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1

Experimental determination of efficiency of capping materials during consolidation of metal-contaminated dredged material.  

PubMed

Capping has received considerable attention as a method to reduce contaminant transport from contaminated sediments and sub-aqueous disposed dredged materials. Consolidation of dredged material after capping can result in a substantial advection of pore water, into or through the capping layer. The effect of two different capping materials (crushed limestone and gneiss) on the transport of heavy metals and phosphorus during consolidation was studied with a novel experimental design. Capped dredged material was placed in a consolidation cell and pore water expelled during the consolidation was collected for chemical analysis. To support interpretation of the results from this test, interactions between the capping material and the dredged material were also studied in batch tests. The study revealed large differences in the capping efficiency (CE) between the two materials. Both materials were efficient caps for Fe and P (CE>99% with 2cm cap), while limestone also was efficient for Mn (CE>92% with 2cm cap). Contrary to what was expected, capping of dredged material with crushed gneiss increased the release of Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, and Cu, resulting in negative CE. The batch tests showed that leaching from the crushed gneiss was the source of the observed release of metals. The results also show that the high concentrations of heavy metals in the dredged material were immobilised, probably by sulphides. Protection against re-suspension and oxidation will therefore in many cases be the most important effect of the cap. PMID:17631382

Eek, Espen; Godøy, Olaug; Aagaard, Per; Breedveld, Gijs D

2007-10-01

2

Environmental effects of dredging. Biomagnification of contaminants in aquatic food webs as a result of open-water disposal of dredged material  

SciTech Connect

This note provides information regarding the potential extent of biomagnification (the tendency for contaminant concentrations in animal tissues to increase through successively higher trophic levels) of contaminants in aquatic food chains resulting from the open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. The note also provides a technically sound perspective and offers general technical guidance on assessing the environmental importance of biomagnification in aquatic food chains as a result of open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. It does not consider biomagnification in nonaquatic organisms.

Kay, S.H.

1985-06-01

3

Mobility of Soil Contaminants in an Ecosystem of Trees Growing on Dredged Material - The Broekpolder (Rotterdam, The Netherlands).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether or not plant (Cyperus esculentus) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida) bioassays applied to sediments adequately predict the long-term environmental impacts of disposed contaminated dredged material in ...

C. T. Bowmer M. C. Scholten S. H. Kay

1988-01-01

4

Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb, and Se in livers from raccoons collected near the river and dredge-disposal areas were significantly higher than those of raccoons from the upland control site. Evidence of bioaccumulation from laboratory and field evaluations and concentrations in sediments from dredge-disposal areas and river channels demonstrated that some metals in the dredge-disposal areas are mobile and biologically available. Drainage from dredge-disposal areas may be impacting habitat quality in the river, and fish and wildlife that feed and nest in the disposal area pm the lower Savannah River may be at risk from metal contamination.

Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

2000-01-01

5

Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

Tatem, H.E.

1990-12-01

6

HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

7

DREDGED MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE (DMMO)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the interagency (federal-State) "Dredged Materials management Office" in San Francisco, CA. The DMMO evaluates all proposals for dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area, under guidelines developed through...

8

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

9

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

2000-12-03

10

Review of Phytoreclamation and Management Approaches for Dredged Material Contaminated with Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead contamination has been the focus of much research recently to determine how best to manage the Pb and render it harmless and reduce risks to human health and the environment. There is a vast amount of research studying Pb contamination in urban soils...

2003-01-01

11

Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

1982-01-01

12

Dredging/dredged material management risk assessment. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note explains the use of risk assessment to facilitate dredged material management decision-making in navigable waterways by US Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) project managers and field operations personnel. The document does not promote risk assessment as a tool for use in every dredged material management decision. It is likely to be most useful, and most used, in those cases that constitute the exception rather than the rule. The use of risk assessment is intended to supplement the analytical options currently available to dredged material managers by building on the existing technical framework (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/USACE 1992) and the existing tiered approaches (USEPA/USACE 1991, 1998).

NONE

1998-09-01

13

Environmental Effects of Dredging. Current District Dredged Material Dewatering Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted w...

1988-01-01

14

Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

1988-05-01

15

Comparison of the ames assay and mutatox in assessing the mutagenic potential of contaminated dredged material. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Ames assay and Mutatox were evaluated to compare their ability to identify the genotoxic potential of dredged sediments. The Ames assay has been used extensively in the testing of environmental contaminants. Mutatox, a bacterial bioluminescence test, was developed as a genotoxicity bioassay. Ten sediments with varying degrees of contamination were soxhlet extracted. These extracts were divided into crude and clean samples. Cleaned samples were prepared using silica-gel chromatography resulting in 20 extract samples. Both the Ames test (TA98 and TAl00) and Mutatox were conducted with and without S9 metabolic activation. TA98+S9 and TA1OO+S9 indicated a positive mutagenic response in 80 and 50 percent, respectively, of the sediment extracts. Half of the extracts indicated a positive mutagenic response with TA98-S9, while only 10 percent did so with TAlOO-S9. Mutatox indicated a positive mutagenic response with S9 activation in 75 percent of the extracts and no mutagenic response in any of the sediment extracts without metabolic activation. In a side-by-side comparison of the Ames assay (TA98+S9) and Mutatox, 80 percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses, both positive and negative. Fifty percent of the sediment extracts had similar responses when tested with TAlOO+S9 and Mutatox. Mutatox compared favorably with the Ames assay and shows promise as a screening tool to assess sediment genotoxicity when used with Ames assay as a confirmation.

Jarvis, A.S.

1995-04-01

16

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

2010-07-01

17

40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

2013-07-01

18

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated estuarine dredged material placed in both upland and wetland environments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the Field Verification Program (FVP), conducted during the period 1981-1986. Laboratory tests were conducted on the sediment prior to dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under each of the disposal alternatives. Prior to dredging for upland disposal and wetland creation at the FVP field site, upland tests (i.e., plant and earthworm bioassays) and wetland tests (i.e., plant, sandworm, snail, and mussel bioassays) were conducted. Laboratory test results were sub-subsequently field verified at the field test site at Tongue Point, Bridgeport, CT. The results of the upland disposal and wetland creation portions of the FVP, and the changes occurring since completion of the FVP for each disposal environment, are summarized herein. The emphasis of this report is on the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. This interim report includes data collected through 1989. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland and wetland ecosystems at this site will be evaluated until September 1985.

Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.; Wilhelm, G.S.

1991-09-01

19

Electrokinetic Remediation of Contaminated Dredged Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the feasibility of electrokinetic remediation of contaminated sediment at Indiana Harbor, Indiana. The sediment is a fine-grained material with high moisture content of 78 % and high organic content of 19 % and it is contaminated with a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and heavy metals. Four bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted at 2.0 VDC\\/cm

Krishna R. Reddy; Prasanth R. Ala

2006-01-01

20

Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

1986-01-01

21

Field Verification Program (Upland Disposal): Prediction of Surface Runoff Water Quality from Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material Placed in an Upland Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the sediment dredged from waterways is contaminated and must be tested to predict problems that might occur after disposal. Laboratory tests showed that as dredged material dried and oxidized, physicochemical changes occurred which changed the con...

J. G. Skogerboe C. R. Lee R. A. Price D. Brandon G. Hollins

1987-01-01

22

Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged material. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability in waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants in dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated substrates and the concentrations in the tissues of earthworms exposed to these substrates over a 28-day period may be used to establish their potential as biomonitor organisms.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1988-02-01

23

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General evaluation of dredged or fill material. The purpose...b) indicates the dredged or fill material is not a carrier...without testing. Dredged or fill material is most likely...and agricultural or forest lands. (2) Pertinent...

2009-07-01

24

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General evaluation of dredged or fill material. The purpose...b) indicates the dredged or fill material is not a carrier...without testing. Dredged or fill material is most likely...and agricultural or forest lands. (2) Pertinent...

2010-07-01

25

Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality: contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental\\u000a risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during\\u000a dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the

Ronaldo J. Torres; Denis M. S. Abessa; Fernando C. Santos; Luciane A. Maranho; Marcela B. Davanso; Marcos R. L. do Nascimento; Antonio A. Mozeto

2009-01-01

26

Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

NONE

1988-04-01

27

Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Maintenance Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Facility at Harbor Beach, Huron County, Michigan. The Detroit Edison Company Permit Application (Process Number 792253C).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental impacts are examined for a Federal permit request concerning dredging and dredged material disposal for Harbor Beach Harbor, Michigan. The document was prepared to address Detroit Edison Company's plan to dredge offshore of the Harbor Beach ...

1981-01-01

28

Handbook for Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Development on Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of terrestrial wildlife habitat development on dredged material within the contiguous United States compiles existing published and unpublished data into a user-oriented handbook. A general list of 250 plant species with food and cover value fo...

1978-01-01

29

Upland and Wetland Habitat Development with Dredged Material: Ecological Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regional habitat development and preservation priorities should be established by identifying target populations, groups, or communities and their support populations in an ecosystem context. Properly planned dredged material habitats can be both visually...

J. D. Lunz R. J. Diaz R. A. Cole

1978-01-01

30

Guidelines for Dewatering/Densifying Confined Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary emphasis of Task 5A research was oriented toward dewatering fine-grained dredged material resulting from maintenance operations and placed in confined disposal areas. Based on results of research, as synthesized herein, it was determined that: (a)...

T. A. Haliburton

1978-01-01

31

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle\\/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal

H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; N. P. Kohn; M. R. Pinza; L. M. Karle; J. A. Ward

1993-01-01

32

Validation of Pathway Analysis of Metals from Aged Dredged Material Using Plants and Worms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contaminants in dredged material (DM) placed in an upland situation such as a confined disposal facility (CDF) may move from substrates into food webs because of their contact with CDF-colonizing or CDF-inhabiting plants and animals, and as such may cause...

2003-01-01

33

Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-09-01

34

Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

2003-01-01

35

Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1994-01-01

36

Environmental Aspects of Dredging: What About Air Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dredging has historically been important for keeping the nation's waterways navigable, mining, and more recently for the removal of contaminants and restoring natural habitat. The placement of dredged material, re-suspension of sediments, and contaminated...

B. D. Barkdoll M. J. Anderson

2009-01-01

37

DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE  

SciTech Connect

Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

2000-07-01

38

Recovery of dredged material for beneficial use: the future role of physical separation processes.  

PubMed

Sediments dredged from navigational waterways have historically been disposed in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) or in open water. When sediments are contaminated, open water disposal is typically not an alternative, and sediments are placed in CDFs. Many CDFs are nearing capacity, and siting and constructing new facilities is both difficult and expensive. In many cases, CDFs contain both clean and contaminated dredged material. Removal of materials suitable for beneficial use (BU) is one alternative under consideration to extend the life of existing CDFs, as is separation of recoverable materials at the time of disposal. Several technologies for recovery of clean materials or treatment of contaminated materials for beneficial use are presently under evaluation. Physical separation technologies have been demonstrated to have potential in reducing the volume of sediment that must be managed with confined disposal, but there are several technical issues that remain to be addressed. Determination of beneficial use specifications, physical and chemical characterization of dredged material, overall site characterization, selection of suitable unit operations, management of liquid and solid residuals, and cost/benefit analysis, are all important aspects to successful implementation of separation processes. Several of these elements are presently being evaluated in research conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, at the ERDC Waterways Experiment Station (WES). PMID:11463502

Olin-Estes, T J; Palermo, M R

2001-07-30

39

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR DREDGING CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is a growing national debate about dredging contaminated sediments, including risks to human health and the environment as well as the overall effectiveness of remedial activities. Presently, monitoring methods are available to address both concerns. This present...

40

CALIBRATION OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUSLY DISCHARGED DREDGED MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes modifications to a computer model originally developed by R.C.Y. Koh and Y.C. Chang for predicting the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into a water column. Changes to the simulation include the calibration and verification of the p...

41

DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

42

Assessment of Certain European Dredging Practices and Dredged Material Containment and Reclamation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of dredging practices, reclamation methods, and environmental effects of dredging in western Europe by visiting more than twenty ports in six countries and discussing pertinent matters with knowledgeable authorities at each port. A remark...

K. d'Angremond J. Brakel A. J. Hoekstra W. C. H. Kleinbloesem L. Nederlof

1978-01-01

43

Workshop Report: Advancing the Art of Analyzing Risks and Benefits of Dredged Material Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been delegated responsibility for assuring the navigability of waters designated for that purpose in the United States. Dredging is among the activities required to fulfill this responsibility. In some places, the Corps finds difficulty in carrying out dredging projects because it lacks spaces where the sediments that must be removed (“dredged materials”) can

Robert Wilson

2002-01-01

44

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.  

SciTech Connect

The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-06-01

45

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-06-01

46

Uncertainty and variability in risk from trophic transfer of contaminants in dredged sediments.  

PubMed

The risks associated with bioaccumulative contaminants must be considered when evaluating dredged material disposal alternatives. The bioaccumulation of organochlorines and other contaminants by higher trophic level organisms represents one of the most significant sources of uncertainty in risk assessment. Both population variability (e.g. true population heterogeneity in body weight, lipid content, etc.) and uncertainty (e.g. measurement error) in trophic transfer can lead to large errors in predicted risk values for ecological receptors. This paper describes and quantitatively evaluates sources of uncertainty and variability in estimating the risk to an ecological receptor (osprey) from the trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the New York-New Jersey (NY-NJ) Harbor. The distribution of toxicity quotients is obtained using a food chain model for the osprey and specifying distributions for input parameters, which are disaggregated to represent either uncertainty or variability. PCB concentrations in sediment and water are treated as predominantly uncertain, whereas lipid content in fish, feeding preferences, and fish weight are assumed to contribute primarily to population variability in PCB accumulation. The analysis shows that point estimates of reasonable maximum exposure (RME) exceed the uncertainty bounds on the 95th percentile of variability. The analysis also shows that uncertainties in the sediment and water contaminant concentrations contribute more to the range of risk estimates than does the variability in the population exposure parameters. The separation of uncertainty and variability in food chain models can help to support management decisions regarding dredged material disposal by providing a quantitative expression of the confidence in ecological risk estimates. A rationale is provided for the distinction between uncertain and variable parameters based on management goals and data availability. PMID:11453301

Linkov, I; von Stackelberg, K E; Burmistrov, D; Bridges, T S

2001-07-01

47

Utilizing a Chirp Sonar to Accurately Characterize Newly Deposited Material at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. Subbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to ...

S. G. Schock D. J. Keith D. L. Debruin E. Dettmann G. Tracey

1992-01-01

48

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY  

SciTech Connect

The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

49

TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF DREDGED MATERIALS: ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY AS DETERMINED BY BIOASSAYS AND BIOACCUMULATION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever dredged materials are disposed into the ocean, the potential effects of the materials on human health, fishery resources, and marine ecosystems may range from being negligible or unmeasurable to important. Because these effects may differ greatly at each dredged material...

50

Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for disposal sites for dredged material. This variation made risk assessment and interpretation

J Mertens; S Luyssaert; S Verbeeren; P Vervaeke; N Lust

2001-01-01

51

15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL...Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the...and within one of three study areas described in...

2009-01-01

52

USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 2. STABILIZATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of diked dredge sediments has the potential to provide landfill for community development projects. However, the successful realization of this objective requires that proper attention be given to the problems (a) possible surface water pollution by the effluent from the ...

53

Damos: Twenty Years of Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring. Isn'st That Enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1977, the US Army Corps of Engineers Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS) has monitored New England's offshore dredged material disposal sites. DAMOS has shown that by using monitoring information to make management decisions, open water disposal of dredged sediments is possible with minimal environmental impact. Over the past two decades, DAMOS has answered many of the key questions about

Thomas J. Fredette

1998-01-01

54

BIOASSESSMENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE HAZARDS OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 325 million m3 of sediment are dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United States. f this, 46 million m3 are disposed of annually in the ocean (Peddicord, 1987). ecisions regarding the ocean disposal of dredged material result, in large part, from bioasse...

55

Impacts of maintenance dredged material disposal on macrobenthic structure and secondary productivity.  

PubMed

The results of a monitoring programme to assess the spatial impacts associated with ongoing dredged material disposal activity at a dispersive, coastal disposal site (southwest UK) are described. Benthic impacts were assessed using benthic community structure and secondary productivity estimates. Analyses of univariate indices (including secondary production) and multivariate community structure revealed differences between stations inside and those outside the disposal site were minimal. Generally, stations within and outside the disposal site were characterised by the same species. Regression models indicated that the variability in biological structure and secondary production was predominantly accounted for by natural variables (e.g., depth, sediment granulometry) with only a small amount of residual variability being due to contaminant variables. Thus, the elevated levels of certain contaminants in the vicinity of the disposal area were not sufficient to result in significant ecological or ecotoxicological changes. We ascribe such findings partly to the dispersive nature of the disposal site. PMID:21868044

Bolam, S G; Barry, J; Bolam, T; Mason, C; Rumney, H S; Thain, J E; Law, R J

2011-10-01

56

Effects of Mechanical Agitation on Drying Rate of Fine-Grained Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is part of research to determine a method for efficient evaporative dewatering of fine-grained dredged material slurry placed in confined disposal areas. Two conflicting schools of thought were found to exist. One favored continuous agitation ...

T. A. Haliburton G. N. Durham K. W. Brown R. E. Peters T. B. Delaney

1977-01-01

57

Design and Construction of Aquaculture Facilities in Dredged Material Containment Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquaculture as a multiple use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) has been investigated by the Containment Area Aquaculture Program (CAAP). This report describes design and construction of aquaculture pond facilities in DMCA, reviews design, cons...

J. Homziak C. D. Veal

1993-01-01

58

Beneficial Uses of Dredge Material from the QPD Intermodal Port Terminal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past few years the University of Rhode Island (URI), Marine Geomechanics Laboratory and the Maguire Group Inc., (MGI) have gathered significant data and conducted tests relative to beneficial use of dredge materials from the Quonset Point/Davisvi...

A. J. Silva C. D. P. Baxter V. Calabretta

2003-01-01

59

UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

60

Field-Verification Program (aquatic disposal): synthesis of research results: applicability and field verification of predictive methodologies for aquatic dredged-material disposal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Field-Verification Program was designed to determine the applicability, reproducibility, and field verification of test methods for the evaluation of disposal of dredged material at aquatic, upland, and wetland sites. There were three objectives in this program. The first was to demonstrate the applicability of existing test methods to detect and measure effects of dredged material and to determine the degree of variability and reproducibility inherent in the testing procedures. The second objective was to field verify laboratory responses by comparing the exposure-response relationships between the laboratory and field. The third objective was to determine the degree of correlation between contaminated tissue residues and biological responses resulting from laboratory and field exposure to dredged material. These objectives were examined for the following biological responses: bioaccumulation, scope for growth, bioenergetics, adenylate energy charge, sister chromatid exchange, histopathology, survival, growth, reproduction, intrinsic rates of population growth, recolonization, and community structure.

Gentile, J.H.; Pesch, G.G.; Lake, J.; Yevich, P.P.; Zaroogian, G.

1988-09-01

61

Recovery of dredged material for beneficial use: the future role of physical separation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments dredged from navigational waterways have historically been disposed in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) or in open water. When sediments are contaminated, open water disposal is typically not an alternative, and sediments are placed in CDFs. Many CDFs are nearing capacity, and siting and constructing new facilities is both difficult and expensive. In many cases, CDFs contain both clean and

T. J. Olin-Estes; M. R. Palermo

2001-01-01

62

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

63

Valorization of unauthorized sea disposal dredged sediments as a road foundation material.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study is to show the ability of fine dredged material (mainly silty material) to be used in road construction project. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the physical, the mineralogical and the mechanical characteristics of the used fine dredged sediments, as well as their chemical composition and environmental impacts are presented. In the second part, the methodology developed to design the road made from dredged fine sediment is developed. The third part of the paper focuses on the presentation of the road construction and the interpretation of analyses made on cores drilled samples from the road and measurements of the deflection of the road. The environmental assessment, based on leaching tests, is also performed at different issues. PMID:24956794

Achour, Raouf; Abriak, Nor-Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Rivard, Patrice; Gregoire, Pascal

2014-08-01

64

Dredge Planning Using Sub-Bottom SONAR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to give students valuable geophysical experience in conducting an environmental assessment of a real-world problem. A scenario is developed in which students work for "Viking Consulting, LLC" as an environmental geologist. The company has been hired by the City of Salem to assess an appropriate confined aqueous disposal (CAD) cell location for contaminated dredge spoils from a proposed dredging project of the South River, Salem, MA. Students utilize sub-bottom SONAR technology to calculate volume of dredge spoils and potential CAD cell locations and analyze which location can accommodate the contaminated material.

Hubeny, Brad

65

Changing contaminant mobility in a dredged canal sediment during a three-year phytoremediation trial.  

PubMed

Metal mobility and degradation of organic pollutants were investigated in a contaminated canal sediment in NW England. Sediment was dredged and exposed above the water surface, planted with multiple taxa of Salix, Populus and Alnus and monitored over 32 months. Short-term metal fractionation and phytotoxicity during sediment oxidation were also evaluated in separate laboratory studies. Zinc and Pb redistributed into more mobile fractions, which increased toxicity of the sediment to plants in the laboratory. In contrast, at the canal site, mobility of most elements decreased and total concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd fell. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decreased, but the tree-planted treatments appeared less effective at reducing PAH concentrations than treatments colonised by invasive plants. Tree survivorship decreased over time, suggesting increasing phytotoxicity of the exposed sediment in the longer term. Trees provided little benefit in terms of sediment remediation. Options for future management of the sediment are evaluated. PMID:16427727

King, Rosalind F; Royle, Anna; Putwain, Philip D; Dickinson, Nicholas M

2006-09-01

66

Monitoring of Waves and Currents Near the Alabama Dredged Materials Mounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wave, tide, and current data were collected at sites around two underwater mounds constructed from dredged material. Data were collected in support of a study to document the response of the mounds and assess any potential beneficial effects. A real-time ...

D. McGehee J. P. McKinney W. E. Grogg E. B. Hands

1994-01-01

67

A COMPUTER STUDY OF THE KOH-CHANG MODEL FOR DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is on a computer study of the Koh-Chang model for physical fate prediction in dredge material disposal. This computer model can simulate three discharge methods: instantaneous bottom release, jet discharge, and discharge into a wake. Convective descent, dynamic collap...

68

Site Selection, Acquisition, and Planning for Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High land and construction costs hinder development of pond-based aquaculture in the United States. A partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) may reduce these constraints. The dredged material containment areas (DMCA) operated by the Cor...

J. Wilson J. Homziak R. E. Coleman

1993-01-01

69

Revised Procedural Guide For Designation Surveys of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This procedural guide is a revision of that issued in 1981 and has been prepared to meet the needs of the Corps of Engineers in conducting surveys for the designation of ocean disposal sites for dredged material. Basic purposes of the guide are to provide...

B. J. Gallaway T. D. Wright W. E. Pequegnat

1990-01-01

70

LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (LTMS) FOR PLACEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with the EIS for the "Long Term management Strategy (LTMS) for Placement of Dredged material in the San Francisco Bay Region, Final policy Environmental Impact Statement and Programmatic Environmental Impact Report." Published October, 1...

71

DREDGED MATERIAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT: SINGLE-SPECIES TOXICITY/BIOACCUMULATION AND MACROBENTHOS COLONIZATION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 have been used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. ur objective was to compar...

72

USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 5. BEHAVIOR OF DREDGED MATERIALS IN DIKED CONTAINMENT AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavioral characteristics of hydraulically placed maintenance dredgings were investigated during an extensive four-year field and laboratory experimental program. The field work, which took place primarily at four disposal areas near Toledo, Ohio, consisted of (a) periodic v...

73

The Bioavailability of Copper and Mercury to the Common Nettle (Urtica Dioica) and the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida from Contaminated Dredge Spoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contaminants Hg and Cu, as well as Fe, Mn and K were sequentially extracted from upland disposed dredge spoil using DTPA and 10% nitric acid. Concentrations of these metals in aerial plant tissue and roots of Urtica dioica growing on the dredge spoil were also determined and used to correlate the biological absorption coefficients (BACs) and mobile element absorption

Sion C. Edwards; Cecilia L. MacLeod; John N. Lester

1998-01-01

74

Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

Bothner, M. H.; Gill, P. W.; Boothman, W. S.; Taylor, B. B.; Karl, H. A.

1998-01-01

75

Laboratory measurements of the volatilization of PCBs from amended dredged material.  

PubMed

Since 1997, over 6 million cubic meters of material dredged from the navigation channels of NY/NJ Harbor has been amended with Portland cement and then used as fill and capping material at landfill and brownfield sites in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Previous studies have determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) will volatilize from this material as it dries. In the present study, time constants for the decay of the volatilization rate were determined taking into account the degree of stabilization. The experiments were conducted in a laminar flow flux chamber in which air was drawn past the dredged material and then through a polyurethane foam (PUF), sample matrix. The concentration of PCBs on the PUF found at various time increments at the downstream end of the chamber was compared to that found for the same time increments in a PUF installed in an air sampler at the upstream end of the chamber in order to calculate the flux. The time constant determined for raw dredged material was about 4 times greater than material stabilized with 8% Portland cement. The average time constants for the decay of flux rates from raw dredged material were 56, 67, and 60h for the di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated homologues, respectively. These times decreased with increasing proportion of Portland cement in the mixture. When stabilized with 8% Portland cement, the average time constants were 14, 13, and 19h, respectively. The effects of temperature on PCB flux rate were also investigated. The results suggest that a 3 degrees C temperature increase will more than double the flux rate. PMID:17692838

Miskewitz, R J; Hires, R I; Korfiatis, G P; Sidhoum, M; Douglas, W S; Su, T L

2008-03-01

76

Environmental assessment: Mackinaw River dredged-material placement site, Lonza. Inc. (Illinois River Mile 147. 8)  

SciTech Connect

The site is a 10-acre parcel of land (1,500 feet long and 100 to 300 feet wide) near Mapleton, Illinois. It was selected as the potential location for the new upland dredged-material placement site for dredging activities in this vicinity. Situated between a highly developed industrial area and the Illinois River, the site is bordered by a Caterpillar Company levee on the west side and Pond Lily Lake (also known as Bootjack Lake) on the east side. Development of this site will facilitate the removal of material from the floodplain by pumping it to this upland placement site. The stockpiled material is then in an accessible location and can be removed at the discretion of the property owner.

Not Available

1988-11-01

77

Mechanical Properties of Bottom Ash - Dredged Material Mixtures in Laboratory Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom ash from EC Gda?sk and dredged material taken from the mouth of The Vistula were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. Mixtures with different bottom ash content were tested in laboratory to determine its basic physical and mechanical properties. The optimum bottom ash-dredged material mixture, built in the corps of the test dike, contains 70% of ash. The optimum bottom ash content in the mixture was chosen taking into account high internal friction angle, good compaction and reduced filtration coefficient. The maximum dry density of the mixtures was measured in Proctor test for the mixtures formed in laboratory and on samples taken from the test dike. Minimum and maximum void ratio were also determined.

Ba?achowski, Lech; Sikora, Zbigniew

2013-09-01

78

Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring navigation capability, is to remove dredged materials from the shallow waters of the ecosystem.

Sheridan, P.

2004-03-01

79

Environmental effects of dredging. Factors influencing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by aquatic organisms. Glossary and bibliography. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth technical note in a series of four which outlines and describes the principal factors that determine uptake and retention of chemicals by aquatic organisms. The first three notes in the series describe factors relating to contaminants, sediment and water, and biota. This note contains a glossary of terms and a bibliography of key and recent publications in the scientific literature containing supporting data and discussion on each topic. The information contained herein is intended to assist Corps of Engineers environmental personnel in activities requiring a working knowledge of concepts and terminology in the subject of chemical uptake, retention, and elimination by aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation is the general term used to refer to the uptake and storage of chemicals by organisms from their environment through all routes of entry. Bioaccumulation includes bioconcentration, which is the direct uptake of chemicals from water alone, and is distinguished from biomagnification, which is the increase in chemical residues taken up through two or more levels of a food chain. Assessments of the potential for bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredged sediments are often required in evaluations of permit requests. Thus, familiarity with the fundamental physical, biological, and chemical factors affecting bioaccumulation is necessary for performing evaluations of the ecological impacts of dredging operations. Additionally, a basic understanding of the concepts and terminology of bioaccumulation is increasingly required of environmental personnel who are involved in dredging and disposal operations which may involve contaminated sediments and legal personnel involved with regulation and litigation.

McFarland, V.A.; Lutz, C.H.; Reilly, F.J.

1989-08-01

80

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dredged material into waters of the U.S. Other...consideration to the impact of the failure to maintain...engineer will evaluate the water quality impacts of the proposed project...consideration of state water quality standards. If...

2009-07-01

81

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dredged material into waters of the U.S. Other...consideration to the impact of the failure to maintain...engineer will evaluate the water quality impacts of the proposed project...consideration of state water quality standards. If...

2010-07-01

82

Waste or resource? Classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  A well-designed approach for the selection of dredged material (DM) management option decisions identifies the trade-offs\\u000a among various risks, costs, and benefits of multiple management alternatives. Whatever tools are applied to make and communicate\\u000a decisions, it is critical that decision criteria and the parameters or indicators that are used to score or rank them are\\u000a relevant, clear, and exhaustive, but

Sabine Elisabeth Apitz

2010-01-01

83

Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York–New Jersey Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE–NYD) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY\\/NJ). The primary objective of the DMMP is to identify cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives for the placement of dredged material derived from ongoing and proposed navigation improvements within

David J. Yozzo; Pace Wilber; Robert J. Will

2004-01-01

84

Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.  

PubMed

Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater. PMID:16508806

Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

2006-05-01

85

Burial survival of benthic macrofauna following deposition of simulated dredged material.  

PubMed

In many coastal regions, the disposal of dredged material constitutes the largest (albeit often localised) anthropogenic disturbance to the seabed. Impacts can be minimised by reducing the amount of sediment overburden on the bed at any one time allowing short-term recovery to proceed via the vertical migration of resident species. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the ability of such species to successfully vertically migrate. This study presents the findings of a field experiment to investigate the vertical migratory capability of temperate macroinvertebrate species following the placement of simulated dredged material. The relationships between vertical migration success with sediment characteristics (organic carbon and sand content) and placement depth were explicitly examined. While the polychaete worms Tharyx sp. A. and Streblospio shrubsolii showed poor vertical migration with only 6 cm of sediment overburden, the oligochaete Tubificoides benedii showed some recovery while the gastropod mollusc Hydrobia ulvae exhibited good migratory success, even with 16 cm of sediment overburden. While increases in sand content from 16% to 38% had no noticeable effect on vertical migration, increased sediment organic content from 0.8% to 3.3% detrimentally affected vertical migratory activity. The results support the theory that species' survival following sediment burial is trophic group-related. The relevance of these findings with respect to dredged material disposal management is discussed. PMID:21188510

Bolam, Stefan George

2011-10-01

86

DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

87

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

88

Environmental effects of dredging: Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The terms bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, trophic transfer, and trophic transfer coefficient are defined to avoid confusion, as they have been used inconsistently throughout the literature (Dallinger and others 1987). Bioconcentration is the uptake of a contaminant by aquatic organisms where water is the sole containment source. Bioaccumulation is the uptake of a contaminent from both water and dietary sources. Biomagnification refers to the processes of both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation that result in increased tissue concentrations of a contaminant as it passes through two or more trophic levels (Macek, Petrocelli, and Sleight 1979). Trophic transfer is defined as the transport of contaminants between two trophic levels (that is, prey to predator) (Swartz and Lee 1980). Trophic transfer coefficient (FTC) is the concentration of contaminant in consumer tissue divided by the concentration of contaminant in food sources (that is, preceding trophic level). A TTC is an approximate measure of the potential for a contaminant to biomagnify. Biomagnification occurs when concentrations of a material increase between two or more trophic levels (that is, TTC>1) and is a sub- set of trophic transfer, which refers to any movement of a material between trophic levels (that is, TTC can be greater than or less than 1). If trophic transfer is determined to be substantially >1, biomagnification is said to occur. If a TTC value is <1%, biomagnification is judged not to take place.

Dillon, T.M.; Suedel, B.C.; Peddicord, R.K.; Clifford, P.A.; Boraczek, J.A.

1995-01-01

89

Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

2007-05-07

90

Dredging of contaminated sediments in the weser estuary: Chemical forms of some heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration and chemical forms of metals in bottom sediments and dredged mud of the Weser Estuary were studied. The sediments with the highest metal contents are found in the harbour basins of Bremen and in the mud shoal near Nordenham. Association types of the metals can be divided into 2 groups: metals with relatively high potential of mobilization, such as

W. Calmano; S. Weilershaus; U. Förstner

1982-01-01

91

LDEF Materials/Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pictorial presentation reviews the post-flight analysis results from two type of hardware (tray clamp bolt heads and uhcre flight experiment tray walls) from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). It will also discuss flight hardware for one upcoming (Effects of the Space Environment on Materials (ESEM) flight experiment), and two current flight experiments evaluating the performance of materials in space (Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) 1&2 flight experiments. These flight experiments also are concerned with contamination effects which will also be discussed.

Pippin, Gary

1997-01-01

92

Heavy metal contents in surface soils along the Upper Scheldt river (Belgium) affected by historical upland disposal of dredged materials.  

PubMed

For several decades, periodical dredging of river sediments has been necessary to allow for shipping traffic on the river Scheldt. Sediments were disposed along the shores in the alluvial plain without concern for the potential presence of contaminants. The aim of this study was to survey the alluvial plains of the Upper Scheldt river in Belgium for the presence of old dredged sediment landfills, and to appraise the heavy metal contamination at these sites. Up to 82% of the areas that were affected by dredged sediment disposal was found to be polluted by at least one of the metals Cd, Cr, Zn or Pb. Concentrations of Cd, Cr and Zn were, in 10% of the cases, higher than 26, 1900 and 2800 mg/kg, respectively. Cu and Ni concentrations were of no environmental concern on any site. Trends in metal concentrations as a function of location and time were explored and discussed. The highest average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the most downstream quarter of the Upper Scheldt. Contents of Pb and Cu were significantly lower for sediments disposed after 1965, but no indication for improvement of the sediment quality with time was observed for Cd, Cr and Zn. The pollution levels encountered warrant for caution as most of the soils affected by historical dredged sediment disposal are currently in use for agriculture, nature development or forestry. PMID:12083701

Vandecasteele, Bart; De Vos, Bruno; Tack, Filip M G

2002-05-01

93

40 CFR 230.60 - General evaluation of dredged or fill material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Potential routes of contaminants or contaminated sediments to the extraction site, based on hydrographic or other maps, aerial photography, or other materials that show watercourses, surface relief, proximity to tidal movement, private and public roads,...

2013-07-01

94

PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK (TEF) FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE II ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

95

The effect of phytostabilization on Zn speciation in a dredged contaminated sediment using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, and principal components analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of waterways generates large amounts of dredged sediments, which are deposited on adjacent land surfaces. These sediments are often rich in metal contaminants and present a risk to the local environment. Understanding how the metals are immobilized at the molecular level is critical for formulating effective metal containment strategies such as phytoremediation. In the present work, the mineralogical

Frédéric Panfili; Alain Manceau; Géraldine Sarret; Lorenzo Spadini; Tatiana Kirpichtchikova; Valérie Bert; Agnès Laboudigue; Matthew A. Marcus; Noureddine Ahamdach; Marie-Françoise Libert

2005-01-01

96

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed For Discharge in Waters of the U.S. - Testing Manual. Inland Testing Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) document Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Discharge in Waters of the U.S. - Testing Manual. This document is commonly referred to as the Inland Testing Manual (ITM)....

1998-01-01

97

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2013-07-01

98

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2011-07-01

99

33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

2012-07-01

100

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1993-10-01

101

Analyses of native water and dredged material from southern Louisiana waterways, 1975-76  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From June 1975 to July 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted nine dredging and seven postdredging studies related to water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Mississippi River at Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at New Orleans, Bayou Rigaud near Grand Isle, Barataria Bay and Waterway, Bayou La Carpe near Houma, Atchafalaya Bay (Ship Channel), Lower Atchafalaya River area, Intracoastal Waterway near Calumet, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), Petite Anse area, and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. These studies were conductd to determine potential environmental effects of dredging activities in the waterways. The Geological survey collected, treated, and analyzed 383 water and water-sediment mixture samples from 85 dredging sites and 142 postdredging samples (72 sites). Water samples were collected 100 yards upstream and downstream from the dredge effluent, from the disposal area, and from the effluent outfall during the dredge phase of the study; samples were collected at former dredge sites during the postdredging phase. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients, and organic constituents. The analytical data are presented in tables. Sampling sites are shown on maps. (Woodard-USGS)

Demas, Charles R.; Higgins, Patricia C.

1977-01-01

102

A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

Havlik, M. E.; Marking, L. L.

1980-01-01

103

Sampling, Testing, and Test Interpretation of Dredged Material Proposed for Unconfined, Open-Water Disposal in Central Puget Sound. Volume 5. Evaluation Procedures Technical Appendix. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final environmental impact statement evaluates alternatives considered in identifying preferred sites for disposal of dredged material in Central Puget Sound. Three public multi-user disposal sites (Commencement Bay, Elliott Bay, and Port Gardner) ar...

B. Ross C. Krueger D. Jamison J. Malek K. Phillips

1988-01-01

104

Habitat Development Field Investigations Miller Sands Marsh and Upland Habitat Development Site Columbia River, Oregon. Appendix E. Postpropagation Assessment of Botanical and Soil Resources on Dredged Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the study area, methods, and resutls of habitat development experiments conducted at Miller Sands, a dredged material disposal site near the mouth of the Columbia River. The study consisted of investigations and experimental planting...

A. S. Baker D. M. Greer P. E. Heilman S. E. Brauen

1978-01-01

105

Impact of single reagent extraction using NH 4OAc-EDTA on the solid phase distribution of metals in a contaminated dredged sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid phase distribution of metals in a contaminated dredged sediment as affected by a single reagent extraction (0.5 mol\\/1 NH4OAc + 0.02 mol\\/1 EDTA) was studied. A sediment was dried and portions were heated at 250 and 450°C. From each treatment, a portion was extracted with NH4OAc-EDTA. Both the extracted and the unextracted portions were then subjected to a

Filip M. Tack; Marc G. Verloo

1996-01-01

106

Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment using micrometer-scale and bulk-averaging X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobility and solid-state speciation of zinc in a pseudogley soil (pH = 8.2–8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zn] = 6600 mg kg?1) affected by smelter operations were studied in a 50 m2 pilot-scale test site and the laboratory using state-of-the-art synchrotron-based techniques. Sediment disposition on land caused the migration of micrometer-sized, smelter-related, sphalerite

Marie-Pierre Isaure; Alain Manceau; Nicolas Geoffroy; Agnès Laboudigue; Nobumichi Tamura; Matthew A. Marcus

2005-01-01

107

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

108

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material

N. P. Kohn; J. A. Ward; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; E. S. Barrows; S. M. Goodwin; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

109

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

1995-07-01

110

Zn speciation in a soil contaminated by the deposition of a dredged sediment by synchrotron X-ray techniques  

SciTech Connect

The nature and proportion of Zn species present in an agricultural soil overlaid by a dredged contaminated sediment have been untangled by the novel combination of three non-invasive synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: x-ray microfluorescence ({mu}SXRF), microdiffraction ({mu}XRD), and absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). One primary (franklinite) and two secondary (phyllomanganate and phyllosilicate) Zn-containing minerals were identified in the initial soil, and another primary (ZnS) and a new secondary (Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide) Zn species in the covered soil. The quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra recorded on bulk samples indicated that ZnS and Zn-Fe (oxyhydr)oxides amounted to 71+-10 percent and 27+-10 percent, respectively, and the other Zn species to less than 10 percent. The two new Zn species found in the covered soil result from the gravitational migration of ZnS particles initially present in the sediment, and from their further oxidative dissolution and fixation of leached Zn on F e (oxyhydr) oxides.

Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Laboudigue, Agnes; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

2003-09-01

111

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin  

SciTech Connect

Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

112

Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)  

SciTech Connect

Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a slurry was added to experimental chambers seeded with adult razor clams to produce burial mounds of various thicknesses. The laboratory results presented here have two implications for disposal operations.

Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

2007-05-07

113

Quantitative Zn speciation in a contaminated dredged sediment by ?-PIXE, ?-SXRF, EXAFS spectroscopy and principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dredging and disposal of sediments onto agricultural soils is a common practice in industrial and urban areas that can be hazardous to the environment when the sediments contain heavy metals. This chemical hazard can be assessed by evaluating the mobility and speciation of metals after sediment deposition. In this study, the speciation of Zn in the coarse (500 to 2000 ?m) and fine (<2 ?m) fractions of a contaminated sediment dredged from a ship canal in northern France and deposited on an agricultural soil was determined by physical analytical techniques on raw and chemically treated samples. Zn partitioning between coexisting mineral phases and its chemical associations were first determined by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission and micro-synchrotron-based X-ray radiation fluorescence. Zn-containing mineral species were then identified by X-ray diffraction and powder and polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The number, nature, and proportion of Zn species were obtained by a coupled principal component analysis (PCA) and least squares fitting (LSF) procedure, applied herein for the first time to qualitatively (number and nature of species) and quantitatively (relative proportion of species) speciate a metal in a natural system. The coarse fraction consists of slag grains originating from nearby Zn smelters. In this fraction, Zn is primarily present as sphalerite (ZnS) and to a lesser extent as willemite (Zn 2SiO 4), Zn-containing ferric (oxyhydr)oxides, and zincite (ZnO). In the fine fraction, ZnS and Zn-containing Fe (oxyhydr)oxides are the major forms, and Zn-containing phyllosilicate is the minor species. Weathering of ZnS, Zn 2SiO 4, and ZnO under oxidizing conditions after the sediment disposal accounts for the uptake of Zn by Fe (oxyhydr)oxides and phyllosilicates. Two geochemical processes can explain the retention of Zn by secondary minerals: uptake on preexisting minerals and precipitation with dissolved Fe and Si. The second process likely occurs because dissolved Zn and Si are supersaturated with respect to Zn phyllosilicate. EXAFS spectroscopy, in combination with PCA and LSF, is shown to be a meaningful approach to quantitatively determining the speciation of trace elements in sediments and soils.

Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Laboudigue, Agnès; Manceau, Alain; Sarret, Géraldine; Tiffreau, Christophe; Trocellier, Patrick; Lamble, Géraldine; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Chateigner, Daniel

2002-05-01

114

Materials surface contamination analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

1992-01-01

115

Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.  

PubMed

Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area. PMID:24474563

Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

2014-05-01

116

Evaluation of Sediment Contamination and Effectiveness of Dredging in Mid-to-lower Han River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Han River, which is the largest river in Korea, is the primary source of drinking water for the 20 million people that\\u000a live in the Seoul metropolitan and surrounding areas. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to pollutant inputs\\u000a from upstream tributaries as well as from partially treated municipal wastewaters. To characterize the contamination of the

Kyung-Ik Gil; Lee-Hyung Kim; Gye-Chun Cho; Jaeyoung Yoon

2010-01-01

117

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The

W. W. Gardiner; E. S. Barrows; L. D. Antrim; B. D. Gruendell; J. Q. Word; J. J. S. Tokos

1996-01-01

118

Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. I: Effects on sediment properties, contamination and toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation and management of coastal lagoons envisage direct human intervention. To prevent siltation and to preserve the hydrodynamics features of the lagoon system, the inner channels undergo regular maintenance dredging. Sediment properties (RDP, organic matter, grain size), trace metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb), and toxicity vs. the amphipod Corophium insidiosum and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, were analysed before and after dredging operations in a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Baiona, Italy). To detect the actual impacts, disturbed sites were contrasted with multiple controls in two distinct times, i.e. before and after disturbance, according to a sampling design based on Beyond BACI principles. The integrated methodology here adopted suggests that dredging operations carried out are not likely to pose dramatic effects on environmental quality of the lagoon.

Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Ponti, Massimo

2009-10-01

119

Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.  

PubMed

The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites. PMID:16359711

Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

2006-06-01

120

Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

Lurry, Dee L.

1983-01-01

121

A basin-wide approach to dredged material management in New York\\/New Jersey Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, an area of increasing estuarine research in the New York\\/New Jersey Harbor has been the identification of toxic contaminant sources, mapping of contaminant levels in water and sediments, and assessment of contaminant accumulation in biota. The accumulation of anthropogenic contamination in the harbor’s sediments has occurred for centuries, primarily from land-based municipal and industrial sources. Contaminants

Thomas H. Wakeman; Nickolas J. Themelis

2001-01-01

122

Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953–1979) and dredged in 1994–1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the

Joshua A. Mackie; Susan M. Natali; Jeffrey S. Levinton; Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

2007-01-01

123

Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. PMID:17382440

Mackie, Joshua A; Natali, Susan M; Levinton, Jeffrey S; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

2007-09-01

124

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

125

A temporal and spatial assessment of TBT concentrations at dredged material disposal sites around the coast of England and Wales.  

PubMed

Despite legislative interventions since the 1980s, contemporary concentrations of organotin compounds in marine sediments still impose restrictions on the disposal of dredged material in the UK. Here, we analyse temporal and spatial data to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the use of TBT paints in reducing concentrations at disposal sites. At a national scale, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of samples in which the concentration was below the limit of detection (LOD) from 1998 to 2010. This was observed for sediments both inside and outside the disposal sites. However, this temporal decline in organotin concentration is disposal site-specific. Of the four sites studied in detail, two displayed significant increases in proportion of samples below LOD over time. We argue that site-specificity in the effectiveness of the TBT ban results from variations in historical practices at source and unique environmental characteristics of each site. PMID:24368118

Bolam, Thi; Barry, Jon; Law, Robin J; James, David; Thomas, Boby; Bolam, Stefan G

2014-02-15

126

Aquatic Disposal Field Investigations Duwamish Waterway Disposal Site Puget Sound, Washington. Appendix D. Chemical and Physical Analyses of Water and Sediment in Relation to Disposal of Dredged Material in Elliott Bay. Volume I. February-June 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted on the chemical and physical effects of open-water disposal of dredged material from the Duwamish River into Elliott Bay, Washington. The water column at the disposal and reference sites was monitored during and after the dredged mat...

D. J. Baumgartner D. W. Shults J. B. Carkin

1978-01-01

127

Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

1988-01-01

128

PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

129

Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. ‘Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of

P Vervaeke; S Luyssaert; J Mertens; E Meers; F. M. G Tack; N Lust

2003-01-01

130

77 FR 23668 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a 20-Year Dredged Material...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...evaluating projected impacts from implementing a new...areas, and using open water disposal areas. In accordance...disposal sites, open- water placement of sandy dredged...will include potential impacts to water quality, marine...

2012-04-20

131

Habitat Development Field Investigations Windmill Point Marsh Development site James River, Virginia. Appendix E. Environmental Impacts of Marsh Development with Dredged Material: Metals and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Compounds in Marsh Soils and Vascular Plant Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil and vascular plant tissue samples were collected in October 1976 from three freshwater marshes located on the James River in Virginia. One marsh known as the Windmill Point marsh development site had been constructed using dredged material during the...

J. D. Lunz

1978-01-01

132

Contamination analysis of SSF candidate materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In Situ Contamination Effects Facility, Marshall Space Flight Center, has been used to test several candidate materials for use upon Space Station Freedom. Optical measurements were made in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) as test mirrors were contaminated by materials in a space-like environment. This was done to determine the effects of the contamination and subsequent exposure to VUV radiation upon optical components that will be used upon the space station.

Johnson, R. Barry

1991-01-01

133

Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

1980-01-01

134

Dredge Today, Restore Tomorrow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, students role-play members of a task force whose task it is to advise the Director of the National Park Service (their instructor) on the best location for creating a wetland using dredge material from the Potomac River.  Students apply previously learned knowledge about wetland ecology (i.e. hydrology, soils, and plants) to a wetland restoration decision. Through the case, students increase their understanding of the principles of ecosystem ecology and the complexity of natural resource management dilemmas. The case was developed for a wetland ecology course, but would also work well in an ecosystem ecology or natural resource management course.

Hopfensperger, Kristine N.

2011-01-01

135

Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment using micrometer-scale and bulk-averaging X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility and solid-state speciation of zinc in a pseudogley soil (pH = 8.2-8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zn] = 6600 mg kg -1) affected by smelter operations were studied in a 50 m 2 pilot-scale test site and the laboratory using state-of-the-art synchrotron-based techniques. Sediment disposition on land caused the migration of micrometer-sized, smelter-related, sphalerite (ZnS) and franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4) grains and dissolved Zn from the sediment downwards to a soil depth of 20 cm over a period of 18 months. Gravitational movement of fine-grained metal contaminants probably occurred continuously, while peaks of Zn leaching were observed in the summer when the oxidative dissolution of ZnS was favored by non-flooding conditions. The Zn concentration in the <50 ?m soil fraction increased from ˜61 ppm to ˜94 ppm in the first 12 months at 0-10 cm depth, and to ˜269 ppm in the first 15 months following the sediment deposition. Higher Zn concentrations and enrichments were observed in the fine (<2 ?m) and very fine (<0.2 ?m) fractions after 15 months (480 mg kg -1 and 1000 mg kg -1, respectively), compared to 200 mg kg -1 in the <2 ?m fraction of the initial soil. In total, 1.2% of the Zn initially present in the sediment was released to the environment after 15 months, representing an integrated quantity of ˜4 kg Zn over an area of 50 m 2. Microfocused X-ray fluorescence (XRF), diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy techniques were used to image chemical associations of Zn with Fe and Mn, and to identify mineral and Zn species in selected points-of-interest in the uncontaminated and contaminated soil. Bulk average powder EXAFS spectroscopy was used to quantify the proportion of each Zn species in the soil. In the uncontaminated soil, Zn is largely speciated as Zn-containing phyllosilicate, and to a minor extent as zincochromite (ZnCr 2O 4), IVZn-sorbed turbostratic birnessite (?-MnO 2), and Zn-substituted goethite. In the upper 0-10 cm of the contaminated soil, ˜60 ± 10% of total Zn is present as ZnS inherited from the overlying sediment. Poorly-crystalline Zn-sorbed Fe (oxyhydr)oxides and zinciferous phyllosilicate amount to ˜20-30 ± 10% each and, therefore, make up most of the remaining Zn. Smaller amounts of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4), Zn-birnessite and Zn-goethite were also detected. Further solubilization of the Zn inventory in the sediment, and also remobilization of Zn from the poorly-crystalline neoformed Fe (oxyhydr)oxide precipitates, are expected over time. This study shows that land deposition of contaminated dredged sediments is a source of Zn for the covered soil and, consequently, presents environmental hazards. Remediation technologies should be devised to either sequester Zn into sparingly soluble crystalline phases, or remove Zn by collecting leachates beneath the sediment.

Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Laboudigue, Agnès; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

2005-03-01

136

STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED  

EPA Science Inventory

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

137

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38Foot Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle\\/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to -39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner

J. A. Ward; J. Q. Word; M. R. Pinza; H. L. Mayhew; E. S. Barrows; N. P. Kohn; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

138

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38Foot Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle\\/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to -39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner

J. A. Ward; J. Q. Word; M. R. Pinza; H. L. Mayhew; E. S. Barrows; N. P. Kohn; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

139

Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods

M. E. Honeycutt; A. S. Jarvis; V. A. McFarland

1995-01-01

140

Environmental effects of dredging. Field verification of the estuarine plant bioassay procedure. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

The FVP used contaminated sediment dredged from a project in Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Conn. Use of a single highly contaminated dredged material afforded a unique opportunity to evaluate results of disposal under three different disposal alternatives: open water, intertidal (wetland), and upland. Upland and wetland sites were designed to meet surface area, elevation, and operational requirements for FVP contaminant mobility studies. Designs for sedimentation and storage followed recently developed Corps procedures, and the resulting site performance fulfilled design objectives. Provisions were made to ensure that essentially the same dredged material was placed in the open-water, upland, and wetland sites. The upland and wetland sites, constructed within protected areas using conventional construction techniques, were filled hydraulically from barges. The filling operation provided conditions typical of confined dredged material disposal operations. Following filling, the weirs at both sites were managed to allow free drainage of surface water as the fill stabilized through consolidation. Within approximately 9 months, the upland and wetland substrates had stabilized at the desired surface elevations.

Folsom, B.L.

1987-06-01

141

Dredging processes and remedy effectiveness: Relationship to the 4 Rs of environmental dredging.  

PubMed

Timely and effective remediation of contaminated sediments is essential for protecting human health and the environment and restoring beneficial uses to waterways. A number of site operational conditions influence the effect of environmental dredging of contaminated sediment on aquatic systems. Site experience shows that resuspension of contaminated sediment and release of contaminants occur during dredging and that contaminated sediment residuals will remain after operations. It is also understood that these processes affect the magnitude, distribution, and bioavailability of the contaminants, and hence the exposure and risk to receptors of concern. However, even after decades of sediment remediation project experience, substantial uncertainties still exist in our understanding of the cause-effect relationships relating dredging processes to risk. During the past few years, contaminated sediment site managers, researchers, and practitioners have recognized the need to better define and understand dredging-related processes. In this article, we present information and research needs on these processes as synthesized from recent symposia, reports, and remediation efforts. Although predictions about the effect of environmental dredging continue to improve, a clear need remains to better understand the effect that sediment remediation processes have on contaminant exposures and receptors of concern. Collecting, learning from, and incorporating new information into practice is the only avenue to improving the effectiveness of remedial operations. PMID:20872643

Bridges, Todd S; Gustavson, Karl E; Schroeder, Paul; Ells, Stephen J; Hayes, Donald; Nadeau, Steven C; Palermo, Michael R; Patmont, Clay

2010-10-01

142

Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

Hemminger, Carol S.

1992-01-01

143

Field verification program (aquatic disposal). A field and laboratory study using adenylate energy charge as an indicator of stress in Mytilus edulis and Nephtys incisa treated with dredged material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to test the applicability of adenylate energy charge (AEC) and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations as measures of biological response in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the marine polychaete, Nephtys incisa, after exposure in the laboratory an field to contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Conn. A second objective was to include field verification of laboratory results, and a third objective was to investigate residue-effect relationships between tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants and AEC and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations. Tissue residue concentrations, particularly of persistent compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were found to be closely related to exposure concentration. The biological responses evaluated in this report included the adenine nucleotide measures of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenylate pool, and AEC. Adenine nucleotides and AEC are important in energy transformation and in regulation of metabolic processes. Responses in adenine nucleotide pools correlate with tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants in exposed organisms. Measurement of the adenine nucleotide concentrations may help to characterize the energy costs incurred by organisms under stressful conditions.

Zaroogian, G.E.; Rogerson, P.F.; Hoffman, G.; Johnson, M.; Johns, D.M.

1988-06-01

144

EFFECTS OF A CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL ON LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF THE TUBICOLOUS AMPHIPOD, AMPELISCA ABDITA  

EPA Science Inventory

Short-term and full life cycle toxicity tests have been conducted with Ampelisca ubdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP): These studies comprised a portion of the effects assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with a...

145

Managing contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

While remediation and storage of contaminated dredged materials is a key issue at harbour sites, there is another type of\\u000a sediment pollution problem, which mainly originates from large-scale dispersion of contaminants in flood-plains, dike foreshores\\u000a and polder areas. In recent years, catastrophic cases of sediment contaminations have occurred in connection with the failure\\u000a of tailing dams from mines. Unlike problems

Ulrich Förstner; Joachim Gerth; Martina Lindemann; Uwe Wittmann

2001-01-01

146

The effect of phytostabilization on Zn speciation in a dredged contaminated sediment using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, and principal components analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maintenance of waterways generates large amounts of dredged sediments, which are deposited on adjacent land surfaces. These sediments are often rich in metal contaminants and present a risk to the local environment. Understanding how the metals are immobilized at the molecular level is critical for formulating effective metal containment strategies such as phytoremediation. In the present work, the mineralogical transformations of Zn-containing phases induced by two graminaceous plants (A grostis tenuis and Festuca rubra) in a contaminated sediment ([Zn] = 4700 mg kg -1, [P 2O 5] = 7000 mg kg -1, pH = 7.8), untreated or amended with hydroxylapatite (AP) or Thomas basic slag (TS), were investigated after two yr of pot experiment by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence (?-SXRF), and powder and laterally resolved extended X-ray absorption fine structure (?-EXAFS) spectroscopy. The number and nature of Zn species were evaluated by principal component (PCA) and least-squares fitting (LSF) analysis of the entire set of ?-EXAFS spectra, which included up to 32 individual spectra from regions of interest varying in chemical composition. Seven Zn species were identified at the micrometer scale: sphalerite, gahnite, franklinite, Zn-containing ferrihydrite and phosphate, (Zn-Al)-hydrotalcite, and Zn-substituted kerolite-like trioctahedral phyllosilicate. Bulk fractions of each species were quantified by LSF of the powder EXAFS spectra to linear combinations of the identified Zn species spectra. In the untreated and unvegetated sediment, Zn was distributed as ˜50% (mole ratio of total Zn) sphalerite, ˜40% Zn-ferrihydrite, and ˜10 to 20% (Zn-Al)-hydrotalcite plus Zn-phyllosilicate. In unvegetated but amended sediments (AP and TS), ZnS and Zn-ferrihydrite each decreased by 10 to 20% and were replaced by Zn-phosphate (˜30˜40%). In the presence of plants, ZnS was almost completely dissolved, and the released Zn bound to phosphate (˜40-60%) and to Zn phyllosilicate plus (Zn,Al)-hydrotalcite (˜20-40%). Neither the plant species nor the coaddition of mineral amendment affected the Zn speciation in the vegetated sediment. The sediment pore waters were supersaturated with respect to Zn-containing trioctahedral phyllosilicate, near saturation with respect to Zn-phosphate, and strongly undersaturated with respect to (Zn,Al)-hydrotalcite. Therefore, the formation of (Zn,Al)-hydrotalcite in slightly alkaline conditions ought to result from heterogeneous precipitation on mineral surface.

Panfili, Frédéric; Manceau, Alain; Sarret, Géraldine; Spadini, Lorenzo; Kirpichtchikova, Tatiana; Bert, Valérie; Laboudigue, Agnès; Marcus, Matthew A.; Ahamdach, Noureddine; Libert, Marie-Françoise

2005-05-01

147

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Effects of sediment organic-matter composition on bioaccumulation of sediment organic contaminants: Interim results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and fluoranthene to bioaccumulation by worms and clams and the relationship of sediment-bound PCB 153 and fluoranthene to concentrations in the interstitial water were examined. Bioaccumulation by both worms and clams was observed in all sediments. Apparent preference factor (APF) values showed that steady state was reached between sediment-bound contaminants and organism lipid pools. The APF values of organisms were close to the theoretical value for both contaminants in all sediments. These results showed that sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in conjunction with octanol water partition coefficients of nonpolar organic contaminants is a viable approach for predicting bioaccumulation of such compounds by infaunal organisms. Actual concentrations of contaminants in interstitial water were either overestimated or underestimated by the relationship between TOC and humic + fulvic acid organic matter fractions and sediment contaminant concentrations. Prediction of interstitial water concentrations was not as successful as use of APFs. The lack of agreement between predicted and actual interstitial water results was due to factors such as the presence of interstitial water contaminants bounds to microparticulates and dissolved organic material and the kind of organic material in the sediment.

Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.; Pennington, J.C.; McFarland, V.A.

1991-06-01

148

Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal

D. E. Large; H. W. Arrowsmith

1993-01-01

149

[Simulation research on the release of internal nutrients affected by different dredging methods in lake].  

PubMed

A simulated experiment was carried out to study release features of internal source under different sediment dredging methods and the difference between two lake areas in Lake Taihu was also studied. The contaminated sediments were sampled from two sites in Meiliang Bay which were the Inner Bay (A) and the Outer Bay(B). Release rates of phosphorus after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 20% and 72% of the control and the phosphorus release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 80% of Outer Bay(B). Release rates of ammonia after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 40% and 83% of the scallop dredging, but dredging process may even promote the release of ammonia in a short time, the ammonia release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 150% higher than that in Outer Bay(B). Under the microcosm experiment condition, the ideal dredging method and the suction dredging method may have a better control of internal source in contrast with the scallop dredging. Altogether, sediment dredging may be a useful approach to decrease the release of internal source in the selected sites when the external nutrients are effectively controlled. Consider all kinds of dredging projects, the suction dredging should be the ideal option for sediment dredging in Lake Taihu. PMID:24364305

Chen, Chao; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin; Kong, Ming; Yu, Ju-Hua

2013-10-01

150

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-09-01

151

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-09-01

152

Upper Hudson Dredging Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R.

153

Removal of organic contaminants from lithographic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the critical issues still facing the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into mainstream manufacturing for integrated circuit (IC) production is cleanliness. EUV photons at 13.5 nm are easily absorbed by many species, including dust, thin-film layers, and other debris present in the path of the photons. Carrying out EUVL inside a vacuum helps reduce the amount of photon loss for illumination, however contamination in the sys- tem is unavoidable, especially due to carbon growth on the multilayer mirror collectors and to soft defects in the form of organic contamination on the mask. Traditional cleaning methods employ the use of wet chemicals to etch contamination off of a surface, however this is limited in the sub-micron range of contaminant particles due to lack of transport of sufficient liquid chemical to the surface in order to achieve satisfactory particle removal. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the photomask must be particle free at inspection below 30 nm. However, when analyzing the ability of traditional methods to meet the cleaning needs set forth by the ITRS, these methods fall short and often add more contamination to the surface targeted for cleaning. With that in mind, a new cleaning method is being developed to supplant these traditional methods. Preliminary research into a plasma-based method to clean organic contaminants from lithographic materials constructed an experimental device that demonstrated the removal of both polystyrene latex nanoparticles (representing hydrocarbon contamination) in the range of 30 nm to 500 nm, as well as the removal of 30 nm carbon film layers on silicon wafers. This research, called the Plasma-Assisted Cleaning by Metastable Atomic Neutralization (PACMAN) process is being developed with semiconductor manufacturing cleaning in mind. A model of the helium metastable density within the processing chamber has been developed in addition to experimental measurements of the metastable density at the sample surface. Cleaning efficiency has been linked to both metastable density as well as electric field in the plasma sheath. Electric field calculations in the plasma sheath reveal that an electric field pointing into the plasma is needed for achieving high cleaning rates of hydrocarbons. Operating the PACMAN process in this fashion allows for cleaning rates of approximately 1.2x107 +/- 5.1x105 nm3/min without causing damage to the surrounding structure of the sample being cleaned. Carbon contamination in the form of carbon films on lithographic material have been shown to clean at rates of approximately 3.0x106 +/- 1.3x10 5 nm3/min. The PACMAN process works by utilizing helium metastable atoms to break apart the contamination to be cleaned. As helium metastables interact with the surface of contamination, bonding electrons from the surface are 'stolen' by the metastable helium resulting in 'holes' where a bonding electron used to be. In this way, the structure of the contamination is compromised and allows for the removal either through desorbtion of CxHy molecules or by chain scission of the hydrocarbon backbone. The ultimate goal of this research is to understand the removal mechanism and provide ranges for the important parameters that lead to contamination removal from lithographic materials.

Lytle, Wayne M.

154

Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassays/biomonitoring. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This note follows Technical Note EEDP-O3-1 and adds support to the concept of using wetland animals as Indicators of bioavailable contaminants in dredged material used to create intertidal wetlands. The text of this tech note was taken from a paper by Kay, Marquenie, and Simmers (1986). Animal bioassay test procedures are being evaluated (field tested) and verified under the Interagency Field Verification of Testing and Predictive Methodologies for Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives in the Field Verification Program (FVP). Bioassays have been shown to be a relatively simple tool for ecological evaluation and environmental assessment of potential contaminant movement within permanent or temporary wetlands, and with field verification, it will be a useful biomonitoring tool as well.

Simmers, J.W.; Kay, S.H.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

1987-03-01

155

ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)  

EPA Science Inventory

According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

156

A Comparative Screening-Level Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for Dredged Material Management Alternatives in New York\\/New Jersey Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers of New York and New Jersey Harbor dredging projects are developing strategies to dispose and manage the large volumes of sediment that must be dredged to maintain passable waterways. The various management alternatives include aquatic containment facilities, upland containment, and treatment with beneficial reuse. An important consideration in the selection of an appropriate alternative is the evaluation of potential

Susan B. Kane Driscoll; W. Theodore Wickwire; Jerome J. Cura; Donna J. Vorhees; Cheri L. Butler; David W. Moore; Todd S. Bridges

2002-01-01

157

Study of the plume created by the spillage of dredged material in the area overlooking the Port of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the analysis of the evolution of the plume of material according to the hydrodynamic field in different weather conditions for two possible zones for the spillage of dredging material in the area overlooking the Port of Fiumicino. The study was conducted through the use of the coastal circulation model ADCIRC and the transport model PTM, both included in the hydrodynamic suite models SMS 9.2. For the numerical modelling was identified a physiographic unit comprising Cape Linaro to the North and Cape Anzio to the South. The physiographic representation of this area was obtained from bathymetric campaigns conducted by DECOS in the years 2002 and 2003. In addition, a detailed bathymetric measurements of the spillage zone, and a campaign of currentometric measures in order to calibrate the hydrodynamic model, carried out both in 2007. To study the movement of sediment from the spillage zone towards the surrounded area, was used a numerical Lagrangian model (Particle Tracking Module - PTM) that allows to simulate the movement of a group of particles in relation with the hydrodynamic field. There were selected two classes of particles sizes that describe the typology of the dredged material from the Port of Fiumicino. Dominant wind pattern of the region is Tramontana (in autumn and winter) and Ponente (in spring and summer) although intense events concerned Libeccio and Scirocco directions. In the case of Tramontana the velocity field is slightly reduced and creates zones of reverse current near the coast. In case of Libeccio, the velocity field slightly moves towards the coast direction and in case of Scirocco there can be noticed an increase of the current intensity in the spillage area. From the simulation studies conducted through the PTM model, it can be noticed that the coarse material (Dm = 0.8 mm) is quickly deposited in the neighbour area, while the finer material (Dm = 0.03 mm) is carried by the current creating a plume of sediment that is deposited on the bottom in terms of its diameter (the finest particles may reach a distance of 18-20 km).

Scanu, S.; Bonamano, S.; Peviani, M. A.; Marcelli, M.

2009-04-01

158

Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality in the upper Patapsco aquifer deep water-bearing zone does not seem to have been impacted by the DMCA.

Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

2013-01-01

159

PHYTOREMEDIATING DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A BENEFICIAL REUSE PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor Wisconsin, receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwaukee's waterways. Like many CDFs they face the dilemma of steady inputs and no feasible alternative for expansion. The Army Corps of...

160

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOEpatents

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-11-16

161

Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hocking, E.K. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Roberts, R. [Dept. of Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Phillips, J.W. [Analytical Services, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-10-01

162

Geological and geochemical criteria for the continental nature of the Mendeleev Rise (the Arctic Ocean) from the data of drilling and dredging of seabed rock material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of geological and geophysical studies on the Mendeleev Rise at 10 test sites at 79°N to 83°N (expedition "Arktika-2012" in August-September 2012). During the expedition, for the first time, three boreholes were drilled in the bedrocks of the Mendeleev Rise basement at a depth of 1700-2600 m, and more than 20 thousand fragments of seabed rock material were dredged. Among them carbonate-bearing rocks including dolomite with relicts of trilobites and ostracoderms (D3-C) constitute up 65 %. Up to 20% are terrigenous rocks with a predominance of quartz sandstones. Magmatic rocks constitute 10-15% of the samples (including 8% of gabbro-dolerite and 2 % of granite) with 5% of metamorphic rocks. The boreholes revealed magmatic mafic rocks of basalt to basaltic andesite to trachyandesite series (SiO2-48-58% K2O+Na2O-3,4-9,2%) including epigenically altered volcanic breccias. All fragments of magmatic mafic rocks have a similar mineral and chemical composition and are grouped with gabbro dolerite (SiO2-49-51%, K2O+Na2O-2,5-3,0%). Preliminary results of mineralogic, geochemical and of isotopic geochemical (ICP-OEC, ICP-MS, RFA, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, EPMA and others) analyses suggest the continental nature of the studied rocks and show a distinct difference from rocks of the Gakkel Ridge in the Eurasian part of the ocean, which are of the oceanic origin. U-Pb dating of zircons from the core rocks and seabed rock material (SIMS SHRIMP II) indicate a wide range of their formation age: 2940-995, 639-385 and 303-203 Ma and thus suggest that they belong to volcanogenic terrigeneous carbonate-bearing bed of the ancient platform composing the floor of Amerasian part of the Arctic Ocean.

Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Oleg; Kremenetskiy, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey; Rekant, Pavel; Gusev, Eugene; Shokalskiy, Sergey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey; Artyushkov, Eugene

2013-04-01

163

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-07-01

164

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-07-01

165

33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-07-01

166

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle\\/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to -39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner

J. A. Ward; J. Q. Word; M. R. Pinza; H. L. Mayhew; E. S. Barrows; N. P. Kohn; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

167

Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle\\/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to -39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner

J. A. Ward; J. Q. Word; M. R. Pinza; H. L. Mayhew; E. S. Barrows; N. P. Kohn; L. F. Lefkovitz

1992-01-01

168

Combining trace elements micro-analysis in deposited dredged sediments: EPMA and ?-XRF analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since deposited dredged sediments are rich in metallic contaminants, they present a risk for environment. This work aims to study dredged sediments chemical composition, identify metal-carrier minerals and understand their mobility. Combining chemical and spectroscopic techniques at multi-scale for an integrative approach of trace elements (zinc, lead, iron) behaviour is therefore necessary. The global mineralogy and the chemistry of the

A Poitevin; C Lerouge; G Wille; P Bataillard; P Quinn; L Hennet

2012-01-01

169

Rapid Dewatering Techniques for Dredged Lake Sediments. Literature Review and Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sediment removal from lakes and other water bodies has proven to be an effective method for removing contaminants and limiting the internal recycling of nutrients. There are many methods for dredging sediments, and in each case, the disposal of the dredge...

2007-01-01

170

REMEDIAL DREDGING AND EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: EXAMPLES FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, there is an on-going national debate questioning whether remedial dredging can be conducted without causing environmental harm. Two common assertions are that: 1) dredging contaminated sediment will do more harm than good, and 2) natural processes will eventually mitig...

171

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

1991-06-01

172

Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systemsda literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of mercury contamination in aquatic systems were studied in a comprehensive literature review. The results show that the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems are: (1) atmospheric deposition, (2) erosion, (3) urban discharges, (4) agricultural materials, (5) mining, and (6) combustion and industrial discharges. Capping and dredging are two possible remedial approaches to mercury contamination

Qianrui Wang; Daekeun Kim; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; George A. Sorial; Dennis Timberlake

173

AIR EMISSION FLUX FROM CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS STORED IN A PILOT-SCALE CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY. (R825513C017)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

174

Geotechnical Characteristics of Shallow Ocean Dredge Spoil Disposal Mounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna

K. R. Demars; R. Long; J. Dowling; R. W. Morton

1984-01-01

175

An Assessment of the Expected Impact of a Dredging Project Proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the biological and socio-economic effects of a dredging project proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa. Emphasis is placed on the expected impact the project would have upon the tides and circulation, bacterial contamination, phytopl...

P. Helfrich

1975-01-01

176

Environmental Effects of Dredging. Mapping Seagrasses for Dredging Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corps of Engineers districts frequently need to assess the character, extent, condition, and potential impacts to seagrass beds within their jurisdiction, particularly in areas where dredging is proposed in the vicinity of existing seagrass beds. The Subm...

B. M. Sabol D. J. Shafer E. Melton

1996-01-01

177

Elutriate–primary productivity bioassays of dredge spoil disposal in Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard sediment elutriate procedure was combined with radioactive primary productivity methods to evaluate impacts of dredged material disposal on pelagic primary producers. Seven treatment levels suggested that dredged material disposal inhibited algal photosynthesis at higher concentrations. The procedure developed reflected the ‘bioavailability’ of dissolved constituents released during deposition. The results also implied that particle formation within the water column

R. Warren Flint; George J. Lorefice

1978-01-01

178

Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

Crutcher, E. Russ

1992-01-01

179

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

180

Maintenance Dredging of the Federal Navigation Channels in the Detroit River, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resumption of the removal of polluted material will temporarily degrade the water quality and localized turbid problems are anticipated to be encountered at areas during removal of the rocky material. Disposal of the dredged material into their respective...

1976-01-01

181

Effects of Suction Dredging on Streams: a Review and an Evaluation Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suction dredging for gold in river channels is a small-scale mining practice whereby streambed material is sucked up a pipe, passed over a sluice box to sort out the gold, and discarded as tail- ings over another area of bed. Natural resource managers should be concerned about suction dredging because it is common in streams in western North America that

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1998-01-01

182

STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. e2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the co...

183

Dredging Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan calls for a series of small pits, each pit receiving one year's discharge of dredged material. After one year of deposits, the pit will be capped to prevent loss of material and to encourage colonization by benthic organisms and fish. The pit wil...

2002-01-01

184

IN SITU CAPPING OF CONTAMINATED SEDI- MENTS: COMPARING THE RELATIVE EF FECTIVENESS OF SAND VERSUS CLAY MIN ERAL-BASED SEDIMENT CAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological problems caused by sediment contamination occurring in deep water or wetland environ- ments may be addressed through natural recovery, in-place containment or treatment, dredging and removal, or in some cases by in situ capping - which is defined as the placement of a subaqueous covering or cap of clean isolating material over an in-place deposit of contaminated sediment. While

J. H. Hull; J. M. Jersak; C. A. Kasper

185

Channel to Newport News, Virginia (Maintenance Dredging).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes dredging required to maintain the 800-foot wide channel to Newport News. The channel extends westwardly approximately 4.8 miles from Norfolk Harbor Channel to Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company coal piers. Maintenance dredging will r...

1973-01-01

186

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01

187

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOEpatents

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01

188

[Influence of dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in lake: a simulation study].  

PubMed

A simulated experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of sediment dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in the summer and winter seasons under the common wind-wave disturbance, and the contaminated sediment used in this study was from Meiliang Bay, Taihu lake. The result showed that 20 cm dredging could effectively inhibit the sediment resuspension in study area, dredging in winter has a better effect than that in summer, and the higher values of the total suspended solid (TSS) in undredged and dredged water column during the process of wind wave disturbance were 7.0 and 2.2, 24.3 and 6.4 times higher than the initial value in summer and winter simulation respectively. The paired-samples t-test result demonstrated that total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) loading positively correlated to TSS content in dredged (P<0.01) and undredged water column (P<0.05), which proved that internal phosphorus fulminating release induced by wind-wave disturbance would significantly increase the TP and PO4(3-)-P loading in the water column. The effect of dredging conducted in summer on the TP and PO4(3)-P loading in the water column was negative, but not for winter dredging (P<0.01). The pore water dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) profile at water-sediment interface in summer simulation was also investigated by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Diffusion layer of the DRP profile in undredged sediment was wider than that in dredged sediment. However, the DRP diffusion potential in dredged sediment was greater than that in undredged sediment, showing that dredging can effectively reduce the risk of the DRP potential release in dredged pore water, but also would induce the DRP fulminating release in the short time under hydrodynamic action. Generally, dredging was usually deployed during the summer and the autumn. Considering Taihu Lake is a large, shallow, eutrophic lake and the contaminant distribution is spatially heterogeneous, it is vital to determine the optimal time, depth and scope of dredging. PMID:23233961

Yu, Ju-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Yin-Long; Fan, Cheng-Xin; He, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Zhen-Wu

2012-10-01

189

Enzyme-enabled responsive surfaces for anti-contamination materials.  

PubMed

Many real-life stains have origins from biological matters including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that act as gluing agents binding along with other particulates or microbes to exposed surfaces of automobiles, furniture, and fabrics. Mimicking naturally occurring self-defensive processes, we demonstrate in this work that a solid surface carrying partially exposed enzyme granules protected the surface in situ from contamination by biological stains and fingerprints. Attributed to the activities of enzymes which can be made compatible with a wide range of materials, such anti-contamination and self-cleaning functionalities are highly selective and efficient toward sticky chemicals. This observation promises a new mechanism in developing smart materials with desired anti-microbial, self-reporting, self-cleaning, or self-healing functions. PMID:23335427

Wu, Songtao; Buthe, Andreas; Jia, Hongfei; Zhang, Minjuan; Ishii, Masahiko; Wang, Ping

2013-06-01

190

Characterization of outgassed contaminants from polymeric spacecraft materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicones and polyolefins are versatile polymeric materials that are often used for spacecraft applications but can produce considerable amounts of non-volatile residue (NVR) contamination. Outgassing properties of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) polyolefin tubing and GE RTV615 silicone potting, both of which are known to outgas at high levels, were characterized using ASTM E595 testing and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. The total mass loss (TML) values for the polyolefin tubing varied between 1.8 and 2.5%, while the collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) was between 0.7 and 1.2%. The silicone potting had somewhat lower outgassing levels, with TML values between 1.0 and 1.7% and CVCM ranging from 0.7 to 1.3%. IR analysis of the outgassed residue indicates the materials produce NVR contamination through different mechanisms. The polyolefin tubing, which was composed of a hydrocarbon co-polymer mixed with additives, disproportionately outgassed low-weight molecular compounds containing ester functional groups. In contrast, RTV615 outgassing appeared to proceed through the release of shorter chain silicone polymers or oligomers. Combining outgassing test data with the chemical characterization of NVR residue provides a better understanding of contamination processes and will contribute to the development of more efficient mitigation strategies.

Villahermosa, Randy M.; Joseph, Paul L.

2004-10-01

191

TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

192

Environmental effects of dredging program: Leachate testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, sediment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Sediment leaching studies of Hamlet City Lake, Hamlet, NC, were conducted in laboratories at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of these studies was to provide quantitative information on the potential for leachate impacts on groundwaters if dredged material from Hamlet City Lake were placed in a confined disposal facility (CDF) or under disposal conditions similar to land-farming. The study involved three elements: batch leach tests, column leach tests, and simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Batch tests were conducted to determine intrinsic leaching characteristics of solids in Hamlet City Lake sediment. Column tests were conducted as a physical analog of continuous flow leaching in a CDF. HELP model simulations were conducted to simulate the generation of leachate by infiltration and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a disposal site liner. Results of this study showed that, under disposal conditions similar to land-farming, organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPHs) will decrease in concentration as the result of volatilization and or biodegradation.... Dredged material, Leachate, Permeameter, Hamlet city lake, Leaching, Heavy metals, Mass transport.

Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1992-11-01

193

Sister Chromatid Exchange in a Marine Polychaete Exposed to a Contaminated Harbor Sediment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates the use of SCE to measure DNA-damaging activity associated with contaminated dredged material. The primary objectives were to test the applicability of the SCE technique and to field verify any responses observed in the laboratory. Th...

G. G. Pesch C. Mueller C. E. Pesch G. R. Gardner J. Heltshe

1987-01-01

194

Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

Green, D. B.

2001-03-01

195

Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

196

Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal).  

PubMed

This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. PMID:24792880

Cabrita, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

197

Genesis Concentrator Target Particle Contamination Mapping and Material Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of surface particles were found to be < 5 microns in diameter with increasing numbers close to the optical resolution limit of 0.3 microns. Acceleration grid EDS results show that the majority of materials appear to be from the SRC shell and SLA materials which include carbon-carbon fibers and Si-rich microspheres in a possible silicone binder. Other major debris material from the SRC included white paint, kapton, collector array fragments, and Al. Image analysis also revealed that SRC materials were also found mixed with the Utah mud and salt deposits. The EDS analysis of the acceleration grid showed that particles < 1 m where generally carbon based particles. Chemical cleaning techniques with Xylene and HF in an ultrasonic bath are currently being investigated for removal of small particles by the Genesis science team as well as ultra-pure water megasonic cleaning by the JSC team [4]. Removal of organic contamination from target materials is also being investigated by the science team with the use of UV-ozone cleaning devices at JSC and Open University [5]. In preparation for solar wind oxygen analyses at UCLA and Open University [1, 2], surface particle contamination on three Genesis concentrator targets was closely examined to evaluate cleaning strategies. Two silicon carbide (Genesis sample # 60001 and 60003) and one chemical vapor deposited (CVD) 13C concentrator target (60002) were imaged and mosaic mapped with optical microscopes. The resulting full target mosaic images and particle feature maps were subsequently compared with non-flight, but flight-like, concentrator targets and sample return capsule (SRC) materials. Contamination found on the flown concentrator acceleration grid was further examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle identification was subsequently compared with the optical images from the flown targets. Figure 1 show that all three targets imaged in this report are fully intact and do not show any signs of material fractures. However, previous ellipsometry results and overview imaging of both flown SiC targets show a solar wind irradiation gradient from the center focal point to the outer edge [3]. In addition, due to the hard landing, each target has experienced varying degrees of impacts, scratches, and particle debris from the spacecraft and Utah impact site.

Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

2007-01-01

198

The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.  

PubMed

We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. PMID:23871519

O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

2013-09-01

199

Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste  

SciTech Connect

The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Scales, Charlie R. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Deegan, David [Tetronics Ltd., 5, Lechlade Road, Faringdon, Oxfordshire, SN7 8AL (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

200

Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

1984-05-01

201

Decontaminating materials used in ground water sampling devices: Organic contaminants  

SciTech Connect

In these studies, the efficiency of various decontamination protocols was tested on small pieces of materials commonly used in ground water sampling devices. Three materials, which ranged in ability to sorb organic solutes, were tested: stainless steel (SS), rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The test pieces were exposed to two aqueous test solutions: One contained three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one nitroaromatic compound, and the other contained four pesticides. Also, three types of polymetic tubing were exposed to pesticide solutions. Generally, the contact times were 10 minutes and 24 hours for sorption and desorption. The contaminants were removed from the nonpermeable SS and the less-sorptive rigid PVC test pieces simply by washing with a hot detergent solution and rinsing with hot water. Additional treatment was required for the PTFE test pieces exposed to the VOCs and for the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubing exposed to the pesticide test solution. Solvent rinsing did not improve removal of the three VOCs form the PTFE and only marginally improved removal of the residual pesticides from the LDPE. However, a hot water and detergent wash and rinse followed by oven drying at approximately 105 C was effective for removing the VOCs from the PTFE and substantially reduced pesticide contamination from the LDPE.

Parker, L.V.; Ranney, T.A.

2000-12-31

202

Acoustic Monitoring of Dredging-Related Suspended-Sediment Plumes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note presents the results of acoustic monitoring of suspended-sediment plumes during dredging operations. Monitoring was conducted in Mobile Bay, Alabama, during dredging by a hopper dredge and in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, during dredgi...

2000-01-01

203

MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

204

[Asbestos fibers in alcoholic beverages. Contaminating role of filtration material].  

PubMed

The presence of asbestos fibres was searched for in samples of wines, brandies and spirits which had or had not been filtered through asbestos filters. The materials examined were filtered on a micropore membrane that was then handled for electron microscope examination. Asbestos fibres were identified by their morphology and X-ray diffraction pattern and in certain cases additionally by punctual ultimate analysis (Edax). The presence of chrysotile fibres, generally separate but sometimes in clumps, was found in all the drinks which had been filtered through asbestos filters, while the non filtered drinks contained only a small concentration that was approximately equal to the one found in water analysed elsewhere. Only two samples of liquor, raw or filtered through a filter not containing asbestos, were absolutely free from fibres. On the other hand, the use of mixed filters of asbestos and cellulose resulted in only contamination by such mineral fibres. PMID:754576

le Bouffant, L

1978-01-01

205

Mechanical Impact Tests of Materials in Oxygen Effects of Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of contaminants on the mechanical impact sensitivity of Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum in a high-pressure oxygen environment was investigated. Uncontaminated Teflon did not ignite under the test conditions. The liquid contaminants - cutt...

P. M. Ordin

1980-01-01

206

EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF MARINE SEDIMENTS AND DREDGE SPOILS WITH THE MICROTOXR BIOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with...

207

Application of Bioassays in Toxicological Hazard, Risk and Impact Assessment of Dredged Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the potential environmental consequences of dumped dredged harbour sediments it is vital to establish the potential risks from exposure before disposal at sea. Currently, European legislation for disposal of contaminated sediments at sea is based on chemical analysis of a l...

208

Environmental Effects of Dredging. Documentation of the EFQUAL Module for ADDAMS: Comparison of Predicted Effluent Water Quality with Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note describes a technique for comparison of the predicted quality of effluent discharged from confined dredged material disposal areas with applicable water quality standards. This note also serves as documentation of a computer program ca...

M. R. Palermo P. R. Schroeder

1991-01-01

209

Effects of the contamination environment on surfaces and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the issues that have always existed, demands are being placed on space systems for increased contamination prevention/control. Optical surveillance sensors are required to detect low radiance targets. This increases the need for very low scatter surfaces in the optical system. Particulate contamination levels typically experienced in today's working environments/habits will most likely compromise these sensors. Contamination (molecular and particulate) can also affect the survivability of space sensors in both the natural and hostile space environments. The effects of di-octyl phthalate (DOP) on sensors are discussed.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

210

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the

Jing-Jy Cheng; Bassel Kassas; Charley Yu; John Arnish; Dave LePoire; Shih-Yew Chen; W. A. Williams; A. Wallo; H. Peterson

2004-01-01

211

Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials  

DOEpatents

Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

212

Dewatering of contaminated sediments: Greenhouse and field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water management of dredged sediments in Confined Disposal Facilities (CDFs) is an issue for the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Removing water from contaminated dredged sediments in CDFs is desirable because water removal can reduce the volume occupied by the sediments and can create the aerobic conditions needed for the microbial degradation of many contaminants found in the

K. E. Smith; M. K. Banks; A. P. Schwab

2009-01-01

213

Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a sensitive monitor of materials contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry is demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to contamination layers in the thickness range from 0.1 nm to 10 microns. In the present experiments we deposit either a thin lubricating oil (WD-40) or mineral oil continuously onto Ir, Cu, Al, Au, and V substrates from a bubbler, and monitor its thickness growth from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers as a function of time. Re-evaporation of contaminant oils is also monitored in real-time by ellipsometry.

Hale, Jeffrey S.; Hilfiker, James N.; Spady, Blaine; Synowicki, R.; Woollam, John A.

1995-01-01

214

BUILDING MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION USING A CONCRETE FLOOR AND WALL CONTAMINATION PROFILING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Certain radioisotopes can penetrate concrete and contaminate the concrete well below the surface. The challenge is to determine the extent and magnitude of the contamination problem in real-time. The concrete profiling technology, TRUPROSM in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the material being sampled. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk. Performing a volumetric concrete or metal characterization safer and faster (without lab intervention) is the objective of this characterization technology. This way of determining contamination can save considerable time and money. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilizes or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the area around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated. The goal is to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release.

Aggarwal, Dr. S.,; Charters, G.; Thacker, Dr. D.

2003-02-27

215

IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR REMOVAL OF SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Realizing the need to improve the capabilities of response personnel in dealing with cleanup operations involving contaminated sediments, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointly funded a research project to: (a) identify, characterize, and c...

216

SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediments contain contaminants derived from past activities that seriously degraded the environment. During low water, sediments are subject to natural erosion or removal for navigation. Erosion or dredging of sediment will release contaminants into the environment ...

217

Polymeric Materials for Protection Against Chemical and Biological Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to attach N-halamine functional groups to various polymeric materials to be used as oxidizing agents to render the materials biocidal and resistant to chemical agents. The biocidal objective was successfully achieved for ...

C. I. Wei J. Lin R. M. Broughton S. D. Worley Y. Li

2002-01-01

218

Analysis of electrokinetic sedimentation of dredged Welland River sediment.  

PubMed

The Welland River is a tributary of the Niagara River. In the late 1980s it was discovered that a section of the Welland River was contaminated with heavy metals as a results of two sewer outfalls that has been used by a steel plant and local industrial and municipal operations for the last 50-60 years. One of the major problems encountered in the treatment of the dredged Welland River sediment is a slow rate of sedimentation due to the large proportion of fine solids in the sediment. In this study, the results of electrokinetic sedimentation of the Welland River sediment are analyzed based on the principles of gravitational and electrokinetic sedimentation. It was found that the effects of electric field intensity and the initial solid concentration of the suspension are the dominating factors governing the average particle settling velocity, the coefficient of free settling in the free settling stage and the coefficient of sedimentation in the hindered settling stage. The electrokinetic treatment is proven to be effective in terms of increasing the free and hindered settling velocities, reducing the overall sedimentation time and increasing the final solid concentration of the sediment. Thus, electrokinetics can be used to accelerate sedimentation of dilute solid suspensions, such as dredged sediment, wastewater and mine tailings. PMID:11463505

Mohamedelhassan, E; Shang, J Q

2001-07-30

219

Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

Engel, C. G.; Engel, A. E. J.

1963-01-01

220

Study of organic contamination induced by outgassing materials. Application to the Laser MégaJoule optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic contamination may decrease the targeted performances of coated surfaces. To study the contamination induced by surrounding materials, a method using a thermal extractor is presented in the first part of this work. Besides its normal operation (analyses of outgassing compounds from a material), this device is used in an original way to contaminate and decontaminate samples. Efficiency of contamination and decontamination protocols are assessed by automated thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled with a time of flight mass analyzer. This enables to study the contamination induced by a bulk material outgassing and to take in consideration the possible competition between outgassed species. This method is then applied to investigate contamination of Laser MégaJoule sol-gel coated optics by a retractable sheath. The impact of the temperature on the outgassing of the sheath has been highlighted. Increasing temperature from 30 to 50 °C enables the outgassing of organophosphorous compounds and increases the outgassing of oxygenated compounds and phthalates. Chemical analyses of contaminated optics have highlighted affinities between the sol-gel coating and phthalates and organophosphorous, and low affinities with aromatics and terpens. Finally, samples with increasing levels of contamination have been realized. However a saturation phenomenon is observed at 90 ng cm-2.

Favrat, O.; Mangote, B.; Tovena-Pécault, I.; Néauport, J.

2014-02-01

221

33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

2013-07-01

222

Feasibility studies for the preparation and certification of reference materials Part II: mineral oil contaminated waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2-year international joint project HYCREF (Contract-No. G6RD-CT-2002-00854), funded by the European Commission in the 5th Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogenous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations,

Matthias Koch; Almuth Liebich; Tin Win; Irene Nehls; Arne Lund Kvernheim; Oddvar Ringstad; Frøydis Oreld

2006-01-01

223

Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

1997-03-01

224

Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.  

PubMed

A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

2013-09-01

225

Monitoring water-quality during pilot-dredging operations in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality was monitored in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers during a pilot dredging operation on December 16, 1977. Monitoring included in-situ measurements of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers; analyses of dissolved ammonia, dissolved manganese, suspended-sediment concentration and particle size, loss on ignition, and total organic carbon in river-water samples; and analyses of percent moisture, particle size, density, selected nutrients, total organic carbon, and loss on ignition in dredged material and barge-overflow samples. (Woodard-USGS)

Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

1978-01-01

226

An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

Silver, R. H.

1978-01-01

227

Low-contamination digestion bomb method using a Teflon double vessel for biological materials  

SciTech Connect

Through the NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) CRM (certified reference material), it has been required to investigate and develop a contamination-free digestion system for biological materials, since trace element levels in these matrices are so low that contamination during sample dissolution procedure often became a limiting factor for trace analysis. At an earlier stage, a Teflon bomb developed by Iida et al. was used for the decomposition of NIES Chlorella and Freeze-Dried Serum reference materials. Recently, an improved Teflon bomb method has been developed. The method uses a small screw cap vial for sample decomposition inside the Teflon digestion vessel. This digestion system can reduce the risk of sample leakage and contamination with extraneous materials and can be applied to biological materials up to approximately 300 mg of dry weight. 7 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Okamoto, K.; Fuwa, K.

1984-08-01

228

TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON DETERMINATIONS IN NATURAL AND CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) content of soils and aquifer materials is essential for understanding subsurface chemistry during environmental site characterization. ontaminant fate and transport, microbial ecology, and effective treatment methodology are all influenc...

229

Effects of polymeric materials and contaminants on streaming electrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the effect of material characteristics on static electrification phenomena, the charging current characteristics of different polymeric materials, such as, PTFE, XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene), LDPE (low-density polyethylene) silicone rubber, EVA, EPR, pressboard, etc., in paraffinic-based transformer oil were investigated. Use was made of spinning disc system (SDS) over a temperature range of 27-60°C and at a rotational

R. Jagadish; P. K. Poovamma; K. Dwarakanath

1993-01-01

230

Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products significantly decreased phosphate amounts. For the 38 specific filter materials evaluated, based on a 60 percent contaminant reduction level, 12 materials removed nitrate, 26 materials removed phosphate, and 21 materials removed atrazine. Furthermore, 2 materials removed zero contaminants, 16 materials removed one contaminant, 17 materials removed two contaminants, and 3 of the materials removed all three contaminants. The most effective filter materials proved to be a steam activated carbon, a zero valent iron and sulfer modified iron mixture, and a surfactant modified clay. The findings of this study indicate that there are a variety of filter materials, either separately or in combination, which have the potential to treat agricultural drainage waters.

Allred, B. J.

2007-12-01

231

Analysis of TIN's for Dredged Volume Computation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will examine some of the commercially available software packages which can be used to create Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN's) and compute dredge volumes from these TIN's. It will also give some guidance on selecting a package to use for...

J. Ruby

1994-01-01

232

New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, Maintenance Dredging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the navigational maintenance project in New Haven Harbor, New Haven County, Connecticut consisting of dredging in the main channel from Long Island Sound to the Tomlinson Bridge, to its authorized depth of 35 feet and disposal of an e...

1972-01-01

233

Study of abyssal seafloor isolation of contaminated sediments concluded  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) conducted and managed the assessment, which was funded during its first year by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and in the following two years by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. NRL carried out the projects in collaboration with participants from academic institutions and industrial organizations. The seafloor isolation concept is an attractive management option for contaminated dredged material because, if abyssal isolation is feasible and environmentally sound, air, land, or water supplies would not be contaminated. The participants concluded that it is technically and environmentally feasible. In ports where shipping costs are high, abyssal seafloor isolation is a cost-competitive strategy. They also outlined the architecture of a system to monitor conditions at the site and to detect and measure possible leaks of contaminated material.

Valent, P.

1998-12-31

234

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

235

FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

236

Novel materials for environmental remediation of oil sands contaminants.  

PubMed

Abstract The incorporation of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) within the framework structure of copolymer sorbent materials, represents a novel modular design approach with significant potential for controlled tuning of the textural mesoporosity of such sorbent frameworks. ?-CD copolymers represent an innovative design strategy for the development of "smart" or "functional" porous materials with improved solid phase extraction (SPE) and molecular recognition properties because of the porogen characteristics and their unique host-guest properties. Carbohydrate-based copolymers containing cyclodextrins (CDs) are of interest, in part, because of their ability to form stable inclusion complexes in aqueous solution. The inclusion properties of ?-CD copolymers are determined by the surface area, pore structure, and site accessibility of inclusion sites within the copolymer framework. A mini-review of recent research in our group concerning the use of copolymers containing ?-CD as sorbent materials for naphthenic acids is presented herein. PMID:24552956

Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Headley, John V

2014-01-01

237

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding ho...

238

A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

239

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

PubMed

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

240

Pricing the Cost of Dredging Engineering Based on the Dynamic Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymmetric and incomplete information of dredging engineering make it difficult to price the cost of dredging engineering. The paper using the game theory in pricing the cost of dredging engineering, establish the pricing model of the cost of dredging engineering based on static and dynamic game, and find the pricing model of the cost of dredging engineering based on

Bin Zhou; Zi Gang Zhang

2010-01-01

241

Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high source power (pre-) productions tools. In this area it is important to characterize for the different chemistries which resist components are critical for EUV induced outgassing and - more important - which can result in non-cleanable mirror contamination. In this paper, we will explore the outgassing and contamination behavior of CAR and non-CAR resist by using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for identifying the resist outgassing characteristics, and by Witness Sample (WS) testing to evaluate the tendency for contamination. For CAR resists, it has been found that the PAG cation is a key component contributing to the contamination, but its impact can be changed by changing the resist formulation. In this investigation several model resists have been evaluated in order to understand which chemical components have - or don't have - an impact on the contamination. This has led to a proposal of a definition for a resist family. For non-CAR materials, the investigation has focused to a number of example resists. Most results are related to poly(-olefin sulfones), which have been proven to be good candidate materials for outgassing and contamination learning. The tests have confirmed that aromatic groups present in resist outgassing are playing an important role. As an opposite example of non-CAR material, the inorganic Inpria resist was tested, which revealed that its resist outgassing (water and oxygen) can remove carbon contamination. The combined work on CAR and non-CAR outgassing and contamination has learned significantly on the relationship between resist chemistry, its outgassing and contamination, and provided understanding on how to design good performing EUV resists with minimal risk for optics contamination in EUV device manufacturing.

Pollentier, I.; Neira, I.; Gronheid, R.

2011-03-01

242

The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

2009-01-01

243

The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

Storlazzi, Curt, D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.

2011-01-01

244

Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

2000-06-01

245

Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

1999-06-01

246

Contamination of the cement raw material in a quarry site by seawater intrusion, Darica-Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open pit mining nearby shoreline is planned to be extended into below sea level in order to use additional reserves of the cement raw material (marl). The raw material is currently contaminated by seawater intrusion below a depth of 20 m up to the distance of 90 m from shoreline. Seawater intrusion related contamination of the material used for the cement production was investigated by means of diffusion process for the future two below sea level mining scenarios covering 43 years of period. According to the results, chloride concentrations higher than the tolerable limit of a cement raw material would be present in the material about 10-25 cm inward from each discontinuity surface, controlling groundwater flow, located between 170 and 300 m landward from the shoreline at below sea level mining depths of 0-30 m. The estimations suggest that total amounts of dilution required for the contaminated raw material to reduce its concentration level to the tolerance limit with uncontaminated raw material are about 113- to 124-fold for scenario I (13 years of below sea level mining after 30 years of above sea level mining) and about 126- to 138-fold for scenario II (43 years of simultaneous above and below sea level minings).

Camur, M. Zeki; Doyuran, Vedat

2008-02-01

247

Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D. M.

1984-01-01

248

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

249

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 210: Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 210, Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, is identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. This Corrective Action Unit consists of four Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 10, 12, and 15 of the Nevada Test Site. This report documents that the closure activities conducted meet the approved closure standards.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2004-06-01

250

Determination of contaminants in rare earth materials by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA

D. L. Perry; G. A. English; R. B. Firestone; G. L. Molnár

2005-01-01

251

Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

2004-11-09

252

The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials  

SciTech Connect

There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy soils (clay-type should) to which current soil washing practices are not applied. WRI is not aware of any other soil washing technologies that demonstrate this ability at the expected cost on a per ton basis. The market for this technology is considered excellent for Superfund and other inorganic contaminated sites.

Terry Brown

2009-03-03

253

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

254

A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

255

Environmental effects of dredging on sediment nutrients, carbon and granulometry in a tropical estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monitoring study encompassed a period prior to dredging, during dredging and post dredging between July 1999 to June\\u000a 2000 in Ponggol estuary located along the northeastern coast of Singapore. Mean concentrations of sediment nutrients in mg\\u000a ? Kg?1 (± standard error of means) prior to dredging, during dredging and post dredging were 9.75 ± 4.24, 8.18 ± 4.29 and

S. Nayar; D. J. Miller; A. Hunt; B. P. L. Goh; L. M. Chou

2007-01-01

256

Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

Austin, J. D.

1974-01-01

257

Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

258

Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials  

DOEpatents

A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

1987-01-01

259

Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

PubMed

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data. PMID:15551790

Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

2004-11-01

260

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

SciTech Connect

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

2004-11-01

261

International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues.  

PubMed

The paper addresses the international policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residue, its main aim being to describe the misunderstandings, evolution and status of the international paradigms in this area. Thus, the denotation and connotation of the 'remediation' and 'contamination' concepts are explored, including the ambiguity they produce in understanding of the issues by a sceptical public. Then, the international radiation protection approaches for remediation are portrayed. They derive from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are described including their basic principles and characterization of exposure situations. Prolonged exposure situations, which are typical in cases of contaminated land, are analysed with particular detail. The newer ICRP general recommendations, as well as recent ICRP recommendations for excluding and exempting exposure situations from regulatory control and for living in long-term contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency, are examined. Remediation vis-à-vis environmental protection is discussed and the non-technical factors usually involved in decision-making on remediation are examined. Finally, the international safety standards on remediation, which are being established under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are explored. These include the well established International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, or BSS, as well as the specific international safety requirements for remediation; a brief overview of the current process of revising the BSS is also included. In its outcome the paper suggests that the time is ripe for a simple and clear international agreement on the levels of radioactivity in territorial contamination with radioactive material that may be considered unambiguously safe. PMID:20880618

González, Abel J

2013-05-01

262

Environmental assessment of physical/chemical impacts related to the dredging and disposal of spoil from the proposed trench tube crossing of the Anacostia River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental sampling and testing was conducted to identify specified chemical pollutants in river-bottom material to be dredged during construction of the Metro subway tube tunnel crossing of the Anacostia River. Constituent concentrations is sediments, elutriates, and surface waters at the site and defined and compared with federal, state, and District of Columbia criteria and guidelines to identify potential problem areas and to evaluate potential chemical and physical impacts of dredging and spoil disposal. The results indicate sediment-bound concentrations of chlordane, DDT and PCBs which fail to meet federal criteria. High surface water concentrations of iron and mercury were identified which would prevent regulatory compliances of dredging operations for these constituents. It was concluded that the dredging would be minimal. Potential impacts upon groundwater were identified, bur further analyses of hydrogeology at the proposed disposal sites would be needed to define the potential for problems.

Pine, F. W.; Yost, J. C.; Saul, S. W.; Wood, S. G.

1981-03-01

263

Effects of the use of fly ash as a binder on the mechanical behaviour of treated dredged sediments.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of dredged sediments treated with pozzolanic binders as a pavement base material, and to assess the usefulness of fly ash as a soil mixture/binder with the aim of improving the engineering properties of the stabilized dredged sediments in order to make them capable of taking more load from the foundation structures. Comparing the results with other binders currently used in road construction, the addition of fly ash shows significant positive advantages. The present study covers the characterization of the dredged sediments and fly ash, compaction behaviour, pH measurement, effect on unconfined compressive strength, and the effect of cyclic wet-dry and freeze-thaw tests. PMID:19705663

Silitonga, E; Levacher, D; Mezazigh, S

2009-07-01

264

Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

Ankley, G. T.; Hoke, R. A.; Giesy, J. P.; Winger, P. V.

1989-01-01

265

3D Geospatial Models for Visualization and Analysis of Groundwater Contamination at a Nuclear Materials Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of hydrostratigraphy and uranium and nitrate contamination in groundwater at a former nuclear materials processing facility in Oklahoma were undertaken employing 3-dimensional (3D) geospatial modeling software. Models constructed played an important role in the regulatory decision process of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because they enabled visualization of temporal variations in contaminant concentrations and plume geometry. Three aquifer

G. L. Stirewalt; J. C. Shepherd

2003-01-01

266

Combining Expert Judgement and Stakeholder Values with Promethee: A case Study in Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of dredged contaminated sediments can be a contentious, difficult, and expensive task. Because the waterways from which sediments are dredged have multiple uses, competing interests are often brought to bear on any decision. No single best alternative is likely to emerge; different stakeholder groups will prefer different alternatives. This chapter investigates the utility of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) as

S. H. ROGERS; T. P. SEAGER; K. H. GARDNER

267

RF thermal plasma treatment of dredged sediments: vitrification and silicon extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, dredged polluted sediments with high level of hydrocarbons and heavy metals have been treated by means of a laboratory scale radiofrequency (RF) thermal plasma source inside a graphite crucible. Two different experimental approaches have been utilized (1) to fully decontaminate and vitrify this material, and (2) to study the technical feasibility of metallurgical-grade silicon (MGS) smelting by carbothermal-reduction reactions of carbon with silica (SiO2) content in these dredged sediments. A two-dimensional model of a commercial inductively coupled RF plasma torch has been used to investigate the effects of plasma flow and temperature distributions of the plasma discharge interacting with the material inside the crucible. Samples of both vitrification and carbothermal reduction processes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and leaching tests. Results obtained showed a fully decontamination of the dredged sediments, with release values of heavy metals in leachates well below the law limits. Moreover, SEM/EDS analyses suggested that separation of MGS by carbothermal-reduction process is possible.

Colombo, V.; Ghedini, E.; Gherardi, M.; Mani, V.; Sanibondi, P.; Vazquez, B.

2012-12-01

268

Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued exposures to contaminated materials.  

PubMed

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. PMID:22395282

Napier, Bruce

2012-03-01

269

Nanoscale materials and their use in water contaminants removal-a review.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is being recognized as a present and future threat to human activity and as a consequence water purification technologies are gaining major attention worldwide. Nanotechnology has many successful applications in different fields but recently its application for water and wastewater treatment has emerged as a fast-developing, promising area. This review highlights the recent advances on the development of nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater that are contaminated by toxic metals, organic and inorganic compounds, bacteria and viruses. In addition, the toxic potential of engineered nanomaterials for human health and the environment will also be discussed. PMID:23292223

Mohmood, Iram; Lopes, Cláudia Batista; Lopes, Isabel; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

2013-03-01

270

Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S.

1993-06-01

271

Influence of material and tube size on DUWLs contamination in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that the water discharged from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) contains high densities of bacteria, especially non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the material (polyethylene-PE and polytetrafluorethylene-PTFE) and size (1.6 and 4.0 mm) of 4 waterlines in a pilot plant influence the level of contamination in the output water. The water contamination was assessed by analyzing the trend of the heterotrophic plate counts at 22 degrees C as a function of time and by testing for non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria. In all waterlines, the bacterial density increased exponentially during the first months and thereafter remained between 10(4) and 10(6) cfu/ml. However, the plate count at 22 degrees C was lower in the water from PTFE tubes and from larger size tubes. Comamonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, responsible for infections associated with dental practice, was never isolated in the output water from PTFE tubes. In order to control bacterial contamination the results suggest the use of waterlines made of PTFE on account of their ability to inhibit the colonization and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:17319597

Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Zanetti, Franca

2007-01-01

272

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

273

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

274

4. AERIAL OBLIQUE FROM EAST, SHOWING DREDGING, BULKHEAD, CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. AERIAL OBLIQUE FROM EAST, SHOWING DREDGING, BULKHEAD, CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY AT BASE IN BACKGROUND. USN PHOTO, C. SEPTEMBER, 1940. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

275

Current State of the Art of Rock Cutting and Dredging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Site Investigation; Physical Properties of Ground in Relation to the Dredging Operation; Assessment of Properties of Rock that Affect Excavation; Mechanical Excavation of Rock; Tools Used in Mechanical Rock Excavation; Rock Cutter Suction Dredgi...

H. J. Hignett

1984-01-01

276

14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

277

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

278

Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

1984-01-01

279

Properties of a surface contaminated by gaseous products of polymer composition materials under vacuum conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties and chemical composition of a surface that is contaminated by molecular flows consisting of gaseous products of polymer composition materials (e.g., EKOM-2 enamel) are experimentally studied. The polymer materials are irradiated using a short-wavelength source with a luminous intensity of 6 × 10-4 W/cm2 sr in the wavelength interval 90-320 nm in a vacuum chamber that is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4-10-3 Pa. An analytical solution is obtained for the problem of radiation fluxes in scattering and absorbing medium of precipitate on a mirror surface, and a relation of model absorption and scattering coefficients for optical radiation in such medium and transport coefficients of the Gurevich theory of turbid medium is demonstrated.

Kalashnikov, E. V.; Kalashnikova, S. N.; Tomeev, K. A.

2014-02-01

280

Degradation of TAUVEX optical system performance due to contamination by outgassed spacecraft materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space ultrahigh vacuum environment induces outgassing of spacecraft organic materials which may condense on optical surfaces and degrade the performance of optical systems. Lab simulation outgassing tests show transmission and/or reflection losses of optical components (i.e., optically polished plates and mirrors) measured at the wavelength range of 200 - 800 nm. The losses caused by deposition of outgassed products on the optical surfaces at the amount of 10-6 - X10-4 g/cm2 were measured. The loss mechanism is most likely scattering of light. This experimental data was combined with a computerized ab-initio model which calculated the contamination developed in a simulated preliminary design of the TAUVEX astronomical UV research telescope. This enabled us to estimate the performance of TAUVEX's optical system as a function of mission time, and served as a guideline for selection of materials, cleanliness requirements, thermal conditions and bakeout processes.

Nahor, Gad; Baer, Michael; Anholt, Micha; Murat, Michael; Noter, Yoram; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Saar, Nachman; Braun, Ofer

1993-08-01

281

Sorption/Desorption and Transport of Trichloroethene in Freshly-amended, Synthetically- aged, and Field-contaminated Aquifer Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effect of long-term contaminant aging on the sorption/desorption and transport of trichloroethene in a low organic-carbon content aquifer material collected from the source zone of a chlorinated-solvent contaminated federal Superfund site in Arizona. This was accomplished by comparing elution behavior for field-contaminated, synthetically-aged (contact times of approximately four years), and freshly-amended aquifer material. Elution of trichloroethene exhibited extensive low-concentration tailing, despite minimal retention of trichloroethene by the aquifer material. The observed nonideal behavior indicates significant mass-transfer constraints influenced trichloroethene transport in this aquifer material. The elution behavior of trichloroethene for the field-contaminated and aged treatments was essentially identical to that observed for the fresh treatments. In addition, the results of three independent mass- balance analyses, total mass eluted, solvent-extraction analysis of residual sorbed mass, and flow- interruption rebound, showed equivalent recoveries for the aged and fresh treatments. These results indicate that long-term contaminant aging did not significantly influence the transport and fate behavior of trichloroethene in this low organic-carbon aquifer material. The observed nonideal behavior of trichloroethene (i.e., nonlinear sorption and significantly rate-limited sorption/desorption) suggests physically condensed carbonaceous material, comprising 61% of this media's organic-carbon content, mediates the transport and fate behavior of trichloroethene in this low organic-carbon content aquifer material.

Johnson, G. R.; Norris, D. K.; Brusseau, M. L.

2008-12-01

282

Investigation of airborne molecular contamination adsorption rate as storage materials in mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The haze issue has gradually increased in the 65 nm node technology and beyond. This issue has been reporting that it is caused by chemical reaction among ions like SO42-, NH4+ and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (AHCs) such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), toluene and etc. on mask by 193 nm laser in general. This haze growth causes defects with accumulation of exposure energy. Finally, it decreases the lifetime of photomask with an increase in defects. The source of this haze is generated from storage materials as well as chemical residue in the photomask process. Therefore, we investigated the adsorption rate of airborne molecular contamination (AMC) on each layer with storage materials which were assumed to be the source of the haze. We analyzed adsorbed ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on each layer to verify the effects of storage materials for some storage periods by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (ATD GC/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Also, we investigated the contact angle of each layer as AMC concentration of storage materials. From the experimental results, we confirmed that the adsorption rate of AMC was different on each layer as storage materials.

Yang, Chul-Kyu; Cha, Han-Sun; Yang, Sin-Ju; Kang, Ju-Hyun; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Nam, Kee-Soo

2007-10-01

283

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S. J.; Wilson, S. A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H. M. S.; Yang, S. -Y.; Long, S. E.

2008-01-01

284

INVESTIGATION OF AMENDMENTS TO REDUCE METALS LEACHABILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dredged material can be a valuable resource for environmental ehnacement projects such as restoring or establishing new wetlands for beach restoration and stabilization, and fill material for flood rotection and new developments Few studies have addressed both the ecological and ...

285

Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.  

PubMed

Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well. PMID:18849710

Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

2008-11-01

286

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-06-01

287

Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

2006-01-01

288

The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.  

PubMed

Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination. PMID:23091967

Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

2012-10-01

289

Relocation effects of dredged marine sediments on mercury geochemistry: Venice lagoon, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the biogeochemical process of Hg is critical in the overall evaluation of the ecological impacts resulting from the reuse of Hg-contaminated dredged sediment. Sediment banks (V1 and V2) were constructed with freshly dredged sediments from a navigational channel in Venice Lagoon, Italy, with the goal of clarifying potential differences in the biogeochemistry of Hg between the reused dredged sediments and those from surrounding sites (SS1 and S2). Toward this purpose, Hg and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations, and Hg methylation rates (MMRs) in the surface 2.5 cm sediments were monitored, along with ammonium, iron, sulfate and sulfide concentrations in the pore waters of banks and surrounding sites from November 2005 to February 2007. Pore water analyses indicate that the bank sediments are characterized by lower levels of sulfate and iron, and by higher levels of ammonium and sulfide compared to the surrounding sediments. With respect to Hg speciation, the fractions of MMHg in total Hg (%MMHg/Hg) and the MMRs were significantly lower in the bank V1 compared to those in the reference site SS1, whereas the %MMHg/Hg and the MMRs were similar between V2 and S2. A negative correlation is found between the logarithm of the particle-water partition coefficient of Hg and the MMR, indicating that the reduced MMRs in V1 are caused by the limited concentrations of dissolved Hg. Organic matter appears to play a key role in the control of MMR via the control of Hg solubility.

Han, Seunghee; Gieskes, Joris; Obraztsova, Anna; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2011-05-01

290

Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests.

Sakanakura, Hirofumi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: sakanakura@nies.go.jp; Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

2009-05-15

291

Evaluation of two bacterial delivery systems for in-situ remediation of PAH contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intention, Goal and Background  Contaminated sediments represent a significant, worldwide environmental problem since they contain a mixture of different\\u000a xenobiotics and heavy metals. The presence of mixed contamination presents a unique set of obstacles for remediation efforts.\\u000a Often sediment remediation occurs as an ex-situ application (i.e., after dredging) in an attempt to minimize some of the problems.\\u000a However, dredging poses it’s

Don C. Haddox; Teresa J. Cutright

2003-01-01

292

46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

2013-10-01

293

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

294

33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10...NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking...67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. (a)...

2013-07-01

295

43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating, or...

2013-10-01

296

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1991-06-01

297

A DEVICE TO MEASURE LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS IN ULTRA-CLEAN MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a radiation detection device so sensitive that a decay rate of only one atom per 11.57 days per kilogram of material could be detected. Such a detector is needed for screening materials that will be used in exotic high energy physics experiments currently being planned for the near future. The research was performed deep underground at the Underground Mine State Park in Soudan, Minnesota. The overburden there is ~1800 meters water equivalent. The reason for performing the research at such depth was to vastly reduce the effects of cosmic radiation. The flux of muons and fast neutrons is about 100,000 times lower than at the surface. A small clean room quality lab building was constructed so that work could be performed in such a manner that radioactive contamination could be kept at a minimum. Glove boxes filled with dry nitrogen gas were used to further reduce contamination from dirt and also help reduce the concentration of the radioactive gas 222Ra and daughter radionuclides which are normally present in air. A massive lead shield (about 20 tons) was constructed in such a manner that an eight inch cube of space in the center was available for the sample and detector. The innermost 4" thick lead walls were made of ~460 year old lead previously used in double beta decay experiments and known to be virtually free of 210Pb. A one and one half inch thick shell of active plastic scintillator was imbedded in the center of the 16" thick lead walls, ceiling, and floor of the shield and is used to help reduce activity due to the few muons and fast neutrons seen at this depth. The thick lead shielding was necessary to shield the detector from gamma rays emitted by radionuclides in the rock walls of the mine. A sealable chamber was constructed and located on top of the shield that included a device for raising and lowering the detector and samples into and out of the center chamber of the shield. A plastic scintillator detector measuring 6"x6"x6" was fitted with wave length shifting fibers that allowed the light from ionizing radiation to be collected and transmitted outside the massive shield to photomultiplier tubes and electronics. The detector was calibrated for energy and detection efficiency and low resolution background spectra were collected. Results from these measurements show the figure of merit (using: efficiency/square root of background) for this plastic scintillation counting technique to be ~15 times better than for a 2 kg germanium detector for measuring surface contamination from atmospheric 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi, and 210Po). These daughter radionuclides are normally deposited everywhere onto all materials exposed to air. The results are encouraging and indicate that plastic scintillation counting techniques can be of benefit to the public by making available very sensitive counters for screening ultra-low background materials at an affordable cost. However, in order to reach the level required a multi element array of thin plastic scintillator sheets must be developed that will allow many thin samples to be counted at one time. In addition, more sophisticated light detection hardware, electronics, and computer software is needed.

James H Reeves; Matthew Kauer

2006-03-17

298

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and accumulators, gas cylinders, and associated debris were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. (3) At CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum, as a BMP, an empty drum was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank, approximately 165 gal of lead-impacted liquid were removed and are currently pending disposal as HW, and approximately 10 gal of lead shot and 6 yd{sup 3} of wax embedded with lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW. As a BMP, approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, approximately 55 gal of liquid were removed and disposed as sanitary waste, and two metal containers were grouted in place. (5) At CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain, no further action was required; however, as a BMP, approximately l.5 yd{sup 3} of wax were removed and disposed as hydrocarbon waste, and one metal container was grouted in place.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-08-01

299

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

300

77 FR 47284 - Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI AGENCY: Coast...for and salvage operations of the Arthur J. dredge vessel. This temporary safety zone...emergency sinking of the dredge vessel Arthur J. precluded the Coast Guard from having...

2012-08-08

301

16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING OPERATIONS USING TWO LEVERS FROM CEILING, THREE LEVELS ON THE FLOOR, AND TWO FLOOR PEDDLES. RIGHT HAND CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER (BOOM MOVE TO RIGHT WHEN PUSHED FORWARD, LEFT WHEN PULLED BACK, AND, IF LUCKY, STOPPED WHEN IN CENTER POSITION). LEFT HAND CONTROLLED THROTTLE. FLOOR LEVER AND FLOOR PEDDLE ON LEFT CONTROLLED THE BACKING LINE FRICTION. MIDDLE LEVER AND PEDDLE, STUCK IN FLOOR CONTROLLED THE MAIN HOIST FRICTION. LEVER ON RIGHT CONTROLLED THE CYLINDER DRAIN VALVE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

302

Back contamination.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the concept and implications of back contamination and of the ways and means for its prevention. Back contamination is defined as contamination of the terrestrial biosphere with organisms or materials returned from outer space that are capable of potentially harmful terrestrial activity. Since the question of whether or not life exists on other planets may, in reality, not be answered until many samples are returned to earth for detailed study, requirements for the prevention of back contamination are necessary. A review of methods of microbiologic contamination control is followed by a discussion of the nature of back contamination and its risk levels, contamination sources and locations, and possible defenses against back contamination. The U.S. lunar back contamination program is described and shown to provide a valuable basis for further refining the technology for the control of planetary back contamination.

Phillips, G. B.

1971-01-01

303

Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.  

PubMed

An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:10030724

Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

1998-12-01

304

Patterns of Fish Abundance Associated with a Dredge Disposal Island: Implications for Fish Habitat Enhancement in a Large Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated trends in fish abundance associated with in-water disposal of dredged material in Lower Granite Reservoir, Idaho–Washington. Fish assemblages were sampled before (1985) and after (1993) construction of a 0.37-ha disposal island to assess local changes in fish community structure, In addition, resident fish abundance was monitored for 5 years (1989–1993) near the disposal island and compared with patterns

Steve R. Chipps; David H. Bennett; Thomas J. Dresser JR

1997-01-01

305

Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

2010-12-01

306

Mechanical impact tests of materials in oxygen effects of contamination. [Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of contaminants on the mechanical impact sensitivity of Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum in a high-pressure oxygen environment was investigated. Uncontaminated Teflon did not ignite under the test conditions. The liquid contaminants - cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmaker dye - caused Teflon to ignite. Raising the temperature lowered the impact energy required for ignition. Stainless steel was insensitive to ignition under the test conditions with the contaminants used. Aluminum appeared to react without contaminants under certain test conditions; however, contamination with cutting oil, motor lubricating oil, and toolmakers dye increased the sensitivity of aluminum to mechanical impact. The grit contaminants silicon dioxide and copper powder did not conclusively affect the sensitivity of aluminum.

Ordin, P. M.

1980-01-01

307

Sorption and desorption hysteresis of organic contaminants by kerogen in a sandy aquifer material.  

PubMed

Sorption and desorption hysteresis of 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene were investigated for the Borden aquifer material with total organic carbon of 0.021% and the isolated natural organic matter (NOM). The isolated NOM is a kerogen type of organic matter with relatively low maturation degree and contained many different types of organic matters including vitrinite particles. The modified Freundlich sorption capacities (logK(')(f) and logK(')(foc)) are very close for the sorption of the four solutes by the isolated NOM and the original sand, respectively. Isotherm non-linearity (n value) and hysteric behaviors are related to solute molecular properties (e.g. K(ow) and molecular size). Kerogen encapsulated by inorganic matrices in the original aquifer may not be accessed fully by solutes. The larger the hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC) (hydrophobic organic contaminant) molecule is, the lower accessibility of the HOC to kerogen. This study disputes widely held hypothesis that sorption to mineral surfaces may play a major role in the overall sorption by low TOC (e.g. 0.1% by mass) geomaterials such as Borden sand. It also demonstrates the importance of the condensed NOM domain, even at very low contents, in the sorption and desorption hysteresis of HOCs in groundwater systems. PMID:12586168

Ran, Yong; Xiao, Baohua; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

2003-03-01

308

Reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from contaminated materials, soils, and wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

309

Progress in Reducing the Habitat Impact of Trawls and Dredges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a project done by the Center for Fisheries Engineering Research (CFER) aimed at reducing the impact of trawls and dredges on the sea bed. Model tests of a variety of flexible devices were performed, exploring the potential of using h...

C. A. Goudey

1999-01-01

310

Assessment Of Bioaccumulation Potential Following Dredging In Mainistique, Michigan  

EPA Science Inventory

After the Superfund remedy of the Mainistique River and Harbor that occurred in 1996 to 2001, PCB concentrations in sediment have gone down substantially. Prior to dredging, the average PCB concentration was 28 ppm (all depth intervals) and the current average in sediments is 0....

311

Disposal of Sandy Pipeline Dredge Spoils by End Dumping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been shown that it is possible to predict, within limits, the fate of sandy spoils discharged from a pipeline dredge in water. The means of making these predictions is based on a simple representation of the actual physical conditions at the end of...

W. L. Schroeder M. R. Pyles

1975-01-01

312

[Agricultural application of sludge dredged from landscape water bodies].  

PubMed

The feasibility and ecological effects of agricultural application of sludge dredged from the Grand Canal (Hangzhou Section) were studied. Applied too much dredged sludge to red soil and paddy soil affected the germination of alpine fescue [Fescuta ovina var. brachyphylla (Schult.) Piper] and colver (Trifolium repens. L) seeds, while there wasn't significantly affects in pot experiment. While the application rate was lower than 270 t.hm-2, the growth of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) increased as application rate increasing. While the application rate was higher than 270 t.hm-2, the growth of pakchoi decreased. The flowers and grasses in garden were more suitable for the dredged sludge application, and there was significant increase of growth while the application rate was lower than 1080 t.hm-2. Contents of copper and zinc exceed hygiene standard, while the application rate was above 1350 t.hm-2. While the application rate was lower than 450 t.hm-2, the pollution of the groundwater had not been observed. The results showed that land application was an economical and feasible way for the disposal of sludge dredged from landscape water bodies, and horticultural application was more safe and economical than agricultural application. PMID:12132166

Zhu, Guangwei; Chen, Yingxu; Wang, Fengping; Zhou, Gendi

2002-03-01

313

Electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals from dredged marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the suitability of the electrokinetic process for extracting heavy metals from dredged marine sediment. Marine sediments have unique characteristics such as high alkalinity, high buffering capacity, and a large fraction of fine particles and organic contents. The target heavy metals were nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb). Tap water was circulated in the anode

Kyung-Jo Kim; Do-Hyung Kim; Jong-Chan Yoo; Kitae Baek

2011-01-01

314

ON THE PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES IN DREDGE PUMP IMPELLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dredging, specific knowledge of particle flow through pipes and pumps is required so that the design of the various components can be optimized for the requirements of mixture flow. In the absence of theoretical knowledge, experimental results are used to predict losses in pipelines and the performance of pumps. This approach, while sufficient for application in general, is not

C. F. Hofstra; C. van Rhee; S. A. Miedema; A. M. Talmon

315

U.S. Allows Atlantic Scallop Dredging, Limits Groundfishery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the National Marine Fisheries Service ignored advice from fishery scientists and environmental organizations by granting final approval to a measure that allows scallop dredging in ecologically sensitive areas off New England and the Mid-Atlantic. This news brief, from Environment News Service, describes the recent turn of events, including the anticipated impacts on already threatened groundfish stocks.

2001-01-01

316

Treatment Of Arsenic-Contaminated Materials Using Selected Stabilization And Solidification Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated fro...

317

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10

318

AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION IN SEDIMENTS AND DREDGED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The identification of toxicants affecting aquatic benthic systems is critical to sound assessment and management of our nation?s waterways. Identification of toxicants can be useful in designing effective sediment remediation plans and reasonable options for sediment disposal. K...

319

THE EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS ON REPRESENTATIVE ESTUARINE SPECIES AND DEVELOPING BENTHIC COMMUNITIES. CHAPTER 21  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay techniques developed to examine acute and sublethal effects of dredged sediments on marine life are described. Results are reported for laboratory tests conducted to determine sublethal and acute effects of Kepone-sorbed sediment and dredged spoil material from the James...

320

REMOVAL AND SEPARATION OF SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM IMPOUNDMENT BOTTOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration was conducted of a system for removing spilled hazardous materials from pond bottoms and separating the hazardous materials and suspended solids from the resulting dredged slurry. The removal system consisted of a MUD CAT dredge. The processing system consisted of...

321

North Fork John Day Dredge Tailings Restoration Project Final Report 1997-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The USDA Forest Service (USFS) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) worked together to rehabilitate 2.1 miles of Clear Creek floodplain, a tributary of the North Fork John Day River Basin. Dredge tailing were deposited from mining operations on Clear Creek's floodplain from the 1930's to the 1950's. These tailing confined the stream channel and degraded the floodplain. The work was completed by moving dredge tailing piles adjacent to the Clear Creek channel, using track-mounted excavators and dump trucks. A caterpillar tractor was used to contour the material placed outside the immediate floodplain, blending it into the hillside. The restored floodplain was very near channel bankfull level following excavation and contoured to accept future flood flows. Monitoring was initiated through pre and post-project photo points and cross-section measurements. Work was completed in two efforts. In 1997 and 1998 floodplain restoration was adjacent to the reconstruction of Road 13 from the junction with Road 10 from Clear Creek River Mile 1.9 to 3.1 for a distance of 1.2 miles. In 1999 the Environmental Assessment for Lower Clear Creek--Granite Creek Floodplain Restoration Project was completed for work proposed on Clear Creek from the mouth up to River mile 1.9 and the Granite Creek floodplain from River miles 5.9 to 7.7. Restoration proposed in the 1999 Environmental Assessment is the subject of this report.

Sanchez, John A. (US Forest Service, Pendleton, OR)

2002-12-01

322

The effects of marine sand and gravel extraction on the macrobenthos at a commercial dredging site (results 6 years post-dredging)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boyd, S. E., Limpenny, D. S., Rees, H. L., and Cooper, K. M. 2005. The effects of marine sand and gravel extraction on the macrobenthos at a commercial dredging site (results 6 years post-dredging). e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 145e162. Benthic recolonization was investigated at a site historically used for the extraction of marine sand and gravel. The

S. E. Boyd; D. S. Limpenny; H. L. Rees; K. M. Cooper

2005-01-01

323

Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.  

PubMed

Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 ?g/l and 430-1000 ?g/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 ?g/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 ?g/l to 92-121 ?g/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 ?g/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 ?g/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

2011-02-28

324

Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors  

SciTech Connect

The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, {sup 60}Co and {sup 131}I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and {open_quotes}counted{close_quotes}. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed.

Lobdell, J.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1996-06-01

325

Dewatering of contaminated river sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.

1994-01-01

326

Evaluation Of Sorption Materials For Use In Remediation Of Mercury-Contaminated Fresh Water Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to characterize the extent of mercury methylation under conditions simulating those at a mercury-contaminated superfund site in southern Alabama, both during baseline (non-reactive capping) conditions and with the implementaion of reactive capping m...

327

Environmental monitoring of remedial dredging at the New Bedford Harbor, MA, Superfund site.  

PubMed

New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the "Hot Spot") removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations greater than 4000 microg/g) from the upper harbor. During remediation, a monitoring program assessed the potential environmental impacts to NBH and adjacent Buzzards Bay. The monitoring program was developed with input from federal, state, and local authorities. Site-specific decision criteria were established to assess net PCB transport, water column toxicity, and PCB bioaccumulation in blue and ribbed mussels (Mytilus edulis and Geukensia demissa, respectively). The remediation was completed without exceeding PCB net transport or acute toxicity effects specified in the decision criteria. In addition, PCB bioaccumulation in mussels during this time period was not significantly greater than pre- or post-operational measurements. The results indicated that approximately 14000 cubic yards of highly PCB contaminated sediment were permanently removed with minimal environmental effects. The lessons learned during this operation, as well as previous pilot studies at the site, will be used to make full-scale remedial efforts in NBH more efficient and environmentally protective. PMID:16311831

Bergen, Barbara J; Nelson, William G; Mackay, Joseph; Dickerson, David; Jayaraman, Saro

2005-12-01

328

Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10

Teresa Ignasiak; Ali A. Turak; Wanda Pawlak; Boleslaw L. Ignasiak; Carlos R. Guerra; Melvin L. Zwillenberg

1991-01-01

329

The impact of dredge-fill on Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: regression and patterns of recovery.  

PubMed

Posidonia oceanica meadows can be severely damaged by dredge-fill operations. We report on the construction of gas pipelines that occurred between 1981 and 1993 in SW Sicily, Italy. A large portion of the meadow was mechanically removed, and the excavated trench was filled with a mosaic of substrates, ranging from sand to consolidated rock debris. Meadow loss and recovery were quantified over 7 years after the end of operations. We recorded an overall loss of 81.20 ha of meadow. Substrate strongly affected recovery as the percent cover by P. oceanica consistently increased on calcareous rubble, reaching values of 44.37 ± 3.05% in shallow sites after 7 years, whereas no significant increase occurred on other substrates. As in the Mediterranean Sea exploitation of coastal areas continues to grow with consequent impacts on P. oceanica meadows, this case study illustrates how artificial rubble-like materials could be employed to support the restoration of damaged meadows. PMID:21256527

Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; D'Anna, Giovanni; Terlizzi, Antonio; Di Carlo, Giuseppe

2011-03-01

330

Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.  

PubMed

The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials. PMID:18322727

Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

2008-10-01

331

3D Geospatial Models for Visualization and Analysis of Groundwater Contamination at a Nuclear Materials Processing Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of hydrostratigraphy and uranium and nitrate contamination in groundwater at a former nuclear materials processing facility in Oklahoma were undertaken employing 3-dimensional (3D) geospatial modeling software. Models constructed played an important role in the regulatory decision process of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because they enabled visualization of temporal variations in contaminant concentrations and plume geometry. Three aquifer systems occur at the site, comprised of water-bearing fractured shales separated by indurated sandstone aquitards. The uppermost terrace groundwater system (TGWS) aquifer is composed of terrace and alluvial deposits and a basal shale. The shallow groundwater system (SGWS) aquifer is made up of three shale units and two sandstones. It is separated from the overlying TGWS and underlying deep groundwater system (DGWS) aquifer by sandstone aquitards. Spills of nitric acid solutions containing uranium and radioactive decay products around the main processing building (MPB), leakage from storage ponds west of the MPB, and leaching of radioactive materials from discarded equipment and waste containers contaminated both the TGWS and SGWS aquifers during facility operation between 1970 and 1993. Constructing 3D geospatial property models for analysis of groundwater contamination at the site involved use of EarthVision (EV), a 3D geospatial modeling software developed by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, CA. A viable 3D geohydrologic framework model was initially constructed so property data could be spatially located relative to subsurface geohydrologic units. The framework model contained three hydrostratigraphic zones equivalent to the TGWS, SGWS, and DGWS aquifers in which groundwater samples were collected, separated by two sandstone aquitards. Groundwater data collected in the three aquifer systems since 1991 indicated high concentrations of uranium (>10,000 micrograms/liter) and nitrate (> 500 milligrams/liter) around the MPB and elevated nitrate (> 2000 milligrams/ liter) around storage ponds. Vertical connectivity was suggested between the TGWS and SGWS, while the DGWS appeared relatively isolated from the overlying aquifers. Lateral movement of uranium was also suggested over time. For example, lateral migration in the TGWS is suggested along a shallow depression in the bedrock surface trending south-southwest from the southwest corner of the MPB. Another pathway atop the buried bedrock surface, trending west-northwest from the MPB and partially reflected by current surface topography, suggested lateral migration of nitrate in the SGWS. Lateral movement of nitrate in the SGWS was also indicated north, south, and west of the largest storage pond. Definition of contaminant plume movement over time is particularly important for assessing direction and rate of migration and the potential need for preventive measures to control contamination of groundwater outside facility property lines. The 3D geospatial property models proved invaluable for visualizing and analyzing variations in subsurface uranium and nitrate contamination in space and time within and between the three aquifers at the site. The models were an exceptional visualization tool for illustrating extent, volume, and quantitative amounts of uranium and nitrate contamination in the subsurface to regulatory decision-makers in regard to site decommissioning issues, including remediation concerns, providing a perspective not possible to achieve with traditional 2D maps. The geohydrologic framework model provides a conceptual model for consideration in flow and transport analyses.

Stirewalt, G. L.; Shepherd, J. C.

2003-12-01

332

Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigated the effects of individual nitrogen-based energetic materials (EMs) 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2- ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), nitroglycerin (NG), and 2,4,6,8,10, 12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitan...

C. T. Phillips G. I. Sunahara M. Simini R. G. Kuperman R. T. Checkai

2014-01-01

333

SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION: RESEARCH TO EVALUATE RELEASE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF CONTAMINANTS AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each option. Resuspension of contaminants from the...

334

EVALUATION OF RISKS FROM USING POULTRY LITTER TO REMEDIATE AND REUSE CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The availability of heavy metals in contaminated sediment evaluated for beneficial reuse, before and after chemical amendment, was evaluated using poultry manure as the amendment. The dredged sediment was only slightly contaminated with heay metals.Availability tests on the amend...

335

Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Maintenance Dredging of the Mouth of the Columbia River, Summer 2002  

SciTech Connect

To address concerns about crab entrainment during maintenance dredging at the Mouth of the Columbia River, direct measurements of crab entrainment rates were conducted during the summer of 2002 from River Mile 3 to River Mile+3. The entrainment rate for all age classes over all sampling in the MCR was 0.0603 crabs per cy. The sex ratio of the older crabs entrained in the MCR was significantly skewed to the females. A modified DIM was used to calculate the entrainment (E), Adult Equivalent Loss (AEL) at Age 2+ and Age 3+ and the Loss to the Fishery (LF) for the dredged volumes accomplished in 2002 and for the five-year average dredged volumes (both for the Essayons and the contractor dredges). For both sets of projections, the coefficients of variation on the E, AEL, and LF were all under 5%. For the MCR total dredged volume (4,600,378 cy) in the summer of 2002, the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 180,416 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 163,549 to 197,283 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the summer 2002 in the MCR was 81,187 with 95% confidence limits from 73,597 to 88,777 crabs. The projected LF for summer 2002 in the MCR was 10,471 with 95% confidence limits from 9,537 to 11,405 crabs. For the five-year average total MCR dredged volumes (4,391,872 cy), the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 172,238 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 156,135 to 188,341 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the MCR was 77,507 with 95% confidence limits from 70,261 to 84,753 crabs. The projected LF was 9,997 with 95% confidence limits from 9,105 to 10,889 crabs. Because female crabs appeared in the entrainment samples at a higher rate than did males, about 82% of the AEL at Age 2+ in the MCR was comprised of female crabs. Salinity in dredged materials from the MCR was close to that of ocean water for most of the sampling from July to October 2002 with about 82% of the salinity measurements above 32 o/oo. At the high salinities found in the MCR, entrainment rates did not vary significantly with salinity. These results support the concept discussed in Pearson et al. (2002) that where bottom salinities are high most of the time, factors other than salinity are influencing crab distribution and entrainment rates. The results reported here coupled with those in Pearson et al. (2002) indicate that low salinity influences crab entrainment rates.

Pearson, Walter H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Williams, Greg D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.

2003-03-05

336

Batch and column studies of the stabilization of toxic heavy metals in dredged marine sediments by hematite after bioremediation.  

PubMed

The management of dredged sediments is an important issue in coastal regions where the marine sediments are highly polluted by metals and organic pollutants. In this paper, mineral-based amendments (hematite, zero-valent iron and zeolite) were used to stabilize metallic pollutants (As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in a contaminated marine sediment sample. Mineral-based amendments were tested at three application rates (5 %, 10 %, and 15 %) in batch experiments in order to select the best amendment to perform column experiments. Batch tests have shown that hematite was the most efficient amendment to stabilize inorganic pollutants (As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the studied sediment. Based on batch tests, hematite was used at one application rate equal to 5 % to conduct column experiments. Column tests confirmed that hematite was able to decrease metal concentrations in leachates from stabilized sediment. The stabilization rates were particularly high for Cd (67 %), Mo (80 %), and Pb (90 %). The Microtox solid phase test showed that hematite could decrease significantly the toxicity of stabilized sediment. Based on batch and column experiments, it emerged that hematite could be a suitable adsorbent to stabilize metals in dredged marine sediment. PMID:23370851

Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Geret, Florence; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

2013-08-01

337

Towards the characterisation of heavy metals in dredged canal sediments and an appreciation of 'availability': two examples from the UK.  

PubMed

Canal sediments can act as sinks for a wide range of contaminants including heavy metals from various sources (e.g. industrial and waste water discharges). Dredging of canals is required to maintain navigational depth and prevent flooding. The sediments removed from canals are often disposed of to land, being deposited either straight on to the banks of the canal or, in recent years, in licensed disposal sites. The aim of this work was to investigate the nature of dredged sediment-derived soils and the heavy metals present in them. Two disposal sites in the United Kingdom (UK) were investigated and soil samples taken. A variety of analytical techniques were used, including Aqua regia digestion and sequential extraction, in order to assess the concentrations and associations of metals present. Diethylene triaminepenta-acetic acid extracts, performed to illustrate plant-available metal concentrations, reveal that up to 40% of the total extracted metals were in an 'available' form. Variations in metal concentrations with depth in the soil cores show a significant correlation with total organic carbon content. PMID:11428147

Stephens, S R; Alloway, B J; Carter, J E; Parker, A

2001-01-01

338

Dredge Disposal Study, San Francisco Bay and Estuary. Appendix N. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 1972, the San Francisco District of the United States Army Corps or Engineers initiated a study to quantify the impact of dredging and dredged sediment disposal operations on the environment of San Francisco Bay and Estuary. The study has generat...

1978-01-01

339

Environmental Effects of Hydraulic Dredging for Clam Shells in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The approach taken in the present study was to select two sites in proximity that would also be representative of the area subjected to the perturbation cause by dredging operations. One site would serve as the control site and not be dredged; the second ...

A. M. Prior J. P. Sikora W. B. Sikora

1981-01-01

340

The concept of controlled afforestation of dredged sediment landfills polluted with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfilling of polluted dredged sediment from inland rivers is a current practice in Belgium. The soil matrix of landfilled dredged sediment is very rich in organic matter, clay and calcium carbonate, which means that leaching of heavy metals is of no environmental concern. Because of the strong adsorbing matrix, chemical extraction of heavy metals is very difficult. Tree growth is

VANDECASTEELE Bart; VOS Bruno

341

Remediation of contaminated subsurface materials by a metal-reducing bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A biotic approach for remediating subsurface sediments and groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chromium was evaluated. Cells of the Fe(iii)-reducing bacterium strain BrY were added to sealed, anoxic flasks containing Hanford groundwater, natural subsurface sediments, and either carbon tetrachloride, CT, or oxidized chromium, Cr(VI). With lactate as the electron donor, BrY transformed CT to chloroform (CF), which accumulated to about 1 0 % of the initial concentration of CT. The remainder of the CT was transformed to unidentified, nonvolatile compounds. Transformation of CT by BrY was an indirect process Cells reduced solid phase Fe(ill) to chemically reactive FE(II) that chemically transformed the chlorinated contaminant. Cr(VI), in contrast, was reduced by a direct enzymatic reaction in the presence or absence of Fe(III)-bearing sediments. These results demonstrate that Fe(ill)-reducing bacteria provide potential for transforming CT and for reducing CR(VI) to less toxic Cr(III). Technologies for stimulating indigenous populations of metal-reducing bacteria or for introducing specific metal-reducing bacteria to the subsurface are being investigated.

Gorby, Y.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.

1994-11-01

342

Carbon and hydrogen isotope effects during sorption of organic contaminants on carbonaceous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes can be an efficient means to validate biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater since it results in an isotopic fractionation. A prerequisite in applying this method in the field is the proof that other processes decreasing the contaminant concentration are conservative with respect to isotope effects. In this paper we show for carbon isotopes of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds [trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene ( c-DCE), vinylchloride (VC)] and carbon and hydrogen isotopes of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, p-xylene) that no significant fractionation occurs during equilibrium sorption onto activated carbon, lignite coke and lignite. In general, effects were in the range of the reproducibility limit of the analytical instrument (0.5‰ for ?13C, and 8‰ for ?2H). This observation was made for fractions sorbed of less than 5% to more than 95%. Also for rate-limited sorption of TCE onto activated carbon, no significant fractionation in carbon isotopes could be observed. These findings support the assumption that for these classes of compounds, sorption processes in aquifer systems are conservative with respect to isotope effects.

Schüth, Christoph; Taubald, Heinrich; Bolaño, Nerea; Maciejczyk, Kirsten

2003-07-01

343

Analytical procedures for the determination of emerging organic contaminants in plant material: a review.  

PubMed

In this review, recent developments for the determination of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in plant tissues are discussed focusing on the homogenization, extraction and determination steps involved. Eleven classes of EOCs, namely antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, antiseptics, plasticizers, fragrances, surfactants, flame retardants, and phenoxy acid herbicides, have been evaluated. Methods are critically reviewed in terms of all the analytical steps involved in the analysis, sampling and sample preparation, separation, and the detection strategies employed. The extraction from tissue samples was performed in most cases by solid-liquid extraction, whereas the clean-up was performed by solid-phase extraction. The identification and quantification of EOCs in crops from the agricultural field (i.e. parts per billion range) is usually performed by using mass spectrometry techniques such as single quadrupole mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry coupled to high resolution chromatographic techniques. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are more rarely used. New developments such as in vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the assessment of the bioavailability-bioaccesibility of contaminants in crops are shown. The main scope of this review is to critically evaluate the current state of the art of the analytical techniques used and to identify the research needs in the determination of EOCs in crops. PMID:22444529

Matamoros, Víctor; Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Domínguez, Carmen; Bayona, Josep M

2012-04-13

344

Occurrence of Emerging Contaminants in Water and Bed Material in the Missouri River, North Dakota, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, conducted a reconnaissance study to determine the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed sediment within the Missouri River upstream and downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, North Dakota, and upstream from the city of Fort Yates, North Dakota, during September-October 2007. At each site, water samples were collected twice and bed-sediment samples were collected once. Samples were analyzed for more than 200 emerging contaminants grouped into four compound classes - wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Only sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic, was present at a concentration higher than minimum detection limits. It was detected in a water sample collected downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, and in bed-sediment samples collected at the two sites downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan and upstream from Fort Yates. Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic commonly used for treating bacterial infections in humans and animals.

Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

2009-01-01

345

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. ore material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. ariables in the study included flow rate, pH, ioni...

346

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study incl...

347

Identification of antistatic packaging material as a source of circuit board contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuit boards to be used in satellites were shipped to Sandia in Richmond RCAS 4200 ESD shielding bags. Upon inspection under low magnification, a white fuzzy deposit was observed on many of the solder joints. Preliminary examination using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy identified the material as a metal salt of a long chain aliphatic carboxylic acid. The material was

P. J. Rodacy; F. B. Burns; K. J. Ward

1988-01-01

348

Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (407 Saddleback Road, #203, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (10967 34 A Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Guerra, Carlos R. (6050 Boulevard E., West New York, NJ 07093); Zwillenberg, Melvin L. (475 Richmond Ave., Maplewood, NJ 07040)

1991-01-01

349

Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and monoacylglycerols was developed. The identification and quantification of analytes were performed using a 15-m high temperature capillary column (DB-1HT) with a GC coupled to both flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors. To eliminate discrimination of low or high molecular weight species, programmed temperature vaporization (PTV) injection parameters were optimized using design of experiments methodology. Evaluation of the column temperature program and MS parameters allowed achieving separation of majority of target compounds based on their total number of carbon atoms, regioisomerization and, to some extent, degree of unsaturation.

Baglayeva, Ganna

350

Changes in the leachability of metals from dredged canal sediments during drying and oxidation.  

PubMed

The behaviour of metals in canal sediments after their disposal to land has important implications for the environmental management of canal dredgings. The leaching behaviour of trace metals was investigated in a laboratory-based experiment using sediment from a canal in the UK (139 mg Zn kg-1dry sediment, 1.1 mg Cd, kg-1dry sediment 31.5 mg Cr kg-1dry sediment, 20.6 mg Cu kg-1dry sediment 48.4 mg Ni kg-1dry sediment, 43.4 mg Pb kg-1dry sediment and 7.6 mg As kg-1dry sediment). The sediment was allowed to dry. Cores (10 cm long) of the drying canal sediment were taken over a period of 12 weeks. A simple water extraction procedure was used to investigate changes in metal leachability at varying depths through the cores. Metal leachability increased over the first five weeks of drying and then subsequently decreased between weeks five and twelve, (e.g. Cd increased from approximately 0.006 to 0.018 mg/kgsediment then decreased to approximately 0.006 mg/kgsediment, Zn increased from approximately 1.5 to 3 mg/kgsediment and then decreased to approximately 1.5 mg/kgsediment). These results were combined with sulphide/sulphate ratios, which showed a decrease as the sediment dried (e.g. at 2-4 cm depth from approximately 1 to 0.49), and BCR sequential extraction data. Most metals (except Cd and As) showed a redistribution from the residual phase into more mobile phases as the sediment dried and oxidised. Metal leachability was strongly correlated with the sulphide/sulphate ratio with leachability normally increasing with decreasing sulphide/sulphate ratio. The combined results were used to infer the likely behaviour of dredged material upon disposal to land. PMID:11584639

Stephens, S R; Alloway, B J; Parker, A; Carter, J E; Hodson, M E

2001-01-01

351

Treatment and Containment of Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the containment and treatment of contaminated sediment were evaluated, including the efficacy of adding\\u000a activated carbon to sediment as an in-situ stabilization method and the use of conventional and innovative treatment caps.\\u000a The applicability of phytoremediation for dredged sediments and sediments in shallow water or wetlands was also explored.\\u000a The effectiveness of any treatment relies on successful

Jeanne E. Tomaszewski; Dennis W. Smithenry; Yeo-Myoung Cho; Richard G. Luthy; Greg V. Lowry; Danny Reible; Tomas Macek; Martina Surá; Zuzana Chrastilova; Katerina Demnerova; Martina Macková; Daniela Pavliková; Miklos Szekeres; Michel Sylvestre

352

Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams.  

PubMed

In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (i.e., a salt) and sorbing contaminants (e.g., PAHs like naphthalene and phenanthrene or heavy metals) at the groundwater table. The dam constructions have a composite architecture with soil covers in inclined layers and distinct contrasts in the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the used materials. Capillary barrier effects result in strong spatial variabilities of flow and transport velocities. Contaminant breakthrough curves at the groundwater table show significant tailing due to slow sorption kinetics and a wide distribution of travel times. While conservative tracer breakthrough depends primarily on subsoil hydraulic properties, equilibrium distribution coefficients and sorption kinetics represent additional controlling factors for contaminant spreading. Hence, the three secondary materials show pronounced differences in the temporal development of leached contaminant concentrations with consequences for breakthrough times and peak concentrations at the groundwater table. Significant concentration reductions due to dispersion occur only if the source concentrations decrease significantly prior to the arrival of the contaminant at the groundwater table. Biodegradation causes significant reduction of breakthrough concentrations only if flow velocities are low. PMID:18707860

Beyer, Christof; Konrad, Wilfried; Rügner, Hermann; Bauer, Sebastian; Liedl, Rudolf; Grathwohl, Peter

2009-02-01

353

Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, munici- pal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical model- ing. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the

Christof Beyer; Wilfried Konrad; Hermann Rügner; Sebastian Bauer; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

2008-01-01

354

Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of

Christof Beyer; Wilfried Konrad; Hermann Rügner; Sebastian Bauer; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

2009-01-01

355

Hf Isotope Geochemistry of USGS Reference Materials and Various Labware: Insight into Potential Contaminant Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a high-precision geochemical and isotopic study of USGS reference materials by HR-ICP-MS, TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, including basalt (BCR-1,2; BHVO-1,2), andesite (AGV-1,2), rhyolite (RGM-1), syenite (STM-1,2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2,3). Only a few 176Hf/177Hf results are published on these materials and with the increased use of MC-ICP-MS it is critical to build a solid reference database. Standard hotplate dissolution was used, except for granitoid compositions where it involved a high-pressure bomb procedure. The reproducibility of 176Hf/177Hf is better than 100 ppm for granitoid compositions (G-2: 0.282523±8; G-3: 0.282505±20; GSP-2: 0.282059±27) and better than 65 ppm for basaltic/andesitic compositions in glassware and better than 30 ppm in teflon (BCR-2: 0.282872±9; BHVO-2: 0.283103±6). Overall, our results agree with the rare published data (BCR-1&2, BHVO-1 and RGM-1). Slight differences appear depending on the chemical procedure used to separate Hf and the type of labware used. There are systematic shifts in 176Hf/177Hf for basaltic compositions towards lower values (by 100-150 ppm) when non-teflon material is used. As a result, we then carried out a systematic trace element and isotopic study of various labware, including borosilicate glass and quartz columns and frits. Maximum concentrations (in ppm) of these materials (in the order listed above) are: Hf=16-0.3-22, Nd=0.8-0.1-23, Sr=8-0.08-16, Pb=1.4-0.5-14. The frit material appears the most variable in elemental concentration and isotopic composition, which might reflect various accumulations resulting from column chemistry. 176Hf/177Hf is 0.282198±4 in borosilicate glass and even lower in some of the frit material (<0.28195). Only a small amount of such unradiogenic material can account for the shifts observed in basaltic rocks. Our systematic study shows that careful analyses of rock reference materials with different compositional matrices are necessary, in addition to standard solution measurements, to achieve accuracy and reproducibility in MC-ICP-MS analyses.

Weis, D.; Nobre Silva, I.; Kieffer, B.; Barling, J.; Pretorius, W.; Maerschalk, C.

2005-12-01

356

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-10-01

357

Mass Removal and Low-Concentration Tailing of Trichloroethene in Freshly-Amended, Synthetically-Aged, and Field-Contaminated Aquifer Material  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effect of contaminant aging on the sorption/desorption and transport of trichloroethene in a low organic-carbon content aquifer material, comparing mass removal and long-term, low-concentration elution tailing for field-contaminated, synthetically-aged (contact times of approximately four years), and freshly-amended aquifer material. Elution of trichloroethene exhibited extensive low-concentration tailing, despite minimal retention of trichloroethene by the aquifer material. The observed nonideal transport behavior of trichloroethene is attributed primarily to rate-limited sorption/desorption, with a smaller contribution from nonlinear sorption. It is hypothesized that interaction with physically condensed carbonaceous material, comprising 61% of the aquifer material’s organic-carbon content, mediates the retention behavior of trichloroethene. The elution behavior of trichloroethene for the field-contaminated and aged treatments was essentially identical to that observed for the fresh treatments. In addition, the results of three independent mass-balance analyses, total mass eluted, solvent-extraction analysis of residual sorbed mass, and aqueous-phase concentration rebounds following stop-flow experiments, showed equivalent recoveries for the aged and fresh treatments. These results indicate that long-term contaminant aging did not significantly influence the retention and transport of trichloroethene in this low organic-carbon aquifer material.

Johnson, G.R.; Norris, D.K.; Brusseau, M.L.

2010-01-01

358

Dredging Research, Volume 3, No. 3. DNA Technology to Impact Dredged Material Projects through Faster, More Accurate Testing Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DNA technology is growing in leaps and bounds, with scientists discovering new ways to use the technology every day. Most people associate DNA with criminal cases and paternity testing, but thanks to research projects such as the Human Genome Project, whi...

A. McDonald

2000-01-01

359

Environmental contamination by technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material - TENORM: A case study of phosphogypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material\\u000a (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry, located in Cubatão, São Paulo State,\\u000a Southwest Brazil. This industry is responsible for the production of 69 million tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled\\u000a in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates

P. S. C. Silva; B. P. Mazzilli; D. I. T. Fávaro

2006-01-01

360

Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

1983-01-01

361

Regional efforts through the IJC to address contaminated bottom-sediment problems in the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

The International Joint Commission (IJC) is a binational (United States and Canada) organization that was established under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. In 1978, the two countries signed a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, pursuant to the Boundary Waters Treaty. Carrying out the provisions of this Agreement, the United States and Canada, through the IJC, are addressing the problem of contaminated bottom sediments both in the traditional context of dredging projects and in the newer context of the potentially harmful environmental impacts of contaminated bottom sediments, even in the absence of dredging activity.

Kizlauskas, A.G.

1992-04-01

362

The role of condensed carbonaceous materials on the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants in subsurface sediments.  

PubMed

The identification and characterization of carbonaceous materials (CMs) that control hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC) sorption is essential to predict the fate and transport of HOCs in soils and sediments. The objectives of this paper are to determine the types of CMs that control HOC sorption in the oxidized and reduced zones of a glacially deposited groundwater sediment in central Illinois, with a special emphasis on the roles of kerogen and black carbon. After collection, the sediments were treated to obtain fractions of the sediment samples enriched in different types of CMs (e.g., humic acid, kerogen, black carbon), and selected fractions were subject to quantitative petrographic analysis. The original sediments and their enrichment fractions were evaluated for their ability to sorb trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater pollutant. Isotherm results and mass fractions of CM enrichments were used to calculate sorption contributions of different CMs. The results indicate that CMs in the heavy fractions dominate sorption because of their greater mass. Black carbon mass fractions of total CMs in the reduced sediments were calculated and used to estimate the sorption contribution of these materials. Results indicate that in the reduced sediments, black carbon may sequester as much as 32% of the sorbed TCE mass, butthat kerogen and humin are the dominant sorption environments. Organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients (K(oc)) were compared to literature values. Values for the central Illinois sediments are relatively large and in the range of values determined for materials high in kerogen and humin. This work demonstrates the advantage of using both sequential chemical treatment and petrographic analysis to analyze the sorption contributions of different CMs in natural soils and sediments, and the importance of sorption to natural geopolymers in groundwater sediments not impacted by anthropogenic sources of black carbon. PMID:18441788

Jeong, Sangjo; Wander, Michelle M; Kleineidam, Sybille; Grathwohl, Peter; Ligouis, Bertrand S; Werth, Charles J

2008-03-01

363

Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.  

PubMed

The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread. PMID:7488530

Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

1995-08-01

364

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and tubing material. 2. Growth of Legionella pneumophila].  

PubMed

In the 1st communication it was possible to show that some hoses and insufficiently cleaned high grade steel pipe can produce a microbial growth. The growth-promoting effect of materials in the water distribution system for Legionella pneumophila has been discussed before. In this investigation it was tested how L. pneumophila behaves in pipes and hoses with narrow diameter, at temperatures from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C and over a time of half a year. L. pneumophila could be found in high numbers in the water from PVC, PE, PTFE, rubber and silicon hoses all over the time and regularly in low numbers or occasionally in glass, high-grade steel pipes and PA hose. L. pneumophila could be found only for the first 4 weeks in the copper pipe. PMID:3140536

Schoenen, D; Schulze-Röbbecke, R; Schirdewahn, N

1988-07-01

365

Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments. PMID:23017584

Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

2012-12-30

366

Environmental effects of dredging: Alternative dredging equipment and operational methods to minimize sea turtle mortalities. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

Five species of sea turtles occur along the United States coastlines and are listed as threatened or endangered. The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is listed as threatened, while the Kemp`s ridley (Lepidochelys kenipi), the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) are all less abundant and listed as endangered. Florida breeding populations of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) are listed as endangered, but green turtles in other US waters are considered threatened. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has determined, based on the best available information, that because of their life cycle and behavioral patterns only the loggerhead, the green, and the Kemp`s ridley are put at risk by hopper dredging activities (Studt 1987).

Dickerson, D.D.; Nelson, D.A.

1990-12-01

367

Upper Willow Rehabilitation District: Lake Dredging and River Bank Stabilization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the hydraulic dredging of 18.4 acres of sediment from Upper Willow Reservoir, Wisconsin and the streambank stabilization of Willow River. This involved sloping, seeding, and riprap. A sediment trap was used to combat bedload sedimenta...

1983-01-01

368

73 FR 23175 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Scallop Dredge...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Scallop Dredge Exemption Areas; Addition of Monkfish...Fishery Management Plan (FMP) to create three Scallop Exemptions that are identical to the current scallop exemptions, except for the addition of...

2008-04-29

369

73 FR 33922 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Scallop Dredge...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Scallop Dredge Exemption Areas; Addition of Monkfish...Plan (FMP) to create three NE Multispecies Scallop Exemptions that are identical to the current scallop exemptions, except for the addition of...

2008-06-16

370

Nitrogen Fate in Drainage Ditches of the Coastal Plain after Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

is study evaluated the eff ect of dredging on N transport in drainage ditches of the Delmarva Peninsula. Sediments from two ditches draining a single fi eld were collected (0-5 cm) to represent conditions before and after dredging. Sediments were packed in 10-m-long recirculating fl umes and subjected to a three-phase experiment to assess the sediment's role as a sink

Francirose Shigaki; John P. Schmidt; Peter J. A. Kleinman; Andrew N. Sharpley; Arthur L. Allen

2009-01-01

371

Ripening of clayey dredged sediments during temporary upland disposal a bioremediation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Goal  In the Netherlands about 40 million m3 of sediment has to be dredged annually for both maintenance and environmental reasons. Temporary upland disposal is the most\\u000a widely adopted alternative for dredged sediments worldwide. For good management of temporary disposal sites, knowledge is\\u000a needed on the processes controlling the behavior of the sediments during disposal. Therefore, a review of

Johan Vermeulen; Tim Grotenhuis; Jan Joziasse; Wim Rulkens

2003-01-01

372

Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

2014-04-01

373

Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sediments by solid-bed bioleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weisse Elster River sediment from the Leipzig Lowlands region (Saxony, Germany) is anthropogenically polluted by heavy metals.\\u000a Sediment dredged from a trap to the south of Leipzig was characterized in detail. When freshly dredged sediment contacts air,\\u000a the material turns acidic because of oxidation processes, the heavy metals become soluble and the sediment poses an environmental\\u000a risk. We are therefore

C. Löser; H. Seidel; P. Hoffmann; A. Zehnsdorf

2001-01-01

374

Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

Forstner, U.

1989-01-01

375

VARIABILITY OF PARAMETERS MEASURED DURING THE RESUSPENSION OF SEDIMENTS WITH A PARTICULATE ENTRAINMENT SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated sediments are a problem facing many environmental managers concerned with issues such as maintenance dredging, habitat restoration and dredged material placement. Currently, there are few methods which can be used to assess contaminant remobilization potential from ...

376

EVALUATION OF CONTAMINANT LEACHABILITY FACTORS BY COMPARISON OF TREATABILITY STUDY DATA FOR MULTIPLE SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology is widely used in the treatment of hazardous waste and contaminated soil in the US. In a project sponsored by the US Navy and the USEPA, treatability test data were compiled into a data base listing contaminant concentration and matri...

377

Basalts dredged from the Amirante ridge, western Indian ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oceanic tholeiitic basalts were dredged from 2500 to 3000 m depth on each flank of the Amirante Ridge, 1200 km southeast of Somalia in the western Indian Ocean, by R.V. Argo in 1964. One sample, probably shed from a flow or dike in basement beneath the coralline cap, gave a wholerock KAr age of 82??16??106 years. The age is similar to those reported by others for agglomerate from Providence Reef, nearer Madagascar, and for gabbro from Chain Ridge, the southwest member of Owen Fracture Zone, nearer the Somali coast. The Amirante Cretaceous-Early Tertiary occurrence lies between the "continental" 650 ?? 106 years granites of Seychelles Archipelago and the large Precambrian "continental" block of Madagascar. Trends of major structures and distribution of the related topographic and magnetic-anomaly lineations in 7-8 ?? 106 km2of the surrounding Indian Ocean suggest that in addition to spreading of the seafloor from the seismically-active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge-Carlsberg Ridge complex there has been, since mid-Mesozoic time, distributed left-lateral shear along 52??-54??E that has moved Madagascar at least 700 km south relative to Seychelles Bank. Measurements by other indicate the absolute movement of Madagascar has been southward as well. The emplacement of oceanic tholeiitic basalts at shallow depth, the development of volcanic topography between the sedimented Somali and Mascarene basins, and the existence of the faulted Amirante Trench and Ridge are consequences of the displacement. ?? 1968.

Fisher, R. L.; Engel, C. G.; Hilde, T. W. C.

1968-01-01

378

Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.  

PubMed

Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). PMID:24742547

Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

2014-07-01

379

Micro- and Nano- Porous Adsorptive Materials for Removal of Contaminants from Water at Point-of-Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is food, a basic human need and a fundamental human right, yet hundreds of millions of people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water. As a result, about 5000 people die each day from preventable water borne diseases. This dissertation presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies on three different types of porous materials that were developed for the removal of contaminants from water at point of use (household level). First, three compositionally distinct porous ceramic water filters (CWFs) were made from a mixture of redart clay and sieved woodchips and processed into frustum shape. The filters were tested for their flow characteristics and bacteria filtration efficiencies. Since, the CWFs are made from brittle materials, and may fail during processing, transportation and usage, the mechanical and physical properties of the porous clays were characterized, and used in modeling designed to provide new insights for the design of filter geometries. The mechanical/physical properties that were characterized include: compressive strength, flexural strength, facture toughness and resistance curve behavior, keeping in mind the anisotropic nature of the filter structure. The measured flow characteristics and mechanical/physical properties were then related to the underlying porosity and characteristic pore size. In an effort to quantify the adhesive interactions associated with filtration phenomena, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to point-of-use ceramic water filters. The force microscopy measurements of pull-off force and adhesion energy were used to rank the adhesive interactions. Similarly, the adsorption of fluoride to hydroxyapatite-doped redart clay was studied using composites of redart clay and hydroxyapatite (C-HA). The removal of fluoride from water was explored by carrying out adsorption experiments on C-HA adsorbents with different ratios of clay to hydroxyapatite (and sintered at different temperatures). The overall adsorption was controlled using water with varying fluoride concentrations and adsorbent-adsorbate contact times. Prototype frustum-shaped C-HA filters were then fabricated and shown to remove both fluoride and E.coli bacteria from water. Finally, "buckyweb", which is a foam comprising carbon nanotubes and graphene was made via thermal ablation of graphite, and tested for its deflouridation capacity. Defluoridation was studied in terms of concentration of fluoride, contact time and pH. The structure and adsorption characteristics of buckyweb foams were elucidated via energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The implications of the results were then explored for potential applications in water filtration.

Yakub, Ismaiel

380

Contamination study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.

1990-01-01

381

Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the suspensions, were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, Florida. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene and indeno(123-cd)pyrene, slurry-phase bioremediation of highly contaminated sediment (pH adjusted) resulted in rapid and extensive biodegradation (3-5 days to biodegrade > 50% of targeted compounds) of monitored constituents. Data suggest that slurry-phase bioremediation strategies can be effectively employed to remediate creosote-contaminated materials.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

1991-01-01

382

HOW TO EVALUATE BENTHIC RECOVERY FROM REMEDIAL ACTIVITIES AT CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each alternative. Whatever decision is made at a s...

383

Ninetyeast Ridge, KNOX06RR: High-Precision Isotopic Compositions From New Dredge Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ninetyeast Ridge (NER), the longest linear feature on Earth (~5000 km), corresponds to ~44 Myr of evolution of the Indian Ocean basin related to the Kerguelen mantle plume. Almost two decades after its basement was successfully drilled during ODP Leg 121, the NER was the scientific destination of an NSF- funded cruise during the summer of 2007. One of the scientific objectives of this research cruise was to dredge several sites along the ridge to recover suitable igneous basement rocks for geochemical and geochronological analyses, and use these new data to re-examine and test the models proposed for the magmatic origin of the ridge. Basaltic basement was recovered in 23 of the total 33 dredges that spanned ~3000 km of the NER. We present high-precision isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS (Pb, Hf, and Nd) and TIMS (Sr) obtained on basalts from 10 of the dredges, selected to sample most of the ridge length. The 27 basalts were chosen based on their lowest alteration degree (lowest LOI), high Mg#, and variable trace element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb, Y/Nb, La/Sm). The dredged samples analyzed to date yield wider within-site isotopic variability compared to high-precision analyses of the previously drilled samples (Nobre Silva et al., Goldschmidt 2006 & 2007). The isotopic compositions of the dredge samples are consistent with contributions from the Kerguelen, Amsterdam and St. Paul mantle plumes to the origin of the NER basalts. Additionally, the dredge samples now extend the isotopic range of the NER to Indian MORB compositions, as samples collected in dredges located at basal scarps along the edge of the ridge and the seafloor (e.g. dredges 3, 4, 16 and 33) fall along mixing lines (in Pb-Pb, Sr-Pb, Nd-Pb, Hf-Pb spaces) between the enriched St. Paul and Kerguelen mantle plumes with depleted Indian MORB. Further isotopic results on the remaining dredge samples will allow us to better constrain the mixing relationship of the Kerguelen, Amsterdam and St. Paul mantle plumes with Indian MORB, as well as improve our understanding of the magmatic and tectonic history of the Indian Ocean basin.

Nobre Silva, I.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J. S.; Frey, F. A.

2008-12-01

384

Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage of benthic re-colonization at a site formed by sand extraction was investigated some 10 years after the cessation of dredging. The examined post-dredging pit is one of five deep (up to 14 m) pits created with a static suction hopper on the sandy, flat and shallow (1-2 m) part of the inner Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea). The topography of the dredged area makes a specific trap for different kinds of organic matter. It is created by the small areas of post-dredging pits as compared to their depths. As a result, organic matter accumulation leads to anaerobic conditions and hydrogen sulfide formation. Macrofauna was not found to occur permanently in the deepest part (11 m) of the cup-shaped depression, which was characterized by its small area (0.2 km 2) and steep walls. However, permanent occurrence of meiofauna (max. 180 ind. 10 cm -2, mainly Nematoda) was noted. Undoubtedly, re-colonization of benthic fauna assemblages, typical of shallow and sandy seabed of the Puck Bay, will not follow in a natural way in the area of post-dredging pits. Also, it could not be expected that the re-colonization sequence would result in the formation of a structure similar to that of the natural depression (the Ku?nica Hollow).

Szymelfenig, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Graca, Bo?ena

2006-07-01

385

Hazard identification of contaminated sites—ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment.\\u000a To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated\\u000a with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites\\u000a that

Jenny Karlsson; Henrik Sundberg; Gun Åkerman; Kerstin Grunder; Britta Eklund; Magnus Breitholtz

2008-01-01

386

Hudson River Marina Dredging: A Guide for Marina Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In partnership with New York State Department of Environmental Conservations (NYSDEC) Hudson River Estuary Program, New York Sea Grant sponsored a study of the agency's existing Hudson River Marina Sediment Contaminant Data conducted by Rensselaer Polytec...

N. Holochuck

2012-01-01

387

The use of porcine small intestinal submucosa as a prosthetic material for laparoscopic hernia repair in infected and potentially contaminated fields: long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The treatment of hernias remains controversial, with multiple prosthetic meshes being exalted for a variety of their characteristics.\\u000a In the event of incarcerated\\/strangulated hernias and other potentially contaminated fields the placement of prosthetic material\\u000a remains controversial because of increased risk of recurrence and infection. Porcine small intestinal submucosa mesh (Surgisis,\\u000a Cook Bloomington, IN) has been demonstrated safe and feasible in

Morris E. Franklin; Jorge M. Treviño; Guillermo Portillo; Itzel Vela; Jeffrey L. Glass; John J. González

2008-01-01

388

The chemistry of suspended particulate material in a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) under quiescent, high-wind and heavy-rainfall conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated physico-chemical characteristics of the water column and chemistry of suspended particulate material\\u000a (SPM) under quiescent, high-wind and high-wind\\/heavy-rainfall conditions in Homebush Bay, a highly contaminated embayment\\u000a of Port Jackson (Australia) to distinguish source and possible adverse effects to benthic and pelagic animals. Mean concentrations\\u000a in surficial sediment were ?1 for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and

Gavin Birch; Laura O’Hea

2007-01-01

389

Corrective Action Decision Document\\/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)\\/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The

Robert F. Boehlecke

2004-01-01

390

Application of studies on the overboard placement of dredged sediments to the management of disposal sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the mid 1960's until 1991, dredging and disposal occurred in the northern Chesapeake Bay without guidelines to maximize the capacity and to minimize the spread of the deposits beyond the disposal sites, particularly toward the navigation channel. Planning for future dredging projects is dependant upon the remaining site capacity and the behavior of the disposed sediment. Recent studies have shown that the fate of the deposited sediments is determined primarily by the water depth and bathymetry in the vicinity of the disposal site, and the method of dredging and disposal utilized. Currently used open-water disposal sites in the northern Chesapeake Bay are reaching their maximum capacity. This makes the application of the information from these studies critical, both for the optimal use of current sites and for the evaluation of new sites. Management scenarios utilizing these studies are applied to a disposal site in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

Panageotou, William; Halka, Jeffrey

1994-01-01

391

Environmental Baseline and Evaluation of the St. Mary's River Dredging: Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to gather a quantitative baseline of biological and chemical data from the Middle Neebish Channel in the St. Marys River and from a site in Lake Huron prior to proposed dredging and dredge spoil disposal activities. Field dat...

C. D. McNabb C. R. Liston D. E. Ashton F. E. Koehler W. G. Duffy

1980-01-01

392

APPLICATION OF THE PARTICLE TRACKING MODEL TO PREDICT THE FATE OF DREDGED SUSPENDED SEDIMENT AT THE WILLAMETTE RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District is evaluating the fate of sediments associated with proposed dredging operations in the Lower Willamette River, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers in Oregon. The Lower Willamette was last dredged in 1997 to an authorized depth of -12.2 m (-40 ft) MLLW. Plans are to increase the navigable depth

Tahirih Lackey; Jarrell Smith

393

Clam dredging effects and subsequent recovery of benthic communities at different depth ranges.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the potential effects of clam dredging and the subsequent recovery of the benthic environment. Two experimental areas located at 6 and 18m depth were established in order to analyse whether impacts and recovery of benthic environment are depth-related. Study areas were located within an area closed to dredging and two different plots were established at both depths. One of the plots was subjected to intense clam dredge-fishing, while the other was undisturbed and therefore used as control. Sampling followed a BACI design, with samples for macrobenthic, meiobenthic and sediment particle size analysis being taken by SCUBA divers from both areas before and after fishing stress. For both depths, impacts on the benthic environment were very low resulting in high recovery rates. Nevertheless, at shallower depths communities demonstrated a faster recovery. It was shown that depending on the faunal component used as a bioindicator, different results can be observed. Generally deposit-feeding organisms with scales or chitinous plates and vermiform shape (mainly crustaceans, polychaetes and ophiuroids), without external protection, were the most affected by dredging, while some polychaetes without external protection and with a carnivorous feeding mode seemed to be enhanced by fishing. The low level of perturbations induced by the dredging activities was comparable to the impact of surface waves on the bottom, as experiments were undertaken in wave-dominated environments. The coexistence of storm events during the study period proved to have similar or even more deleterious effects on the benthic environment. It appears that communities from hydrodynamic fishing grounds that are well adapted to natural physical stress are not highly affected by dredging. PMID:19131099

Constantino, R; Gaspar, M B; Tata-Regala, J; Carvalho, S; Cúrdia, J; Drago, T; Taborda, R; Monteiro, C C

2009-03-01

394

Assessing the fate of dredged sediments placed in open-water sites, Northern Chesapeake Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated series of field studies and experiments have been carried out on dredged sediments placed in open water sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. The studies include: (1) examination of the potential for fluidized sediment flow, (2) quantifying the volumetric changes that the sediments undergo during dredging process and subsequent to deposition, (3) estimating parameters for cohesive sediment erosion models from field data on currents and suspended sediment concentrations, and (4) incorporating the erosion model parameters and sediment transport equation into a 3-D hydrodynamic model for the upper Chesapeake Bay to predict transport directions and setting sites of eroded sediments under a variety of seasonal weather and river flow conditions.

Halka, Jeffrey; Panageotou, William; Sanford, Lawrence; Yu-Chou, Shenn

1994-01-01

395

Sediment sampling of proposed dredge sites in the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to measure the concentration of dioxins in sediment proposed to be dredged from the Lower Granite Reservoir near Lewiston, Idaho, and compare it to concentrations found at the reference sites. The area to be dredged is immediately adjacent to and downstream from an effluent discharge pipe belonging to the Potlatch Corporation`s pulp mill. Information provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicate the need to test for dioxins and furans in sediments of waters adjacent to and downstream of pulp mill effluents because of the by-product created through the chlorination process.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Mayhew, H.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-01-01

396

Sediment sampling of proposed dredge sites in the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to measure the concentration of dioxins in sediment proposed to be dredged from the Lower Granite Reservoir near Lewiston, Idaho, and compare it to concentrations found at the reference sites. The area to be dredged is immediately adjacent to and downstream from an effluent discharge pipe belonging to the Potlatch Corporation's pulp mill. Information provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicate the need to test for dioxins and furans in sediments of waters adjacent to and downstream of pulp mill effluents because of the by-product created through the chlorination process.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Mayhew, H.L. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-01-01

397

Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

Sydor, M.

1975-01-01

398

Environmental compliance guide: guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with Corps of Engineers permits on dredging and filling activities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides general guidance for Department of Energy officials responsible for complying with Sects. 9 and 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 (RHA) and with Sect. 404 of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (CWA). Sections 9 and 10 of the RHA authorize the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to issue permits for dams and erecting structures or undertaking work in, or affecting, navigable waters, including dredging. Although the original purpose of these two sections was to facilitate navigation, the COE now considers environmental concerns as well. Section 404 of the CWA authorizes the COE to issue permits for the discharge of dredged or fill materials into all waters of the United States. The principal concern under Sect. 404 is environmental protection. Although the procedures and information needs for obtaining a permit for Sect. 404 activities will vary depending on the nature of the proposed activity, the environmental setting, and the affected COE district and EPA region, the review of permit applications involving activities regulated under Sect. 404 of the CWA will follow published Guidelines developed by EPA in conjunction with COE. EPA Guidelines require that potential impacts on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, special aquatic sites, and human use be considered. Early planning meetings will establish both the level of existing information and the types of new information needed by COE to process and review a Sect. 404 permit application. Guidance is provided in this document on general approaches for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information that addresses the environmental issues considered.

Not Available

1982-07-01

399

Electrical insulating characteristics of polymeric materials under wetting and contaminated conditions-results of CIGRE round robin test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer insulators are considered to have a higher withstand voltage under contaminated conditions compared with porcelain or glass ones. In the case of polymer insulators with silicone rubber (SIR) sheds, it is said that hydrophobicity of the surface is maintained for a long period because of migration of low molecular weight silicone from the bulk of SIR to the surface.

Y. Maekawa; Y. Mizuno; K. Naito; H. Koshino; H. Shinokubo; M. Ishiwari

1998-01-01

400

Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L., Jr.

1997-01-01

401

Mitigating Impacts Of Arsenic Contaminated Materials Via Two (2) Stabilization Methods Based On Polymeric And Cement Binders  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two selected chemical stabilization and solidification (S/S) techniques to treat three types of arsenic-contaminated wastes 1) chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood treater waste, 2) La Trinidad Mine tailings, ...

402

Evaluating soil contamination  

SciTech Connect

The compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

Beyer, W.

1990-07-01

403

Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.  

PubMed

The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the "substances" approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the "matrix" approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments "1" and "2" presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while sediment "3" presented a high risk. PMID:22705873

Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

2012-08-01

404

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

Robert F. Boehlecke

2004-11-01

405

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials.  

PubMed

The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness. PMID:23735286

Randall, Paul M; Yates, Brian J; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona; Fimmen, Ryan

2013-08-01

406

In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials  

SciTech Connect

The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness.

Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)] [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)] [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)

2013-08-15

407

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2003-02-26

408

Analysis of electrokinetic sedimentation of dredged Welland River sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Welland River is a tributary of the Niagara River. In the late 1980s it was discovered that a section of the Welland River was contaminated with heavy metals as a results of two sewer outfalls that has been used by a steel plant and local industrial and municipal operations for the last 50–60 years. One of the major problems

E. Mohamedelhassan; J. Q. Shang

2001-01-01

409

Mechanical clam dredging in Venice lagoon: ecosystem effects evaluated with a trophic mass-balance model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting of the invasive Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum, is the main exploitative activity in the Venice lagoon, but the mechanical dredges used in this free-access regime produce a considerable disturbance of the lagoon ecosystem. An ecosystem approach to study the complex effects of clam harvesting was implemented using a trophic mass-balance model. The trophic relations in the ecosystem were quantified

F. Pranovi; S. Libralato; S. Raicevich; A. Granzotto; R. Pastres; O. Giovanardi

2003-01-01

410

Improving the delivery of suction-tube dredges and hydrotransport parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a method for the excavation, movement, and placement of voluminous soil masses in earth structures, hydromechanization was widely developed from 1946 through 1950 in connection with the construction of large power and waterworks projects that had developed in the Soviet Union. By 1990, the volume of earthwork and the fleet of suction-tube dredges used in different construction regions and

N. N. Kozhevnikov; M. S. Triandafilov

1990-01-01

411

Prevention of Secondary Pollution Caused by Dredging Bottom Sediment Containing Mercury in Minamata Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Minamata Bay, sediment containing 25 ppm mercury (about 1,500,000 m3) has accumulated on the bottom (about 2,110,000 M2), and the fish and shellfish in Minamata Bay are now polluted by mercury. Since October 1977, we have been dredging to provide a saf...

Y. Nakayama S. Watanabe K. Kyuma R. Hirota

1992-01-01

412

A risk-informed decision framework for setting environmental windows for dredging projects.  

PubMed

Sediment dredging is necessary to sustain navigation infrastructure in ports and harbor areas. In the United States alone between 250 and 300 million cubic yards of sediment are dredged annually. Dredging activities may cause stress on aquatic biota by locally increasing turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations, physically disturbing habitat by elevated sedimentation rates, interfering in migratory behaviors, and hydraulically entraining bottom dwelling organisms. Environmental windows are a management practice used to alleviate such stresses on resident and transient biota by placing temporal restrictions on the conduct of dredging operations. Adherence to environmental windows can significantly inflate costs for project sponsors and local stakeholders. Since their inception following passage of NEPA in 1969 the process for setting environmental windows has not followed structured procedures and represents an example of the difficulty inherent in achieving a balance between biological resource protection and cost-effective construction and maintenance of navigation infrastructure. Recent developments in the fields of risk assessment for non-chemical stressors as well as experience in implementing structured risk-informed decision-making tools for sediment and natural resource management are summarized in this paper in relation to setting environmental windows. Combining risk assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis allows development of a framework for an objective process consistent with recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences for setting environmental windows. A hypothetical application of the framework for protection of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in San Francisco Bay is discussed. PMID:18571217

Suedel, Burton C; Kim, Jongbum; Clarke, Douglas G; Linkov, Igor

2008-09-15

413

Monitoring of the Restorational Dredging of Ann Lee Pond, Colonie, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ann Lee Pond, a small eutrophic lake located in the Town of Colonie, Albany County, New York was rehabilitated by hydraulic dredging during the late summer and fall 1980. As part of the grant award requirements, a limnological monitoring program was prepa...

1982-01-01

414

MONITORING OF THE RESTORATIONAL DREDGING OF COLLINS LAKE, SCOTIA, NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

Collins Lake (24.3 ha) in the Village of Scotia, New York, was hydraulically dredged to a depth of 3 m during the warmer months of 1977 and 1978. About 52,000 cu m of organic sediment were removed from 2.6 ha of lake bottom to an adjacent sedimentation basin with the supernatant ...

415

Characterization of underwater sounds produced by hydraulic and mechanical dredging operations.  

PubMed

Sound recordings were made of two dredging operations at hydrophone depths of 3 and 9.1?m at distances up to 1.2?km from the source in shallow waters (<15?m) of New York Harbor. Sound sources included rock fracturing by a hydraulic cutterhead dredge and six distinct sources associated with a mechanical backhoe dredging operation during rock excavation. To place sound emitted from these dredges in perspective with other anthropogenic sounds, recordings were also made of several deep-draft commercial vessels. Results are presented as sound pressure levels (SPLs) in one-third octave versus range across the 20?Hz to 20?kHz frequency band. To address concerns for protection of fishery resource occupying the harbor, SPL were examined at frequency bands of 50-1000 Hz and 100-400?Hz, the ranges where the majority of fishes without hearing specializations detect sound and the range of greatest sensitivity, respectively. Source levels (dB re 1??Pa-1?m rms) were back calculated using fitted regression (15LogR). The strongest sound sources (180-188.9?dB) were emitted by commercial shipping. Rock fracturing produced a source level of 175?dB, whereas six distinct sources associated with rock excavation had source levels ranging from 164.2 to 179.4?dB re 1??Pa-1?m (rms). PMID:24907792

Reine, Kevin J; Clarke, Douglas; Dickerson, Charles

2014-06-01

416

ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING-INDUCED SEDIMENTATION ON WINTER FLOUNDER SPAWNING HABITAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the fate of sediment suspended due to dredging in Newark Bay, New Jersey to characterize exposure of winter flounder spawning habitat. Winter flounder is a recreationally and commercially significant species which has experienced a steady population decline over the last twenty years. Winter flounder eggs are demersal and adhesive. Possible factors affecting spawning habitat are currently being

Tahirih C. Lackey

417

Pribilof segment of the Bering Sea continental margin: A reinterpretation of Upper Cretaceous dredge samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of an Upper Cretaceous sandstone dredged from Pribilof Canyon, Bering Shelf margin, do not compare well with rocks of the Shumagin Formation of presumed Late Cretaceous age on Sanak Island. Contrary to repeated published inferences, the rocks from Pribilof Canyon do not appear to be strongly deformed. They show no evidence of slaty cleavage or penetrative deformation and were

Hugh McLean

1979-01-01

418

Curing Time Effect on the Mechanical Behavior of Cement Solidified Dredged Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work deals with the curing time effect on the mechanical behaviors of cement solidified dredged sediment (DS). For three DSs solidified by 100 kg cement per m3 sediment, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests, consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were carried out. Test results show water content and failure strain decrease with the increasing of curing time, while UCS and

Zhang Chun-lei; Wu Xiao-yan; Jin Wei; Mao Chao-jie; Wang Shun-cai

2010-01-01

419

Potential Effects of Sediment Dredging on Internal Phosphorus Loading in a Shallow, Subtropical Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term phosphorus (P) loading to lakes has resulted in accumulation of P in sediments. Internal nutrient loading from sediments of shallow lakes such as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, has become a major concern in restoration programs. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the potential impact of dredging on dissolved reactive P (DRP) flux out of sediments and (2)

K. R. Reddy; M. M. Fisher; Y. Wang; J. R. White; R. Thomas James

2007-01-01

420

Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements.

2014-01-01

421

Precise and economical dredging model of sediments and its field application: case study of a river heavily polluted by organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus.  

PubMed

Environmental dredging is an efficient means to counteract the eutrophication of water bodies caused by endogenous release of nitrogen and/or phosphorus from polluted sediments. The huge operational cost and subsequent disposal cost of the dredged polluted sediments, as well as the adverse effect on the benthic environment caused by excessive dredging, make the currently adopted dredging methods unfavorable. Precise dredging, i.e., determining the dredging depth based on the pollution level, not only significantly decreases the costs but also leaves a uniform favorable environment for benthos. However, there is still no feasible process to make this promising method executable. Taking a river heavily polluted by organic compounds as an example, we proposed an executable precise dredging process, including sediment survey, model establishment, data interpolation, and calculation of dredging amount. Compared with the traditional dredging method, the precise one would save 16 to 45 % of cost according to different pollutant removal demands. This precise dredging method was adopted by the National Water Project of China to treat the endogenous pollution of Nanfei River in 2010. This research provides a universal scientific and engineering basis for sediment dredging projects. PMID:24696038

Zhang, Rui; Zeng, Fan-Xin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Zeng, Raymond J; Jiang, Hong

2014-06-01

422

Precise and Economical Dredging Model of Sediments and Its Field Application: Case Study of a River Heavily Polluted by Organic Matter, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental dredging is an efficient means to counteract the eutrophication of water bodies caused by endogenous release of nitrogen and/or phosphorus from polluted sediments. The huge operational cost and subsequent disposal cost of the dredged polluted sediments, as well as the adverse effect on the benthic environment caused by excessive dredging, make the currently adopted dredging methods unfavorable. Precise dredging, i.e., determining the dredging depth based on the pollution level, not only significantly decreases the costs but also leaves a uniform favorable environment for benthos. However, there is still no feasible process to make this promising method executable. Taking a river heavily polluted by organic compounds as an example, we proposed an executable precise dredging process, including sediment survey, model establishment, data interpolation, and calculation of dredging amount. Compared with the traditional dredging method, the precise one would save 16 to 45 % of cost according to different pollutant removal demands. This precise dredging method was adopted by the National Water Project of China to treat the endogenous pollution of Nanfei River in 2010. This research provides a universal scientific and engineering basis for sediment dredging projects.

Zhang, Rui; Zeng, Fan-Xin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Zeng, Raymond J.; Jiang, Hong

2014-06-01

423

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the landfill boundaries. (3) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-19-02. (4) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-02 identified 13 railroad cars that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Six railroad cars were below these limits and therefore met the free-release criteria. (5) An In-Situ Object Counting System survey taken at CAS 25-23-02 identified two railroad cars possibly containing fuel fragments; both exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual free release criteria. (6) Corrective Action Site 25-23-18 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics, Aroclor-1260, uranium-234, uranium-235, strontium-90, and cesium-137 that exceed PALs. (7) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-01 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (8) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-34-02 indicate that there were no total contamination readings that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (9) Radiological surveys at CAS 25-23-13 identified six pieces of equipment that exceed the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. (10) Corrective Action Site 25-99-16 was not investigated. A review of historical documentation and current site conditions showed that no further characterization was required to select the appropriate corrective action. (11) Corrective Action Site 26-08-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (12) Corrective Action Site 26-17-01 contains total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics and Aroclor-1260 exceeding the PALs. (13) Radiological surveys at CAS 26-19-02 identified metallic debris that exceeded the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual limits for free release. Concentrations of radiological or chemical constituents in soil did not exceed PALs.

Wickline, Alfred

2006-12-01

424

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

Krauss, Mark J

2013-10-01

425

Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter  

DOEpatents

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

Pinson, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

426

Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

Pinson, P.A.

1998-02-24

427

European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.  

PubMed

Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food-grade PET. PMID:15195474

Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

2004-03-01

428

Assessment of Salmonella Contamination of Feed Raw Materials and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to detennine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resis- tance profiles, across selected feed raw materials sold in lmo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty (360) bulk samples were collected across different feed raw materials which include animal proteins-foreign fish meal (FFM) and local fish meal (LFM), plant proteins-groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean

Ifeanyi Charles Okoli; Ifeoma C. Ekwueagana; Prince Ogbuewu

429

Managing contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation techniques on contaminated sediments are generally much more limited than for most other solid waste materials,\\u000a except for mine wastes. The widely diverse contamination sources in larger catchment areas usually produce a complex mixture\\u000a of contaminants that is more difficult to treat than an industrial waste.\\u000a \\u000a In the first two chapters, additional information will be presented onin- situ treatment

Patrick Jacobs; Ulrich Förstner

2001-01-01

430

Shell Dredging in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Volume III, Appendix B10-A Through B10-E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological portion of the project was designed to provide information on the effects of shell dredging on the biota of San Antonio Bay and of the shoreline of the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge.

1973-01-01

431

Phase I Cultural Resources Survey and Archeological Inventory of the Proposed Vermilion River Dredge Disposal Project area, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the results of the Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of the Vermilion River Dredge Disposal Project Area in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. The study area consisted of a 372- acre tract of land located along...

A. Ventresca C. Labadia E. Vogelheim J. Pincoske S. B. Smith

2003-01-01

432

75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9217-5] Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging (Permit Number AKG-37-1000) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. ACTION: Proposed reissuance of a general...

2010-10-25

433

Analyses of water, bank material, bottom material, and elutriate samples collected near Belzoni, Mississippi (upper Yazoo projects)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four core-material-sampling sites and one bottom-material site were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to represent areas of proposed dredging activity along a 24.9-mile reach of the upper Yazoo River. Five receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material. Chemical and physical analyses were performed upon core or bottom material and native-water (receiving-water) samples from these sites as well as upon elutriate samples of the mixture of sediment and receiving water. The results of these analyses are presented without interpertation. (USGS)

Brightbill, David B.; Treadway, Joseph B.

1980-01-01

434

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if contaminants of concern are present. (5) If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. (6) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management and minimization purposes. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'', this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, and field work will commence following approval.

David Strand

2006-06-01

435

Petroleum source potential of rocks dredged from the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bedrock dredging program by the R/V Sea Sounder in 1977 and 1978 along the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Alaska revealed a previously unknown Eocene sedimentary sequence that includes argillaceous rocks with favorable petroleum source rock characteristics. Seven of 36 dredge hauls that sampled outcrop contain argillaceous rocks with more than l percent and as much as 1.64 percent organic carbon. Some of the rocks in samples of probable early Eocene age have undergone a thermal history that has resulted in generation of hydrocarbons. The organic matter appears to be hydrogen deficient, however, which could indicate that the rocks are more likely to be a source of gas rather than liquid hydrocarbon, unless the hydrogen loss is due to weathering. The Eocene rocks are associated with sandstone and conglomerate on the continental slope. They dip northward beneath younger Tertiary strata in the outer continental shelf where they could be an important petroleum source and exploratory target.

Plafker, George; Claypool, George Edwin

1979-01-01

436

Suppressive effect of magnesium oxide materials on cadmium accumulation in winter wheat grain cultivated in a cadmium-contaminated paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational cultivation.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of two kinds of magnesium oxide (MgO) materials, commercial MgO (2250 kg ha(-1)) and a material derived from MgO and magnesium silicate minerals named 'MgO-SH-A' (2250 and 4500 kg ha(-1)1), in suppression of uptake and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) into grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ayahikari) was examined in a Cd-contaminated alluvial paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational system. The MgO materials were mixed into the plough-layer soil only once prior to the preceding rice cultivation. Cadmium concentration in wheat grain produced from the non-amendment control exceeded the maximum limit of Cd in wheat grain adopted by FAO/WHO (0.2 mg kg(-1)). All of the treatments with the MgO materials significantly lowered plant available Cd fraction in the plough-layer soil. However, only the treatment with the commercial MgO at 2250 kg ha(-1) produced wheat grain whose Cd concentration was not only significantly lower than that from the control but also less than 0.2 mg kg(-1). It is suggested that the significant suppressive effect of the commercial MgO on Cd accumulation in wheat grain would be mainly attributed to its high soil neutralizing capacity as compared to that of MgO-SH-A. PMID:19304384

Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Okazaki, Masanori; Motobayashi, Takashi

2009-08-30

437

High Resolution Spectroscopy of Post-AGB Stars: AGB Nucleosynthesis and Dredge-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final evolutionary stage of a low mass stellar object is a complex phase which is still poorly understood. In this thesis we contribute to a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis and dredge-up phenomena that occur in such objects during their ascent on the AGB by means of a detailed study of high-resolution optical spectra of post-AGB objects. In the

Maarten Reyniers

2002-01-01

438

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

439

Geochemistry and petrology of dredged basalts from the Bouvet triple junction, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basalts dredged from the Bouvet triple junction (South Atlantic), from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the triple junction, and from a spreading center east of Bouvet Island differ from normal mid-ocean ridge tholeiites by having higher concentrations of K and other large-ion-lithophile elements, higher 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratios, and rare earth element distributions which show relative enrichment in the lighter

John S. Dickey Jr.; Frederick A. Frey; Stanley R. Hart; E. Bruce Watson; Geoffrey Thompson

1977-01-01

440

CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated materials is reviewed here by characterizing coal-tar creosote, identifying techniques for assessing the biodegradability of its many chemical constituents, examining known routes of microbial transformation of these chemicals, and reviewin...

441

Study on vibration characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump based on FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump were studied with the Finite Element Method (FEM) by SAMCEF ROTOR. At first, the influence of the fluid-solid coupling interaction of mud water and impeller, water sealing and pump shaft on the lateral critical speeds were analyzed. The results indicated that the mud water must be taken into consideration, while the water sealing need not to. Then the effects of radial and thrust rolling bearings on the lateral critical speeds were discussed, which shows