England and the Mid-Atlantic. This news brief, from Environment News Service, describes the recent turn of events, including the anticipated impacts on already threatened groundfish stocks.

2001-01-01

373

Assessment Of Bioaccumulation Potential Following Dredging In Mainistique, Michigan  

EPA Science Inventory

After the Superfund remedy of the Mainistique River and Harbor that occurred in 1996 to 2001, PCB concentrations in sediment have gone down substantially. Prior to dredging, the average PCB concentration was 28 ppm (all depth intervals) and the current average in sediments is 0....

374

Plant growth on soils mixed with dredged lake sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment dredged from a fresh?water lake in South Dakota was mixed in various dry volume ratios with either an agriculturally productive soil or sand. The effect on the growth and nutrient uptake was determined under greenhouse conditions for three field crops, maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), and two forage species, alfalfa (Medicago

Howard J. Woodard

1999-01-01

375

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity

Robert M. Burgess; Monique M. Perron; Carey L. Friedman; Eric M. Suuberg; Kelly G. Pennell; Mark G. Cantwell; Marguerite C. Pelletier; Kay T. Ho; Jonathan R. Serbst; Stephan A. Ryba

2009-01-01

376

Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.  

PubMed

In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (?), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ? in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ? in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. PMID:25559497

Rozas, F; Castellote, M

2015-03-15

377

Remediation of contaminated subsurface materials by a metal-reducing bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A biotic approach for remediating subsurface sediments and groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chromium was evaluated. Cells of the Fe(iii)-reducing bacterium strain BrY were added to sealed, anoxic flasks containing Hanford groundwater, natural subsurface sediments, and either carbon tetrachloride, CT, or oxidized chromium, Cr(VI). With lactate as the electron donor, BrY transformed CT to chloroform (CF), which accumulated to about 1 0 % of the initial concentration of CT. The remainder of the CT was transformed to unidentified, nonvolatile compounds. Transformation of CT by BrY was an indirect process Cells reduced solid phase Fe(ill) to chemically reactive FE(II) that chemically transformed the chlorinated contaminant. Cr(VI), in contrast, was reduced by a direct enzymatic reaction in the presence or absence of Fe(III)-bearing sediments. These results demonstrate that Fe(ill)-reducing bacteria provide potential for transforming CT and for reducing CR(VI) to less toxic Cr(III). Technologies for stimulating indigenous populations of metal-reducing bacteria or for introducing specific metal-reducing bacteria to the subsurface are being investigated.

Gorby, Y.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.

1994-11-01

378

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. ore material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. ariables in the study included flow rate, pH, ioni...

379

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study incl...

380

Microbial respiration as an indication of metal toxicity in contaminated organic materials and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heavy metals on microbial respiration in organic materials used as soil amendments was evaluated to assess the stability of the materials. Solutions of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) at rates of 5, 10 and 50mg metalg?1 were added to green waste compost, peat, coir and wood bark. Metal toxicity led to a significant decrease in

O. I. Nwachukwu; I. D. Pulford

2011-01-01

381

Accounting for Nanometer-Thick Adventitious Carbon Contamination in X-ray Absorption Spectra of Carbon-Based Materials.  

PubMed

Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for characterizing the composition and bonding state of nanoscale materials and the top few nanometers of bulk and thin film specimens. When coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy, it enables chemical imaging of materials with nanometer-scale lateral spatial resolution. However, analysis of NEXAFS spectra is often performed under the assumption of structural and compositional homogeneity within the nanometer-scale depth probed by this technique. This assumption can introduce large errors when analyzing the vast majority of solid surfaces due to the presence of complex surface and near-surface structures such as oxides and contamination layers. An analytical methodology is presented for removing the contribution of these nanoscale overlayers from NEXAFS spectra of two-layered systems to provide a corrected photoabsorption spectrum of the substrate. This method relies on the subtraction of the NEXAFS spectrum of the overlayer adsorbed on a reference surface from the spectrum of the two-layer system under investigation, where the thickness of the overlayer is independently determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach is applied to NEXAFS data acquired for one of the most challenging cases: air-exposed hard carbon-based materials with adventitious carbon contamination from ambient exposure. The contribution of the adventitious carbon was removed from the as-acquired spectra of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) to determine the intrinsic photoabsorption NEXAFS spectra of these materials. The method alters the calculated fraction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon from 5 to 20% and reveals that the adventitious contamination can be described as a layer containing carbon and oxygen ([O]/[C] = 0.11 ± 0.02) with a thickness of 0.6 ± 0.2 nm and a fraction of sp(2)-bonded carbon of 0.19 ± 0.03. This method can be generally applied to the characterization of surfaces and interfaces in several research fields and technological applications. PMID:25387846

Mangolini, Filippo; McClimon, J Brandon; Rose, Franck; Carpick, Robert W

2014-12-16

382

North Fork John Day Dredge Tailings Restoration Project Final Report 1997-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The USDA Forest Service (USFS) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) worked together to rehabilitate 2.1 miles of Clear Creek floodplain, a tributary of the North Fork John Day River Basin. Dredge tailing were deposited from mining operations on Clear Creek's floodplain from the 1930's to the 1950's. These tailing confined the stream channel and degraded the floodplain. The work was completed by moving dredge tailing piles adjacent to the Clear Creek channel, using track-mounted excavators and dump trucks. A caterpillar tractor was used to contour the material placed outside the immediate floodplain, blending it into the hillside. The restored floodplain was very near channel bankfull level following excavation and contoured to accept future flood flows. Monitoring was initiated through pre and post-project photo points and cross-section measurements. Work was completed in two efforts. In 1997 and 1998 floodplain restoration was adjacent to the reconstruction of Road 13 from the junction with Road 10 from Clear Creek River Mile 1.9 to 3.1 for a distance of 1.2 miles. In 1999 the Environmental Assessment for Lower Clear Creek--Granite Creek Floodplain Restoration Project was completed for work proposed on Clear Creek from the mouth up to River mile 1.9 and the Granite Creek floodplain from River miles 5.9 to 7.7. Restoration proposed in the 1999 Environmental Assessment is the subject of this report.

Sanchez, John A. (US Forest Service, Pendleton, OR)

2002-12-01

383

SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION: RESEARCH TO EVALUATE RELEASE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF CONTAMINANTS AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each option. Resuspension of contaminants from the...

384

EVALUATION OF RISKS FROM USING POULTRY LITTER TO REMEDIATE AND REUSE CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The availability of heavy metals in contaminated sediment evaluated for beneficial reuse, before and after chemical amendment, was evaluated using poultry manure as the amendment. The dredged sediment was only slightly contaminated with heay metals.Availability tests on the amend...

385

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-10-01

386

Geoarchaeological evidence for dredging in Tyre's ancient harbour, Levant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrono-stratigraphic data from Tyre's ancient northern harbour delineate extensive dredging practices during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. Radiocarbon dates from four cores consistently cluster between ca. 500 B.C. and 1000 A.D. and indicate rapid rates of sedimentation in the basin, namely ?10 mm/yr during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods, compared to 0.5-1 mm/yr for the period 6000-4000 B.C. Absence of strata between 4000 B.C. and 500 B.C. is not consistent with a natural base-level sediment sink and cannot be interpreted as a depositional hiatus in the high-stand systems tract. Ancient dredging is further corroborated by persistent age-depth inversions within the fine-grained harbour facies. These data support removal of Middle Bronze Age to Persian period sediment strata, with deliberate overdeepening of the harbour bottom by Greco-Roman and Byzantine societies.

Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe

2006-01-01

387

Dredged bedrock samples from the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2008-2012, as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf project in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, 17 dredges were successfully collected sampling the first rock outcrops in the Chukchi Borderland and surrounding regions for the purpose of describing the geologic nature of the bathymetric features in this area. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the specimens were collected from submarine rock exposures and were not samples of ice rafted debris, common in the ice covered waters of the Arctic Ocean. Using the USCGC Healy, each dredge was collected along very steep slopes (>35 degrees) measured with high resolution multibeam swath bathymety data. Each haul yielded samples of similar lithologies and identical metamorphic grade with manganese crusts on the surfaces exposed to seawater and fresh surfaces where the rocks were broken from outcrop. High tension pulls on the dredge line also indicated sampling of bedrock exposures. Dredged samples from a normal fault scarp in the central Chukchi Borderland consisted of Silurian (c. 430 Ma) orthogneisses that intruded older (c. 487-500 Ma) gabbros and luecogranties that were all metamorphosed to amphibolite grade (Brumley et al., 2011). Samples from the northern Northwind Ridge consisted of metasediments (greenschist facies) interpreted to have been deposited in a proximal arc setting with detrital zircon U-Pb age peaks at 434, 980 Ma with lesser peaks between 500-600, 1100-2000 Ma, and rare 2800 Ma grains (Brumley et al, 2010). Other dredges in the region of the Northwind Ridge yielded deformed and metamorphosed calcareous sandstones and low-grade phyllites (O'Brien et al., 2013). Taken together these rocks indicate a relationship to the Pearya Terrane of northern Ellesmere Island and S.W. Svalbard that were thought to represent a Cambro-Ordovician volcanic arc terrane that was involved in Caledonian orogenesis (Brumley et al., 2011). These findings constrain plate tectonic reconstruction models and bring into question long held ideas that the Chukchi Borderland was made up of an undeformed platformal sequence that was part of the Laurentian passive margin from Proterozoic through Jurassic time (e.g. Grantz et al., 1998). Dredges collected along fault scarps that border the edges of the Nautilus Basin yielded undeformed but highly altered volcaniclastic rocks that were deposited in a shallow water setting and contain primary potassium feldspar phenocrysts that are not associated with mafic magmas. Also in this region, several dredges contained undeformed Late Cretaceous (112, 88-80 Ma) basalts (Andronikov et al., 2008; Mukasa et al., 2009) interpreted to have been derived from a continental lithospheric source similar to continental flood basalts from other regions (Mukasa et al., 2009). These dredged rock samples not only have implications for the Extended Continental Shelf projects of Arctic nations, but add greatly to the body of geologic information about the history of the Arctic Ocean and provide the first ground truth as to the nature of the bathymetric features within the Amerasia Basin.

Brumley, K. J.; Mukasa, S. B.; O'Brien, T. M.; Mayer, L. A.; Chayes, D. N.

2013-12-01

388

Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the

H. K. Hepworth; J. S. Davidson; J. L. Hooyman

1997-01-01

389

Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

1983-01-01

390

Engineering properties of lightweight aggregate concrete made from dredged silt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silt dredged from reservoirs can be hydrated and sintered into lightweight aggregate for producing lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). The densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA) was employed to manufacture LWAC using 150kg\\/m3 of water at different water-to-binder ratios (w\\/b=0.28, 0.32 and 0.4) using lightweight aggregates of different particle densities (800, 1100 and 1500kg\\/m3). The engineering properties of the LWAC thus obtained

H. Y. Wang; K. C. Tsai

2006-01-01

391

Recycling lead-based paint contaminated deconstructed masonry materials as aggregate for Portland cement concrete—A cost effective and environmental friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lead-based paint (LBP) contaminated deconstructed masonry materials (two types of concrete blocks and two types of clay bricks) were crushed and used to replace all natural aggregate in conventional concrete. To reduce cost, the crushed materials were neither sieved nor re-graded. After their physical properties and lead-leaching ability were characterized, these masonry materials were used for concrete with various

Jiong Hu; Kejin Wang; James A. Gaunt

2010-01-01

392

Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water.  

PubMed

This study investigated the utilization of agricultural matrices as the support materials for cell immobilization to improve the technique of bioremediation. Coir, bulrush, banana stem and water hyacinth stem in both delignified and undelignified forms were used to immobilize Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in bioremediation of carbofuran at 5 mg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater. Undelignified coir was found to be the most suitable support material for cell immobilization, giving the short half-life of carbofuran of 3.40 d (2.8 times shorter than the treatments with free cells). In addition, it could be reused three times without a loss in ability to degrade carbofuran. The growth and degradation ability of free cells were completely inhibited at the initial carbofuran concentrations of 250 mg l(-1), while there was no inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the immobilized cells. The results indicated a great potential for using the agricultural matrices as support material for cell immobilization to improve the overall efficiency of carbofuran bioremediation in contaminated water by B. cepacia PCL3. PMID:24527620

Laocharoen, S; Plangklang, P; Reungsang, A

2013-01-01

393

Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.  

PubMed

Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses. PMID:25522855

Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

2015-03-01

394

Seasonal changes of metals in willow (Salix sp.) stands for phytoremediation on dredged sediment.  

PubMed

Fast growing biomass plants such as Salix species are promising for use in phytoremediation of contaminated land. This study assessed the seasonal variations and changes with stand age in metal concentrations of S. fragilis L. and S. triandra L. grown in field conditions on contaminated dredged sediment substrates with comparable properties. A lesser proportion of total soil Cd was extractable by ammonium-acetate in the 6-year-old stand (6%) compared to the 1-year-old stand (17%). This suggests that the potential to remove metals from the site declines with tree age. Metal concentrations in willow biomass compartments decreased with stand age. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in leaves, wood, and bark increased toward the end of the growing season, irrespective of the species. Only Cd behavior offered limited prospects for targeting effective removal of the metal from the sediment through repeated harvest. The most efficient removal of Cd would require the combined harvest of stems and leaves; at the same time the risk of spreading Cd and Zn to the surroundings with leaf fall would be avoided. PMID:16570622

Mertens, Jan; Vervaeke, Pieter; Meers, Erik; Tack, Filip M G

2006-03-15

395

Significance of dredging on sediment denitrification in Meiliang Bay, China: A year long simulation study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An experiment for studying the effects of sediment dredging on denitrification in sediments was carried out through a one-year incubation of undredged (control) and dredged cores in laboratory. Dredging the upper 30 cm of sediment can significantly affect physico-chemical characteristics of sediments. Less degradation of organic matter in the dredged sediments was found during the experiment. Denitrification rates in the sediments were estimated by the acetylene blockage technique, and ranged from 21.6 to 102.7 nmol N2/(g dry weight (dw) x hr) for the undredged sediment and from 6.9 to 26.9 nmol N2/(g dw x hr) for dredged sediments. The denitrification rates in the undredged sediments were markedly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the dredged sediments throughout the incubation, with the exception of February 2006. The importance of various environmental factors on denitrification was assessed, which indicated that denitrification was regulated by temperature. Nitrate was probably the key factor limiting denitrification in both undredged and dredged sediments. Organic carbon played some role in determining the denitrification rates in the dredged sediments, but not in the undredged sediments. Sediment dredging influenced the mineralization of organic matter and denitrification in the sediment; and therefore changed the pattern of inherent cycling of nitrogen.

Zhong, Jicheng; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lu; Edward, Hall; Ding, Shiming; Li, Bao; Liu, Guofeng

2010-01-01

396

Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.  

PubMed

The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread. PMID:7488530

Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

1995-08-01

397

GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and requires updating to comply with the newer DOT regulations. Similar challenges present themselves throughout the nuclear industry in both commercial and government operations and therefore, this is not only a Hanford Site problem. Shipping radioactive wastes as either LSA or SCO rather than repacking it is significantly cheaper than other DOT radioactive materials shipping classifications particularly when the cost of packages is included. Additionally, the need to 'repackage' materials for transport can often increase worker exposure, necessitated by 'repackaging' waste materials into DOT 7 A Type A containers.

PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

2012-02-13

398

Experiences in the determination of activity in thorium contaminated materials in working areas, using gamma spectrometer measurements, from the viewpoint of practical radiation protection.  

PubMed

In industrial processes, classification and clearance of thorium contaminated material is often a time problem. Short-term decisions have to be made about acceptance limits, industrial safety as the workers are in contact with the contaminated material. and the environmental aspect regarding the disposal of the wastes. The use of gamma ray spectrometry measurements is an easy method to estimate the level of activity in materials. Under the precondition of equilibrium of activity within the thorium decay chain, which can be assumed only with knowledge of the materials' history, adequate results can be produced in a reasonable time. The advantages of gamma ray spectrometry are the low investment and operational costs, simple sample preparation, and a system that is relatively quick and easy to operate. PMID:11843349

Kreh, R; Stainer, J

2001-01-01

399

Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Maintenance Dredging of the Mouth of the Columbia River, Summer 2002  

SciTech Connect

To address concerns about crab entrainment during maintenance dredging at the Mouth of the Columbia River, direct measurements of crab entrainment rates were conducted during the summer of 2002 from River Mile 3 to River Mile+3. The entrainment rate for all age classes over all sampling in the MCR was 0.0603 crabs per cy. The sex ratio of the older crabs entrained in the MCR was significantly skewed to the females. A modified DIM was used to calculate the entrainment (E), Adult Equivalent Loss (AEL) at Age 2+ and Age 3+ and the Loss to the Fishery (LF) for the dredged volumes accomplished in 2002 and for the five-year average dredged volumes (both for the Essayons and the contractor dredges). For both sets of projections, the coefficients of variation on the E, AEL, and LF were all under 5%. For the MCR total dredged volume (4,600,378 cy) in the summer of 2002, the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 180,416 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 163,549 to 197,283 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the summer 2002 in the MCR was 81,187 with 95% confidence limits from 73,597 to 88,777 crabs. The projected LF for summer 2002 in the MCR was 10,471 with 95% confidence limits from 9,537 to 11,405 crabs. For the five-year average total MCR dredged volumes (4,391,872 cy), the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 172,238 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 156,135 to 188,341 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the MCR was 77,507 with 95% confidence limits from 70,261 to 84,753 crabs. The projected LF was 9,997 with 95% confidence limits from 9,105 to 10,889 crabs. Because female crabs appeared in the entrainment samples at a higher rate than did males, about 82% of the AEL at Age 2+ in the MCR was comprised of female crabs. Salinity in dredged materials from the MCR was close to that of ocean water for most of the sampling from July to October 2002 with about 82% of the salinity measurements above 32 o/oo. At the high salinities found in the MCR, entrainment rates did not vary significantly with salinity. These results support the concept discussed in Pearson et al. (2002) that where bottom salinities are high most of the time, factors other than salinity are influencing crab distribution and entrainment rates. The results reported here coupled with those in Pearson et al. (2002) indicate that low salinity influences crab entrainment rates.

Pearson, Walter H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Williams, Greg D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.

2003-03-05

400

A 3-D model to analyze environmental effects of dredging operations - application to the Port of Marin, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the study of dredging processes has depended on physical laboratory tests. The IH-Dredge model has been developed to simulate these processes numerically. It simulates the evolution of the seabed, sediment and toxic substances involved in dredging operations. The model has been calibrated and validated with experimental data, and it has been applied in a dredging operation in the Port of Marin, Spain.

García Alba, J.; Gómez, A. G.; Tinoco López, R. O.; Sámano Celorio, M. L.; García Gómez, A.; Juanes, J. A.

2014-04-01

401

76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Delaware River during the dredging operations, the effect...Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety...complying with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...allow for maintenance dredging and debris disposal...disposal site. An environmental analysis...

2011-03-04

402

Effects of Suction-Dredge Gold Mining on Benthic Invertebrates in a Northern California Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on benthic invertebrates of mining with two suction dredges were investigated in 1983 by using artificial-substrate samplers in Big East Fork Creek, a tributary to Canyon Creek in northern California. The samplers were placed in Big East Fork Creek above and below the dredge site and in Canyon Creek above and below the confluence of Big East Fork

William L. Somer; Thomas J. Hassler

1992-01-01

403

Shallow water surface gravity wave imaging, spectra and their use in shallow water dredging operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of shallow waters using high resolution video imagery is described. Common to mono, stereo and trinocular imaging approaches from ground and airborne platforms is the need to validate the surface water wave field measurements, particularly the amplitude and specular reflectance of water surface small gravity waves. A technique for calibration and validation of water surface gravity wave field energy spectra is described. Results demonstrate the value of video imagery where water level staff gauges with approximately with 0.5 cm wave height accuracy are easily sensed using high definition videography. Essentially, a staff gauge placed in shallow water constructed from PVC materials with custom colored line coding are imaged at 30 H or high frame rates, followed by frame by frame analyses in order to detect the water level measured at 0.5 cm height intervals. The image based time series allow the development of shallow water gravity wave energy spectra using standard FFT analysis procedures. Spectral models based upon peak frequency, for example, are then used in a two dimensional water surface wave simulation model that generates radiative transfer based hyperspectral images of the water surface wave field. The simulated and observed water surface wave patch fields are compared by extracting vertical or horizontal transects within observed and simulated imagery. The approach allows one to developed spectral energy model probability distributions at low cost. The novel noncontact video sensing and image analysis methodology used to calibrate and validate shallow water gravity wave models yield a means for ultimately calculating bottom boundary velocities under measured or simulated wave fields. These boundary layer velocities can cause migration and horizontal particle fluxes (g cm-2 s-1), resuspension, settling, and increased turbidity during dredging operations, but not necessarily due to waterway dredging operations and activities.

Bostater, Charles R.; Yang, Bingyu

2014-10-01

404

Changes in the leachability of metals from dredged canal sediments during drying and oxidation.  

PubMed

The behaviour of metals in canal sediments after their disposal to land has important implications for the environmental management of canal dredgings. The leaching behaviour of trace metals was investigated in a laboratory-based experiment using sediment from a canal in the UK (139 mg Zn kg-1dry sediment, 1.1 mg Cd, kg-1dry sediment 31.5 mg Cr kg-1dry sediment, 20.6 mg Cu kg-1dry sediment 48.4 mg Ni kg-1dry sediment, 43.4 mg Pb kg-1dry sediment and 7.6 mg As kg-1dry sediment). The sediment was allowed to dry. Cores (10 cm long) of the drying canal sediment were taken over a period of 12 weeks. A simple water extraction procedure was used to investigate changes in metal leachability at varying depths through the cores. Metal leachability increased over the first five weeks of drying and then subsequently decreased between weeks five and twelve, (e.g. Cd increased from approximately 0.006 to 0.018 mg/kgsediment then decreased to approximately 0.006 mg/kgsediment, Zn increased from approximately 1.5 to 3 mg/kgsediment and then decreased to approximately 1.5 mg/kgsediment). These results were combined with sulphide/sulphate ratios, which showed a decrease as the sediment dried (e.g. at 2-4 cm depth from approximately 1 to 0.49), and BCR sequential extraction data. Most metals (except Cd and As) showed a redistribution from the residual phase into more mobile phases as the sediment dried and oxidised. Metal leachability was strongly correlated with the sulphide/sulphate ratio with leachability normally increasing with decreasing sulphide/sulphate ratio. The combined results were used to infer the likely behaviour of dredged material upon disposal to land. PMID:11584639

Stephens, S R; Alloway, B J; Parker, A; Carter, J E; Hodson, M E

2001-01-01

405

Geochemistry of organic contaminants in Narragansett Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic contaminants from several different chemical classes were analyzed in surface sediments along a transect from the head to the mouth of Narragansett Bay. The chemical classes included total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, substituted benzotriazoles and phthalic acid esters. Sediment concentrations of all compounds were highest in the Providence River and decreased with distance downbay. The observed decreases were approximately exponential for all compounds; however, the distances at which the concentrations decreased to one-half of their initial concentrations (half-distances) were different. The depth distributions of these compounds in sediment cores from three locations were also investigated. A sediment core collected near the head of the bay (Conimicut Point) showed a well defined historical record of contaminant input to the bay. At a mid-bay location (North Jamestown), however, the record was smeared because of extensive bioturbation. A sediment core collected near the mouth of the bay (Rhode Island Sound) showed a subsurface increase for all of the measured compounds. The results of detailed analyses suggest that this horizon may have been influenced by dredge spoil material originally from the head of the bay.

Pruell, Richard J.; Quinn, James G.

1985-09-01

406

EVALUATION OF CONTAMINANT LEACHABILITY FACTORS BY COMPARISON OF TREATABILITY STUDY DATA FOR MULTIPLE SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology is widely used in the treatment of hazardous waste and contaminated soil in the US. In a project sponsored by the US Navy and the USEPA, treatability test data were compiled into a data base listing contaminant concentration and matri...

407

Recovery of the seabed following marine aggregate dredging on the Hastings Shingle Bank off the southeast coast of England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dredging intensity on the physical and biological recovery times of the seabed following marine aggregate dredging. Two areas of seabed, previously subject to, respectively, relatively high and lower levels of dredging intensity, were identified on the Hastings Shingle Bank. Two reference areas were also selected for comparative purposes. All four sites were monitored annually over the period 2001-2004, using a combination of acoustic, video and grab sampling techniques. Since the site was last dredged in 1996, this was intended to provide a sequence of data 5-8 years after cessation of dredging. However, an unexpected resumption of dredging within the high intensity site, during 2002 and 2003, allowed an additional assessment of the immediate effects and aftermath of renewed dredging at the seabed. The early stages of recovery could then be assessed after dredging ceased in 2003. Results from both dredged sites provide a useful insight into the early and latter stages of physical and biological recovery. A comparison of recent and historic dredge track features provided evidence of track erosion. However, tracks were still visible 8 years after the cessation of dredging. Within the high dredging intensity site, recolonisation was relatively rapid after the cessation of dredging in 2003. Rather than indicating a full recovery, we suggest that this initial 'colonization community' may enter a transition phase before eventually reaching equilibrium. This hypothesis is supported by results from the low intensity site, where biological recovery was judged to have taken 7 years. Further monitoring is needed in order to test this. An alternative explanation is that the rapid recovery may be explained by the settlement of large numbers of Sabellaria spinulosa. As the resumption of dredging within the high intensity site limited our assessment of longer-term recovery it is not yet possible to assume that a 7-year biological recovery period will be applicable to other, more intensively dredged areas at this or more distant locations.

Cooper, Keith; Boyd, Sian; Eggleton, Jacqueline; Limpenny, David; Rees, Hubert; Vanstaen, Koen

2007-12-01

408

VARIABILITY OF PARAMETERS MEASURED DURING THE RESUSPENSION OF SEDIMENTS WITH A PARTICULATE ENTRAINMENT SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated sediments are a problem facing many environmental managers concerned with issues such as maintenance dredging, habitat restoration and dredged material placement. Currently, there are few methods which can be used to assess contaminant remobilization potential from ...

409

Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

1996-09-01

410

Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

Darmody, R.G.; Marlin, J.C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R.A.; Brewer, E.F.; Stohr, C.

2004-01-01

411

HOW TO EVALUATE BENTHIC RECOVERY FROM REMEDIAL ACTIVITIES AT CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each alternative. Whatever decision is made at a s...

412

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

A sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA is described. The application is meant to characterize and forecast sediment and arsenic (As) distributions before and after proposed dredging activit...

413

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA for the purpose of characterizing and forecasting sediment and arsenic distributions before and after proposed dredging activitie...

414

Fate and pathways of dredged estuarine sediment spoil in response to variable sediment size and baroclinic coastal circulation.  

PubMed

Most of the world's megacities are located in estuarine regions supporting commercial ports. Such locations are subject to sedimentation and require dredging to maintain activities. Liverpool Bay, northwest UK, is a region of freshwater influence and hypertidal conditions used to demonstrate the impact of baroclinicity when considering sediment disposal. Although tidal currents dominate the time-varying current and onshore sediment movement, baroclinic processes cause a 2-layer residual circulation that influences the longer-term sediment transport. A nested modelling system is applied to accurately simulate the circulation during a three month period. The hydrodynamic model is validated using coastal observations, and a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to determine the pathways of 2 sediment mixtures representative of locally dredged material: a mix of 70% silt and 30% medium sand and a mix of 50% fine sand and 50% medium sand. Sediments are introduced at 3 active disposal sites within the Mersey Estuary in 2 different quantities (500 and 1500 Tonnes). Following release the majority (83% or more) of the particles remain within the estuary due to baroclinic influence. However, particles able to leave follow 2 distinct pathways, which primarily depend on the sediment grain size. Typically the finer sediment moves north and the coarser sediment west. Under solely barotropic conditions larger sediment volumes (up to 5 times more) can leave the estuary in a diffuse plume moving north. This demonstrates the necessity of considering baroclinic influence even within a hypertidal region with low freshwater inflow for accurate particle tracking studies. PMID:25463584

Brown, Jennifer M; Amoudry, Laurent O; Souza, Alejandro J; Rees, Jon

2015-02-01

415

Effects of suction-dredging for cockles on non-target fauna in the Wadden Sea [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suction dredging for cockles removes large cockles from tidal flats and may also cause mortality of non-target fauna and make the habitat less suitable for some species. This study examines whether suction dredging for cockles on tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea had affected densities of non-target fauna, directly after fishing and one year later. Densities of non-target fauna in two randomly chosen undredged locations were compared to densities at the surrounding heavily commercially dredged area. A significant negative effect of cockle dredging on densities of 0-group Macoma balthica was observed and this effect persisted one year after dredging. The dredged area appeared to be less suitable for settlement of mussels Mytilus edulis. No significant effects of dredging on the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae and on 0 and 1-group C. edule were found. For the mobile young Macoma balthica it seems unlikely that the effect found after one year was still due to the mortality caused by dredging and this suggests that the habitat was less suitable as a consequence of dredging. Thus, even in the highly dynamic ecosystem of the Wadden Sea, effects of bottom disturbance by cockle dredging may persist after one year.

Hiddink, J. G.

2003-12-01

416

Environmental effects of dredging: Alternative dredging equipment and operational methods to minimize sea turtle mortalities. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Five species of sea turtles occur along the United States coastlines and are listed as threatened or endangered. The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is listed as threatened, while the Kemp`s ridley (Lepidochelys kenipi), the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) are all less abundant and listed as endangered. Florida breeding populations of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) are listed as endangered, but green turtles in other US waters are considered threatened. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has determined, based on the best available information, that because of their life cycle and behavioral patterns only the loggerhead, the green, and the Kemp`s ridley are put at risk by hopper dredging activities (Studt 1987).

Dickerson, D.D.; Nelson, D.A.

1990-12-01

417

RELATING THE 4 RS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DREDGING: RESUSPENSION, RELEASE, RESIDUAL, AND RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation summarizes discussions at an EPA/Corps of Engineers' Workshop which summarizind the state of the science in regard to understanding and predicting resuspension, release, residuals, and risk associated with remedial dredging....

418

Examining Mid-Atlantic Ocean Shipwrecks and Commercial Fish Trawling & Dredging.  

E-print Network

??This study examines the major site formation processes of commercial fish trawling and dredging impacts on mid-Atlantic ocean shipwrecks. Exploring this human-related interaction requires multi-disciplinary… (more)

Steinmetz, Joyce Holmes

2010-01-01

419

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON HARD CLAMS OF HAND RAKING AND POWER DREDGING  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON HARD CLAMS OF HAND RAKING AND POWER DREDGING Marine Biobgical Laboratory DEC7 ............. Bottom samples ................. Analysis of results ................. Breakage of commercial-sized clams ....... Breakage of undersized clams .......... Smothering ... ............... . Effect of fishing upon setting

420

77 FR 25717 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...suction dredges (intake nozzle size of 5 inches in diameter or a diametric equivalent or less and with equipment rated at 15 horsepower or less). When issued, the permit will establish effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions and other conditions...

2012-05-01

421

Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment  

SciTech Connect

Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

2009-01-15

422

Trace Metal Bioaccumulation and Plant Growth on Dredged River Sediments and Biosolids Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredged river sediments and biosolids used as amendments for agricultural purposes can provide a suitable plant growth medium,\\u000a a topsoil substitute. Nevertheless, trace metal bioaccumulation and risk of plant toxicity remains a concern. We conducted\\u000a a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the plant growth and trace metal bioaccumulation on sediments and biosolid mixtures. These\\u000a included dredged sediment from the Peoria Lakes

Dorivar A. Ruiz Diaz; Robert G. Darmody; John C. Marlin; German A. Bollero; F. William Simmons

2010-01-01

423

Impacts of Marine Aggregate Dredging on Benthic Macrofauna off the South Coast of the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEWELL, R.C.; SEIDERER, L.J.; SIMPSON, N.M., and ROBINSON, J.E., 2004. Impacts of marine aggregate dredg- ing on benthic macrofauna off the south coast of the United Kingdom. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 115-125. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. A survey of benthic macrofauna in the vicinity of a coastal marine aggregate dredging site off the south coast of UK

R. C. Newell; L. J. Seiderer; N. M. Simpson; J. E. Robinson

2004-01-01

424

Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

2014-04-01

425

Shifts in Microbial Community Composition Following Surface Application of Dredged River Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment input to the Illinois River has drastically decreased river depth and reduced habitats for aquatic organisms. Dredging\\u000a is being used to remove sediment from the Illinois River, and the dredged sediment is being applied to the surface of a brownfield\\u000a site in Chicago with the goal of revegetating the site. In order to determine the effects of this drastic

Dovile Baniulyte; Emmanuel Favila; John J. Kelly

2009-01-01

426

Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Niajor Subject: Geology ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Cason, Cynthia Lynn

1982-01-01

427

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials  

SciTech Connect

The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness.

Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)] [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)] [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)

2013-08-15

428

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials.  

PubMed

The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness. PMID:23735286

Randall, Paul M; Yates, Brian J; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona; Fimmen, Ryan

2013-08-01

429

The use of marine sediments as a pavement base material.  

PubMed

The management of marine sediments after dredging has become increasingly complex. In the context of sustainable development, traditional solutions such as immersion will be increasingly regulated. More than ever, with the shortage of aggregates from quarries, dredged material could constitute a new source of materials. In this study of the potential of using dredged marine sediments in road construction, the first objective is to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of fine sediments dredged from a harbour in the north of France. The impacts of these materials on the environment are also explored. In the second stage, the characteristics of the fine sediment are enhanced for use as a road material. At this stage, the treatment used is compatible with industrial constraints. To decrease the water content of the fine sediments, natural decantation is employed; in addition, dredged sand is added to enhance the granular distribution and to reinforce the granular skeleton. Finally, the characteristics of the mix are enhanced by incorporating binders (cement and/or lime). The mechanical characteristics measured on the mixes are compatible with their use as a base course material. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of lime in the mixes. In terms of environmental impacts, on the basis of leaching tests and according to available thresholds developed for the use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction, the designed dredged mixes satisfy the prescribed thresholds. PMID:18640020

Dubois, Vincent; Abriak, Nor Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Ballivy, Gérard

2009-02-01

430

A Glimpse at Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary Offshore Stratigraphy from Wilkes Land, East Antarctica: Results of Strategic Dredging of the Mertz-Ninnis Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as 1912 Sir Douglas Mawson demonstrated that pre-glacial sedimentary successions could be recovered by seafloor dredging of erosional troughs found offshore, East Antarctica. Since then, little systematic dredging has been undertaken in Antarctica despite indications of outcropping strata exposed along seaward flanks of glacially excavated troughs and the dire need to resolve the nature of preglacial and synglacial strata in this region. During cruise NB Palmer 01-01, three dredges were collected in echelon along the seaward flank of the Mertz-Ninnis Trough, parallel to the Mertz Ice Tongue, in water depths of 900 to 450 m. We combine biostratigraphic (palynologic) and lithologic analyses on sedimentary clasts with multi- and single-channel seismic reflection data collected by the WEGA cruise in 2000. 1359 pebble to cobble sized clasts were collected from three dredges. Of these 15% to 43%, within each dredge, were of sedimentary character, including carbonaceous sandstones with plant macrofossils, black sulfide-rich mudstones, siltstones, lignites, red quartz arenites, arkoses, and diamictites in various states of lithification. Palynomorphs were separated from these sedimentary rocks. We examined eleven individual lithologies, nine of which yielded useful palynological detritus. Of these samples, five yielded palynomorphs distinctive to the Paleogene (i.e. Nothofagus flemingii, Tricolporites spp., Proteacidites spp.); two samples contained only Lower Cretaceous palynomorphs, while three samples provided no stratigraphically useful palynomorph kerogen. We combine these results with multi-channel seismic and multibeam swath mapping to demonstrate that dredged materials represent seafloor outcrop or shallow subcrop of strata beneath a thin glacial till. Our stratigraphic model for these samples is consistent with 62 km of multichannel seismic reflection data (WEGA line W02) showing seaward dipping strata onlapping the basement to the southwest and partly infilling a rifted basin of late Cretaceous age. Seaward dipping reflectors above the syn-rift strata represent post-rift deposits ranging from Paleogene to Quaternary. Included within this stratigraphy are lithified diamictites containing Mesozoic palynomorphs in addition to palynomorphs of Early Tertiary age (including dinoflagellates). Seaward dipping reflectors in the deep axis of the Mertz-Ninnis Trough were not sampled directly by our dredges, but are believed to be Lower Cretaceous siltstones by extrapolation to core DF-79-38, 100 km along strike to the southeast (Domack et al., 1980). Furthermore, the thermal maturity of the lignite samples recovered in our collections suggests that the coal is of Early Tertiary age, as are numerous organic-rich mudstones, which contain Paleogene palynomorphs. These results indicate that sedimentary strata in this portion of the Wilkes Land Margin contain significantly thick (greater than 2.7 km) post-rift (drift phase) marine sequences of both pre- and synglacial character. Strategic dredging is a promising methodology by which to sample stratigraphic succession in a cost effective manner along the East Antarctic margin in the absence of, or preparation for, International Ocean Drilling Projects on the shelf. Domack, E. W., Fairchild, W. W., and Anderson, J. B. (1980) Lower Cretaceous sediment from the East Antarctic continental shelf, Nature, 287, 625-626.

Schrum, H.; Domack, E.; Desantis, L.; Leventer, A.; McMullen, K.; Escutia, C.

2004-12-01

431

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

Robert F. Boehlecke

2004-11-01

432

Evaluation of sediment contamination in Pearl Harbor. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Pearl Harbor demonstrates remarkable resilience to natural and human-induced contaminant stresses. A review of more than fifty harbor-specific data sets reveals a complex contamination and recovery history. Siltation is a major contaminant pathway in Pearl Harbor. Dredging operations, which are necessary due to high siltation rates, reduce contaminant loading by periodically removing the upper harbor sediment layers. The response of test organisms during sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation studies showed negligible effects from sediment toxicity. The environmental quality at an offshore dredge disposal site for the harbor is not measurable affected. Urban runoff via storm drains and tributaries is an important nonpoint source of contaminant exposure to the Pearl Harbor ecosystem. Most contaminants experience extensive physical, chemical, and biological, modification after entering the harbor environment. Certain contaminants, including PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and silver, were reported at sufficiently elevated sediment concentrations to warrant environmental concern in some harbor regions and may warrant further evaluation. The overall sediment quality in Pearl Harbor, however, is less degraded than that of many U.S. mainland coastal harbors. Further detailed study of the abundance and distribution of important marine resources in Pearl Harbor is recommended.

Grovhoug, J.G.

1992-06-01

433

Submitted to Risk Management of Contaminated Sediments -International Workshop  

E-print Network

of scientists, engineers, regulators, port authorities and operators, technology development firms, federal/Dredged Material Management for the Port of New York and New Jersey as a Component to Port Development (Port), which contributes $20 billion to the regional economy and generates nearly 170,000 jobs

Brookhaven National Laboratory

434

Assessing the recovery of functional diversity after sustained sediment screening at an aggregate dredging site in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of dredging the seabed for aggregate on benthic functional diversity were assessed using a suite of suitable indices on a recovering macrofaunal assemblage. Recovery was assessed as the return of a dredged assemblage to a state found in neighbouring undisturbed (reference) sites. In situ sediment screening was permitted during dredging operations; a difference in the sedimentary profile of the seabed between dredged and undisturbed reference sites was also observed. At sites of relatively high and low dredging intensity the sediment appeared more homogenous than reference sites after the selective removal of the coarser component. Initial assessment of the macrofaunal assemblage using univariate analytical techniques suggested a recovery of functional diversity at the low dredging intensity site after two years (according to the Infaunal Trophic Index, Taxonomic Distinctness index and Rao's Quadratic Entropy coefficient). However, multivariate analyses of the same data and of all indices except Taxonomic Distinctness indicated that assemblages at both high and low dredging intensity sites remained statistically indistinguishable from each other yet markedly different to the assemblage present in the reference area during the four-year study. The study concluded that recovery of functional diversity to a level found in a neighbouring undredged habitat had not occurred at either dredged site five years after the cessation of dredging. It is thought that the damage by dredging to functional diversity and to the capacity of the macrofaunal assemblage to recover is immediate and not so dependent on dredging intensity. The cumulative and wider ranging effects of sediment screening cannot be ignored or dismissed as a contributing factor to the similarities observed. The wider significance of these findings on the regulation of dredging activities is discussed.

Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Cooper, Keith M.; Bremner, Julie; Defew, Emma C.; Wan Hussin, Wan M. R.; Paterson, David M.

2011-05-01

435

Brick production with dredged harbour sediments. An industrial-scale experiment.  

PubMed

A volume of 600.000 m3 harbour sediments is annually dredged out of the harbour basin of Bremen to maintain a certain water depth. Because of its perpetual availability, homogeneity and mineralogical, petrographic and chemical composition, the sediment is regarded as a suitable raw material for brick production. A pilot experiment was conducted at a full-scale industrial brickworks. During production, the environmental standards concerning waste-water treatment and the quality of exhausted gas were sufficiently fulfilled. Bricks specified as "building bricks" were produced according to German industrial standards. The parameters pH-value and grain size were varied in leaching tests performed on the bricks as both parameters are likely to change in the course of the brick's life cycle. The leaching data showed that As was stabilised and heavy metals were immobilised in a way that the bricks were not (hazardous to soil or groundwater) neither by their use, for example, in masonry, nor afterwards, when they will be deposited as mineral demolition mass. PMID:12092762

Hamer, Kay; Karius, Volker

2002-01-01

436

Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.  

PubMed

Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). PMID:24742547

Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

2014-07-01

437

Multipronged approach to managing beta-glucan contaminants in the downstream process: control of raw materials and filtration with charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filters.  

PubMed

(1?3)-?-D-Glucans (beta-glucans) have been found in raw materials used in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutics. Because of their biological activity, beta-glucans are considered process contaminants and consequently their level in the product needs to be controlled. Although beta-glucans introduced into the cell culture process can readily be removed by bind-and-elute chromatography process steps, beta-glucans can also be introduced into the purification process through raw materials containing beta-glucans as well as leachables from filters made from cellulose. This article reports a multipronged approach to managing the beta-glucan contamination in the downstream process. Raw material screening and selection can be used to effectively limit the level of beta-glucan introduced into the downstream process. Placement of a cellulosic filter upstream of the last bind-and-elute column step or effective preuse flushing can also limit the level of contaminant introduced. More importantly, this article reports the active removal of beta-glucan from the downstream process when necessary. It was discovered that the Posidyne(®) filter, a charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filter, was able to effectively remove beta-glucans from buffers at relatively low pH and salt concentrations. An approach of using low beta-glucan buffer components combined with filtration of the buffer with a Posidyne membrane has been successfully demonstrated at preparative scale. Additionally, the feasibility of active removal of beta-glucan from in-process product pools by Posidyne membrane filtration has also been demonstrated. Based on the data presented, a mechanism for binding is proposed, as well as a systematic approach for sizing of the Posidyne filter. PMID:23596143

Gefroh, Eva; Hewig, Art; Vedantham, Ganesh; McClure, Megan; Krivosheyeva, Alla; Lajmi, Ajay; Lu, Yuefeng

2013-01-01

438

Basalts dredged from the Amirante ridge, western Indian ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oceanic tholeiitic basalts were dredged from 2500 to 3000 m depth on each flank of the Amirante Ridge, 1200 km southeast of Somalia in the western Indian Ocean, by R.V. Argo in 1964. One sample, probably shed from a flow or dike in basement beneath the coralline cap, gave a wholerock KAr age of 82??16??106 years. The age is similar to those reported by others for agglomerate from Providence Reef, nearer Madagascar, and for gabbro from Chain Ridge, the southwest member of Owen Fracture Zone, nearer the Somali coast. The Amirante Cretaceous-Early Tertiary occurrence lies between the "continental" 650 ?? 106 years granites of Seychelles Archipelago and the large Precambrian "continental" block of Madagascar. Trends of major structures and distribution of the related topographic and magnetic-anomaly lineations in 7-8 ?? 106 km2of the surrounding Indian Ocean suggest that in addition to spreading of the seafloor from the seismically-active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge-Carlsberg Ridge complex there has been, since mid-Mesozoic time, distributed left-lateral shear along 52??-54??E that has moved Madagascar at least 700 km south relative to Seychelles Bank. Measurements by other indicate the absolute movement of Madagascar has been southward as well. The emplacement of oceanic tholeiitic basalts at shallow depth, the development of volcanic topography between the sedimented Somali and Mascarene basins, and the existence of the faulted Amirante Trench and Ridge are consequences of the displacement. ?? 1968.

Fisher, R.L.; Engel, C.G.; Hilde, T.W.C.

1968-01-01

439

Littoral cells and harbor dredging along the California coast  

SciTech Connect

Beach compartments or littoral cells from the framework for our understanding of the sources, transport, and sinks of sand in the nearshore zone. In general, along the California coast, beach sand is derived from rivers or cliff erosion, moves alongshore under the influence of the prevailing wave conditions, and ultimately is lost either to a submarine canyon or a dune field. Marinas or harbors built either between or at the upcoast ends of beach compartments have been relatively maintenance-free, because of a lack of significant littoral drift at these locations. On the other hand, those harbors built in the middle reaches or at the downcoast ends of littoral cells have had expensive annual dredging problems, because of the interruption of large volumes of littoral drift. Although engineers have labored for years on various breakwater, jetty, or entrance channel configurations, the actual design utilized is of secondary importance. The critical factors are harbor location within a littoral cell and annual littoral drift volume.

Griggs, G.B. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

1987-01-01

440

Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter  

DOEpatents

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

Pinson, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

441

Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter  

DOEpatents

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

Pinson, P.A.

1998-02-24

442

Contamination effects of satellite-material outgassing products on thermal surfaces and solar cells. Final report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 90  

SciTech Connect

The Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have initiated a program for measuring optical and radiative effects of satellite material outgassing products on thermal control and cryo-optic surfaces. A solar absorptance chamber for making reflectance/absorptance measurements on thermal control materials has been established. This report describes the operation of the solar absorptance chamber used to measure the degradation of reflective surfaces and solar cells caused by deposition of outgassing contaminants. The effects of solar irradiation (UV) were also studied, and results are presented. Data are presented for Dow Corning 93-500 Space-grade encapsulant (DC93-500), Furane Products Uralane 5753-A/B(LV) encapsulant, and Polyclad FR-4 Epoxy laminate. (js)

Seiber, B.L.; Bertrand, W.T.; Wood, B.E.

1990-12-01

443

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, REV 1  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps. CAU 168 consists of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs) in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The CASs contain surface and subsurface debris, impacted soil, and contaminated materials. Site characterization activities were conducted in 2002, and the results are presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 168 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). Site characterization results indicated that soil at several sites exceeded the clean-up criteria for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved the proposed corrective actions specified in the CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The approved corrective actions include no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-12-01

444

Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage of benthic re-colonization at a site formed by sand extraction was investigated some 10 years after the cessation of dredging. The examined post-dredging pit is one of five deep (up to 14 m) pits created with a static suction hopper on the sandy, flat and shallow (1-2 m) part of the inner Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea). The topography of the dredged area makes a specific trap for different kinds of organic matter. It is created by the small areas of post-dredging pits as compared to their depths. As a result, organic matter accumulation leads to anaerobic conditions and hydrogen sulfide formation. Macrofauna was not found to occur permanently in the deepest part (11 m) of the cup-shaped depression, which was characterized by its small area (0.2 km 2) and steep walls. However, permanent occurrence of meiofauna (max. 180 ind. 10 cm -2, mainly Nematoda) was noted. Undoubtedly, re-colonization of benthic fauna assemblages, typical of shallow and sandy seabed of the Puck Bay, will not follow in a natural way in the area of post-dredging pits. Also, it could not be expected that the re-colonization sequence would result in the formation of a structure similar to that of the natural depression (the Ku?nica Hollow).

Szymelfenig, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Graca, Bo?ena

2006-07-01

445

The effect of shoe soling tread groove width on the coefficient of friction with different sole materials, floors, and contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tread groove design is very common in footwear. However, coefficient of friction (COF) measurements between the footwear material and floor using a slipmeter were commonly performed using flat footwear pads. Such measurements might underestimate the actual slip resistance of the footwear pad. This research investigates the effects of the tread groove width on the measured COF using four footwear materials,

Chin Jung Chen

2004-01-01

446

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if contaminants of concern are present. (5) If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. (6) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management and minimization purposes. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'', this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, and field work will commence following approval.

David Strand

2006-06-01

447

MOVEMENT OF SEA TURTLES CAPTURED NEAR HOPPER-DREDGED CHANNELS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA: 1993-1994  

E-print Network

#12;MOVEMENT OF SEA TURTLES CAPTURED NEAR HOPPER-DREDGED CHANNELS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA: 1993's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and 4 loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles were tracked near hopper dredged. Turtles were captured and released at Bolivar Roads and Sabine Passes in Texas and at Calcasieu Pass

448

APPLICATION OF "REAL-TIME" MONITORING IN DECISION MAKING: THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR PILOT DREDGING PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A decision-making framework was established for assessing the impacts of a pilot dredging study at the New Bedford Harbor, MA, Superfund site. oncern over possible environmental impacts due to dredging at this site necessitated that a monitoring program be implemented to ensure t...

449

Effect of Instream Sand Dredging on Fish Communities in the Kansas River USA: Current and Historical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few studies have examined the ecological effects of instream sand and gravel mining which occurs in many streams and rivers worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate fish community composition at sand dredged and unmodified (control) sites in the Kansas River, Kansas. Fish and habitat sampling were conducted at two control sites and one dredged site in

Craig Paukert; Joshua Schloesser; Jesse Fischer; Jeff Eitzmann; Kristen Pitts; Darren Thornbrugh

2008-01-01

450

A case of glandular odontogenic cyst in the mandible treated with the dredging method.  

PubMed

Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare odontogenic cyst derived from the odontogenic epithelium. GOC shows unpredictable and potentially aggressive behavior. Although enucleation and curettage are applied in most cases, the recurrence rate remains relatively high. Because a standard care procedure for GOC has not been established, we propose a new treatment procedure for GOC. In this case report, we describe a 62-year-old Japanese woman who suffered from GOC arising at the anterior region of her mandible and who was treated using the dredging method. She underwent enucleation and curettage twice using the dredging method with preservation of the teeth, which were involved with the lesion, but the lesion recurred 2 years later. In addition to enucleation and curettage, apicoectomy of the teeth was performed with a third dredging method procedure, and prognosis has been good with no recurrence for 18 months since the last treatment. PMID:24374982

Motooka, Naomi; Ohba, Seigo; Uehara, Masataka; Fujita, Syuichi; Asahina, Izumi

2013-12-28

451

Simulations of dredged sediment spreading on a Posidonia oceanica meadow off the Ligurian coast, Northwestern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

The sandy deposits from dredging can have negative effects on the environment such as increase in suspended solids in the water column and their consequent transport. An experimental study was conducted to characterize water masses, dynamics, and sedimentation rates on the Ligurian continental shelf (Italy), where both a sand deposit, that could be used for beach nourishment, and a nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow coexist. The environmental plan provides a mathematical simulation of the sediment-dispersion to evaluate the possible impact on the meadow. It has been calculated that the dredging could double the concentration of suspended particles, but its scheduling will preclude a sediment accumulation. All the information obtained from this work will be used to study the environmental feasibility of the sand deposit exploitation and as starting point for drawing up the monitoring plan in case of dredging. PMID:24369883

Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Ferranti, M P; Budillon, G; Bertolotto, R M; Ciappa, A; Cotroneo, Y; Castellano, M; Povero, P; Tucci, S

2014-02-15

452

JPL Contamination Control Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

Blakkolb, Brian

2013-01-01

453

Electron shuttle-stimulated RDX mineralization and biological production of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) in RDX-contaminated aquifer material.  

PubMed

The potential for extracellular electron shuttles to stimulate RDX biodegradation was investigated with RDX-contaminated aquifer material. Electron shuttling compounds including anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and soluble humic substances stimulated RDX mineralization in aquifer sediment. RDX mass-loss was similar in electron shuttle amended and donor-alone treatments; however, the concentrations of nitroso metabolites, in particular TNX, and ring cleavage products (e.g., HCHO, MEDINA, NDAB, and NH(4) (+)) were different in shuttle-amended incubations. Nitroso metabolites accumulated in the absence of electron shuttles (i.e., acetate alone). Most notably, 40-50% of [(14)C]-RDX was mineralized to (14)CO(2) in shuttle-amended incubations. Mineralization in acetate amended or unamended incubations was less than 12% within the same time frame. The primary differences in the presence of electron shuttles were the increased production of NDAB and formaldehyde. NDAB did not further degrade, but formaldehyde was not present at final time points, suggesting that it was the mineralization precursor for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) reduction rather than nitrate or sulfate reduction. Amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) indicated that unique Fe(III)-reducing microbial communities (?- and ?-proteobacteria) predominated in shuttle-amended incubations. These results demonstrate that indigenous Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in RDX-contaminated environments utilize extracellular electron shuttles to enhance RDX mineralization. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX mineralization may become an effective in situ option for contaminated environments. PMID:20424887

Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T

2010-11-01

454

National Spatial Data Infrastructure and its usefulness to the dredging community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solution to understanding the dredging impacts is the type of scenario that lends itself to new approaches to understanding interrelationships between multiple variables within a dynamic environment. New data are becoming available to allow the examination of the consequences of dredging in a manner not done before. Efforts have been made by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and the creation of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) as an element of the National Information Highway has helped in solving some of the problems of the unavailability and unacceptability of data needed to support the applications.

Lockwood, Millington

1994-01-01

455

Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.  

PubMed

Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants. PMID:17731907

Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

1969-10-24

456

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

457

Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

2014-01-01

458

Geochemical and microbiological processes contributing to the transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in contaminated aquifer material.  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a potential human carcinogen, and its contamination of subsurface environments is a significant threat to public health. This study investigated abiotic and biological degradation of RDX in contaminated aquifer material. Anoxic batch systems were started with and without pre-aeration of aquifer material to distinguish initial biological RDX reduction from abiotic RDX reduction. Aerating the sediment eliminated chemical reductants in the native aquifer sediment, primarily Fe(II) sorbed to mineral surfaces. RDX (50 ?M) was completely reduced and transformed to ring cleavage products when excess concentrations (2mM) of acetate or lactate were provided as the electron donor for aerated sediment. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) when acetate was provided, while RDX, Fe(III), and sulfate were reduced simultaneously with lactate amendment. Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microorganisms associated with RDX and Fe(III)/sulfate reduction. In particular, Rhodoferax spp. increased from 21% to 35% and from 28% to 60% after biostimulation by acetate and lactate, respectively. Rarefaction analyses demonstrated that microbial diversity decreased in electron-donor-amended systems with active RDX degradation. Although significant amounts of Fe(III) and/or sulfate were reduced after biostimulation, solid-phase reactive minerals such as magnetite or ferrous sulfides were not observed, suggesting that RDX reduction in the aquifer sediment is due to Fe(II) adsorbed to solid surfaces as a result of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activity. These results suggest that both biotic and abiotic processes play an important role in RDX reduction under in situ conditions. PMID:21664641

Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Finneran, Kevin T

2011-08-01

459

Determination of food contamination by mineral oil material from printed cardboard using on-line coupled LC-GC-FID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inks used for printing paper and cardboard are dispersions of synthetic organic pigments in a bonding agent system built\\u000a up essentially of resins, vegetable oils and high-boiling-point mineral oil products (b.p. >250°C). The proportion of mineral\\u000a oil material in the ink ranges between 20 and 30%. The more volatile mineral oil components slowly evaporate from the printed\\u000a cardboard box and

C. Droz; Konrad Grob

1997-01-01

460

Monitoring dredging effectiveness using biological and chemical markers of exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediments in portions of the Ashtabula and Ottawa rivers are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and both rivers have been designated by the International Joint Commission as a Great Lakes Area of Concern. Approximately 550,000...