Sample records for contaminated dredged material

  1. Guidance on managing dredged material contaminated with dioxins and furans

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Dillon, T. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 400 million cubic yards of sediment are dredged from US navigation channels every year. While the vast majority of the dredged material are clean and thereby suitable for aquatic disposal, a portion of the dredged material are contaminated with chemicals that may pose risks to human health and the ecological health of the aquatic environment. Contaminated dredged materials are most frequently found downstream of industrial and municipal sewage-treatment discharges; non-point sources of pollution (e.g., urban and agricultural runoff) also contribute to contamination of dredged materials. An increasing amount of dredged materials are being identified through more sophisticated testing regimes to pose potentially adverse risks to human health and the aquatic environment. One particular class of chemicals that raises concern when regulating dredged material disposal is dioxin, which has been found in sediment in a number of locations, including New Jersey/New York Harbor. Further testing will likely find that dredged materials are contaminated with low levels of dioxin across the country. Decision makers in the EPA and the USACE are guided by numerous statutory mandates and regulations. Within that framework, judgments about the suitability of dredged material for aquatic disposal are made based upon a tiered testing and evaluative process. Recently, the EPA and the USACE have been working to incorporate risk-based evaluation procedures into the dredged material decision-making process. This paper discusses such efforts to date and the preliminary recommendations for evaluating the potential effects of dioxin contaminated dredged material.

  2. Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contaminated site remediation operations.42 The term `measurement' is used deliberately instead of `analysis1 Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments1 from waterways2 7 ABSTRACT: The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination8

  3. Air Emission Flux from Contaminated Dredged Materials Stored in a Pilot-Scale Confined Disposal Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ravikrishna; K. T. Valsaraj; D. D. Reible; L. J. Thibodeaux; C. B. Price; J. M. Brannon; T. E. Myers; S. Yost

    2001-01-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysi-meter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x

  4. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  5. Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From the Port of

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Estuaries Vol. 21, No. 4A, p. 646-651 December 1998 Processing Contaminated Dredged Material From environmentaleffectscausedby ocean disposal of the dredged material. Current proposals for solutions to the problem include ocean disposal of uncontam- inated material, use of confined disposal facilities (both upland facilities

  6. Environmental effects of dredging. Biomagnification of contaminants in aquatic food webs as a result of open-water disposal of dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    This note provides information regarding the potential extent of biomagnification (the tendency for contaminant concentrations in animal tissues to increase through successively higher trophic levels) of contaminants in aquatic food chains resulting from the open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. The note also provides a technically sound perspective and offers general technical guidance on assessing the environmental importance of biomagnification in aquatic food chains as a result of open-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. It does not consider biomagnification in nonaquatic organisms.

  7. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Choy, B. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Environmental Lab.] [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Environmental Lab.; Yost, S. [DynTel Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [DynTel Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  8. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  9. HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

  10. Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration for the Port of New York and New Jersey Department of Energy Brookhaven National Laboratory Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration .................................................................................................................................. 2 3. WRDA Decontamination Program Overview

  11. DREDGED MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE (DMMO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the interagency (federal-State) "Dredged Materials management Office" in San Francisco, CA. The DMMO evaluates all proposals for dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area, under guidelines developed through...

  12. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  13. Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, R.C. [Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

  14. Commercializationof Dredged-Material Decontamination

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Commercializationof Dredged- Material Decontamination Technologies Keitb U?Jones isa senior Keith in a tfonof sediment decontamination seamless way,starting with validation at the bench-and pilot-scale levels of sediment decontamination obtaining adequatefunding for capital and operating costs during the tecbnob

  15. Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

  16. Mercury-contaminated sludge treatment by dredging in Minamata Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, Kiyoto [Ministry of Transport, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    To eradicate Minamata Disease, caused by the discharge of sewage containing methyl mercury and its accumulation in fish and shellfish through the food cycle, a large-scale sediment disposal project was conducted with special care taken to prevent new pollution resulting from the project itself. The basic approach to sediment disposal was to construct a highly watertight revetment to reclaim the inner area of the bay and then confine sediment dredged from the remaining contaminated area in the reclamation area through surface treatment. Before sediment disposal, boundary nets were installed to enclose the work area to prevent the mixing of contaminated and noncontaminated fish. Dredging work was successfully carried out by using four cutterless suction dredgers, newly developed in advance for minimizing resuspension of sediments. Dredged material was discharged into the reclamation area, filled up to sea level, and covered with a sandproof membrane, lightweight volcanic ash earth, and mountain soil.

  17. Dredging/dredged material management risk assessment. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This technical note explains the use of risk assessment to facilitate dredged material management decision-making in navigable waterways by US Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) project managers and field operations personnel. The document does not promote risk assessment as a tool for use in every dredged material management decision. It is likely to be most useful, and most used, in those cases that constitute the exception rather than the rule. The use of risk assessment is intended to supplement the analytical options currently available to dredged material managers by building on the existing technical framework (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/USACE 1992) and the existing tiered approaches (USEPA/USACE 1991, 1998).

  18. ReprintedfromDredging and Management of Dredged Material Proceedingsof 3 sessionsheld in conjunction with the

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    BNL- 64400 ReprintedfromDredging and Management of Dredged Material Proceedingsof 3 sessionsheld Processing of NY/NJ Harbor Estuarine Dredged Material K. W. Jones', E. A. Stern', K. Donato3, N. L. Clesceri of the United States. One attractive solution to processing the dredged material is to remove or stabilize

  19. New Bedford Harbor Superfund project, Acushnet River estuary engineering-feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 8. Compatibility of liner systems with New Bedford Harbor dredged-material contaminants. Technical report, January-June 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    New Bedford Harbor sediments contain substantial amounts of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Leaching studies with this sediment indicate that the leachate generated from the disposal of these sediments may contain significant amounts of the same contaminants. This investigation examined the available literature and data pertaining to the chemical compatibility of synthetic and natural liners with both organic and inorganic

  20. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

  1. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

  2. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

  3. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...occurring bottom material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2) Dredged...

  4. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

    2013-11-01

    In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities. PMID:23666121

  5. Using sediment quality guidelines for dredged material management in commercial ports from Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Casado-Martínez; J. L. Buceta; M. J. Belzunce; T. A. DelValls

    2006-01-01

    Dredged material contamination was assessed in different commercial ports from Spain: Port of Cádiz and Huelva, South West; Bilbao and Pasajes, North; Cartagena and Barcelona, East; Coruña, North West. Sediment from different locations of these ports was sampled and was characterized following the Spanish recommendations for dredged material management. This characterization included grain size distribution, organic matter content and concentration

  6. Stakeholder engagement in dredged material management decisions.

    PubMed

    Collier, Zachary A; Bates, Matthew E; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-15

    Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as multi-stakeholder, multi-criteria decision problems. In this paper, we describe a case study in which multi-criteria decision analysis was implemented in a multi-stakeholder setting in order to generate recommendations on dredged material placement for Long Island Sound's Dredged Material Management Plan. A working-group of representatives from various stakeholder organizations was formed and consulted to help prioritize sediment placement sites for each dredging center in the region by collaboratively building a multi-criteria decision model. The resulting model framed the problem as several alternatives, criteria, sub-criteria, and metrics relevant to stakeholder interests in the Long Island Sound region. An elicitation of values, represented as criteria weights, was then conducted. Results show that in general, stakeholders tended to agree that all criteria were at least somewhat important, and on average there was strong agreement on the order of preferences among the diverse groups of stakeholders. By developing the decision model iteratively with stakeholders as a group and soliciting their preferences, the process sought to increase stakeholder involvement at the front-end of the prioritization process and lead to increased knowledge and consensus regarding the importance of site-specific criteria. PMID:25089686

  7. Using sediment quality guidelines for dredged material management in commercial ports from Spain.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Buceta, J L; Belzunce, M J; Delvalls, T A

    2006-04-01

    Dredged material contamination was assessed in different commercial ports from Spain: Port of Cádiz and Huelva, South West; Bilbao and Pasajes, North; Cartagena and Barcelona, East; Coruña, North West. Sediment from different locations of these ports was sampled and was characterized following the Spanish recommendations for dredged material management. This characterization included grain size distribution, organic matter content and concentration of the chemical compounds included in the list of pollutants and hazardous substances (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn; PCB congeners IUPAC number 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180; PAHs were also analyzed). The results were compared to the limit values of Spanish Action Levels that define the different categories for assessment and management. A set of empirically derived sediment quality guidelines (SQG) was used to assess the possible toxicity of the dredged materials and to improve the use of the chemical approach to characterize dredged material for its management. PMID:16289759

  8. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS...River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c)...

  9. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental...designate four new Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site(s) (ODMDS) located offshore of Texas for the disposal of dredged material from the...

  10. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stronkhorst; F. Ariese; B. van Hattum; J. F. Postma; M. de Kluijver; P. J. Den Besten; M. J. N. Bergman; R. Daan; A. J. Murk; A. D. Vethaak

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the ‘North’ site had ceased and at the

  11. MODELING SHORT-TERM BEHAVIOR OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSED IN VERY SHALLOW AND VERY DEEP COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modifications have been made to the model for Disposal From an Instantaneous Dump (DIFID), commonly used to simulate transport and fate of dredged material rapidly disposed from a dredge or barge into aquatic systems. hanges include simulation of particulate and contaminant detac...

  12. Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  14. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  15. Methodology for determining feasibility and cost for converting dredged material to topsoil 

    E-print Network

    Graalum, Sara Jo Ann

    1997-01-01

    ). The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the applicability of converting dredged material to topsoil as a beneficial use of dredged material. The site selection in terms of location, material, and marketing are paramount in determining the most economically...

  16. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  17. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR DREDGING CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is a growing national debate about dredging contaminated sediments, including risks to human health and the environment as well as the overall effectiveness of remedial activities. Presently, monitoring methods are available to address both concerns. This present...

  18. Recovery of dredged material for beneficial use: the future role of physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    Olin-Estes, T J; Palermo, M R

    2001-07-30

    Sediments dredged from navigational waterways have historically been disposed in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) or in open water. When sediments are contaminated, open water disposal is typically not an alternative, and sediments are placed in CDFs. Many CDFs are nearing capacity, and siting and constructing new facilities is both difficult and expensive. In many cases, CDFs contain both clean and contaminated dredged material. Removal of materials suitable for beneficial use (BU) is one alternative under consideration to extend the life of existing CDFs, as is separation of recoverable materials at the time of disposal. Several technologies for recovery of clean materials or treatment of contaminated materials for beneficial use are presently under evaluation. Physical separation technologies have been demonstrated to have potential in reducing the volume of sediment that must be managed with confined disposal, but there are several technical issues that remain to be addressed. Determination of beneficial use specifications, physical and chemical characterization of dredged material, overall site characterization, selection of suitable unit operations, management of liquid and solid residuals, and cost/benefit analysis, are all important aspects to successful implementation of separation processes. Several of these elements are presently being evaluated in research conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, at the ERDC Waterways Experiment Station (WES). PMID:11463502

  19. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  20. Lake-dredged materials for beef cattle pasture establishment in subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to reuse dredge materials for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. Beneficial uses of dredging or dredged materials are both economical and environmental. ...

  1. DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

  2. DREDGED MATERIAL PLUME DISPERSAL IN CENTRAL LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simulation model based upon in situ current velocity data and records of disposal events was developed to predict the chemical exposure field resulting from dredged material disposal plumes in central Long island Sound (CLIS) during the spring of 1983. n the model, plumes are a...

  3. New Federal Regulations for Dredged and Fill Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Aided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, the United States Army Corps of Engineers regulates the discharge of dredged and fill material, through a permit program, to all waters of the United States. This feature summarizes the key points of the Corps regulations and the EPA guidelines. (BT)

  4. Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey .K.W. Jones Brookhaven copyrightcoveringthispaper. #12;Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey K. W. Jones the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse

  5. Workshop Report: Advancing the Art of Analyzing Risks and Benefits of Dredged Material Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been delegated responsibility for assuring the navigability of waters designated for that purpose in the United States. Dredging is among the activities required to fulfill this responsibility. In some places, the Corps finds difficulty in carrying out dredging projects because it lacks spaces where the sediments that must be removed (“dredged materials”) can

  6. APPLICATION OF A HAZARD ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY TO THE OCEAN DISPOSAL OF A DREDGED MATERIAL: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) relates the source input of the dredged material contaminants to the corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. The specific ob...

  7. Temporal effects of dredging and dredged material disposal on nekton in the offshore waters of Galveston, Texas, with notes on the natural histories of the most abundant taxa 

    E-print Network

    Henningsen, Brandt Flynn

    1977-01-01

    of fish populations were influenced more by seasonal temperature and salinity changes rather than by dredged material disposal. Bardarik, Alden, and Shema (no date) stated that sand snd gravel dredg'ng had no effect on fishes in the Allegheny River..., Briggs and O' Connor (1971) observed that fish populations of a shallow New York estuary preferred naturally vegetated bottoms over that offered by dredged sand deposits. Stickney (1972) noted no dredging effects on ich- thyofauna of a Georgia estuary...

  8. Establishing bahiagrass in subtropical beef cattle pastures with lake-dredged materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredged materials (DM) are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess lake-dredged materials...

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Refinement and simplification of column settling tests for design of dredged material containment areas. Technical notes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Thackston; M. R. Palermo; P. R. Schroeder

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this note provides background and theory concerning the settling dredged material slurries, a description of the evolution of column settling test procedures, and the technical basis for certain simplifications to the test procedures that are not contained in other published reports. This note does not repeat the detailed instructions for conducting column settling tests that are contained

  11. Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the

    E-print Network

    Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the Coast of EnglandU, contract SLAB5. #12;2 Cefas Document Control Title: Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around Version Draft (submitted to co-authors) 1.0 S Bolam 1 st November 2011 Draft (edits addressed) 2.0 S Bolam

  12. Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the

    E-print Network

    Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the Coast of England, contract SLAB5. #12;2 Cefas Document Control Title: Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around: Chris Vivian, May 2011 Version: 4.0 Version Control History Author Date Comment Version Draft (submitted

  13. Macrobenthic community colonization and community development in dredged material disposal habitats off coastal Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Flemer; B. F. Ruth; C. M. Bundrick; G. R. Gaston

    1997-01-01

    We examined marine benthic macroinvertebrate colonization and community structure at multiple spatial scales (study areas, reference and disposal sites, and depth zones within sites) within a 3-day period at three relatively widely separated (ca 60 km) dredged material disposal areas (Mermentau and Atchafalaya Rivers and Freshwater Bayou) in coastal Louisiana. Study areas had different histories of dredged material disposal, but

  14. Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials: Pasture establishment and forage productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, dredged material disposal alternatives have several limitations. Options for dealing with dredged materials include leaving them alone, capping them with clean sediments, placing them in confined facilities, disposing of them at upland sites, treating them chemically, or using them for we...

  15. Submitted to Conference on Dredged Material Management: Options and Environmental Considerations

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Cambridge, Massachusetts ­ 3-6 December 2000 Decontamination and Beneficial Use of Dredged Materials* E of dredged material decontamination technologies for the NY/NJ Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present

  16. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: U.S. Environmental...ODMDS, approximately 4 square nautical miles in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the potential construction...

  17. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island Sound; Connecticut...Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern Long Island Sound...

  18. Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (2001) 127143 Dredged material decontamination demonstration

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (2001) 127­143 Dredged material decontamination demonstration component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed material; Decontamination; Beneficial use; Commercialization; NY/NJ Harbor Corresponding author. Tel.: +1

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  20. The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material from

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material from U.S. Army Corps'sternsinhabitingamarshcreatedbydredgedmaterialonPoplarIsland,Maryland. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers #12;The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged and creation, beach nourishment, aquaculture, forestry, agriculture, mine reclamation, and industrial

  1. An innovative coupling between column leaching and oxygen consumption tests to assess behavior of contaminated marine dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Couvidat, Julien; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Chatain, Vincent; Zhang, Fan; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated dredged sediments are often considered hazardous wastes, so they have to be adequately managed to avoid leaching of pollutants. The mobility of inorganic contaminants is a major concern. Metal sulfides (mainly framboïdal pyrite, copper, and zinc sulfides) have been investigated in this study as an important reactive metal-bearing phase sensitive to atmospheric oxygen action. An oxygen consumption test (OC-Test) has been adapted to assess the reactivity of dredged sediments when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. An experimental column set-up has been developed allowing the coupling between leaching and oxygen consumption test to investigate the reactivity of the sediment. This reactivity, which consisted of sulfide oxidation, was found to occur for saturation degree between 60 and 90 % and until the 20th testing week, through significant sulfates releases. These latter were assumed to come from sulfide oxidation in the first step of the test, then probably from gypsum dissolution. Confrontation results of OC-Test and leachate quality shows that Cu was well correlated to sulfates releases, which in turn, leads to Ca and Mg dissolution (buffer effect). Cu, and mostly Zn, was associated to organic matter, phyllosilicates, and other minerals through organo-clay complexes. This research confirmed that the OC-Test, originally developed for mine tailings, could be a useful tool in the dredged sediment field which can allow for intrinsic characterization of reactivity of a material suspected to readily reacting with oxygen and for better understanding of geochemical processes that affect pollutants behavior, conversion, and transfer in the environment. PMID:25779112

  2. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment

    E-print Network

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged in a pseudogley soil (pH 8.2­8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zn points-of-interest in the uncontaminated and contaminated soil. Bulk average powder EXAFS spectroscopy

  3. Mercury emissions from cement-stabilized dredged material.

    PubMed

    Goodrow, Sandra M; Miskewitz, Robert; Hires, Richard I; Eisenreich, Steven J; Douglas, W Scott; Reinfelder, John R

    2005-11-01

    Upland placement of dredged materials from navigation channels in the New York/New Jersey Harbor is currently being used to manage sediments deemed inappropriate for open water disposal. Although upland placement sites are equipped with engineering controls (leachate collection and/or barrier walls), little is known of the potential impacts of this approach to air quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the flux of mercury to the atmosphere from New York/New Jersey Harbor stabilized dredged material (SDM) that was used for land reclamation at a site in northeastern New Jersey. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured at a site receiving SDM in August and October 2001 and May and November 2002. TGM was also monitored at an urban reference site 3.5 km west of the SDM site in September 2001 and from February 2002 to July 2002 and from October 2002 to February 2003. The concentration of TGM at the urban reference site averaged 2.2 +/- 1.1 ng m(-3), indicating some local contribution to the Northern Hemisphere background. TGM concentrations exhibited seasonality with the highest values in summer (3.3 +/- 2.1 ng m(-3) in June 2002) and the lowest in winter (1.7 +/- 0.6 ng m(-3) in January 2003). TGM concentrations at the SDM placement site ranged from 2 to 7 ng m(-3) and were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those at the urban reference site. Sediment-air fluxes of Hg at the SDM placement site estimated by the micrometeorological technique ranged from -13 to 1040 ng m(-2) h(-1) (sediment to air fluxes being positive) and were significantly correlated to solar radiation (r2 = 0.81). The estimated contribution of Hg emissions from land-applied SDM to local TGM concentrations was found to be negligible (<4%). However, the estimated annual volatilization rate of TGM atthe SDM site (130 kg y(-1))was comparable to those of other industrial sources in New Jersey (140-450 kg y(-1)). PMID:16294853

  4. Potential contaminants at a dredged spoil placement site, Charles City County, Virginia, as revealed by sequential extraction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianwu; Whittecar, G Richard; Johannesson, Karen H; Daniels, W Lee

    2004-01-01

    Backfills of dredged sediments onto a former sand and gravel mine site in Charles City County, VA may have the potential to contaminate local groundwater. To evaluate the mobility of trace elements and to identify the potential contaminants from the dredged sediments, a sequential extraction scheme was used to partition trace elements associated with the sediments from the local aquifer and the dredged sediments into five fractions: exchangeable, acidic, reducible, oxidizable, and residual phases. Sequential extractions indicate that, for most of the trace elements examined, the residual phases account for the largest proportion of the total concentrations, and their total extractable fractions are mainly from reducible and oxidizable phases. Only Cd, Pb, and Zn have an appreciable extractable proportion from the acidic phase in the filled dredged sediments. Our groundwater monitoring data suggest that the dredged sediments are mainly subject to a decrease in pH and a series of oxidation reactions, when exposed to the atmosphere. Because the trace elements released by carbonate dissolution and the oxidation (e.g., organic matter degradation, iron sulfide and, ammonia oxidation) are subsequently immobilized by sorption to iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, no potential contaminants to local groundwater are expected by addition of the dredged sediments to this site.

  5. INCREASING STORAGE CAPAPCITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS

    E-print Network

    of the soils below the layer, the consolidation characteristics of the dredged fill layer, local climatological data, and the effectiveness of surface water management within the containment area. This settlement

  6. Application of multiple ecological risk indices for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in a coastal dredging area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-T. Kwon; C.-W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals and plants. There is a need to analyze the contamination level and the biological effect rather than to simply compare the heavy metal contents. Heavy metal contamination in sediments from Masan Bay were evaluated by multiple ecological risk indices before and after a sediment dredging process. The

  7. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  8. Engineering geology criteria for dredged material disposal in upper Laguna Madre, Texas

    E-print Network

    Stinson, James Edmellaire

    1977-01-01

    Committee: Dr, C. C. Mathewson Channels in Murdock Basin, Upper Laguna Madre, fill with sediment dispersed from adjacent subaqueous dredged materia I disposal sites. Original dredging placed the material in a series of disposal mounds close... to and parallel to the channel. Three disposal sites in different water depths, revealed varying conditions of sediment dispersion and island erosion. Water depth at the different sites varies from 0 to 1. 5 feet in the wind tidal flats, I to 3 feet...

  9. Recovery of dredged material for beneficial use: the future role of physical separation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Olin-Estes; M. R. Palermo

    2001-01-01

    Sediments dredged from navigational waterways have historically been disposed in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) or in open water. When sediments are contaminated, open water disposal is typically not an alternative, and sediments are placed in CDFs. Many CDFs are nearing capacity, and siting and constructing new facilities is both difficult and expensive. In many cases, CDFs contain both clean and

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  11. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ?1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities. PMID:20674146

  12. Dredge Planning Using Sub-Bottom SONAR

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brad Hubeny

    This project is designed to give students valuable geophysical experience in conducting an environmental assessment of a real-world problem. A scenario is developed in which students work for "Viking Consulting, LLC" as an environmental geologist. The company has been hired by the City of Salem to assess an appropriate confined aqueous disposal (CAD) cell location for contaminated dredge spoils from a proposed dredging project of the South River, Salem, MA. Students utilize sub-bottom SONAR technology to calculate volume of dredge spoils and potential CAD cell locations and analyze which location can accommodate the contaminated material.

  13. WORKBOOK/USERS MANUAL FOR PREDICTION OF INSTANTANEOUSLY DUMPED DREDGED MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes the operation and use of a computer model developed to predict the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into the water column. The model predicts the spacial distribution of various components of the dumped material as a function of tim...

  14. 77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Charleston, South...7.18 square miles in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the proposed...Charleston ODMDS. Expand the existing disposal zone and ODMDS to the north, south...

  15. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of the St...mouth of the St. Johns River for the disposal of dredged material from the Jacksonville...as not designating an additional ocean disposal site. The existing Jacksonville...

  16. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island...of one or more Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to serve the eastern...Environmental Policy Act documents for all ocean disposal site designations. The SEIS will...

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  18. Valorization of unauthorized sea disposal dredged sediments as a road foundation material.

    PubMed

    Achour, Raouf; Abriak, Nor-Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Rivard, Patrice; Gregoire, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to show the ability of fine dredged material (mainly silty material) to be used in road construction project. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the physical, the mineralogical and the mechanical characteristics of the used fine dredged sediments, as well as their chemical composition and environmental impacts are presented. In the second part, the methodology developed to design the road made from dredged fine sediment is developed. The third part of the paper focuses on the presentation of the road construction and the interpretation of analyses made on cores drilled samples from the road and measurements of the deflection of the road. The environmental assessment, based on leaching tests, is also performed at different issues. PMID:24956794

  19. The Bioavailability of Copper and Mercury to the Common Nettle (Urtica Dioica) and the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida from Contaminated Dredge Spoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sion C. Edwards; Cecilia L. MacLeod; John N. Lester

    1998-01-01

    The contaminants Hg and Cu, as well as Fe, Mn and K were sequentially extracted from upland disposed dredge spoil using DTPA and 10% nitric acid. Concentrations of these metals in aerial plant tissue and roots of Urtica dioica growing on the dredge spoil were also determined and used to correlate the biological absorption coefficients (BACs) and mobile element absorption

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  3. 33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL OR FILL INTO WATERS OF THE...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...potential for significant degradation of the...

  4. 33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL OR FILL INTO WATERS OF THE...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...potential for significant degradation of the...

  5. 33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL OR FILL INTO WATERS OF THE...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...potential for significant degradation of the...

  6. 33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL OR FILL INTO WATERS OF THE...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...potential for significant degradation of the...

  7. 33 CFR 338.2 - Activities involving the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL OR FILL INTO WATERS OF THE...discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S...potential for significant degradation of the...

  8. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

  9. DREDGED MATERIAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT: SINGLE-SPECIES TOXICITY/BIOACCUMULATION AND MACROBENTHOS COLONIZATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 have been used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. ur objective was to compar...

  10. LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (LTMS) FOR PLACEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with the EIS for the "Long Term management Strategy (LTMS) for Placement of Dredged material in the San Francisco Bay Region, Final policy Environmental Impact Statement and Programmatic Environmental Impact Report." Published October, 1...

  11. FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

  12. Regulatory Guidance Letter 87-08 SUBJECT: Testing Requirements for Dredged Material

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    be permitted which will cause or Contribute to significant degradation of the waters of the U. S. Findings of significant degradation related to the proposed discharge shall be based upon appropriate factual that "Applications for permits for the transportation of dredged material for the purpose of dumping it in ocean

  13. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL DESICCATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model has been developed to represent the physical phenomena that occur during the desiccation and one-dimensional consolidation of successive layers of dredged material as they are periodically deposited in a diked containment area. The governing boundary value pr...

  14. A field study on phytoremediation of dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals and nutrients: the impacts of sediment aeration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2014-12-01

    Compared to traditional chemical or physical treatments, phytoremediation has proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. A field study was conducted in a sediment disposal site predominantly colonized by Typha angustifolia under different sediment moisture conditions to estimate the phytoremediation effects of dredged sediment. The moisture content was 37.30 % and 48.27 % in aerated and waterlogged sediment, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) content was higher in the waterlogged sediment than in the aerated sediment. The total Cd contents were lower in aerated sediment, which was mainly resulted from the lower exchangeable fraction of Cd. The bioaccumulation of P, Cu and Pb in T. angustifolia was promoted by waterlogging, and the belowground tissue concentrations and accumulation factors (AFs) of Cu were higher than that of other metals, which can be explained by that Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants. Consistent with many previous studies, T. angustifolia showed higher metal levels in roots than in above-ground tissues at both the sediment conditions. Due to the improved biomass produced in the aerated sediment, the removals of nutrients and the metals by plant harvest were higher from aerated sediment than from waterlogged sediment. It was indicated that maintaining the dredged sediment aerated can avoid release risk and plant uptake of metals, while the opposite management option can promote phytoextraction of these contaminants. PMID:25012206

  15. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

  16. Waste or resource? Classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Elisabeth Apitz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  A well-designed approach for the selection of dredged material (DM) management option decisions identifies the trade-offs\\u000a among various risks, costs, and benefits of multiple management alternatives. Whatever tools are applied to make and communicate\\u000a decisions, it is critical that decision criteria and the parameters or indicators that are used to score or rank them are\\u000a relevant, clear, and exhaustive, but

  17. Determination of consolidation behaviour of Haliç dredged material by using a seepage-induced consolidation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saadet A. Berilgen; Mehmet M. Berilgen; Kutay Özayd?n

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To establish relationships between effective vertical stress-void ratio and hydraulic conductivity-void ratio on high water content dredged clays, which are then used to predict the field consolidation behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The large strain consolidation model is used for numerical modeling of large-strain self-weight consolidation. Material parameters determined from seepage-induced consolidation tests provided satisfactory predictions of field compression behavior.

  18. The plant geography of dredged-material islands along the Texas coast 

    E-print Network

    Irish, Gary Joe

    1978-01-01

    demonstrates the importance of three selected environmental factors in influencing the inter-island and intra-island distributions of species and in controlling insular floristic composition. An an- notated flora, giving the inter-island distributions... and substrate are also important factors influencing the florist1c com- position of individual dredged-material islands. Spatial changes in the flor1stic composition of upland source areas contribute additional variab1lity to 1nsular floras beyond that which...

  19. Geological criteria for the selection of unconfined dredged material disposal sites in estuaries and lagoons

    E-print Network

    McHam, Robert Michael

    1977-01-01

    generated along the 4. 5 mi (7. 2 km) fetch to the northwest. 47 23 Generalized map of upper Galveston Bay showing the location of Atkinson Island. Photograph showing clay balls within the Atkinson Island dredged material. These clay balls are sur... Island 80 80 84 84 86 86 92 92 SELECTION OF DISPOSAL SITES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 REFERENCES i a o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ r e e o ~ e e ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 14...

  20. DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DREDGING: FIELD STUDY FOR EVALUATING DREDGING RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging is a commonly selected remedy for the risk management of contaminated sediments. Even so, there are questions regarding both the short-term and long-term effectiveness of dredging. A significant aspect in the performance of dredging is dredging residuals. Post-dredging ...

  1. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater. PMID:16508806

  2. Contaminated Animal and Plant Materials

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and plant materials. It was produced by the Tech- nical Support Working Group, in conjunction with the UManaging Contaminated Animal and Plant Materials Field Guide on Best Practices #12;#12;Authors General Considerations Animal and Plant Materials......................................................13

  3. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  4. Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Yozzo, David J; Wilber, Pace; Will, Robert J

    2004-10-01

    A comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE-NYD) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY/NJ). The primary objective of the DMMP is to identify cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives for the placement of dredged material derived from ongoing and proposed navigation improvements within the PANY/NJ. A significant portion of this dredged material is classified as unsuitable for open-ocean disposal. One suite of alternatives presented within the DMMP is the beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration within the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary. Proposed beneficial use/habitat development projects include the use of dredged material for construction of artificial reefs, oyster reef restoration, intertidal wetland and mudflat creation, bathymetric recontouring, filling dead-end canals/basins, creation of bird/wildlife islands, and landfill/brownfields reclamation. Preliminary screening of the proposed beneficial use alternatives identified advantages, disadvantages, potential volumes, and estimated costs associated with each project type. Continued study of the proposed beneficial use alternatives has identified areas of environmental research or technology development where further investigation is warranted. PMID:15327845

  5. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  6. Heavy Metal Immobilization Through Phosphate and Thermal Treatment of Dredged Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ndiba; Lisa Axe; Thipnakarin Boonfueng

    2008-01-01

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 C, was investigated for

  7. The effect of phytostabilization on Zn speciation in a dredged contaminated sediment using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, and principal components analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Panfili; Alain Manceau; Géraldine Sarret; Lorenzo Spadini; Tatiana Kirpichtchikova; Valérie Bert; Agnès Laboudigue; Matthew A. Marcus; Noureddine Ahamdach; Marie-Françoise Libert

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance of waterways generates large amounts of dredged sediments, which are deposited on adjacent land surfaces. These sediments are often rich in metal contaminants and present a risk to the local environment. Understanding how the metals are immobilized at the molecular level is critical for formulating effective metal containment strategies such as phytoremediation. In the present work, the mineralogical

  8. Assessing pollution and UV-enhanced toxicity in Torsviken, Sweden, a shallow bay exposed to contaminated dredged harbor sediment and hazardous waste leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-S. Wernersson; G. Dave; E. Nilsson

    2000-01-01

    Torsviken is a small bay close to the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Part of the bay has been used for disposal of dredged harbor sediment since the 1970s. Other potential sources of contamination are a deposit site and treatment facility for hazardous waste. The area has been classified as ecologically sensitive and is of great ornithological interest. Birds are abundant

  9. Dispersal and fate of dredged materials disposed of in the Changjiang Estuary determined by use of an in situ rare earth element tracer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gao-Feng Liu; Hua-Lin Wu; Wen-Hua Guo; Jian-Rong Zhu; Lian-Cheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the dispersal pattern and the fate of dredged materials disposed at a pre-selected disposal site, a field tracer experiment was conducted in the North Passage of the Changjiang Estuary during the 2005 flood season. Three tons of dredged materials were mixed with 2.792 kg of sodium hexachloroiridate (IV) hexahydrate (SHH), which contained the rare earth element tracer iridum

  10. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK (TEF) FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE II ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  11. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE 1 HUMAN HEALTH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  12. Materials surface contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

  13. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period. PMID:20089285

  14. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 33 CFR 336.1 - Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. 336.1 Section 336.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...too quickly in shallow water. The designation of...material disposal in ocean waters. The proposed Sites...locations within the footprint of each Site and will...Position, Depth of Water, Bottom Topography...designation of the Sites. Transportation of dredges or...

  20. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...water quality is expected to be temporary turbidity caused by the physical movement of sediment...column less rapidly. No increase in turbidity is expected to be measurable at the...disposal of dredged material will affect turbidity and sedimentation levels and...

  1. Applicability of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Regulations to the Management of Navigational Dredged Material from

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Applicability of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Regulations to the Management of Navigational Dredged Material from the New York/New Jersey Harbor by Thomas John A thesis Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York #12;ii April 1999 (For Graduation May 1999) Table of Contents Page Title

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

  3. Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

    2015-03-01

    Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21 months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24 months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox® SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2 km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area. PMID:25497354

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  5. Zn speciation in a soil contaminated by the deposition of a dredged sediment by synchrotron X-ray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Manceau, Alain; Laboudigue, Agnes; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    The nature and proportion of Zn species present in an agricultural soil overlaid by a dredged contaminated sediment have been untangled by the novel combination of three non-invasive synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: x-ray microfluorescence ({mu}SXRF), microdiffraction ({mu}XRD), and absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). One primary (franklinite) and two secondary (phyllomanganate and phyllosilicate) Zn-containing minerals were identified in the initial soil, and another primary (ZnS) and a new secondary (Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide) Zn species in the covered soil. The quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra recorded on bulk samples indicated that ZnS and Zn-Fe (oxyhydr)oxides amounted to 71+-10 percent and 27+-10 percent, respectively, and the other Zn species to less than 10 percent. The two new Zn species found in the covered soil result from the gravitational migration of ZnS particles initially present in the sediment, and from their further oxidative dissolution and fixation of leached Zn on F e (oxyhydr) oxides.

  6. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  7. Fishery resource utilization of a restored estuarine borrow pit: a beneficial use of dredged material case study.

    PubMed

    Reine, Kevin; Clarke, Douglas; Ray, Gary; Dickerson, Charles

    2013-08-15

    Numerous pits in coastal waters are subject to degraded water quality and benthic habitat conditions, resulting in degraded fish habitat. A pit in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (USA) was partially filled with dredged sediment to increase flushing, alleviate hypoxia, and enhance benthic assemblages. Restoration objectives were assessed in terms of benthic community parameters and fishery resource occupation. Restoration resulted in increased benthic diversity (bottom samples) and the absence of water column stratification. Fisheries resources occupied the entire water column, unlike pre-restoration conditions where finfish tended to avoid the lower water column. The partial restoration option effectively reproduced an existing borrow pit configuration (Hole #5, control), by decreasing total depth from -11 m to -5.5 m, thereby creating a habitat less susceptible to hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while retaining sufficient vertical relief to maintain associations with juvenile weakfish and other forage fishes. Partially filling pits using dredged material represents a viable restoration alternative. PMID:23790449

  8. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a slurry was added to experimental chambers seeded with adult razor clams to produce burial mounds of various thicknesses. The laboratory results presented here have two implications for disposal operations.

  9. A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (?7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations. PMID:23813126

  10. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  11. Long-term effects of dredging operations program: preliminary recommendations for a congener-specific PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analysis in regulatory evaluation of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.U.; McFarland, V.A.; Pierce, B.D.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary recommendation of priority polychlorinated biphenyl ( PCB) congeners for congener-specific analysis is offered for use in the regulatory evaluation of dredged material. Potential toxicity, environmental prevalence, and relative abundance in animal tissues are the criteria used in the selection of specific congeners and their assignment to four priority groups. Potential toxicity is equated to mammalian microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) induction activity and type. MC- (3-methylcholanthrene-)-type and mixed-type induction activities are considered potentially most toxic, followed by PB- (phenobarbital-) type induction activity. Weak inducers and non-inducing congeners have the least potential for toxicity. Environmental prevalence, i.e., frequency of occurrence of specific congeners in environmental samples, is determined from the literature. Relative abundances of congeners (percents of total PCB as the sum of all congener concentrations) in tissues are reported or calculated from data in the literature, along with data generated from an experiment conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.

  12. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy Implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Cahoon Jr; James H. Cowan Jr

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil\\/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a

  13. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Pinza; L. M. Karle; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word

    1992-01-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in

  14. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...System) and are calculated using the North American Datum of 1983] Point ID No. Latitude Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122.00056 2 36.9625 ?121.99861 3 36.96139 ?121.99833...

  15. The Short Term Effects of Ditch Dredging to Nutrient Saturation onto Ditch Bed Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Midwestern United States, drainage ditches are an essential part of our landscape to ensure agriculture productivity. Sediment buildup reduces the flow rate of ditches and thus field tile lines, it then becomes necessary to dredge drainage ditches occasionally to optimize removal of water fr...

  16. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Quantitative Zn speciation in a contaminated dredged sediment by ?-PIXE, ?-SXRF, EXAFS spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Pierre Isaure; Agnès Laboudigue; Alain Manceau; Géraldine Sarret; Christophe Tiffreau; Patrick Trocellier; Géraldine Lamble; Jean-Louis Hazemann; Daniel Chateigner

    2002-01-01

    Dredging and disposal of sediments onto agricultural soils is a common practice in industrial and urban areas that can be hazardous to the environment when the sediments contain heavy metals. This chemical hazard can be assessed by evaluating the mobility and speciation of metals after sediment deposition. In this study, the speciation of Zn in the coarse (500 to 2000

  18. Submitted to Risk Management of Contaminated Sediments -International Workshop

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    of handling the most contaminated dredged materials. Here, we describe a dredged material decontamination program for the Port aimed at the creation of sediment decontamination facilities that produce decontamination facilities a reality. Participants do no come from a single agency, but are ad hoc teams

  19. Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material 1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Ford; Donald R Cahoon; James C Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray®2Jet-Spray® is a registered trademark of Aztec Development Company, P.O. Box 3348, Orlando, FL 32802, USA.2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta.

  20. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Vervaeke; S Luyssaert; J Mertens; E Meers; F. M. G Tack; N Lust

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. ‘Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (US)

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Lights, camera and acoustics: Assessing macrobenthic communities at a dredged material disposal site off the North East coast of the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana N. R. Birchenough; Siân E. Boyd; Roger A. Coggan; David S. Limpenny; William J. Meadows; Hubert L. Rees

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a trial assessment based on a combination of sampling techniques at a dredged material disposal site located off the North East coast of the UK, over 2001 to 2004. The site was surveyed with a high-resolution sidescan sonar system producing a mosaic with 100% coverage of the survey area. Benthic communities and sediments were

  5. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Barrows; L. D. Antrim; M. R. Pinza; W. W. Gardiner; N. P. Kohn; B. D. Gruendell; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word; L. B. Rosman

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the

  6. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  8. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

  9. STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

  10. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  11. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  12. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs: the influence of contaminated nest material.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Jaclyn E; Anderson, Todd A

    2002-05-01

    Snake eggs were placed in a synthetic nest contaminated with known concentrations of six organochlorines (OCs) to evaluate whether OCs from contaminated nest material accumulate in eggs. It was hypothesized that contaminated nest material may have contributed to OC burdens in eggs observed previously. The six OCs tested included lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT. Eggs were removed at 0, 4, and 6 weeks and analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Lindane was found at the highest concentration (153 ng/g at 4 weeks and 162 ng/g at 6 weeks). The next highest uptake was for endrin (25 ng/g at 4 weeks and 106 ng/g at 6 weeks). Heptachlor, aldrin, and dieldrin were also taken up into the eggs, but DDT was not detected in any of the eggs at any sampling period. The concentration of OCs increased from week 4 to week 6 for all the OCs except DDT. Structure-activity relationships were examined to determine which physicochemical properties of the OCs tested could be used as predictors of uptake into the eggs. A variety of physicochemical properties were evaluated including vapor pressure and molecular connectivity (a numerical description of topology). Octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) was a good predictor (r2 = 0.63, p = 0.06) of OC uptake into the eggs using this limited data set. PMID:12047069

  13. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  14. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: possibilities and barriers from a consumers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers' risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents' belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product. PMID:25618756

  15. Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Large; H. W. Arrowsmith

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal

  16. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation. PMID:23436151

  17. Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    of in the ocean. The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from contaminated sediment in the region, and $26 billion in revenue. This area is considered to be the richest consumer market Program is the responsibility of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ­ Region 2 and the U

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  2. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  3. EFFECTS OF A CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL ON LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF THE TUBICOLOUS AMPHIPOD, AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term and full life cycle toxicity tests have been conducted with Ampelisca ubdita as part of the joint COE-EPA field Verification Program (FVP): These studies comprised a portion of the effects assessment component of a risk analysis describing the hazards associated with a...

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  5. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Effects of sediment organic-matter composition on bioaccumulation of sediment organic contaminants: Interim results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.; Pennington, J.C.; McFarland, V.A.

    1991-06-01

    The relationship of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and fluoranthene to bioaccumulation by worms and clams and the relationship of sediment-bound PCB 153 and fluoranthene to concentrations in the interstitial water were examined. Bioaccumulation by both worms and clams was observed in all sediments. Apparent preference factor (APF) values showed that steady state was reached between sediment-bound contaminants and organism lipid pools. The APF values of organisms were close to the theoretical value for both contaminants in all sediments. These results showed that sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in conjunction with octanol water partition coefficients of nonpolar organic contaminants is a viable approach for predicting bioaccumulation of such compounds by infaunal organisms. Actual concentrations of contaminants in interstitial water were either overestimated or underestimated by the relationship between TOC and humic + fulvic acid organic matter fractions and sediment contaminant concentrations. Prediction of interstitial water concentrations was not as successful as use of APFs. The lack of agreement between predicted and actual interstitial water results was due to factors such as the presence of interstitial water contaminants bounds to microparticulates and dissolved organic material and the kind of organic material in the sediment.

  6. 9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE OUT AT ALTERNATING TIMES. WHILE STARBOARD IS HAULED IN, PORT IS RELEASED OUT TO DREDGE. - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  7. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  9. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  10. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  12. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A. (221 Oakland Park Ave., Columbus, OH 43214)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  13. Upper Hudson Dredging Debate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Chiarenzelli

    In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

  14. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    PubMed

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. PMID:25304520

  15. A novel multiple batch extraction test to assess contaminant mobilization from porous waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, S. C.; Durner, W.; Delay, M.; Frimmel, F. H.

    2009-04-01

    Contaminated porous materials, like soils, dredged sediments or waste materials must be tested before they can be used as filling materials in order to minimize the risk of groundwater pollution. We applied a multiple batch extraction test at varying liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios to a demolition waste material and a municipal waste incineration product and investigated the release of chloride, sulphate, sodium, copper, chromium and dissolved organic carbon from both waste materials. The liquid phase test concentrations were used to estimate parameters of a relatively simple mass balance model accounting for equilibrium partitioning. The model parameters were estimated within a Bayesian framework by applying an efficient MCMC sampler and the uncertainties of the model parameters and model predictions were quantified. We tested isotherms of the linear, Freundlich and Langmuir type and selected the optimal isotherm model by use of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). Both the excellent fit to the experimental data and a comparison between the model-predicted and independently measured concentrations at the L/S ratios of 0.25 and 0.5 L/kg demonstrate the applicability of the model for almost all studied substances and both waste materials. We conclude that batch extraction tests at varying L/S ratios provide, at moderate experimental cost, a powerful complement to established test designs like column leaching or single batch extraction tests. The method constitutes an important tool in risk assessments, because concentrations at soil water contents representative for the field situation can be predicted from easier-to-obtain test concentrations at larger L/S ratios. This helps to circumvent the experimental difficulties of the soil saturation extract and eliminates the need to apply statistical approaches to predict such representative concentrations which have been shown to suffer dramatically from poor correlations.

  16. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions.

  17. Relative impacts at sites of dredged-material relocation in the coastal environment: a phylum-level meta-analysis approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Somerfield; M. Atkins; S. G. Bolam; K. R. Clarke; E. Garnacho; H. L. Rees; R. Smith; R. M. Warwick

    2006-01-01

    Phylum-level meta-analysis was applied to 192 samples from a variety of dredgings disposal and relocation sites around the\\u000a coast of England and Wales. No consistent relationship was found between the disturbance status of macrobenthic communities\\u000a within disposal sites and the nature or amount of dredgings disposed. Differences between samples within and outside disposal\\u000a sites were generally smaller than differences between

  18. Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. Russ

    1992-01-01

    When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

  19. Application of biomarkers for assessing the biological impact of dredged materials in the Mediterranean: the relationship between antioxidant responses and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Regoli; David Pellegrini; Gary W. Winston; Stefania Gorbi; Silvia Giuliani; Claudia Virno-Lamberti; Stefano Bompadre

    2002-01-01

    In the period 1997–2000, approximately 1,800,000 m3 of material dredged from the Port of Leghorn was discharged into a sea dumping site located 14 miles from the coast. The red mullet (Mullus barbatus) was used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the biological impact of these discharges on a geographical and temporal scale. Organisms were sampled over three years (1998–2000)

  20. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality in the upper Patapsco aquifer deep water-bearing zone does not seem to have been impacted by the DMCA.

  1. Determination of contamination character of materials in space technology testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The contamination characters of selected materials used in space technology testing. Specific materials were subjected to a thermal vacuum environment, and the outgases were collected on a cold test mirror surface. Approximately one-half of the surface of the mirror was subjected to ultraviolet irradiation while the outgases were being deposited on the mirror. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the contaminative character of outgases from selected materials. The degree of contamination was measured in terms of degradation of the optical properties of the test mirror and the amount of deposit per unit area on quartz crystal microbalances placed near the test mirror, and by means of quadrupole mass spectral measurements of outgases from the test samples.

  2. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2015-02-01

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with 1 or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome to the long-term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc DTPA. PMID:25455668

  3. LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...

  4. STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. e2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the co...

  5. Distribution, movement and availability of Cd and Zn in a dredged sediment cultivated with Salix alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Bedell; Xavier Capilla; Claire Giry; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel; Yves Perrodin

    2009-01-01

    Willows occur as volunteer vegetation on sediment-derived soils, such as dredged sediments, landfill cover or stockpile deposits, and are used as phytoremediators on such soils. The present study evaluates growth and metal uptake by Salix alba grown on a contaminated dredge sediment for 209 days under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the study, the aerial parts of the S.

  6. REMEDIAL DREDGING AND EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: EXAMPLES FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is an on-going national debate questioning whether remedial dredging can be conducted without causing environmental harm. Two common assertions are that: 1) dredging contaminated sediment will do more harm than good, and 2) natural processes will eventually mitig...

  7. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. Implications of aerated stabilization basin dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Kovacs, Tibor; Gibbons, Sharon; Paradis, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Benthal solids accumulated in aerated stabilization basins (ASBs) must be dredged to regain treatment capacity. While dredging restores treatment performance, it has been associated occasionally with the failure to meet regulatory effluent toxicity limits at the time of dredging. A first study of its kind was undertaken to investigate the implications of ASB dredging on potential effluent toxicity to fish. The study showed that benthal solid slurry removed from the quiescent zone of an ASB with a hydraulic dredge was toxic to rainbow trout with a 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.2%. The high ammonia concentration in the sample was the main cause of fish mortality. Hydrogen sulfide and resin and fatty acids also were present in the dredged material at concentrations that could cause fish mortality. These findings have led to best management practices that can be used to mitigate or eliminate fish toxicity issues during dredging operations. PMID:20480765

  13. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  14. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  15. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  16. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  17. A Parametric Model For Estimating Costs For Remediating Contaminated Sediment Sites Using A Dredging Method - A Budgetary & Planning Tool For Decision-Makers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Rosengard; Jeff Wallace; Ashley MacDonald; Ryan Lafrenz; Mark Otten

    2010-01-01

    Contaminated sediments, whether in freshwater or marine systems, pose a significant environmental challenge both within the United States and across the globe. When it comes to cost estimating for sediment-related cleanup projects, headline after headline seems to read something like “Cost Estimates Increased for XYZ Project” or “Cost Estimate Rises to $(fill in your own astronomical number way above original

  18. AIR EMISSION FLUX FROM CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS STORED IN A PILOT-SCALE CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY. (R825513C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead

    E-print Network

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test...

  20. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  1. Contamination character of materials in space technology testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulson, D. M.; Haynes, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the nature and degree of contamination of mirrors in a vacuum environment in the presence of UV irradiation by outgases from some materials that are candidates for use inside spacecraft and simulated spacecraft environments. A vacuum apparatus was developed for testing contamination of mirrors. Offgases from heated test materials are deposited on a refrigerated mirror, half of which is UV irradiated. Reflectance is measured between 1100 and 25,000 A. Thermofit RNF-100, insulated wire TRT-24-19-V-93, and Eccofoam FS and FPH gave heavier deposits on the nonirradiated mirror. Moxness MS60 SO8, Scotch Tape Y-9050, RTV-577, RTV-41, Stycast 1090, and Epon 934 and 828 gave heavier deposits on the irradiated mirror. Raychem wire 44/0411, polyimide tape X1156, Insulgrease G-640, High Vacuum Silicone Grease, and RTV-602 gave only slight deposits on the irradiated and nonirradiated areas of the mirror.

  2. Cost and production estimation for a cutter suction dredge

    E-print Network

    Miertschin, Michael Wayne

    1997-01-01

    /mud. . . . . . 51 . . . . 51 . . . . 53 . . . . 53 . 54 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Minor system head loss coeI5cients. Table 2. Impeller diameters and pump speeds used in CSDCEP. . Table 3. Material factors used in CSDCEP, Table 4. Texas GIWW dredging... characteristics of any similar pump with any size impeller operating at any speed. Turner (1996), much like Huston, is a recognized expert in the dredging industry. He also provides many useful practical guidelines, but his key contribution is his research...

  3. Evaluating dredged material placement alternatives

    E-print Network

    Wooters, Kelly Lynne

    1989-01-01

    pinnata Glyclnde solitaria 4. 3. 2 Summary of results The Chocolate Bay alternatives with their feasibility ratings are listed in Table 4. 6. The assessments for each disposal option are listed in Appendix A. 5. Each alternative has a qualitative...

  4. Evaluating dredged material placement alternatives 

    E-print Network

    Wooters, Kelly Lynne

    1989-01-01

    . Some of the characteristic species of the area are listed in Table 4. 3. Grasses located in the bay include Halodule beaudettei, Ruppia maritima, Thalassia testudinum, Halophila engelmanni, and Cymodocea filiformis (White et al. 1983). Some mangrove...

  5. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  6. Field study of an unconfined dredge spoil disposal area in Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-print Network

    Bassi, David Edward

    1973-01-01

    moved out of the spoil dumping area and back into the newly dredged channel by whatever means of transport (Ippen, 1966, p. 654). Many types of dredging and spoil disposal have been used with varying degrees of effectiveness. Certainly, in at least... areas have been based almost entirely on economics, with little consideration given to the physical properties of the area. As long as the spoil material did not appear to run directly back to the newly dredged channel, obstruct naviga- tion...

  7. Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Scales, Charlie R. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Deegan, David [Tetronics Ltd., 5, Lechlade Road, Faringdon, Oxfordshire, SN7 8AL (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

  8. TBT-contaminated Sediments: Treatment in a Pilot Scale (9 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Stichnothe; Wolfgang Calmano; Eduardo Arevalo; Arne Keller; Jorg Thöming

    2005-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. Sediments in harbours and nearby shipyards demonstrate widespread contamination with tributyltin (TBT). Therefore, reuse and relocation of dredged material from these locations are prohibited. Even if the International Marine Organization (IMO) convention concerning TBT-based paints is ratified (Champ 2003) the TBT problem in sediments will continue to remain for many years due to the persistence of

  9. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Bossart; J. Hyde

    1993-01-01

    One of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) major goals is to clean up its contaminated facilities by the year 2019. The primary contaminants at DOE sites are radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals. The most common radioactive materials are isotopes of uranium and plutonium, although lesser quantities of thorium, technetium, neptunium and americium are also found. Organic contamination

  10. A Dredging Knowledge-Base Expert System for Pipeline Dredges with Comparison to Field Data 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Derek Alan

    2011-02-22

    A Pipeline Analytical Program and Dredging Knowledge{Base Expert{System (DKBES) determines a pipeline dredge's production and resulting cost and schedule. Pipeline dredge engineering presents a complex and dynamic process necessary to maintain...

  11. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS\\/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK\\/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Stern; Keith W. Jones; Kerwin Donato; John D. Pauling; J. G. SONTAG; N. L. CLESCERI; M. C. MENSINGER; C. L. WILDE

    1998-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m³) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close

  12. The nutrient and trace metal geochemistry of a dredge plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontano, John M.; Bohlen, W. F.

    1984-04-01

    Field sampling of the dissolved and particulate material field downstream of a large volume bucket dredge operating in the lower Thames River estuary near New London, Connecticut, was conducted in order to examine the magnitude and character of the dredge-induced resuspension. These data indicate that large amounts of dissolved phosphate, ammonia, silica, manganese, copper and particulate materials are released into the water column, whereas cadmium concentrations were unaffected. Concentrations in the vicinity of the dredge exceed background levels by two to nine times for the dissolved materials and by two orders of magnitude for particulates. During the ebb cycle, downstream material concentrations decrease rapidly to background within approximately 180 m for dissolved materials and 700 m for particulates. Two mechanisms were found to control the distribution of materials downstream of the dredge: (a) physical transport, including advection, turbulent mixing and diffusion, and (b) geochemical processes (i.e. adsorption, desorption, precipitation, dissolution, etc.). The concentration of dissolved materials downstream of the dredge decrease at a first order exponential rate. The downstream distribution of the dissolved ammonia and silica was found to be consistent with the reactivity experiments (Figure 8) which predicted that PO 4 would undergo a decay in concentration in the presence of suspended sediments. Absorption of phosphate onto suspended sediments and gravitational settling of the suspended particulates were the processes. Manganese and copper underwent a dual transformation which involved an initial dissolution, followed by flocculation and possible coprecipitation as MnO 2. Cadmium concentrations in the water column were unaffected by the dredging process due to low pore water concentrations. The observed spatial distribution indicates that dredge-induced injection of dissolved and particulate materials is primarily a near field phenomenon producing relatively minor variations as compared to those caused by naturally occurring storm events. These latter systems have been shown ( Tramontano, 1978; Bohlen et al., 1979 ) to produce estuary-wide variations in suspended materials, PO 4 and NH 4 concentrations increasing the mass of materials in suspension by at least a factor of two. This increase in total suspended load, PO 4 and NH 4, is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that produced by the dredge.

  13. Effects of Suction Dredging on Streams: a Review and an Evaluation Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

    1998-01-01

    Suction dredging for gold in river channels is a small-scale mining practice whereby streambed material is sucked up a pipe, passed over a sluice box to sort out the gold, and discarded as tail- ings over another area of bed. Natural resource managers should be concerned about suction dredging because it is common in streams in western North America that

  14. Effect of dredging on the fate of nutrients in drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredging of drainage ditches is necessary to ensure that agricultural fields are drained adequately. The objective of this research was to quantify the potential impacts of dredging on nutrient transport within these fluvial systems. Ditch bed material was collected from ditches before and after d...

  15. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  16. Application of discriminant analysis and manova to grain-size data on a study of the distribution and movement of dredged sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. Alther; Robert K. Wyeth

    1981-01-01

    A dredged material disposal operation was monitored at a location in Lake Erie, 8 km offshore at Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1975. Approximately 200 sediment cores were collected from 12 experimental and 4 control locations before and after dredging and analyzed for the grain-size distribution and related heavy-metal content. The dredged sediments were similar to those from the lake bottom at

  17. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Evans; D. H. Miller

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated

  18. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  19. [Influence of dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in lake: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Yin-Long; Fan, Cheng-Xin; He, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Zhen-Wu

    2012-10-01

    A simulated experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of sediment dredging on sediment resuspension and phosphorus transfer in the summer and winter seasons under the common wind-wave disturbance, and the contaminated sediment used in this study was from Meiliang Bay, Taihu lake. The result showed that 20 cm dredging could effectively inhibit the sediment resuspension in study area, dredging in winter has a better effect than that in summer, and the higher values of the total suspended solid (TSS) in undredged and dredged water column during the process of wind wave disturbance were 7.0 and 2.2, 24.3 and 6.4 times higher than the initial value in summer and winter simulation respectively. The paired-samples t-test result demonstrated that total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) loading positively correlated to TSS content in dredged (P<0.01) and undredged water column (P<0.05), which proved that internal phosphorus fulminating release induced by wind-wave disturbance would significantly increase the TP and PO4(3-)-P loading in the water column. The effect of dredging conducted in summer on the TP and PO4(3)-P loading in the water column was negative, but not for winter dredging (P<0.01). The pore water dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) profile at water-sediment interface in summer simulation was also investigated by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Diffusion layer of the DRP profile in undredged sediment was wider than that in dredged sediment. However, the DRP diffusion potential in dredged sediment was greater than that in undredged sediment, showing that dredging can effectively reduce the risk of the DRP potential release in dredged pore water, but also would induce the DRP fulminating release in the short time under hydrodynamic action. Generally, dredging was usually deployed during the summer and the autumn. Considering Taihu Lake is a large, shallow, eutrophic lake and the contaminant distribution is spatially heterogeneous, it is vital to determine the optimal time, depth and scope of dredging. PMID:23233961

  20. TOXICITY TESTING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND OPTIONS FOR DREDGED MATRIAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. ACE), has lead responsibility for developing guidelines that provide environmental criteria for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into U.S. waters. To ...

  1. RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Jy Cheng; Bassel Kassas; Charley Yu; John Arnish; Dave LePoire; Shih-Yew Chen; W. A. Williams; A. Wallo; H. Peterson

    2004-01-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the

  2. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  3. Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. PMID:24792880

  4. Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.

    PubMed

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2013-07-01

    The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of the plants and the sediment characteristics, approaching those of an uncontaminated natural soil (technosoil), indicated the efficiency and success of this technology for brackish sediments reclamation. PMID:23183938

  5. Dredging Expedition at Port Erin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Herdman

    1894-01-01

    THE Liverpool Marine Biology Committee organised a dredging expedition from the Port Erin Biological Station at Easter. The party of a dozen naturalists included several members of the committee, Mr. I. C. Thompson, Mr. A. Leicester and Prof. Herdman, Prof. Weiss, Dr. Hurst, Mr. Gamble, and Mr. Hick from Owens College, Mr. W. I Beaumont, and Mr. E. T. Browne.

  6. Solar absorptance of optical surfaces contaminated with spacecraft material outgassing products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, W. T.; Wood, B. E.

    1993-07-01

    As satellite applications become more sophisticated and satellite lifetimes are extended, the roles of contamination prediction and control become increasingly important. Contamination can alter the spectral characteristics of cryogenically cooled optical systems, increase the solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces causing the spacecraft to overheat, or degrade the power output of solar cells. The Solar Absorptance Measurements Chamber was developed to measure the change in integrated solar absorptance of aluminum coated mirrors by condensed outgassing contaminants irradiated by a solar simulator under vacuum. In previous tests, the location of the solar simulator did not allow irradiation of the sample mirror during the contamination phase. The test chamber was modified, and measurements were made to compare the solar absorptance change for samples irradiated during contamination to samples with no irradiation during contamination. Sources of the contaminants were two spacecraft materials, Furane Products Uralane 5753-AB (LV) encapsulant and Dow Corning 93-500 encapsulant.

  7. The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. PMID:23871519

  8. Morphological significance of cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils in contact with food.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshiko; Park, Bong Joo; Aihara, Maki; Ri, Noritoshi; Saito, Toshiko; Sawada, Takuo; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    Cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils that come into contact with food were morphologically investigated. The most common contaminants, C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, were detected on the samples. The morphological changes of the Cladosporium species were investigated by using stereoscopic, optical light, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopes. Microscopically the Cladosporium contaminants were observed as aggregated dark brown spots, strongly pigmented, irregularly swollen, and in long chains. Using fluorescent microscopy, the Cladosporium mycelia were clearly stained with fluorescein diacetate as viable cells, but the old cells were mostly non-viable, as shown by staining with propidium iodide. The dynamics of the morphological changes showed that the penetrating mycelia were closely attached to the surface of the materials and utensils under investigation. These results provide information about the significance of Cladosporium contamination on materials and utensils in contact with food and may contribute to the control of fungal contamination. PMID:16789547

  9. Novel application of cyclolipopeptide amphisin: feasibility study as additive to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Groboillot, Anne; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Le Derf, Franck; Feuilloley, Marc J G; Orange, Nicole; Poc, Cécile Duclairoir

    2011-01-01

    To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73's growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France) allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production. PMID:21673923

  10. BUILDING MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION USING A CONCRETE FLOOR AND WALL CONTAMINATION PROFILING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Dr. S.,; Charters, G.; Thacker, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    Certain radioisotopes can penetrate concrete and contaminate the concrete well below the surface. The challenge is to determine the extent and magnitude of the contamination problem in real-time. The concrete profiling technology, TRUPROSM in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the material being sampled. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk. Performing a volumetric concrete or metal characterization safer and faster (without lab intervention) is the objective of this characterization technology. This way of determining contamination can save considerable time and money. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilizes or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the area around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated. The goal is to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release.

  11. Beneficial effects of plants in the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Shimp; J. C. Tracy; L. C. Davis; E. Lee; W. Huang; L. E. Erickson; J. L. Schnoor

    1993-01-01

    The use of plants in remediation of soil and unconfined groundwater contaminated with organic materials is appealing for a variety of reasons: (1) plants provide a remediation strategy that utilizes solar energy; (2) vegetation is aesthetically pleasing; (3) plant samples can be harvested and tested as indicators of the level of remediation; (4) plants help contain the region of contamination

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a sensitive monitor of materials contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Jeffrey S.; Hilfiker, James N.; Spady, Blaine; Synowicki, R.; Woollam, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to contamination layers in the thickness range from 0.1 nm to 10 microns. In the present experiments we deposit either a thin lubricating oil (WD-40) or mineral oil continuously onto Ir, Cu, Al, Au, and V substrates from a bubbler, and monitor its thickness growth from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers as a function of time. Re-evaporation of contaminant oils is also monitored in real-time by ellipsometry.

  13. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological evaluation of estuarine water quality during a dredging operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro R. Urban; Albertina X. R. Corrêa; Carlos A. F. Schettini; Paulo R. Schwingel; Rafael M. Sperb; Claudemir M. Radetski

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Most of the information concerning the effects of contaminated sediments on estuarine organisms deals with the impacts of\\u000a bed forming sediments. The ecotoxicological potential at the time of a dredging operation is more difficult to assess, and\\u000a few studies have dealt specifically with resuspended contaminated sediments. The aim of this study was to determine whether\\u000a release of contaminants through sediment

  14. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR REMOVAL OF SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realizing the need to improve the capabilities of response personnel in dealing with cleanup operations involving contaminated sediments, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointly funded a research project to: (a) identify, characterize, and c...

  15. Food contamination by hydrocarbons from packaging materials determined by coupled LC-GC.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Biedermann, M; Artho, A; Egli, J

    1991-09-01

    Paraffins from raw extracts of foods and packing materials were isolated by LC and directly transferred to GC, applying concurrent eluent evaporation and a loop-type interface. Paraffins from various packing materials have been characterized: sisal bags, cardboard boxes, plastic films, wax-coated paper and cardboard as well as paraffin coatings. Important food contamination was found for sisal bags, cardboard boxes, and wax-coated paper/cardboard. Contamination by paraffin coatings on cheese was surprisingly small. PMID:1962505

  16. Dredged Basalt from Giacomini Seamount

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Forbes

    1969-01-01

    DURING the cruise in July 1965 of the RV Acona of the University of Alaska Institute of Marine Science, two angular blocks of basalt (15×12×5 cm3 and 20×15×9 cm3) were dredged from the summit area of Giacomini Seamount (56° 24' N, 146° 34' W), at a depth of 790 m (Fig. 1). Several hundred igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary pebbles, cobbles

  17. Characterization and Removal of Deposited Surface Contamination on Materials for Use in Low-Background Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Alex; Khizar, Muhammad; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Materials used in Low-Background experiments, such as PTFE and Germanium crystals, require high levels of cleanliness to avoid false positives and noise in experiments. The storage and standard process of preparing these materials for use causes this contamination, such as organic material from photoresist treatment of germanium samples or dust from the environment. The purpose of this study is to determine the most effective way to remove these surface contaminants from the materials through the development of certain procedures for use with each material. The procedures use a combination of treatment techniques involving the use of acids, bases, oxidizers, and solvents. These different procedures target certain contaminants, such as removing surface grease and oxidizing and removing organic films. Testing the different procedures with contaminated samples of material and analyzing the result yields the most cost and time effective methods for cleaning these materials. The number of particles counted on the surface before and after the cleaning procedure determines the effectiveness of the procedure for a given material. In this project I have discovered a method that can reach near 100% particulate removal from PTFE for levels of contamination from a normal lab environment.

  18. Effect of distribution coefficient, contaminated area, and the depth contamination of the guildelines for uranium residual radoiactive material in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kamboj; M. Nimmagadda; E. Faillace; C. Yu; W. A. Williams

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup guidelines for uranium applicable to remedial actions at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites are derived on a site-specific basis. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline Computer code, RESRAD, is used in these evaluations. This analysis investigates the effect of site-specific parameters on the guideline values (specifically distribution coefficient, depth of contamination,

  19. An equation that describes material outgassing for contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heslin, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    A generalization of the Clausius-Claperon equation for vapor pressure is made for an outgassing material. The expression is derived using Langmuir's equation for the outgassing rate of a material and using an empirical equation for the vapor pressure of a material as a function of its molecular weight and temperature. Also, outgassing rate equations are derived in terms of the vapor pressure of the outgassing material for three general geometries.

  20. Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert E. Stiegman; Carol J. Bruegge; Arthur W. Springsteen

    1993-01-01

    A detailed chemical analysis was carried out on Spectralon, a highly Lambertian, diffuse reflectance material. Results of this investigation unambiguously identified the presence of an organic (hydrocarbon) impurity intrinsic to the commercial material. This impurity could be removed by a vacuum bake-out procedure and was identified as the cause of optical changes (degradation) that occur in the material when exposed

  1. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

  2. NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys

    E-print Network

    NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys January 7, 2004 Prepared by: Members..................................................................................................................................... 5 NOAA Fisheries Sea Scallop Dredge Survey Protocols.............................................................................................. 8 Survey Operational Procedures

  3. Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Springsteen, Arthur W.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed chemical analysis was carried out on Spectralon, a highly Lambertian, diffuse reflectance material. Results of this investigation unambiguously identified the presence of an organic (hydrocarbon) impurity intrinsic to the commercial material. This impurity could be removed by a vacuum bake-out procedure and was identified as the cause of optical changes (degradation) that occur in the material when exposed to UV light. It was found that when this impurity was removed, the Spectralon material was photochemically stable and maintained its reflectance properties even after extensive solar UV exposure.

  4. Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Springsteen, Arthur W.

    1993-04-01

    A detailed chemical analysis was carried out on Spectralon, a highly Lambertian, diffuse reflectance material. Results of this investigation unambiguously identified the presence of an organic (hydrocarbon) impurity intrinsic to the commercial material. This impurity could be removed by a vacuum bake-out procedure and was identified as the cause of optical changes (degradation) that occur in the material when exposed to UV light. It was found that when this impurity was removed, the Spectralon material was photochemically stable and maintained its reflectance properties even after extensive solar UV exposure.

  5. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products significantly decreased phosphate amounts. For the 38 specific filter materials evaluated, based on a 60 percent contaminant reduction level, 12 materials removed nitrate, 26 materials removed phosphate, and 21 materials removed atrazine. Furthermore, 2 materials removed zero contaminants, 16 materials removed one contaminant, 17 materials removed two contaminants, and 3 of the materials removed all three contaminants. The most effective filter materials proved to be a steam activated carbon, a zero valent iron and sulfer modified iron mixture, and a surfactant modified clay. The findings of this study indicate that there are a variety of filter materials, either separately or in combination, which have the potential to treat agricultural drainage waters.

  6. Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Christine; Pironi, Paolo; Gerhard, Jason I; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2014-03-15

    Smouldering remediation is a process that has been introduced recently to address non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in soils and other porous media. Previous work demonstrated this process to be highly effective across a wide range of contaminants and soil conditions at the bench scale. In this work, a suite of 12 experiments explored the effectiveness of the process as operating scale was increased 1000-fold from the bench (0.003m(3)) to intermediate (0.3m(3)) and pilot field-scale (3m(3)) with coal tar and petrochemical NAPLs. As scale increased, remediation efficiency of 97-99.95% was maintained. Smouldering propagation velocities of 0.6-14×10(-5)m/s at Darcy air fluxes of 1.54-9.15cm/s were consistent with observations in previous bench studies, as was the dependence on air flux. The pilot field-scale experiments demonstrated the robustness of the process despite heterogeneities, localised operation, controllability through airflow supply, and the importance of a minimum air flux for self-sustainability. Experiments at the intermediate scale established a minimum-observed, not minimum-possible, initial concentration of 12,000mg/kg in mixed oil waste, providing support for the expectation that lower thresholds for self-sustaining smouldering decreased with increasing scale. Once the threshold was exceeded, basic process characteristics of average peak temperature, destructive efficiency, and treatment velocity were relatively independent of scale. PMID:24468525

  7. Application of Bioassays in Toxicological Hazard, Risk and Impact Assessment of Dredged Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the potential environmental consequences of dumped dredged harbour sediments it is vital to establish the potential risks from exposure before disposal at sea. Currently, European legislation for disposal of contaminated sediments at sea is based on chemical analysis of a l...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF REMEDIAL DREDGING AT THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA, SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, is a Superfund site because of high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the sediment. From April 1994 to September 1995, a remedial dredging operation (termed the 'Hot Spot') removed the most contaminated sediments (PCB concentrations gr...

  9. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED ESTUARINE SEDIMENT: THE WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE OF DREDGED ESTUARINE SEDIMENT: THE WESTINGHOUSE PLASMA Plasma Vitrification Process for decontamination and beneficial reuse of contaminated sediments. Phase I for decontamination efficiency; organics were destroyed to 99.9999% efficiency, and the product passed the TCLP

  10. FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

  11. Tritium contamination and decontamination study on materials for ITER remote handling equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhisa Oya; Kazuhiro Kobayashi; Wataru Shu; Takeshi Higashijima; Takumi Hayashi; Shigeru O'hira; Kenjiro Obara; Masataka Nishi; Kiyoshi Shibanuma; Kouichi Koizumi

    2001-01-01

    Several materials, lenses, dry bearings and cables were exposed to a tritiated moisture environment to study the behavior of tritium contamination on candidate materials for ITER remote handling equipment. To optimize the tritium removal procedure, decontamination experiments using a gas purge with three different moisture concentrations were also performed. The surface tritium concentrations of CeO2 containing alkaline barium glass (NB),

  12. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate four iron-based filter materials for trace element contaminant water treatment. The iron-based filter materials evaluated were zero valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Only fi...

  13. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

  14. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  15. Radiological assessment of dredging application for

    E-print Network

    generic radiological assessment procedure indicated that doses received were well below recommended limitsRadiological assessment of dredging application for the port of Lancaster (2008) Cefas Environment 21/2008 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR THE PORT OF LANCASTER (2008) The Centre

  16. Radiological assessment of dredging application for

    E-print Network

    Sv/year (collective dose), respectively. Since the conservative generic radiological assessment procedure indicatedRadiological assessment of dredging application for Oldbury power station (2009) Cefas Environment 14 /2009 RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DREDGING APPLICATION FOR OLDBURY POWER STATION (2009) The Centre

  17. Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water quality and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Spencer; R. E. Dewhurst; P. Penna

    2006-01-01

    The use of water injection dredging (WID) is increasing in the UK’s inland waterways and marinas. Jets of water are injected under low pressure directly into bottom sediment creating a turbulent water-sediment mixture that flows under the influence of gravity. Many of these sediments are highly contaminated and little is known of the effects of contaminant release on water quality

  18. TOOLS FOR ASSESSING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches at this time for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how we...

  19. Examination of evidence materials for environmental contamination using activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. S. Pillay; C. C. Thomas; G. F. Mahoney

    1973-01-01

    A unique application of forensic neutron activation analysis involving the analysis of trace levels of tungsten, cobalt and\\u000a tantalum was presented as evidence in a murder trial. The evidence materials analyzed included the blous of the victim, bed\\u000a sheets, a pair of pantyhose used in strangulation, head and public hair from the suspect, and several samples of raw materials\\u000a used

  20. External exposure model for various geometries of contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    LePoire, D.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A computational model for external exposure was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s residual radioactive material guideline computer code (RESRAD) on the basis of dose coefficients from Federal Guidance Report No. 12 and the point-kernel method. This model includes the effects of different materials and exposure distances, as well as source geometry (cover thickness, source depth, area, and shape). A material factor is calculated on the basis of the point-kernel method using material-specific photon cross-section data and buildup factors. This present model was incorporated into RESRAD-RECYCLE (a RESRAD family code used for computing radiological impacts of metal recycling) and is being incorporated into RESRAD-BUILD (a DOE recommended code for computing impacts of building decontamination). The model was compared with calculations performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP) and the Microshield code for three different source geometries, three different radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 60}Co, representing low, medium, and high energy, respectively), and five different source materials (iron, copper, aluminum, water, and soil). The comparison shows that results of this model are in very good agreement with MCNP calculations (within 5% for {sup 60}Co and within 30% for {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U for all materials and source geometries). Significant differences (greater than 100%) were observed with Microshield for thin {sup 234}U sources.

  1. Application of discriminant analysis and manova to grain-size data on a study of the distribution and movement of dredged sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. Alther; Robert K. Wyeth

    1981-01-01

    A dredged material disposal operation was monitored at a location in Lake Erie, 8 km offshore at Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1975.\\u000a Approximately 200 sediment cores were collected from 12 experimental and 4 control locations before and after dredging and\\u000a analyzed for the grain-size distribution and related heavy-metal content.\\u000a \\u000a The dredged sediments were similar to those from the lake bottom at

  2. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  3. Effects of Exposure Time, Material Type, and Granular Pesticide on Glove Contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guo; J. Stone; H. M. Stahr; M. Shelley

    2001-01-01

    Chemical-resistant gloves are recommended for pesticide applicators to reduce their exposure to agricultural chemicals. In\\u000a this research, three chemical-resistant glove materials—nitrile, neoprene, and barrier laminate—were studied in relation to\\u000a contamination with granular terbufos and tefluthrin. Surfaces of specimens backed with alpha cellulose were contaminated with\\u000a 300 mg of either granular terbufos or tefluthrin for 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and

  4. Novel materials for environmental remediation of oil sands contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Headley, John V

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) within the framework structure of copolymer sorbent materials, represents a novel modular design approach with significant potential for controlled tuning of the textural mesoporosity of such sorbent frameworks. ?-CD copolymers represent an innovative design strategy for the development of "smart" or "functional" porous materials with improved solid phase extraction (SPE) and molecular recognition properties because of the porogen characteristics and their unique host-guest properties. Carbohydrate-based copolymers containing cyclodextrins (CDs) are of interest, in part, because of their ability to form stable inclusion complexes in aqueous solution. The inclusion properties of ?-CD copolymers are determined by the surface area, pore structure, and site accessibility of inclusion sites within the copolymer framework. A mini-review of recent research in our group concerning the use of copolymers containing ?-CD as sorbent materials for naphthenic acids is presented herein. PMID:24552956

  5. Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) for the determination of organic contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne L. Poster; Michele M. Schantz; John R. Kucklick; Barbara J. Porter; Rebecca Pugh; Stephen A. Wise

    2004-01-01

    Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) have been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the determination of the concentrations of organic contaminants. The most recently prepared material, SRM 1974b, is a fresh frozen tissue homogenate prepared from mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. The other two materials, SRMs 2977 and 2978, are freeze-dried tissue

  6. Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherine O. Obare; Gerald J. Meyer

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured materials have opened new avenues in various scientific fields and are providing novel opportunities in environmental science. The increased surface area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles, quantum size effects, and the ability to tune surface properties through molecular modification make nanostructures ideal for many environmental remediation applications. We describe herein the fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications,

  7. Study of abyssal seafloor isolation of contaminated sediments concluded

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.

    1998-12-31

    Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) conducted and managed the assessment, which was funded during its first year by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and in the following two years by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. NRL carried out the projects in collaboration with participants from academic institutions and industrial organizations. The seafloor isolation concept is an attractive management option for contaminated dredged material because, if abyssal isolation is feasible and environmentally sound, air, land, or water supplies would not be contaminated. The participants concluded that it is technically and environmentally feasible. In ports where shipping costs are high, abyssal seafloor isolation is a cost-competitive strategy. They also outlined the architecture of a system to monitor conditions at the site and to detect and measure possible leaks of contaminated material.

  8. Environmental assessment of dredged sediment in the major Latin American seaport (Santos, São Paulo-Brazil): an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Cesar, A; Lia, L R B; Pereira, C D S; Santos, A R; Cortez, F S; Choueri, R B; De Orte, M R; Rachid, B R F

    2014-11-01

    This work offers an environmental assessment of a dredged sediment disposal area in Santos bay, situated on the central coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Sediment quality was evaluated through physicochemical analysis and toxicity tests of sediments collected in the disposal site and adjacent area. The physicochemical characterization of the sediments involved grain size distribution, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, metals and nutrients. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were employed, using amphipods (Tiburonella viscana) and sea urchins (Lythechinus variegatus), respectively. Results revealed toxicity by all the methods applied here, suggesting that the area of disposal of dredged material is significantly altered with respect to sediment quality and probably capable of generating deleterious effects on the local biota. Aiming to elucidate the association between the distinct environmental variables and the biological effects measured in laboratory, Factor Analysis was performed. Results revealed that despite most contaminant concentrations were found below the limits established by Brazilian legislation, biological effects were related to metals (chronic toxicity) and organic compounds (acute toxicity). The application of multivariate analysis proved to be particularly useful to assess and interpret the results in an integrated way, particularly due to the large number of parameters analyzed in environmental assessments, and should be applied in future studies. PMID:25179961

  9. Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Neira, I.; Gronheid, R.

    2011-04-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high source power (pre-) productions tools. In this area it is important to characterize for the different chemistries which resist components are critical for EUV induced outgassing and - more important - which can result in non-cleanable mirror contamination. In this paper, we will explore the outgassing and contamination behavior of CAR and non-CAR resist by using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for identifying the resist outgassing characteristics, and by Witness Sample (WS) testing to evaluate the tendency for contamination. For CAR resists, it has been found that the PAG cation is a key component contributing to the contamination, but its impact can be changed by changing the resist formulation. In this investigation several model resists have been evaluated in order to understand which chemical components have - or don't have - an impact on the contamination. This has led to a proposal of a definition for a resist family. For non-CAR materials, the investigation has focused to a number of example resists. Most results are related to poly(-olefin sulfones), which have been proven to be good candidate materials for outgassing and contamination learning. The tests have confirmed that aromatic groups present in resist outgassing are playing an important role. As an opposite example of non-CAR material, the inorganic Inpria resist was tested, which revealed that its resist outgassing (water and oxygen) can remove carbon contamination. The combined work on CAR and non-CAR outgassing and contamination has learned significantly on the relationship between resist chemistry, its outgassing and contamination, and provided understanding on how to design good performing EUV resists with minimal risk for optics contamination in EUV device manufacturing.

  10. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? 134, 137Cs 1000?kBq m?2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21?Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  11. AIR EMISSIONS FROM EXPOSED SEDIMENTS AND CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIAL 2. DIFFUSION FROM LABORATORY-SPIKED AND AGED FIELD SEDIMENTS. (R825513C017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation. PMID:24271735

  13. Comparison of the basin-scale effect of dredging operations and natural estuarine processes on suspended sediment concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data from San Pablo Bay, California, were analyzed to compare the basin-scale effect of dredging and disposal of dredged material (dredging operations) and natural estuarine processes. The analysis used twelve 3-wk to 5-wk periods of mid-depth and near-bottom SSC data collected at Point San Pablo every 15 min from 1993-1998. Point San Pablo is within a tidal excursion of a dredged-material disposal site. The SSC data were compared to dredging volume, Julian day, and hydrodynamic and meteorological variables that could affect SSC. Kendall's ??, Spearman's ??, and weighted (by the fraction of valid data in each period) Spearman's ??w correlation coefficients of the variables indicated which variables were significantly correlated with SSC. Wind-wave resuspension had the greatest effect on SSC. Median water-surface elevation was the primary factor affecting mid-depth SSC. Greater depths inhibit wind-wave resuspension of bottom sediment and indicate greater influence of less turbid water from down estuary. Seasonal variability in the supply of erodible sediment is the primary factor affecting near-bottom SSC. Natural physical processes in San Pablo Bay are more areally extensive, of equal or longer duration, and as frequent as dredging operations (when occurring), and they affect SSC at the tidal time scale. Natural processes control SSC at Point San Pablo even when dredging operations are occurring.

  14. Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

    2004-11-09

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

  15. Performance evaluation materials for the analysis of volatile organic contaminants in soil: A preliminary assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Lewis; B. A. Deason; C. L. Gerlach; D. W. Bottrell

    1990-01-01

    During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site?specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. Clean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. The PEM were shipped to the field via air carrier and analyzed by GC. The PEM samples were also shipped back to the laboratory and

  16. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Allred

    2007-01-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

  18. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding ho...

  19. APPLICATION OF THE PARTICLE TRACKING MODEL TO PREDICT FAR-FIELD FATE OF SEDIMENT SUSPENDED BY NEARSHORE DREDGING AND PLACEMENT, BRUNSWICK GA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Z. Gailani; Tahirih C. Lackey; S. Jarrell Smith

    The Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC) is supporting the USACE Savannah District in conducting a multi-year study to evaluate and validate numerical models for predicting dredged material transport at nearshore and open-water sites (Smith et al,. 2007). Accurate predictive models are necessary for selecting and managing nearshore placement sites. An example of this procedure is dredging performed at Brunswick,

  20. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  1. Options for the thermal treatment of ordnance items and explosives contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The US military, Department of Energy, and ordnance manufacturing industry have numerous installations and remedial action sites that include contamination with explosives and/or have unexploded ordnance buried at the site. These materials present unique challenges for their safe and environmentally sound disposal. This paper discusses the types of contamination that may be encountered at a response site, types of thermal treatment technologies, and specific examples of thermal treatment technologies presently in use or planned for implementation at production facilities in the energetic materials industry. Although many of the technologies at use in or planned for industrial applications are not directly applicable to remediation sites, these technologies serve to demonstrate the challenges associated with treatment of sensitive and energetic materials.

  2. Microbiological contamination of ovine carcasses associated with the presence of wool and faecal material.

    PubMed

    Biss, M E; Hathaway, S C

    1996-12-01

    The microbiological contamination of ovine hind legs at sites which were visibly clean (control carcasses), sites immediately adjacent to and below visually contaminated sites, and sites contaminated with visible faecal material or wool were determined by excision sampling immediately after pelting and immediately after a pre-evisceration wash. The mean aerobic plate count (APC) and Escherichia coli count (EC) at clean sites immediately after pelting ranged from log10 cm-2 3.98 to 4.44 and log10 cm-2 0.96 to 1.51, respectively. These levels of contamination were significantly lower than those on sites contaminated with faecal material (log10 cm-2 6.00 and 3.00, respectively) or wool (log10 cm-2 5.44 and 2.45, respectively). The presence of faecal material or wool on the carcass was not associated with increased bacterial numbers on visually clean areas of the carcass. This indicates that the presence of faecal material or wool alone cannot be used as an indicator of the hygienic status of the carcass as a whole, particularly in the role of on-line monitoring parameters for HACCP systems. Pre-evisceration washing of carcasses had very little effect on the uncontaminated areas of the carcasses, but reduced the mean APC and EC at the site of visible contaminants. There was little evidence of redistribution of bacteria to immediately adjacent but visually clean sites. However, the residual levels of both APCs and ECs directly at sites of faecal contamination after washing were still significantly higher than at visually clean sites. Application of HACCP principles to ovine slaughter and dressing suggests that visible faecal material should be removed by trimming, whereas pre-evisceration washes can have a practical and microbiologically validated role in the removal of wool. There was generally a good correlation between APCs and ECs at the uncontaminated sites prior to pre-evisceration washing, suggesting that in some situations APCs can act as a useful indicator of both general carcass hygiene and the presence of faecal indicators. PMID:8972086

  3. Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zden?k; Kubešová, Marie; Ku?era, Jan; Mat?jková, Stanislava; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-23

    The synthesis of graphene materials is typically carried out by oxidizing graphite to graphite oxide followed by a reduction process. Numerous methods exist for both the oxidation and reduction steps, which causes unpredictable contamination from metallic impurities into the final material. These impurities are known to have considerable impact on the properties of graphene materials. We synthesized several reduced graphene oxides from extremely pure graphite using several popular oxidation and reduction methods and tracked the concentrations of metallic impurities at each stage of synthesis. We show that different combinations of oxidation and reduction introduce varying types as well as amounts of metallic elements into the graphene materials, and their origin can be traced to impurities within the chemical reagents used during synthesis. These metallic impurities are able to alter the graphene materials' electrochemical properties significantly and have wide-reaching implications on the potential applications of graphene materials. PMID:25201990

  4. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments: A greenhouse feasibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted t...

  5. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  6. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data. PMID:15551790

  7. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  8. Cost and production estimation for a cutter suction dredge 

    E-print Network

    Miertschin, Michael Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The need for accurate cost estimates is well recognized in the dredging industry. In order for a dredging contractor to efficiently execute a project from its conception to its completion, an accurate estimate of the final cost is imperative...

  9. NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Hydro-dynamic Dredge Surveys

    E-print Network

    NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Hydro-dynamic Dredge Surveys: Surf Clams and Ocean Quahogs December 19..................................................................................................................................... 1 NOAA Fisheries Hydro-dynamic Clam Dredge Survey Protocols.............................................................................................. 4 Survey Operational Procedures

  10. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

  11. Modeling of Elza Gate contaminated material for use as fill material at the United Nuclear Corporation Waste Disposal Site, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weston

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater impact modeling to predict the migration of contaminants of concern from the UNC Waste Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This analysis considers contaminants in the current UNC site waste materials (nitrates and Sr-90) and contaminants in soils from the Elza Gate FUSRAP site (U-238, Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, and PCBs) proposed

  12. The Effect of Time after Ditch Dredging on Phosphorus Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ditch dredging is a critical management practice for agricultural catchments in the Midwestern region of the United States that enhances the removal of water from agricultural fields. Recently, short-term ditch dredge studies have shown that the newly exposed sediments following dredging has a less ...

  13. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15 Section 88.15 Navigation and...V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles...

  14. Effect of remedial dredging on bullhead tumor frequency in a recovering river

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P. [National Biological Service, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1980 and 1981 high tumor frequencies in brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio were correlated with high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment. Surficial sediment levels of PAH dropped after a decline in the steel industry in 1982 followed by closure of the USX coke plant in 1983. By 1987 PAH concentrations had declined to less than one-hundredth of those found in 1980. During this same period liver cancer in age 3+ brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) underwent a significant decline to about one quarter of the 1982 frequency (38.5%) by 1987 (10%). Then in mid to late 1990, in a delayed reaction to a US EPA consent decree, PAH contaminated sediments were dredged from the river. Surveys in 1992 and 1993 revealed that the cancer frequency in age 3+ brown bullhead had increased to more than 45%. Preliminary 1994 data indicates a decline in grossly observable liver tumors (usually diagnosed as biliary cancers), along with declines in external tumors and eye pathology. The data fit the following hypothesis: Contaminated sediments become less bioavailable with time after a point source is removed, possibly due to deposition of cleaner sediment. Dredging temporarily restores bioavailability (and consequent effects). These data support the position that in some locations controlling contaminants in situ may be preferable to dredging on a cost-benefit basis.

  15. A new type of environment-friendly material and its removal efficiency for nitrate contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Guo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, nitrate contaminated groundwater problem is a growing concern for scholars both at home and abroad. This study developed a new type of environment-friendly material which has the ability to remove nitrate from contaminated groundwater. The material has a certain degree of mechanical strength and uniform sphericity, with waste wood and straw as raw material, to achieve the purpose of using waste treat waste. In this study, the material and fine sand are mixed and filled in glass column, which is wrapped by black tape in order to avoid light, to test the removal ability toward nitrate nitrogen with influent nitrate nitrogen concentration of 50 mg N/L. The material surface is porous, which could facilitate the reaction between the active sites in the material and nitrate in polluted groundwater, and facilitate microbes implanting on the surface. After running for two months, the nitrate nitrogen removal rate is greater than 90%, and the nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen of effluent are lower than the EPA prescribed maximum limit concentration of nitrate in drinking water?N03--N<10mg N/L, NO2--N<1mg N/L?, while the ammonia nitrogen in the effluent is less than 1 mg N/L, lower than the maximum limit concentration of ammonia nitrogen in drinking water made by WHO(NH4+-N<1.5mg N/L), indicating its effective removal rate for nitrate and the absence of serious nitrite and ammonia accumulation. The developed material will have a good prospect in removing nitrate from polluted groundwater.

  16. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  17. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  18. USING SPMDS TO ASSESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Dredging in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an...

  19. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. PMID:25553545

  20. The contamination of the surface of Vesta by impacts and the delivery of the dark material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.; Combe, J.-P.; McCord, T. B.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; Consolmagno, G. J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Le Corre, L.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft recently observed the presence of dark material, which in turn proved to be associated with the presence of OH and H-rich material, on the surface of Vesta. The source of this dark material has been almost unanimously identified with the low albedo asteroids, likely analogous to the carbonaceous chondrites found on Earth, that impacted on Vesta over its lifetime. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the delivery of the dark material is associated with a few large impact events, to micrometeorites or to the continuous, secular flux of impactors on Vesta. The “continuous flux” scenario, in particular, predicts that a significant fraction of the exogenous material accreted by Vesta should be due to non-dark impactors likely analogous to ordinary chondrites, which instead represent only a minor contaminant in the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites. In this work, we explored the “continuous flux” scenario and its implications for the composition of the vestan regolith, taking advantage of the data from the Dawn mission and the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites to constrain the contamination history of Vesta. We developed a model for the delivery of the exogenous material to Vesta and verified how the results it supplies are sensitive to the different parameters we consider. We calibrated the flux of impactors predicted by our model with the number of dark craters observed inside the Rheasilvia basin and we tested the assumptions on the impact conditions by studying the formation of Cornelia crater and of its dark deposits with a hydrocode simulation. We used our calibrated model to show that the “stochastic events” scenario and the “micrometeoritic flux” scenario are just natural consequences of the “continuous flux” scenario. We then used the model to estimate the amounts of dark and hydroxylate materials that were delivered on Vesta since the Late Heavy Bombardment and we showed how our results match well with the values estimated by the Dawn mission. We finally used our model to assess the amount of Fe and siderophile elements that the continuous flux of impactors would mix in the vestan regolith: concerning the siderophile elements, we focused our attention on the role of Ni. The results we obtained are in agreement with the data available on the Fe and Ni content of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites and can be used as a reference frame in future studies of the data from the Dawn mission and of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites. Our model cannot yet provide an answer to the conundrum of the fate of the missing non-carbonaceous contaminants, but we discuss some possible reasons for this discrepancy with the otherwise coherent picture described by our results.

  1. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations.

  2. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Côte d’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

  3. Impact of nanoscale zero valent iron on geochemistry and microbial populations in trichloroethylene contaminated aquifer materials.

    PubMed

    Kirschling, Teresa L; Gregory, Kelvin B; Minkley, Edwin G; Lowry, Gregory V; Tilton, Robert D

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are a promising technology for reducing trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in the subsurface. Prior to injecting large quantities of nanoparticles into the groundwater it is important to understand what impact the particles will have on the geochemistry and indigenous microbial communities. Microbial populations are important not only for nutrient cycling, but also for contaminant remediation and heavy metal immobilization. Microcosms were used to determine the effects of NZVI addition on three different aquifer materials from TCE contaminated sites in Alameda Point, CA, Mancelona, MI, and Parris Island, SC. The oxidation and reduction potential of the microcosms consistently decreased by more than 400 mV when NZVI was added at 1.5 g/L concentrations. Sulfate concentrations decreased in the two coastal aquifer materials, and methane was observed in the presence of NZVI in Alameda Point microcosms, but not in the other two materials. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed significant shifts in Eubacterial diversity just after the Fe(0) was exhausted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed increases of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) and Archaeal 16s rRNA genes, indicating that reducing conditions and hydrogen created by NZVI stimulate both sulfate reducer and methanogen populations. Adding NZVI had no deleterious effect on total bacterial abundance in the microcosms. NZVI with a biodegradable polyaspartate coating increased bacterial populations by an order of magnitude relative to controls. The lack of broad bactericidal effect, combined with the stimulatory effect of polyaspartate coatings, has positive implications for NZVI field applications. PMID:20350000

  4. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  5. [Efficiencies of contamination source for flooring and some materials used in unencapsulated radioactivity handling facilities].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Yoshizawa, M; Minami, K

    1990-09-01

    The efficiencies of contamination source, defined in ISO Report 7506-1, were experimentally determined for such materials as flooring, polyethylene, smear-tested filter paper and stainless steel plate. 5 nuclides of 147Pm, 60Co, 137Cs, 204Tl and 90Sr-Y were used to study beta-ray energy dependence of the efficiency, and 241Am as alpha-ray emitter. The charge-up effect in the measurement by a window-less 2 pi-proportional counter was evaluated to obtain reliable surface emission rate. The measured efficiencies for non-permeable materials, except for two cases, are more than 0.5 even for 147Pm. The ISO recommendations were shown to be conservative enough on the basis of present results. PMID:2236665

  6. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  7. Strike-through of moist contamination by woven and nonwoven surgical materials.

    PubMed Central

    Laufman, H; Eudy, W W; Vandernoot, A M; Harris, C A; Liu, D

    1975-01-01

    A test is described which correlates the stress of stretching surgical gown and drape material with moist bacterial strike-through. By application of this test to a number of woven and nonwoven surgical gown and drape materials, it was found that not all of these materials, either woven or nonwoven, are impermeable to moist contamination for equal periods of time. Nonwoven disposable materials now in use range from those which remain impermeable to moist bacterial permeation through all tests while some remain impermeable for limited periods of time, and others almost immediately permeable to moist bacterial penetration. The same situation holds for woven materials. Under conditions of our test, Quarpel treated Pima tight-woven cotton cloth was impermeable to moist bacterial strike-through, through up to 75 washing and sterilizing cyclings, while ordinary linen and untreated Pima cloth permitted bacterial permeation almost immediately. These results have significance in lengthy wet surgical operations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1094972

  8. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  9. Pricing the Cost of Dredging Engineering Based on the Dynamic Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Zhou; Zi Gang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric and incomplete information of dredging engineering make it difficult to price the cost of dredging engineering. The paper using the game theory in pricing the cost of dredging engineering, establish the pricing model of the cost of dredging engineering based on static and dynamic game, and find the pricing model of the cost of dredging engineering based on

  10. Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) for the determination of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Kucklick, John R; Lopez de Alda, Maria J; Porter, Barbara J; Pugh, Rebecca; Wise, Stephen A

    2004-03-01

    Three new mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRMs) have been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the determination of the concentrations of organic contaminants. The most recently prepared material, SRM 1974b, is a fresh frozen tissue homogenate prepared from mussels ( Mytilus edulis) collected in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. The other two materials, SRMs 2977 and 2978, are freeze-dried tissue homogenates prepared from mussels collected in Guanabara Bay, Brazil and Raritan Bay, New Jersey, respectively. All three new mussel tissue SRMs complement the current suite of marine natural-matrix SRMs available from NIST that are characterized for a wide range of contaminants (organic and inorganic). SRM 1974b has been developed to replace its predecessor SRM 1974a, Organics in Mussel Tissue, for which the supply is depleted. Similarly, SRMs 2977 and 2978 were developed to replace a previously available (supply depleted) freeze-dried version of SRM 1974a, SRM 2974, Organics in Freeze-Dried Mussel Tissue. SRM 1974b is the third in a series of fresh frozen mussel tissue homogenate SRMs prepared from mussels collected in Boston Harbor starting in 1988. SRM 1974b has certified concentration values for 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 31 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and 7 chlorinated pesticides. Reference values are provided for additional constituents: 16 PAHs, 8 PCBs plus total PCBs, 6 pesticides, total extractable organics, methylmercury, and 11 trace elements. PAH concentrations range from about 2 ng g(-1 )dry mass (cyclopenta[ cd]pyrene) to 180 ng g(-1 )dry mass (pyrene). PCB concentrations range from about 2 ng g(-1 )dry mass (PCB 157) to 120 ng g(-1 )dry mass (PCB 153). The reference value for total PCBs in SRM 1974b is (2020 +/- 420) ng g(-1 )dry mass. Pesticide concentrations range from about 4 ng g(-1 )dry mass (4,4'-DDT) to 40 ng g(-1 )dry mass (4,4'-DDE). SRM 2977 has certified values for 14 PAHs, 25 PCB congeners, 7 pesticides, 6 trace elements, and methylmercury. Reference values for 16 additional PAHs and 9 inorganic constituents are provided, and information values are given for 23 additional trace elements. SRM 2978 has certified and reference concentrations for 41 and 22 organic compounds, respectively, and contains contaminant levels similar to those of SRM 1974b. Organic contaminant levels in SRM 2977 (mussels from Guanabara Bay, Brazil) are typically a factor of 2 to 4 lower than those in SRM 1974b and SRM 2978. The organic contaminant concentrations in each new mussel tissue SRM are presented and compared in this paper. In addition, a chronological review of contaminant concentrations associated with mussels collected in Boston Harbor is discussed as well as a stability assessment of SRM 1974a. PMID:15103441

  11. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from <10 to 200,000 nephelometric turbidity units. The most visible turbidity plumes were produced by surface discharge of material with high sand content into unconfined placement areas during times of strong tidal currents. The least visible turbidity plumes were produced by discharge of material with high silt and clay content into areas enclosed by floating turbidity barriers during times of weak tidal currents. Beach nourishment from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

  12. The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.

    PubMed

    Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

    2012-10-01

    Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination. PMID:23091967

  13. Attenuation of landfill leachate by clay liner materials in laboratory columns: 2. Behaviour of inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Tellam, J H

    2001-02-01

    The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants in methanogenic landfill leachate, spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Cd, Ni and Zn), by two UK clay liner materials was compared in laboratory columns over 15 months. Ammonium was attenuated by ion-exchange but this attenuation was finite and when exhausted, NH4 passed through the liners at concentrations found in the leachate. The breakthrough behaviour of NH4 could be described by a simple distribution coefficient. Heavy metals were attenuated by sorption and precipitation of metal sulphide and carbonate compounds near the top of the liner. Adequate SO4 and CaCO3 in the liner is necessary to ensure the long term retention of heavy metals, and pH buffering agents added to stabilise reactive metal fractions should be admixed with the liner. Some metals may not be chemically attenuated by clay liners due to the formation of stable complexes with organic and/or colloidal fractions in leachate. Flushing of the liners with oxygenated water after leachate caused mobilisation of attenuated contaminants. Sorbed NH4 was released by the liners but groundwater loadings were manageable. Re-oxidation of metal sulphides under these conditions resulted in the release of heavy metals from the liners when the pH buffering capacity was poor. Contaminant attenuation by the clay liners was similar and the attenuation of NH4 and heavy metals could be predicted from the geochemical properties of the liner using simple tests. A conceptual model of clay liner performance is presented. Chemical attenuation of inorganic pollutants can be included in containment liner design to produce a dual reactive-passive barrier for landfills. PMID:11525477

  14. Numerical modeling of dredging effect on berthing structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasinathan Muthukkumaran; Ranganathan Sundaravadivelu

    2007-01-01

    Piles and diaphragm wall-supported berthing structure on marine soils are loaded laterally from horizontal soil movements\\u000a generated by dredging. The literature on the adequacy of the finite element method modeling of berthing structure to analyze\\u000a their behavior during dredging is limited. This paper describes a finite element approach for analyzing the lateral response\\u000a of pile and diaphragm wall during dredging.

  15. Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Christopher; Turner, R. Eugene

    1987-11-01

    Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on: marsh type, canal location, canal age, marsh soil characteristics, the presence or absence of a plug at the canal mouth, whether mitigation was on- or off-site, and dredge operator performance. Backfilling reduced median canal depth from 2.4 to 1.1 m, restored marsh vegetation on the backfilled spoil bank, but did not restore emergent marsh vegetation in the canal because of the lack of sufficient spoil material to fill the canal and time. Median percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on the canal spoil banks was 51.6%. Median percentage of cover in the canal was 0.7%. The organic matter and water content of spoil bank soils were restored to values intermediate between spoil bank levels and predredging marsh conditions. The average percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on backfilled spoil banks was highest in intermediate marshes (68.6%) and lowest in fresh (34.7%) and salt marshes (33.9%). Average canal depth was greatest in intermediate marshes (1.50 m) and least in fresh marshes (0.85 m). Canals backfilled in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana were shallower (average depth = 0.61 m) than in the eastern Deltaic Plain (mean depth range = 1.08 to 1.30 m), probably because of differences in sediment type, lower subsidence rate, and lower tidal exchange in the Chenier Plain. Canals backfilled in marshes with more organic soils were deeper, probably as a result of greater loss of spoil volume caused by oxidation of soil organic matter. Canals ten or more years old at the time of backfilling had shallower depths after backfilling. Depths varied widely among canals backfilled within ten years of dredging. Canal size showed no relationship to canal depth or amount of vegetation reestablished. Plugged canals contained more marsh reestablished in the canal and much greater chance of colonization by submerged aquatic vegetation compared with unplugged canals. Dredge operator skill was important in leveling spoil banks to allow vegetation reestablishment. Wide variation in dredge performance led to differing success of vegetation restoration. Complete reestablishment of the vegetation was not a necessary condition for successful restoration. In addition to providing vegetation reestablishment, backfilling canals resulted in shallow water areas with higher habitat value for benthos, fish, and waterfowl than unfilled canals. Spoil bank removal also may help restore water flow patterns over the marsh surface. Increased backfilling for wetland mitigation and restoration is recommended.

  16. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged... (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of...

  17. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged... (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of...

  18. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged... (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of...

  19. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged... (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of...

  20. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged...Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged... (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private channels, laying of...

  1. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions. PMID:22680618

  2. Pathways of material and contaminant transfer within Great Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, P.; Ostrom, N. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Groton, CT (United States); Baker, J.; Kucklick, J. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Pathways of material transfer to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior sculpins were delineated using {delta}{sup 15}N values that will also provide a basis to assess the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in these organisms. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of sculpins increased with depth along a transact from shallow to deep stations. Individuals from shallow, intermediate and deep water stations had {delta}{sup 15}N values of 11.2% {+-} 0.3, 12.99% {+-} 0.5 and 13.7% {+-} 0.7, respectively. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of mysids and amphipods from the deep station were 8.7 and 11.0, respectively. Assuming a 3% shift in {delta}{sup 15}N with trophic level, these data suggest that mysids are the dominant prey item to shallow water sculpins whereas amphipods predominate the diet of deep water sculpins. These data are consistent with stomach content analysis and, therefore, imply that short and long term dietary assessments provide similar information for sculpins. The predominance of amphipods in the diet of deep water sculpins is significant given that amphipods are much less abundant than mysids at this station. The greater attenuation of light at deep station appears to facilitate the capture of small prey, such as amphipods, by sculpins. The discrepancy between interpretations of diet based on isotope analysis and those based on relative abundance of prey items serves to emphasize the importance of a careful assessment of pathways of material transfer in food webs and suggests that isotope analysis are an important first step in delineating mechanisms of contaminant transfer.

  3. Organic outgassing behavior of plastic material and reduction of organic contamination in semiconductor equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misako Saito; Katsuhiko Anbai; Teruyuki Hayashi

    2005-01-01

    We developed a low organic contamination (LOC ) electric cable as part of efforts to reduce organic contamination in semiconductor equipment. Our development strategies for LOC cables were obtained from the study of the behavior of outgassing from electric cables and the behavior of adsorption on silicon wafers. Strategy I: Reduce low boiling point organic contaminants from electric cables. Strategy

  4. Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources I. Policy In order to guard against receiving contaminated of imported fill material has the potential of bringing contaminated soil onto the campus impacting of these soils on and off-site a contaminated site. Phase I Site Assessment (PSA) A PSA consists of a historical

  5. The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.

    PubMed

    Giusti, L

    2013-02-01

    An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

  6. INVESTIGATION OF AMENDMENTS TO REDUCE METALS LEACHABILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredged material can be a valuable resource for environmental ehnacement projects such as restoring or establishing new wetlands for beach restoration and stabilization, and fill material for flood rotection and new developments Few studies have addressed both the ecological and ...

  7. Green Sturgeon, Longfin smelt, and dredging operations in the San Francisco Estuary FINAL AGENDA

    E-print Network

    for Dredged Material 9:15-9:20 Ellen Johnck (Bay Planning Coalition) Welcome 9:20-9:30 Len Cardoza (Weston through bioinvasions 12:00 - 1:15 Lunch (on your own) 1:15 - 1:40 Mike Parsley (USGS) Response of white:30-9:00 Light breakfast buffet (provided) 9:00-9:15 Brian Ross (EPA) Welcome and LTMS background 9:15-9:20 Ellen

  8. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  9. Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    E-print Network

    Filzmoser, Peter

    Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET- QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET-bottles (0.33 vs

  10. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21Â higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs

  11. 21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  12. Dredging, Bioinvasions and Andrew Cohen and Paul Crozier

    E-print Network

    .3 cm at hatching Wikipedia (2009) Shovelnose Sturgeon »1 cm larvae Barton 2007 #12;Food itemsDredging, Bioinvasions and Sturgeon Andrew Cohen and Paul Crozier Center for Research on Aquatic & Carlton 1998 #12;Sturgeon Introduction or Establishment of Exotic Organisms Dredging #12;Introduction

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  14. 22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW LOOKING FROM FRONT LEFT OF DREDGE TOWARDS GEAR DRIVE OF MAIN (HOISTING) ENGINE. ARM ON RIGHT IS PART OF VALVE LINKAGE. BOX ABOVE THAT IS THE CYLINDER OIL LUBRICATOR. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food. PMID:23993598

  16. A test utilizing sediment traps, survey roads, and radiographs to monitor sediment accumulation from a dredging disposal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alther, George R.; Wyeth, Robert K.

    1980-03-01

    A grid of sediment traps and survey rods was emplaced at a disposal site in Lake Erie before dredged material was dumped there. These devices measured the dispersion of the waste. Survey rods were deployed as controls on the sediment traps and to measure temporal changes in the resulting sediment pile. The survey rods provided a more accurate description of the sediment pile than was possible by acoustic methods. Radiographs and X-ray transmittance scans obtained from postdeposition sediment cores were the only method that showed the contact between the newly deposited and the original sediments. The dredged material, primarily fine sand and coarse silt, accumulated over an area of 160,000 m2, with a maximum thickness of 36 cm near the center of the disposal site. About 16,000 m3 of dredged material, roughly 70% of the material discharged from the dredge, was accounted for by these surveys. Results of this study indicate that the measurement error using survey rods is 20-40%, whereas the measurement error of acoustical methods ranges between 40 and 70%. The study demonstrated the fact that sediment traps, survey rods, and radiographs are useful tools for identifying fine-grained, relatively thin layers of disposed materials, as well as for documenting changes in bottom elevation of littoral environments similar to that in near-shore Lake Erie. The results suggest that the use of sediment traps, survey rods, and radiographs be a standard procedure for measuring the dispersal of discharged dredged material in environments similar to near-shore Lake Erie. The reduction of errors and uncertainties by as much as 40% should justify the added cost.

  17. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  18. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  19. Evaluation of two bacterial delivery systems for in-situ remediation of PAH contaminated sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don C. Haddox; Teresa J. Cutright

    2003-01-01

    Intention, Goal and Background  Contaminated sediments represent a significant, worldwide environmental problem since they contain a mixture of different\\u000a xenobiotics and heavy metals. The presence of mixed contamination presents a unique set of obstacles for remediation efforts.\\u000a Often sediment remediation occurs as an ex-situ application (i.e., after dredging) in an attempt to minimize some of the problems.\\u000a However, dredging poses it’s

  20. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  1. Remediation of chromium-contaminated water using biogenic nano-sized materials and metal-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyunhee; Sun, Eunyoung; Roh, Yul

    2013-06-01

    As an environmental nanotechnology, nano-sized materials have the potential to create novel and effective in-situ and ex-situ treatments for contaminated groundwater due to its high catalytic reactivity, large surface area, and dispersibility. In this study the efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization using biotic and abiotic nano-sized materials (NSMs) and metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) was evaluated to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater in batch and column tests. The results of this study revealed that the combination of the mixed MRB and bio-FeS/siderite performed the highest efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. Cr(VI) reduction by MRB and NSMs could impact on solubility of Cr(VI) and geochemical changes favorable for precipitation and adsorption. PMID:23862512

  2. Fractionation of copper and cadmium and their binding with soil organic matter in a contaminated soil amended with organic materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Mohamed; Bocar Ahamadou; Ming Li; Changxiu Gong; Peng Cai; Wei Liang; Qiaoyun Huang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. Organic amendments can be used for the immobilization\\u000a and binding of heavy metal ions in soils by complexation, adsorption, and precipitation. A field trial was carried out to\\u000a evaluate the influence of some low-cost organic materials such as rice straw (RS), green manure (GM), and pig manure (PM)

  3. Investigations into the Contamination of Lunar Return Material. Part 1; Surface Analysis and Imaging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, A.; Toporski, J. K. W.; Avci, R.; Agee, C. B.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    A suite of lunar soils has been investigated by imaging and in-situ spectroscopy techniques. A suite of contaminant plastics and potential microbes has been found. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Versatile, automated sample preparation and detection of contaminants and biological materials

    E-print Network

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of food, water, medicine and ingestible household products is a public health hazard that episodically causes outbreaks worldwide. Existing laboratory methods are often expensive, require a laboratory environment ...

  5. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  6. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  7. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  8. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  9. Environmental effects of dredging. Relationship between pcb tissue residues and reproductive success of fathead minnows. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This technical note provides initial guidance for interpreting the biological consequences of bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. Specifically, the relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) tissue residues and reproductive success in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is examined. The US Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of potential bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediments scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. At present, however, there is no generally accepted guidance to assist in the interpretation of the biological consequences of specific levels of bioacumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station is conducting both literature data base analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of its Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program. This technical note discusses a portion of the laboratory effort.

  10. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  11. DISSIPATION OF PAHs IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...

  12. Bioaccumulation of toxic substances associated with dredging and dredged material disposal: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Mac, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review of sediment bioassessment was conducted as the first step in the development of a more standardized and ecologically sound test procedure for evaluating sediment quality. Based on the review, the authors concluded that 1) a standardized laboratory bioassessment test should consist of flowthrough exposure of at least 10 days duration using more than one aquatic organism including at least an infaunal benthic invertebrate and a fish species. 2) Before adoption of a laboratory sediment bioassessment procedure, the laboratory results should be evaluated by comparison with field conditions. 3) Most current sediment bioassessment regulatory tests measure acute toxicity or bioaccumulation. Development of tests to evaluate chronic, sublethal effects is needed.

  13. 14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  14. Sensitivity of sediment contamination in the Elbe Estuary to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Haase, Holger; Hentschke, Uwe; Schubert, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the projected climate-induced changes of temperature and precipitation (IPCC, 2007), an increase of the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods, storm surges or of extended periods of low river discharge is to be expected. An increase of flood events would result in an additional input of contaminated sediments from the inland. Contaminated particles will be transported along the rivers to the estuaries and consequently, a deterioration of the quality of estuarine particulate matter may occur. In addition, a sea level rise is predicted to occur along with global warming. In case of sea level rise or more frequent low river discharge situations, the upstream transport of slightly contaminated sediments of marine origin may be intensified, and cause decreasing concentrations of contaminants in particulate matter. The contamination of particulate matter plays an important role for the ecological quality of water bodies and has accordingly to be taken into account in the sediment management of navigable waters. This study focuses on the assessment of potential climate-induced and other man-made changes of particle-bound contaminant concentrations in the estuary of the river Elbe and the resulting challenges for sediment management in this navigable waterway. The estimation of climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations in estuarine particulate matter was based on results of projections on the fluvial particulate matter input into the Elbe estuary in the near (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) and on assumed extreme changes of such inputs. A mixing model using the concentrations of selected contaminants as indicators for marine and fluvial particulate matter was applied. Distinct changes of contaminant concentrations were found only for the far future and with the assumed extreme particulate matter inputs in the inner Elbe estuary. The worst-case scenario indicated that concentrations of some organochlorine contaminants in the far future exceed the national assessment criteria for the handling of dredged material within coastal waterways more distinct than today. Therefore, adaptations of practices for the management of dredged material to higher particulate matter contaminations should be considered there in the medium or long-term perspective. On the one hand, e.g. the practices of depositing dredged- material within the water system might be adapted (BfG 2014). On the other hand, the implementation of remediation measures like those planned under the Water Framework Directive could mitigate the climate-induced increase of contaminants. However, before the planning of adaption measures begins, the respectively prevailing contamination status should be verified, as climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations might be superimposed by direct anthropogenic activities, e.g. remediation measures to reduce contamination or construction works in waterways. Literature: BfG - Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (2014) Sedimentmanagement Tideelbe - Strategien und Potenziale - Systemstudie II. Ökologische Auswirkungen der Unterbringung von Feinmaterial. Band 1, Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamtes Hamburg. Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, BfG-Bericht 1763 IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  15. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    PubMed

    Pugin, K G; Vaysman, Ya I

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  16. Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Pollentier; I. Neira; R. Gronheid

    2011-01-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high

  17. Occurrence of Emerging Contaminants in Water and Bed Material in the Missouri River, North Dakota, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Damschen; Robert F. Lundgren

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, conducted a reconnaissance study to determine the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed sediment within the Missouri River upstream and downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, North Dakota, and upstream from the city of Fort Yates, North Dakota, during September-October 2007. At each

  18. Sediment pass-through, an alternative to reservoir dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lee, W.H. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tu, S. [Pacific and Gas Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is studying an alternative {open_quotes}Sediment Management Plan{close_quotes} (SMP) to control sediments at Rock Creek Reservoir and the downstream Cresta Reservoir on the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County. The reservoirs are part of the 182,000 kW Rock Creek-Cresta Project hydroelectric development. Approximately 5.4 million cubic meters of sediments, deposited in the two reservoirs since they were placed in service in 1949 and 1950, partially obstruct the dams` low level outlets and pipe inlets supplying water for spillway gate operations. The sediments jeopardize the reliable and efficient operation of the dams and powerhouses. The SMP includes retrofitting Rock Creek and Cresta Dams with additional low-level gated outlets and modification of trash racks at the existing low level outlet pipes at each dam to improve sediment pass-through (SPT) capacity during high flows. Also, to enable construction of the dam modifications and to facilitate the initiation of SPT operation, dredging of approximately 46,000 cubic meters at Rock Creek Reservoir and 57,000 cubic meters at Cresta Reservoir can be accomplished using a new slurry pump dredging technology to minimize turbidity and re-suspension of solids during dredging. It is proposed to deposit the sediment on the reservoir bottoms, upstream of the areas to be dredged. The dredged sediments subsequently would be flushed from the reservoirs during SPT operations to ultimately be deposited in the dead storage volume of a large downstream reservoir, Lake Oroville. The SPT management plan supersedes more costly plans for major dredging, and may preclude the need for future maintenance dredging at the reservoirs.

  19. Effect of contact time on the release of contaminants from granular waste materials during column leaching experiments.

    PubMed

    López Meza, Sarynna; Kalbe, Ute; Berger, Wolfgang; Simon, Franz-Georg

    2010-04-01

    When reusing or disposing of contaminated granular waste materials there is a need to evaluate how the contaminants will interact on the pathway soil-groundwater and the effect this interaction will have on the surrounding environment. While column testing can provide a closer approximation to field percolation conditions than batch testing, there is still a need to develop column testing procedures that consider the requirements of practical testing time frames. This study evaluates the effect of different column contact times (2.5, 5, and 16h) on the release of inorganic constituents from bottom ash and demolition waste, two commonly reused granular materials. Leaching data for representative constituents of concern, such as copper, chromium, sulfate and chloride, as well as pH and electrical conductivity was compared for all different contact times studied. Results for the materials investigated in this study showed that variations in contact time have no significant effect on the release of the selected constituents and leaching parameters at low liquid to solid ratios. However, after a liquid to solid ratio of 1L/kg, the effect is more noticeable, and higher contact times show lower pH values as well as a reduction in the release of constituents of concern from bottom ash. In the case of demolition waste, the variation of contact time did not have a strong effect on the leaching behavior. PMID:20034777

  20. Selective Isolation of Leptospiras from Contaminated Material by Incorporation of Neomycin to Culture Media

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Donald M.; Varela-Díaz, Víctor M.

    1973-01-01

    Incorporation of neomycin to the culture medium was found to be effective in inhibiting Escherichia coli contaminants without interfering with the growth of serotype L. autumnalis. The growth of 12 other Leptospira serotypes was unaffected by the addition of 300 ?g of neomycin per ml to Ellinghausen medium or 5 ?g/ml to Fletcher medium. Neomycin-containing medium was found to be of value in the isolation of leptospiras from cultures of blood from infected laboratory animals. A higher percentage of isolates was obtained in swine kidneys from an abattoir in medium containing neomycin than resulted from the same medium without antibiotic or with 5-fluorouracil. Contaminated leptospiral cultures growing in media with 5-fluorouracil were purified by subculturing into neomycin-containing media. Images PMID:4715558

  1. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

  2. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

  3. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

  4. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

  5. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers...REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface § 170.300 Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge...

  6. REMOVAL AND SEPARATION OF SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM IMPOUNDMENT BOTTOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted of a system for removing spilled hazardous materials from pond bottoms and separating the hazardous materials and suspended solids from the resulting dredged slurry. The removal system consisted of a MUD CAT dredge. The processing system consisted of...

  7. The effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Messieh; T. W. Rowell; D. L. Peer; P. J. Cranford

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current knowledge on the effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed. The impact of trawling and dredging for fish and shellfish on marine habitats has recently attracted international attention among fisheries and environmental scientists. In Atlantic Canada, trawling and dredging are the principal methods of harvesting groundfish

  8. TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. ore material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. ariables in the study included flow rate, pH, ioni...

  9. Carbon and hydrogen isotope effects during sorption of organic contaminants on carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Schüth, Christoph; Taubald, Heinrich; Bolaño, Nerea; Maciejczyk, Kirsten

    2003-07-01

    Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes can be an efficient means to validate biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater since it results in an isotopic fractionation. A prerequisite in applying this method in the field is the proof that other processes decreasing the contaminant concentration are conservative with respect to isotope effects. In this paper we show for carbon isotopes of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds [trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE), vinylchloride (VC)] and carbon and hydrogen isotopes of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, p-xylene) that no significant fractionation occurs during equilibrium sorption onto activated carbon, lignite coke and lignite. In general, effects were in the range of the reproducibility limit of the analytical instrument (0.5 per thousand for delta13C, and 8 per thousand for delta2H). This observation was made for fractions sorbed of less than 5% to more than 95%. Also for rate-limited sorption of TCE onto activated carbon, no significant fractionation in carbon isotopes could be observed. These findings support the assumption that for these classes of compounds, sorption processes in aquifer systems are conservative with respect to isotope effects. PMID:12814884

  10. Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Christof; Konrad, Wilfried; Rügner, Hermann; Bauer, Sebastian; Liedl, Rudolf; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-02-01

    In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (i.e., a salt) and sorbing contaminants (e.g., PAHs like naphthalene and phenanthrene or heavy metals) at the groundwater table. The dam constructions have a composite architecture with soil covers in inclined layers and distinct contrasts in the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the used materials. Capillary barrier effects result in strong spatial variabilities of flow and transport velocities. Contaminant breakthrough curves at the groundwater table show significant tailing due to slow sorption kinetics and a wide distribution of travel times. While conservative tracer breakthrough depends primarily on subsoil hydraulic properties, equilibrium distribution coefficients and sorption kinetics represent additional controlling factors for contaminant spreading. Hence, the three secondary materials show pronounced differences in the temporal development of leached contaminant concentrations with consequences for breakthrough times and peak concentrations at the groundwater table. Significant concentration reductions due to dispersion occur only if the source concentrations decrease significantly prior to the arrival of the contaminant at the groundwater table. Biodegradation causes significant reduction of breakthrough concentrations only if flow velocities are low. PMID:18707860

  11. Contaminated Meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Anders; Eugene R. Dufresne; Ryoichi Hayatsu; Albert Cavaille; Ann Dufresne; Frank W. Fitch

    1964-01-01

    One stone of the Orgueil meteorite shower contains an assortment of biogenic materials: coal fragments, seed capsules of the reed Juncus conglomeratus, other plant fragments, and an optically active, water-soluble protein material resembling collagen-derived glues. This sample seems to have been accidentally or deliberately contaminated shortly after the fall of the meteorite in 1864.

  12. Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglayeva, Ganna

    The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and monoacylglycerols was developed. The identification and quantification of analytes were performed using a 15-m high temperature capillary column (DB-1HT) with a GC coupled to both flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors. To eliminate discrimination of low or high molecular weight species, programmed temperature vaporization (PTV) injection parameters were optimized using design of experiments methodology. Evaluation of the column temperature program and MS parameters allowed achieving separation of majority of target compounds based on their total number of carbon atoms, regioisomerization and, to some extent, degree of unsaturation.

  13. Cost estimating projects for large cutter and hopper dredges 

    E-print Network

    Belesimo, Francesco John

    2000-01-01

    Degree (fianged) Lon Radius 45 De ree (tlanged) Re ular 90 Degree (flanged) Stern Swivel Ball Joints Straight Full cocked (17 Degree) End Section Minor Loss Coet5cient - K 1. 0 0. 1 1. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 1. 0 0. 1 0. 9 1. 0 An assumption... the horsepower is multiplied by the dredge time per cycle times the cycles per day times the production days. For both cutter and hopper dredges the number of horsepower-hours is multiplied by the fuel usage value. Additionally the fuel used for the propulsion...

  14. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Yu; D. J. LePoire; L. G. Jones

    1994-01-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of

  15. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  16. Mass Removal and Low-Concentration Tailing of Trichloroethene in Freshly-Amended, Synthetically-Aged, and Field-Contaminated Aquifer Material

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G.R.; Norris, D.K.; Brusseau, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of contaminant aging on the sorption/desorption and transport of trichloroethene in a low organic-carbon content aquifer material, comparing mass removal and long-term, low-concentration elution tailing for field-contaminated, synthetically-aged (contact times of approximately four years), and freshly-amended aquifer material. Elution of trichloroethene exhibited extensive low-concentration tailing, despite minimal retention of trichloroethene by the aquifer material. The observed nonideal transport behavior of trichloroethene is attributed primarily to rate-limited sorption/desorption, with a smaller contribution from nonlinear sorption. It is hypothesized that interaction with physically condensed carbonaceous material, comprising 61% of the aquifer material’s organic-carbon content, mediates the retention behavior of trichloroethene. The elution behavior of trichloroethene for the field-contaminated and aged treatments was essentially identical to that observed for the fresh treatments. In addition, the results of three independent mass-balance analyses, total mass eluted, solvent-extraction analysis of residual sorbed mass, and aqueous-phase concentration rebounds following stop-flow experiments, showed equivalent recoveries for the aged and fresh treatments. These results indicate that long-term contaminant aging did not significantly influence the retention and transport of trichloroethene in this low organic-carbon aquifer material. PMID:19157496

  17. Methyl Mercury Monitoring in Dredged Material Placement Sites

    E-print Network

    ; sheep + feces; bee colonies Sandy silt Scour Pond San Joaquin Grazing Low scrub; marshy pond Single after ponds drained by trenches Fine silt Roberts Island I San Joaquin Ag Ag fields Series of large adjacent ponds; weeds in pond; moved often; very muddy at start Sandy silt DMP Site Differences #12;S-31

  18. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Barrows; H. L. Mayhew; J. Q. Word

    1996-01-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers\\/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed

  19. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

  20. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

  1. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the length of time during which disposal...

  2. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

  4. EVALUATION OF RISKS FROM USING POULTRY LITTER TO REMEDIATE AND REUSE CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of heavy metals in contaminated sediment evaluated for beneficial reuse, before and after chemical amendment, was evaluated using poultry manure as the amendment. The dredged sediment was only slightly contaminated with heay metals.Availability tests on the amend...

  5. SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION: RESEARCH TO EVALUATE RELEASE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF CONTAMINANTS AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each option. Resuspension of contaminants from the...

  6. Optical topometry of surfaces with locally changing materials, layers and contaminations Part 2: Fringe projection topometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Leonhardt

    2005-01-01

    Conventional topometry evaluation procedures applied to surfaces with locally changing materials or layer structures can result in significant errors in the topometric heights. A new theoretical approach, developed for two-beam interferometry in part 1, is now applied to fringe projection topometry, where the oblique incidence of two or three partial plane-wave components has to be considered. Important effects of contrast

  7. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Bossart; J. Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D&D of DOE`s facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies

  8. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Bossart; J. Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D D of DOE's facilities. If successfully developed, these superior

  9. 83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. Hydrodredge: Reducing the negative impacts of scallop dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Shephard; Clifford A. Goudey; Andrew Read; Michel J. Kaiser

    2009-01-01

    Scallop dredges typically use teeth or a cutting bar to dig though the sediment and are associated with detrimental impacts on marine benthos. A low-impact ‘Hydrodredge’ was tested that uses ‘cups’ to deflect water downward in a turbulent wave sufficient to lift scallops from the seabed. Trials took place in the Isle of Man fishery for great scallop (Pecten maximus)

  11. Assessing Nutrient Transport Following Dredging of Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are vital for many agricultural landscapes in the U.S. Previous research has indicated that dredging agricultural drainage ditches may degrade water quality. In this study, we monitored nutrient transport in two drainage ditches for six years (2003-2008), during which t...

  12. Assessment Of Bioaccumulation Potential Following Dredging In Mainistique, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the Superfund remedy of the Mainistique River and Harbor that occurred in 1996 to 2001, PCB concentrations in sediment have gone down substantially. Prior to dredging, the average PCB concentration was 28 ppm (all depth intervals) and the current average in sediments is 0....

  13. ON THE PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES IN DREDGE PUMP IMPELLERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Hofstra; C. van Rhee; S. A. Miedema; A. M. Talmon

    In dredging, specific knowledge of particle flow through pipes and pumps is required so that the design of the various components can be optimized for the requirements of mixture flow. In the absence of theoretical knowledge, experimental results are used to predict losses in pipelines and the performance of pumps. This approach, while sufficient for application in general, is not

  14. Long-term stability and temporal trends of organic contaminants in four collections of mussel tissue frozen standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Pugh, Rebecca S; Pol, Stacy S Vander; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    The stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides in frozen mussel tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) stored at -80 °C was assessed by analyzing samples of SRM 1974, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) periodically over 25 y, 20 y, and 12 y, respectively. The most recent analyses were performed during the certification of the fourth release of this material, SRM 1974c. Results indicate the concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants have not changed during storage at -80 °C. In addition, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) were quantified in each of the materials during this study. The stability information is important for on-going monitoring studies collecting large quantities of samples for future analyses (i.e., formally established specimen banking programs). Since all four mussel tissue SRMs were prepared from mussels collected at the same site in Dorchester Bay, MA, USA, the results provide a temporal trend study for these contaminants over a 17 year period (1987 to 2004). PMID:25711987

  15. Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Laocharoen, S; Plangklang, P; Reungsang, A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utilization of agricultural matrices as the support materials for cell immobilization to improve the technique of bioremediation. Coir, bulrush, banana stem and water hyacinth stem in both delignified and undelignified forms were used to immobilize Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in bioremediation of carbofuran at 5 mg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater. Undelignified coir was found to be the most suitable support material for cell immobilization, giving the short half-life of carbofuran of 3.40 d (2.8 times shorter than the treatments with free cells). In addition, it could be reused three times without a loss in ability to degrade carbofuran. The growth and degradation ability of free cells were completely inhibited at the initial carbofuran concentrations of 250 mg l(-1), while there was no inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the immobilized cells. The results indicated a great potential for using the agricultural matrices as support material for cell immobilization to improve the overall efficiency of carbofuran bioremediation in contaminated water by B. cepacia PCL3. PMID:24527620

  16. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    PubMed

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (?), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ? in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ? in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. PMID:25559497

  17. Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kocman; Nicolas S. Bloom; Hirokatso Akagi; Kevin Telmer; Lars Hylander; Vesna Fajon; Vesna Jereb; Radojko Ja?imovi?; Borut Smodiš; Justinian R. Ikingura; Milena Horvat

    2006-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k0 standardization neutron activation

  18. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  19. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Hyde, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D&D of DOE`s facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019. These technologies will also generate a reusable or recyclable product, while achieving D&D in less time at lower cost with reduced health and safety risks to the workers, the public and the environment.

  20. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and requires updating to comply with the newer DOT regulations. Similar challenges present themselves throughout the nuclear industry in both commercial and government operations and therefore, this is not only a Hanford Site problem. Shipping radioactive wastes as either LSA or SCO rather than repacking it is significantly cheaper than other DOT radioactive materials shipping classifications particularly when the cost of packages is included. Additionally, the need to 'repackage' materials for transport can often increase worker exposure, necessitated by 'repackaging' waste materials into DOT 7 A Type A containers.

  1. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  2. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  3. North Fork John Day Dredge Tailings Restoration Project Final Report 1997-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, John A. (US Forest Service, Pendleton, OR)

    2002-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) worked together to rehabilitate 2.1 miles of Clear Creek floodplain, a tributary of the North Fork John Day River Basin. Dredge tailing were deposited from mining operations on Clear Creek's floodplain from the 1930's to the 1950's. These tailing confined the stream channel and degraded the floodplain. The work was completed by moving dredge tailing piles adjacent to the Clear Creek channel, using track-mounted excavators and dump trucks. A caterpillar tractor was used to contour the material placed outside the immediate floodplain, blending it into the hillside. The restored floodplain was very near channel bankfull level following excavation and contoured to accept future flood flows. Monitoring was initiated through pre and post-project photo points and cross-section measurements. Work was completed in two efforts. In 1997 and 1998 floodplain restoration was adjacent to the reconstruction of Road 13 from the junction with Road 10 from Clear Creek River Mile 1.9 to 3.1 for a distance of 1.2 miles. In 1999 the Environmental Assessment for Lower Clear Creek--Granite Creek Floodplain Restoration Project was completed for work proposed on Clear Creek from the mouth up to River mile 1.9 and the Granite Creek floodplain from River miles 5.9 to 7.7. Restoration proposed in the 1999 Environmental Assessment is the subject of this report.

  4. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, N. C.; Schwarz, R. R.; Bingham, P. A.; Stennett, M. C.; Corkhill, C. L.; Heath, P. G.; Hand, R. J.; James, M.; Pearson, A.; Morgan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80-95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  5. Real-time material quality prediction, fault detection, and contamination control in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor metalorganic

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Real-time material quality prediction, fault detection, and contamination control in AlGaN/GaN high spectrometry was implemented in AlGaN/GaN/AlN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition processes as a real-time within the reactor, measured by mass spectrometry in real time, were correlated to photoluminescence band

  6. Improvement of Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life Under Debris-Contaminated Lubrication by Decreasing the Crack Sensitivity of the Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Sugiura; Osamu Kato; Noriyuki Tsushima; Hiroshi Muro

    1982-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue life under debris- (or foreign particle-) contaminated lubrication is less than one-tenth the life under non-contaminated lubrication when the contaminating debris is hard, large particles (0.1 mm). A small “crevasse-type” crack initiates at the forward or backward side of a debris Particle indentation and grows into fatigue flaking. The size of the initial crack can be described

  7. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 true Actions controlling the material...DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material...disposal sites where the potential for erosion,...

  8. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Actions controlling the material...DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material...disposal sites where the potential for erosion,...

  9. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Actions controlling the material...DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material...disposal sites where the potential for erosion,...

  10. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  11. EVALUATION OF CONTAMINANT LEACHABILITY FACTORS BY COMPARISON OF TREATABILITY STUDY DATA FOR MULTIPLE SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology is widely used in the treatment of hazardous waste and contaminated soil in the US. In a project sponsored by the US Navy and the USEPA, treatability test data were compiled into a data base listing contaminant concentration and matri...

  12. A ENFERMAGEM FRENTE A ACIDENTES DE TRABALHO COM MATERIAL POTENCIALMENTE CONTAMINADO NA ERA DO HIV * THE NURSING TEAM AND OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL IN THE ERA OF HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elucir Gir; Fabiana Prado; Potiens Costa; Adriana Maria da Silva

    This investigation was carried out in order to: identify the occurrence of professional accidents with perforate cutting potentially contaminated material among nurses and nursing auxiliaries that work in a general teaching hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo. The other objectives were: to associate the occurrence of accident with the professional category and period of work; to

  13. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Maintenance Dredging of the Mouth of the Columbia River, Summer 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Williams, Greg D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.

    2003-03-05

    To address concerns about crab entrainment during maintenance dredging at the Mouth of the Columbia River, direct measurements of crab entrainment rates were conducted during the summer of 2002 from River Mile 3 to River Mile+3. The entrainment rate for all age classes over all sampling in the MCR was 0.0603 crabs per cy. The sex ratio of the older crabs entrained in the MCR was significantly skewed to the females. A modified DIM was used to calculate the entrainment (E), Adult Equivalent Loss (AEL) at Age 2+ and Age 3+ and the Loss to the Fishery (LF) for the dredged volumes accomplished in 2002 and for the five-year average dredged volumes (both for the Essayons and the contractor dredges). For both sets of projections, the coefficients of variation on the E, AEL, and LF were all under 5%. For the MCR total dredged volume (4,600,378 cy) in the summer of 2002, the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 180,416 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 163,549 to 197,283 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the summer 2002 in the MCR was 81,187 with 95% confidence limits from 73,597 to 88,777 crabs. The projected LF for summer 2002 in the MCR was 10,471 with 95% confidence limits from 9,537 to 11,405 crabs. For the five-year average total MCR dredged volumes (4,391,872 cy), the estimated AEL at age 2+ was 172,238 crabs with 95% confidence limits from 156,135 to 188,341 crabs. The AEL at age 3+ estimated for the MCR was 77,507 with 95% confidence limits from 70,261 to 84,753 crabs. The projected LF was 9,997 with 95% confidence limits from 9,105 to 10,889 crabs. Because female crabs appeared in the entrainment samples at a higher rate than did males, about 82% of the AEL at Age 2+ in the MCR was comprised of female crabs. Salinity in dredged materials from the MCR was close to that of ocean water for most of the sampling from July to October 2002 with about 82% of the salinity measurements above 32 o/oo. At the high salinities found in the MCR, entrainment rates did not vary significantly with salinity. These results support the concept discussed in Pearson et al. (2002) that where bottom salinities are high most of the time, factors other than salinity are influencing crab distribution and entrainment rates. The results reported here coupled with those in Pearson et al. (2002) indicate that low salinity influences crab entrainment rates.

  14. Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sediments by solid-bed bioleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Löser; H. Seidel; P. Hoffmann; A. Zehnsdorf

    2001-01-01

    Weisse Elster River sediment from the Leipzig Lowlands region (Saxony, Germany) is anthropogenically polluted by heavy metals.\\u000a Sediment dredged from a trap to the south of Leipzig was characterized in detail. When freshly dredged sediment contacts air,\\u000a the material turns acidic because of oxidation processes, the heavy metals become soluble and the sediment poses an environmental\\u000a risk. We are therefore

  15. Cadmium contamination of soils and rice plants caused by zinc mining IV. Use of soil amendment materials for the control of Cd uptake by plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Takijima; Futoshi Katsumi

    1973-01-01

    In view of the difficulty in practicing water management as a measure to prevent the production of high Cd rice, alkaline or calcareous soil amendment materials were examined, concerning their pH effect on the availability of soil heavy metals.1. In the experiment conducted on the contaminated paddy field, the essential Cd uptake by the plant occurred after the ear-forming stage

  16. The effect of dredging off Great Yarmouth on the wave conditions and erosion of the

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    and seabed lowering due to dredging off Great Yarmouth. A scenario of extreme dredging was defined and used of seabed gravel offshore of Great Yarmouth. The fear is that this artificial seabed lowering may allow the sensitivity of this coast to such seabed lowering using models developed to describe wave conditions

  17. Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

  18. Changes in the leachability of metals from dredged canal sediments during drying and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, S R; Alloway, B J; Parker, A; Carter, J E; Hodson, M E

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of metals in canal sediments after their disposal to land has important implications for the environmental management of canal dredgings. The leaching behaviour of trace metals was investigated in a laboratory-based experiment using sediment from a canal in the UK (139 mg Zn kg-1dry sediment, 1.1 mg Cd, kg-1dry sediment 31.5 mg Cr kg-1dry sediment, 20.6 mg Cu kg-1dry sediment 48.4 mg Ni kg-1dry sediment, 43.4 mg Pb kg-1dry sediment and 7.6 mg As kg-1dry sediment). The sediment was allowed to dry. Cores (10 cm long) of the drying canal sediment were taken over a period of 12 weeks. A simple water extraction procedure was used to investigate changes in metal leachability at varying depths through the cores. Metal leachability increased over the first five weeks of drying and then subsequently decreased between weeks five and twelve, (e.g. Cd increased from approximately 0.006 to 0.018 mg/kgsediment then decreased to approximately 0.006 mg/kgsediment, Zn increased from approximately 1.5 to 3 mg/kgsediment and then decreased to approximately 1.5 mg/kgsediment). These results were combined with sulphide/sulphate ratios, which showed a decrease as the sediment dried (e.g. at 2-4 cm depth from approximately 1 to 0.49), and BCR sequential extraction data. Most metals (except Cd and As) showed a redistribution from the residual phase into more mobile phases as the sediment dried and oxidised. Metal leachability was strongly correlated with the sulphide/sulphate ratio with leachability normally increasing with decreasing sulphide/sulphate ratio. The combined results were used to infer the likely behaviour of dredged material upon disposal to land. PMID:11584639

  19. Capping widespread creosote contamination in Eagle Harbor, WA: Problems, process, and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Duncan, P.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor`s marine sediments are contaminated with creosote from a former wood-treatment facility and with mercury from a former shipyard. Under the Superfund remedial investigation process, areas requiring remediation were defined based on comparison to state of Washington sediment management standards for sediment chemistry and biological effects (bioassays for oyster larvae, amphipod). From a variety of cleanup alternatives, capping was selected for a heavily contaminated subtidal area as the most cost-effective way to provide clean benthic habitat, isolate the contamination, and prevent further contaminant migration. Sandy material for the cap was dredged the Snohomish River as part of a routine federal navigation project and, over a six-month period, was placed in Eagle Harbor using two methods. Within ferry navigation lanes, a split hull barge was opened slowly while under tow. In areas with softer bottom sediments, cap material was hosed off a flat-top barge. GPS and real-time mapping of tracklines allowed for even coverage. Monitoring during and after the construction included analysis of suspended sediments (sediment traps on cap periphery), measurements of cap thickness (bathymetry, subbottom profiling, sediment vertical profile photography, settlement plates), and diver observations of nearby eelgrass beds. Final measurements show that the 21.4 hectare cap ranges from 30 to 270 cm thick, but is at least 60 cm thick in more than 60% of the area. Although PAHs were measured in the sediment traps during capping, significant levels have not been found since. Videos indicate the rapid return of epibiota, and the eelgrass surveys indicated no capping impacts on shoot density. Periodic monitoring of the cap is planned, as well as capping of remaining contaminated subtidal areas.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: RELEASE OF METALS FROM ACID-MINE DRAINAGE CONTAMINATED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS UNDER ANOXIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams are contaminated with acid-mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned metal mines in the western U.S. Treatment of these streams may include dredging of the existing sediments, with subsequent burial. Burial of previously toxic sediments may result in release of met...

  1. Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion V: trace elements, phytoextraction, Salix, combustion, dredged sediment landfill site Abstract and biomass production. Two combustion assays were performed in a biomass boiler of 30 KW, the first one

  2. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA is described. The application is meant to characterize and forecast sediment and arsenic (As) distributions before and after proposed dredging activit...

  3. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA for the purpose of characterizing and forecasting sediment and arsenic distributions before and after proposed dredging activitie...

  4. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  5. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M; Yates, Brian J; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona; Fimmen, Ryan

    2013-08-01

    The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness. PMID:23735286

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  7. A study of offshore benthic communities in natural areas and in areas affected by dredging and dredged material disposal

    E-print Network

    Henry, Clyde Allan

    1976-01-01

    the most ubi- quitous species were the polychaetes prtonospio pinnata and Nagetona sp. , the nemertean Cerebratulus lacteus, and the gastropod Nassarius acutus. Two-dimerisional and multidimensional cluster analyses were uti- lized to delineate site...

  8. A study of offshore benthic communities in natural areas and in areas affected by dredging and dredged material disposal 

    E-print Network

    Henry, Clyde Allan

    1976-01-01

    17 Numerical Classification Multidimensional Classification 1B 21 RESULTS 23 Hydrographic Data 23 Temperature Salinity 23 25 Sedimentology 25 Grain Size Analysis Organic Carbon Analysis 27 35 Biological Data TABLE OF CONTFNTS... profiles from the Galveston region. Salinity profiles from the Galveston region. 24 26 Comparison of seasonal sediment at Stations 1 and 2. 29 Comparison of seasonal sediment at Stations 3 and 4. 31 Comparison of seasonal sediment at Stations 5...

  9. Enhanced bioremediation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by microbial consortia obtained from contaminated aquifer material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Volpe; Guido Del Moro; Simona Rossetti; Valter Tandoi; Antonio Lopez

    2009-01-01

    A microcosm study was carried out to evaluate the potential for biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) impacting groundwater at a former oil refinery site located in Naples (SW Italy). A screening of aerobic, anaerobic and co-metabolic aerobic conditions was carried out by triplicate batch reactors, using contaminated soil and groundwater from the study site. All microcosms were amended with

  10. Contamination of Soil by Crude Oil and Drilling Muds. Use of Wastes by Production of Road Construction Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Mansurov; E. K. Ongarbaev; B. K. Tuleutaev

    2001-01-01

    A thermal method of separating wastes into organic and mineral parts is proposed for processing crude oil sludges and oil-contaminated soils accumulated in operation of oil fields and oil pipelines. After exposure to heat, the content of the organic part in wastes decreases to 15-20 wt. %. The possibility of producing a cold asphalt concrete mixture from solid waste residue

  11. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  12. Evaluation of sediment contamination in Pearl Harbor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grovhoug, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Pearl Harbor demonstrates remarkable resilience to natural and human-induced contaminant stresses. A review of more than fifty harbor-specific data sets reveals a complex contamination and recovery history. Siltation is a major contaminant pathway in Pearl Harbor. Dredging operations, which are necessary due to high siltation rates, reduce contaminant loading by periodically removing the upper harbor sediment layers. The response of test organisms during sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation studies showed negligible effects from sediment toxicity. The environmental quality at an offshore dredge disposal site for the harbor is not measurable affected. Urban runoff via storm drains and tributaries is an important nonpoint source of contaminant exposure to the Pearl Harbor ecosystem. Most contaminants experience extensive physical, chemical, and biological, modification after entering the harbor environment. Certain contaminants, including PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and silver, were reported at sufficiently elevated sediment concentrations to warrant environmental concern in some harbor regions and may warrant further evaluation. The overall sediment quality in Pearl Harbor, however, is less degraded than that of many U.S. mainland coastal harbors. Further detailed study of the abundance and distribution of important marine resources in Pearl Harbor is recommended.

  13. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176...Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment...non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits...

  14. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176...Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment...non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits...

  15. Monitoring exposure of brown bullheads and benthic macroinvertebrates to sediment contaminants in the Ashtabula river before, during, and after remediation.

    PubMed

    Meier, John R; Lazorchak, James M; Mills, Marc; Wernsing, Paul; Baumann, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    In 2007, approximately 420?500 cubic meters of contaminated sediment were removed from the Ashtabula River by dredging. The primary objective of the present study was to monitor contaminant exposure in fish and macroinvertebrates before, during, and after dredging. This was done by measuring tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in brown bullhead catfish (Ameriurus nebulosa) and in benthic macroinvertebrates, assessing changes in DNA damage in fish liver and blood, and scoring external and histopathological lesions and anomalies in the fish. In surficial sediment PCBs and PAHs were also quantified in conjunction with the biological sampling. The results show a significant reduction in contaminant levels in both fish and macroinvertebrates following dredging, indicating the effectiveness of the remediation in reducing exposure of biota to the primary contaminants of concern. Similarly, DNA damage levels in fish collected from the Ashtabula River significantly declined following dredging; however, a similar reduction in DNA damage over time was seen in fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek), making interpretation difficult. Macroinvertebrate PCB concentrations were reflective of the sediment concentrations in the areas where Hester-Dendy samplers were deployed for macroinvertebrate collection. The present study demonstrates that these methods can be used to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of remediation techniques at contaminated sediment sites. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1267-1276. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25565098

  16. Multipronged approach to managing beta-glucan contaminants in the downstream process: control of raw materials and filtration with charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Gefroh, Eva; Hewig, Art; Vedantham, Ganesh; McClure, Megan; Krivosheyeva, Alla; Lajmi, Ajay; Lu, Yuefeng

    2013-01-01

    (1?3)-?-D-Glucans (beta-glucans) have been found in raw materials used in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutics. Because of their biological activity, beta-glucans are considered process contaminants and consequently their level in the product needs to be controlled. Although beta-glucans introduced into the cell culture process can readily be removed by bind-and-elute chromatography process steps, beta-glucans can also be introduced into the purification process through raw materials containing beta-glucans as well as leachables from filters made from cellulose. This article reports a multipronged approach to managing the beta-glucan contamination in the downstream process. Raw material screening and selection can be used to effectively limit the level of beta-glucan introduced into the downstream process. Placement of a cellulosic filter upstream of the last bind-and-elute column step or effective preuse flushing can also limit the level of contaminant introduced. More importantly, this article reports the active removal of beta-glucan from the downstream process when necessary. It was discovered that the Posidyne(®) filter, a charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filter, was able to effectively remove beta-glucans from buffers at relatively low pH and salt concentrations. An approach of using low beta-glucan buffer components combined with filtration of the buffer with a Posidyne membrane has been successfully demonstrated at preparative scale. Additionally, the feasibility of active removal of beta-glucan from in-process product pools by Posidyne membrane filtration has also been demonstrated. Based on the data presented, a mechanism for binding is proposed, as well as a systematic approach for sizing of the Posidyne filter. PMID:23596143

  17. Fate and pathways of dredged estuarine sediment spoil in response to variable sediment size and baroclinic coastal circulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer M; Amoudry, Laurent O; Souza, Alejandro J; Rees, Jon

    2015-02-01

    Most of the world's megacities are located in estuarine regions supporting commercial ports. Such locations are subject to sedimentation and require dredging to maintain activities. Liverpool Bay, northwest UK, is a region of freshwater influence and hypertidal conditions used to demonstrate the impact of baroclinicity when considering sediment disposal. Although tidal currents dominate the time-varying current and onshore sediment movement, baroclinic processes cause a 2-layer residual circulation that influences the longer-term sediment transport. A nested modelling system is applied to accurately simulate the circulation during a three month period. The hydrodynamic model is validated using coastal observations, and a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to determine the pathways of 2 sediment mixtures representative of locally dredged material: a mix of 70% silt and 30% medium sand and a mix of 50% fine sand and 50% medium sand. Sediments are introduced at 3 active disposal sites within the Mersey Estuary in 2 different quantities (500 and 1500 Tonnes). Following release the majority (83% or more) of the particles remain within the estuary due to baroclinic influence. However, particles able to leave follow 2 distinct pathways, which primarily depend on the sediment grain size. Typically the finer sediment moves north and the coarser sediment west. Under solely barotropic conditions larger sediment volumes (up to 5 times more) can leave the estuary in a diffuse plume moving north. This demonstrates the necessity of considering baroclinic influence even within a hypertidal region with low freshwater inflow for accurate particle tracking studies. PMID:25463584

  18. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  19. Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darmody, R.G.; Marlin, J.C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R.A.; Brewer, E.F.; Stohr, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

  20. RELATING THE 4 RS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DREDGING: RESUSPENSION, RELEASE, RESIDUAL, AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes discussions at an EPA/Corps of Engineers' Workshop which summarizind the state of the science in regard to understanding and predicting resuspension, release, residuals, and risk associated with remedial dredging....

  1. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  2. Near-Field Sediment Resuspension Measurement and Modeling for Cutter Suction Dredging Operations 

    E-print Network

    Henriksen, John Christopher

    2011-02-22

    were investigated to understand their specific effect on turbidity generation and turbulence production around the cutter head. A near-field advection diffusion model was created to predict resuspension of sediment from a cutter suction dredge...

  3. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food-grade PET. PMID:15195474

  4. Effect of contamination on the optical properties of transmitting and reflecting materials exposed to a MMH/N2O4 rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. L.; Spisz, E. W.; Jack, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The changes are presented in spectral transmittance, and reflectance due to exposure of various optical materials to the exhaust plume of a 5-pound thrust bipropellant rocket. The engine was fired in a pulsed mode for a total exposure of 223.7 second. Spectral optical properties were measured in air before and after exposure to the exhaust plume in vacuum. The contaminating layer resulted in both absorption and scattering effects which caused changes as large as 30-50% for transmitting elements and 15% for mirrors in the near ultraviolet wavelengths. The changes in spectral properties of materials exposed to the exhaust plume for 44 and 223.7 seconds are compared and found to be similar.

  5. Sedimentation patterns caused by scallop dredging in a physically dynamic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Dale; P. Boulcott; T. J. Sherwin

    2011-01-01

    Scallop dredging grounds in the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland, are juxtaposed with rocky reef habitats raising concerns that reef communities may be impacted by sediment disturbed by nearby scallop dredging. A particle-tracking model of sediment transport and settling is applied at two scales. In the near-field, a suspension of typical sand\\/gravel-dominated bed sediment is subjected to a steady current

  6. Shifts in Microbial Community Composition Following Surface Application of Dredged River Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dovile Baniulyte; Emmanuel Favila; John J. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Sediment input to the Illinois River has drastically decreased river depth and reduced habitats for aquatic organisms. Dredging\\u000a is being used to remove sediment from the Illinois River, and the dredged sediment is being applied to the surface of a brownfield\\u000a site in Chicago with the goal of revegetating the site. In order to determine the effects of this drastic

  7. Evaluation of a method of reducing the powering requirements of soft-shelled clam dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Manning; Kennison A. McIntosh

    1960-01-01

    TheJOHN A. RYDER, clam dredging research vessel of the Maryland Department of Research and Education, was converted from dual-engine to single-engine\\u000a powering of the pumping and propulsion systems through use of a controllable-pitch propeller designed for the specific application\\u000a by Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation. The dredge pump is driven by mechanical power take-off from the\\u000a propulsion engine

  8. Effects of dredging and open-water disposal on benthic macroinvertebrates in a South Carolina estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Van Dolah; Dale R. Calder; David M. Knott

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 28,475 m3 of muddy sediments were dredged from a shoal in a South Carolina estuarine system and released near the surface at a nearby\\u000a site having high tidal current velocities. Effects at the dredged sites included decreased macrofaunal abundance and changes\\u000a in species composition. These effects appeared to be short term, with substantial recovery occurring within 3 months. Rapid

  9. CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated materials is reviewed here by characterizing coal-tar creosote, identifying techniques for assessing the biodegradability of its many chemical constituents, examining known routes of microbial transformation of these chemicals, and reviewin...

  10. The effect of shoe soling tread groove width on the coefficient of friction with different sole materials, floors, and contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin Jung Chen

    2004-01-01

    Tread groove design is very common in footwear. However, coefficient of friction (COF) measurements between the footwear material and floor using a slipmeter were commonly performed using flat footwear pads. Such measurements might underestimate the actual slip resistance of the footwear pad. This research investigates the effects of the tread groove width on the measured COF using four footwear materials,

  11. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  12. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  13. Development of A Two-Dimensional Analytical Model for Predicting Toxic Sediment Plumes Due to Environmental Dredging Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Hwan Je; Donald F. Hayes

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical transport model is developed to predict the dredge induced plume concentration in the horizontal plane under steady-state for simple hydraulic conditions. The derivation of the analytical solution is based on the solution to the advection-diffusion equation. The application of this analytical model is limited to mechanical dredge operations, bucket dredge, which has continuous point source in the

  14. Studies in a Fixed-Bed Photocatalytic Reactor System Using Natural Materials for Degradation of a Dye Contaminant in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Esparza; M. E. Borges; L. Díaz

    2011-01-01

    A fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor equipped with a cylindrical parabolic light concentrator was studied to remove organic\\u000a dyes from water using natural volcanic ashes particles and nanostructured titania supported on volcanic ashes as photocatalytic\\u000a materials. The influences of flow rate, photocatalyst and photocatalytic material adsorption capacity were studied. A fixed-bed\\u000a photocatalytic reactor was designed and built in the laboratory; a methylene

  15. Basalts dredged from the Amirante ridge, western Indian ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, R.L.; Engel, C.G.; Hilde, T.W.C.

    1968-01-01

    Oceanic tholeiitic basalts were dredged from 2500 to 3000 m depth on each flank of the Amirante Ridge, 1200 km southeast of Somalia in the western Indian Ocean, by R.V. Argo in 1964. One sample, probably shed from a flow or dike in basement beneath the coralline cap, gave a wholerock KAr age of 82??16??106 years. The age is similar to those reported by others for agglomerate from Providence Reef, nearer Madagascar, and for gabbro from Chain Ridge, the southwest member of Owen Fracture Zone, nearer the Somali coast. The Amirante Cretaceous-Early Tertiary occurrence lies between the "continental" 650 ?? 106 years granites of Seychelles Archipelago and the large Precambrian "continental" block of Madagascar. Trends of major structures and distribution of the related topographic and magnetic-anomaly lineations in 7-8 ?? 106 km2of the surrounding Indian Ocean suggest that in addition to spreading of the seafloor from the seismically-active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge-Carlsberg Ridge complex there has been, since mid-Mesozoic time, distributed left-lateral shear along 52??-54??E that has moved Madagascar at least 700 km south relative to Seychelles Bank. Measurements by other indicate the absolute movement of Madagascar has been southward as well. The emplacement of oceanic tholeiitic basalts at shallow depth, the development of volcanic topography between the sedimented Somali and Mascarene basins, and the existence of the faulted Amirante Trench and Ridge are consequences of the displacement. ?? 1968.

  16. Evaluating Soil Contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. There are several entries for a few of the most thoroughly studied contaminants, but for most of them the information available is meager. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  17. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  18. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Edward J; Crigler, John R; Wells, Claire M; Young, Alice A; Buhr, Tony L

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ?Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  19. Measuring the Effects of Cutter Suction Dredge Operating Parameters on Minor Losses due to Fixed Screens Installed at the Suction Inlet

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Joshua Mark

    2014-12-04

    from entering the system; however, these screens change the operational capability of the dredge in the form of an additional minor loss. The goal of this experiment was to determine the effects of different dredge operating parameters – cutter head...

  20. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control § 835.1101 Control of material...of this section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity...

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF DREDGED SEDIMENT ON TWO BENTHIC SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several international commissions have recently called for effective short-term biological response measurements which can adequately detect the effects of environmental concentrations of contaminants. The report describes efforts to develop a direct comparison of the effects of ...

  2. Groundwater Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Groundwater Foundation's sources of ground water contamination page discusses common contaminates, how they get to ground water, sources of pollution along with cleanup and prevention practices. The site's focal point is a detailed map of contaminants as they enter the water cycle.

  3. An Evaluation of Boat Basin Dredging Effects: Response of Fishes and Crabs in a New Jersey Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Able; Joseph Dobarro; Angela M. Muzeni-Corino

    2010-01-01

    Dredging is one of the most common human modifications of estuaries and although its effects have often been studied, there has been little effort in evaluating the effects on mobile macrofauna, such as fishes and crabs. We evaluated the response of fishes and crabs to 4 d of dredging in a small boat basin within a polyhaline marsh creek of

  4. Petrography and UPb detrital zircon geochronology of metasedimentary strata dredged from the Chukchi Borderland, Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Brumley; E. L. Miller; L. A. Mayer; A. Andronikov; J. L. Wooden; T. A. Dumitru; B. Elliott; G. E. Gehrels; S. B. Mukasa

    2010-01-01

    In 2008-2009, twelve dredges were taken aboard the USCGC Healy from outcrops along the Alpha Ridge, Northern Chukchi Borderland, Northwind Ridge and the Chukchi Plateau in the Arctic Ocean as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf Project. To ensure sampling of outcrop, steep bathymetric slopes (>40°) with little mud cover were identified with multibeam sonar and targeted for dredging.

  5. MOVEMENT OF SEA TURTLES CAPTURED NEAR HOPPER-DREDGED CHANNELS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA: 1993-1994

    E-print Network

    #12;MOVEMENT OF SEA TURTLES CAPTURED NEAR HOPPER-DREDGED CHANNELS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA: 1993's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and 4 loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles were tracked near hopper dredged. Turtles were captured and released at Bolivar Roads and Sabine Passes in Texas and at Calcasieu Pass

  6. Natural radionuclides as tracers of the dispersal of dredge spoil dumped at sea.

    PubMed

    Venema, L B; de Meijer, R J

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring large (underwater) surfaces, with rapidly varying composition, requires a sampling density which exceeds the capabilities of standard techniques. These techniques involve sample collection and a number of treatments and measurements in the laboratory; both steps are laborious, tedious and costly. This paper presents an in situ method in which a detector system is trailed over the surface and measures continuously the gamma rays emitted by the natural radionuclides in the sediment. Since each sediment component has its own characteristic set of activity-concentration values (radiometric fingerprint), the composition of the sediment can be deduced quantitatively. This paper shows the application of this technique for monitoring the dispersal of dredge spoil from Rotterdam harbour, dumped in the North Sea. In addition to a qualitative picture of dredge spoil dispersal, a mass balance equation has been used to quantitatively assess the dredge spoil transport with time. PMID:11430672

  7. Application of studies on the overboard placement of dredged sediments to the management of disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panageotou, William; Halka, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    From the mid 1960's until 1991, dredging and disposal occurred in the northern Chesapeake Bay without guidelines to maximize the capacity and to minimize the spread of the deposits beyond the disposal sites, particularly toward the navigation channel. Planning for future dredging projects is dependant upon the remaining site capacity and the behavior of the disposed sediment. Recent studies have shown that the fate of the deposited sediments is determined primarily by the water depth and bathymetry in the vicinity of the disposal site, and the method of dredging and disposal utilized. Currently used open-water disposal sites in the northern Chesapeake Bay are reaching their maximum capacity. This makes the application of the information from these studies critical, both for the optimal use of current sites and for the evaluation of new sites. Management scenarios utilizing these studies are applied to a disposal site in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

  8. Competitive abilities of invasive Lagarosiphon major and native Ceratophyllum demersum in monocultures and mixed cultures in relation to experimental sediment dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Stiers; Josphine Njambuya; Ludwig Triest

    2011-01-01

    Competitive abilities of Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss (invasive in Belgium) and native Ceratophyllum demersum L. were assessed experimentally in relation to sediment dredging. We mimicked these conditions by taking undisturbed sediment (‘before dredging’ treatment) and by using restored sediment where the uppermost nutrient rich top layer was removed (‘after dredging’ treatment). Both the species were allowed to grow for seven

  9. Assessing the fate of dredged sediments placed in open-water sites, Northern Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halka, Jeffrey; Panageotou, William; Sanford, Lawrence; Yu-Chou, Shenn

    1994-01-01

    An integrated series of field studies and experiments have been carried out on dredged sediments placed in open water sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. The studies include: (1) examination of the potential for fluidized sediment flow, (2) quantifying the volumetric changes that the sediments undergo during dredging process and subsequent to deposition, (3) estimating parameters for cohesive sediment erosion models from field data on currents and suspended sediment concentrations, and (4) incorporating the erosion model parameters and sediment transport equation into a 3-D hydrodynamic model for the upper Chesapeake Bay to predict transport directions and setting sites of eroded sediments under a variety of seasonal weather and river flow conditions.

  10. On the third dredge-up phenomenon in asymptotic giant branch stars

    E-print Network

    N. Mowlavi

    1999-03-31

    The third dredge-up phenomenon in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is analyzed through evolutionary model calculations of a \\mass{3}, solar metallicity star. The Schwarzschild criterion is used to test the stability of a given layer against convection, and the calculations are performed either with or without extra-mixing below the convective envelope. Based on these calculations, several questions are addressed regarding the occurrence of the third dredge-up in AGB star models, the laws governing that phenomenon, and some of its implications on the structural and chemical evolution of those stars.

  11. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

  12. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK\\/NEW JERSEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. JONES; E. A. STERN; K. R. DONATO; N. L. CLESCERI

    1999-01-01

    Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials

  13. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  14. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dredged or fill material that contain contaminants are the potential effects on the water...the likelihood of contamination by contaminants is acceptably low, unless the...impractical the identification of all contaminants by chemical testing, information...

  15. MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN

    E-print Network

    MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although

  16. Impact of dredging on dissolved phosphorus transport in agricultural drainage ditches of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches can be a key conduit of phosphorus (P) between agricultural soils of the Atlantic coastal plain and local surface waters, including the Chesapeake Bay. This study sought to quantify the effect of a common ditch management practice, sediment dredging, on fate of P in drainage ditches...

  17. MONITORING OF THE RESTORATIONAL DREDGING OF COLLINS LAKE, SCOTIA, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collins Lake (24.3 ha) in the Village of Scotia, New York, was hydraulically dredged to a depth of 3 m during the warmer months of 1977 and 1978. About 52,000 cu m of organic sediment were removed from 2.6 ha of lake bottom to an adjacent sedimentation basin with the supernatant ...

  18. 78 FR 6079 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment Dredging Activities at John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...Sediment Dredging Activities at John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, KS AGENCY: Department of...activities by the State of Kansas at John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Kansas. The State of Kansas...Corps of Engineers manages John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, KS for the authorized...

  19. Recent Evolution of Faro Channel and its Association to Dredging Operations (Algarve, Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pacheco; A. R. Carrasco; A. Vila-Concejo; Ó. Ferreira; J. A. Dias

    Uncontrolled dredging in complex environments such as barrier island systems can produce major changes in inlet conditions, current circulations patterns and modify channel margins, leading to silting or erosion. This paper presents a study of the evolution of Faro Channel between 1927 and 2001, in the Ria Formosa barrier island system, taking into account the natural evolution and the impacts

  20. Maintaining Access to America's Intermodal Ports/Technologies for Decontamination of Dredged

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Maintaining Access to America's Intermodal Ports/Technologies for Decontamination of Dredged for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C for sediment decontamination. One of several multicultural teams growing from the WRDA Program includes

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COAL FLY ASH AMENDMENTS ON THE TOXICITY OF A CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Robert M.; Perron, Monique M.; Friedman, Carey L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Pennell, Kelly G.; Cantwell, Mark G.; Pelletier, Marguerite C.; Ho, Kay T.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Ryba, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    Approaches for cleaning-up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In the present report, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7 d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of post-oxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxides emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash prior to use and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. There was no evidence of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28 d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, there was no evidence of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content, or the accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon contents may represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments. PMID:18717615

  2. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ?11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  3. Groundwater Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew Babcock

    This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.

  4. Groundwater Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Van Faasen

    2009-04-01

    This investigation consists of two parts, in which students first model the effects of groundwater contamination and then track the flow of the contamination. However, Part I does not have to be done in order to do Part II. This Teacher Information sectio

  5. Evaluating potential groundwater contamination from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.R.; McCormick, P.V.; Pontasch, K.W.; Cairns, J.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of soils at toxic and hazardous-waste sites can adversely affect groundwater and surface water. Water-soluble materials can move in soil by leaching and percolation and by runoff. The project evaluated the toxicity of leachable toxicants from seven soils, five of which were obtained from designated toxic or hazardous-waste sites. Acidified, dechlorinated tap water was used to extract toxic materials from surface soils. Extracts were used as complex mixtures in acute-toxicity tests using Daphnia and in chronic-effect tests using microcosms. Three classes of effects were observed. Some leachates (including control soils) showed no toxicity. Some soil leachates had moderate acute toxicity (50-80% diluted leachate) and no chronic toxicity. Very toxic soils showed both acute and chronic toxicity at <3% leachate. Toxicological evaluations of contaminants in waste-site soils can provide information not available from chemical analyses and may be useful in verifying the effectiveness of cleanup effort.

  6. Abstract Presented at Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA)/Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) 96 Symposium

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Federation (ERF) 96 Symposium Middelburg, The Netherlands - 16-20 September 1996 DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED disposal, and decontamination for contaminated materials. A complete solution to the dredging problem. Decontamination of dredged material is attractive since it can be realized on a shorter time scale than some

  7. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

  8. Laboratory Experiments and Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Bed Leveler Used to Level the Bottom of Ship Channels after Dredging

    E-print Network

    Paul, Ephraim Udo

    2011-02-22

    This study was conducted to ascertain the impacts of bed leveling, following ship channel dredging operations, and to also investigate the hydrodynamic flow field around box bed levelers. Laboratory experiments were conducted with bed levelers...

  9. 75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...SUMMARY: On October 7, 2010, the general permit regulating the activities of suction dredge gold placer mining operations in the State of Alaska expired. EPA proposes to reissue this general permit with no changes....

  10. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  11. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  12. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  13. Groundwater Contamination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine McLelland

    This lesson addresses groundwater contamination from leakage of underground gasoline, oil, or other hazardous chemical tanks. Students read two short articles and investigate causes, effects, solutions, and prevention measures.

  14. Controlling toxic cyanobacteria: effects of dredging and phosphorus-binding clay on cyanobacteria and microcystins.

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Faassen, Elisabeth J

    2012-04-01

    Sediment dredging and Phoslock(®) addition were applied individually and in combination in an enclosure experiment in a Dutch hypertrophic urban pond. These measures were applied to control eutrophication and reduce the risk of exposure to cyanobacterial toxins. Over the 58 days course of the experiment, cyanobacteria (predominantly Microcystis aeruginosa) gradually decreased until they dropped below the level of detection in the combined treated enclosures, they were reduced in dredged enclosures, but remained flourishing in controls and Phoslock(®) treated enclosures. Cyanobacteria were, however, less abundant in the enclosures (medians chlorophyll-a 30-87 ?g l(-1)) than in the pond (median chlorophyll-a 162 ?g l(-1)), where also a thick surface scum covered one-third of the pond for many weeks. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower in the combined dredged and Phoslock(®) treated enclosures than in controls. Median SRP concentrations were 24 ?g P l(-1) in the combined treatment, 58 ?g P l(-1) in dredged enclosures, and 90 ?g P l(-1) in controls and 95 ?g P l(-1) in Phoslock(®) treated enclosures. Hence, the combined treatment was most effective in decreasing SRP and TP, and in lowering cyanobacterial biomass. Microcystin (MC) concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. MC concentrations and cyanobacterial biomass were positively correlated in all treatments. Mean MC concentrations in controls (71 ?g l(-1)), Phoslock(®) treated enclosures (37 ?g l(-1)) and dredged enclosures (25 ?g l(-1)) exceeded the provisional guideline of 20 ?g l(-1), whereas mean MC concentrations were 13 ?g l(-1) in the combined treated enclosures. All samples contained the MC variants dmMC-RR, MC-RR, MC-YR, dmMC-LR and MC-LR; traces of MC-LY and nodularin were detected in few samples. The different treatments did not change the relative contribution of the variants to the MC pool; MC profiles in all treatments and the pond showed dominance of MC-RR followed by MC-LR. In the surface scum of the pond, total MC concentration was extremely high (64000 ?g l(-1) or 1300 ?g g(-1) DW), which poses a serious health hazard to children playing on the banks of the pond. Based on our results and pond characteristics, we propose combined sediment dredging and Phoslock(®) addition, fish removal and strong reduction of duck feeding by the neighborhood as most promising measures controlling cyanobacterial hazards in this pond. PMID:22137447

  15. Underground coal-gasification contaminant-control program: laboratory analysis of samples from the TONO I UCG cavity - materials characterization and environmental implications. Topical report, November 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Mason, G.M.

    1987-06-01

    The major issue addressed in the report is the relationship between cavity-material characteristics and ground-water impacts. Samples from the Tono excavation cavity were characterized by various analytical methods. Results indicate the unaltered coal mineralogy consisted of quartz, clay minerals, and feldspars, with some calcite, pyrite, gypsum, and zeolite. Of the altered material, char exhibited a similar mineralogy with a slight increase in gypsum, a loss of pyrite, and the appearance of some higher-temperature minerals. Data suggest that most ground-water contamination generated by leaching in a UCG cavity will be derived from char and the altered clay, carbonate, and sulfurous minerals contained within the char.

  16. Turfgrass Revegetation on Amended Sea Sand Dredged from the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young K. Joo; S. K. Lee; Y. S. Jung; Nick E. Christians

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimal method for turfgrass revegetation at the new Incheon International Airport, Republic of Korea. The existing soil base was reclaimed sea sand dredged from the Yellow Sea. Ten different soil media main plots were created by treating the sand with combinations of mountain soil, chemical fertilizer [15–11–14 nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (N–P–K)], peat moss, a

  17. Potassium-Argon Ages and Magnetic Properties of Some Dredged Submarine Basalts and Their Geophysical Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Ozima; Mituko Ozima; Ichiro Kaneoka

    1968-01-01

    susceptibility of about 10 -4 emu\\/cc. Three of the seven dredged basalts studied here showed self-reversal of thermoremanent magnetization upon heating to 300øC in air. Q ratios range from 5 to 57. Judging from the comparison between the thermal decay of NRM and the production of TRM, the NRM of most samples seems to be of TRM origin. These experiments

  18. An engineering geologic impact analysis of hydraulic dredging for lignite in Texas alluvial valleys 

    E-print Network

    Nolan, Erich Donald Luis

    1985-01-01

    Hypothetical cross-section of reclaimed and revegetated dredge mine. . . . . . . . . . . . 85 INTRODUCTION Background Texas possesses a major lignite resource. Kaiser and others (1980) estimate that Texas' near surface lignite (from depths of 20 ft to 200... lignite in alluvial valleys is feasible Table 1. Stratigraphic occurrence of Texas lignites (IUodified fram Cason, 1982) . North of the Colorado River OLIGOCENE CATAMOULA FORMATION South of the Colorado River Whitsett Formation Manning Formations...

  19. The impact of channel deepening and dredging on estuarine sediment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maren, D. S.; van Kessel, T.; Cronin, K.; Sittoni, L.

    2015-03-01

    Many estuaries worldwide are becoming more urbanised with heavier traffic in the waterways, requiring continuous channel deepening and larger ports, and increasing suspended sediment concentration (SSC). An example of a heavily impacted estuary where SSC levels are rising is the Ems Estuary, located between the Netherlands and Germany. In order to provide larger and larger ships access to three ports and a shipyard, the tidal channels in the Ems Estuary have been substantially deepened by dredging over the past decades. This has led to tidal amplification and hyper concentrated sediment conditions in the upstream tidal river. In the middle and outer reaches of the Ems Estuary, the tidal amplification is limited, and mechanisms responsible for increasing SSC are poorly understood. Most likely, channel and port deepening lead to larger SSC levels because of resulting enhanced siltation rates and therefore an increase in maintenance dredging. Additionally, channel deepening may increase up-estuary suspended sediment transport due to enhanced salinity-induced estuarine circulation. The effect of channel deepening and port construction on SSC levels is investigated using a numerical model of suspended sediment transport forced by tides, waves and salinity. The model satisfactorily reproduces observed water levels, velocity, sediment concentration and port deposition in the estuary, and therefore is subsequently applied to test the impact of channel deepening, historical dredging strategy and port construction on SSCs in the Estuary. These model scenarios suggest that: (1) channel deepening appears to be a main factor for enhancing the transport of sediments up-estuary, due to increased salinity-driven estuarine circulation; (2) sediment extraction strategies from the ports have a large impact on estuarine SSC; and (3) maintenance dredging and disposal influences the spatial distribution of SSC but has a limited effect on average SSC levels.

  20. Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods

    E-print Network

    Cason, Cynthia Lynn

    1982-01-01

    , or approximately a year's total production volume required for a single power plant boiler unit. This represents a considerable volume of potentially recoverable lignite. To the present, alluvial valleys have not been considered for mining purposes because...ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...