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Sample records for contaminated hanford sediments

  1. Uranium phases in contaminated sediments below Hanford's U tank farm.

    PubMed

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Zheming; Serne, R Jeffrey; Williams, Benjamin D; Brown, Christopher F; Dodge, Cleveland J; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2009-06-15

    Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations (XAFS, XRF, and TRLIF) on Hanford contaminated vadose zone sediments from the U-tank farm showed that U(VI) exists as different surface phases as a function of depth below ground surface (bgs). Secondary precipitates of U(VI) silicate precipitates (boltwoodite and uranophane) were present dominantly in shallow-depth sediments (15-16 m bgs), while adsorbed U(VI) phases and polynuclear U(VI) surface precipitates were considered to dominate in intermediate-depth sediments (20-25 m bgs). Only natural uranium was observed in the deeper sediments (> 28 m bgs) with no signs of contact with tank wastes containing Hanford-derived U(VI). Across all depths, most of the U(VI) was preferentially associated with the silt and clay size fractions of sediments. Strong correlation between U(VI) and Ca was found in the shallow-depth sediments, especially for the precipitated U(VI) silicates. Because U(VI) silicate precipitates dominate in the shallow-depth sediments, the released U(VI) concentration by macroscopic (bi)carbonate leaching resulted from both desorption and dissolution processes. Having different U(VI) surface phases in the Hanford contaminated sediments indicates that the U(VI) release mechanism could be complicated and that detailed characterization of the sediments using several different methods would be needed to estimate U(VI) fate and transport correctly in the vadose zone. PMID:19603635

  2. Uranium Phases in Contaminated Sediments Below Hanford's U Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Zheming; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Williams, Benjamin D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; FRANCIS, AROKIASAMY J.

    2009-06-11

    Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations (XAFS, XRF and TRLIF) on Hanford contaminated vadose zone sediments from the U-tank farm showed that U(VI) exists as different surface phases as a function of depth below ground surface (bgs). Dominant U(VI) silicate precipitates (boltwoodite and uranophane) were present in shallow-depth sediments (15-16 m bgs). In the intermediate depth sediments (20-25 m bgs), adsorbed U(VI) phases dominated but small amounts of surface precipitates consisting of polynuclear U(VI) surface complex were also identified. The deep depth sediments (> 28 m bgs) showed no signs of contact with tank wastes containing Hanford-derived U(VI), but natural uranium solid phases were observed. Most of the U(VI) was preferentially associated with the silt and clay size fractions and showed strong correlation with Ca, especially for the precipitated U(VI) silicate phase in the shallow depth sediments. Because U(VI) silicate precipitates dominate the U(VI) phases in the shallow depth sediments, macroscopic (bi)carbonate leaching should result in U(VI) releases from both desorption and dissolution processes. Having several different U(VI) surface phases in the Hanford contaminated sediments indicates that the U(VI) release mechanism could be complicated and that detailed characterization of the sediments would be needed to estimate U(VI) fate and transport in vadose zone.

  3. Advective Desorption of Uranium (VI) from Contaminated Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments under Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Zachara, John M.; Liu, Chongxuan; Qafoku, Nikolla; Smith, Steven C.; Forrester, Steven W.

    2008-11-03

    Sedimentary, hydrologic, and geochemical variations in the Hanford subsurface environment, as well as compositional differences in contaminating waste streams, have created vast differences in the migration and mobility of uranium within the subsurface environment. A series of hydraulically-saturated and -unsaturated column experiments were performed to i.) assess the effect of water content on the advective desorption and migration of uranium from contaminated sediments, and ii.) evaluate the uranium concentration that can develop in porewater and/or groundwater as a result of desorption/dissolution reactions. Flow rate and moisture content were varied to evaluate the influence of contact time, pore water velocity, and macropore desaturation on aqueous uranium concentrations. Sediments were collected from the T-TX-TY tank farm complex and the 300 Area Process Ponds located on the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington State. The sediments vary in depth, mineralogy, and in contamination events. Experiments were conducted under mildly alkaline/calcareous conditions representative of conditions commonly encountered at repository sites across the arid western United States and, in particular, the Hanford site. Results illustrate the release of uranium from these sediments is kinetically controlled and low water contents encountered within the Hanford vadose zone result in the formation of mobile-immobile water regimes, which isolate a fraction of the reactive sites within the sediments, effectively reducing the concentration of uranium released into migrating porewaters.

  4. Contaminant desorption during long-term leaching of hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Perdrial, N.; Chorover, J.

    2009-11-01

    Considerable efforts have been made toward understanding the behavior of contaminants introduced into sediments surrounding high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) storage sites at several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities (Hanford Site, WA; Savannah River Site, SC; Oak Ridge Site, TN).

  5. Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Yang, Jungseok; Um, Wooyong

    2015-05-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been applied to extract various contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sediment and soil using electric currents. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the efficiency of EK remediation method for Hanford sediment (76% sand and 24% silt-clay) after artificial contamination with nonradioactive 133Cs (0.01 M CsNO3) as a surrogate for radioactive 137Cs. The initial 133Cs concentration in the bulk sediment was 668 mg kg-1, with a higher 133Cs concentration for the silt-clay fraction (867 mg kg-1) than for the sand fraction (83 mg kg-1). A significant removal of cationic 133Cs from the sediment occurred from the cathode side (-), whereas the removal was negligible from the anode side (+) during the EK remediation process for 68 days. Based on microwave-assisted total digestion, 312 mg kg-1 of 133Cs was removed from the bulk sediment, which corresponds to the removal efficiency of 47%. The EK method was significantly more efficient for the silt-clay fraction than for the sand fraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses indicate that change in major crystalline mineral phases was insignificant during the EK remediation and the removal of 133Cs from the Hanford sediment by the EK method is attributed mainly to cation exchange with K in clay minerals. The experimental results suggest that the EK method can effectively remove radioactive Cs from the surface or subsurface sediment contaminated by radioactive materials in the Hanford Site, Washington, USA.

  6. Kinetic desorption and sorption of U(VI) during reactive transport in a contaminated Hanford sediment.

    PubMed

    Qafoku, Nikolla P; Zachara, John M; Liu, Chongxuan; Gassman, Paul L; Qafoku, Odeta S; Smith, Steven C

    2005-05-01

    Column experiments were conducted to investigate U(VI) desorption and sorption kinetics in a sand-textured, U(VI)-contaminated (22.7 micromol kg(-1)) capillary fringe sediment from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. Saturated column experiments were performed under mildly alkaline conditions representative of the Hanford site where uranyl-carbonate and calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes dominate aqueous speciation. A U(VI)-free solution was used to study contaminant U(VI) desorption in columns where different flow rates were applied. Sorbed, contaminant U(VI) was partially labile (11.8%), and extended leaching times and water volumes were required for complete desorption of the labile fraction. Uranium-(VI) sorption was studied after the desorption of labile, contaminant U(VI) using different U(VI) concentrations in the leaching solution. Strong kinetic effects were observed for both U(VI) sorption and desorption, with half-life ranging from 8.5 to 48.5 h for sorption and from 39.3 to 150 h for desorption. Although U(VI) is semi-mobile in mildly alkaline, subsurface environments, we observed substantial U(VI) adsorption, significant retardation during transport, and atypical breakthrough curves with extended tailing. A distributed rate model was applied to describe the effluent data and to allow comparisons between the desorption rate of contaminant U(VI) with the rate of shortterm U(VI) sorption. Desorption was the slower process. We speculate that the kinetic behavior results from transport or chemical phenomena within the phyllosilicate-dominated fine fraction present in the sediment. Our results suggest that U(VI) release and transport in the vadose zone and aquifer system from which the sediment was obtained are kinetically controlled. PMID:15926566

  7. Transuranic Contamination in Sediment and Groundwater at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-08-20

    A review of transuranic radionuclide contamination in sediments and groundwater at the DOE’s Hanford Site was conducted. The review focused primarily on plutonium-239/240 and americium-241; however, other transuranic nuclides were discussed as well, including neptunium-237, plutonium-238, and plutonium-241. The scope of the review included liquid process wastes intentionally disposed to constructed waste disposal facilities such as trenches and cribs, burial grounds, and unplanned releases to the ground surface. The review did not include liquid wastes disposed to tanks or solid wastes disposed to burial grounds. It is estimated that over 11,800 Ci of plutonium-239, 28,700 Ci of americium-241, and 55 Ci of neptunium-237 have been disposed as liquid waste to the near surface environment at the Hanford Site. Despite the very large quantities of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone at Hanford, only minuscule amounts have entered the groundwater. Currently, no wells onsite exceed the DOE derived concentration guide for plutonium-239/240 (30 pCi/L) or any other transuranic contaminant in filtered samples. The DOE derived concentration guide was exceeded by a small fraction in unfiltered samples from one well (299-E28-23) in recent years (35.4 and 40.4 pCi/L in FY 2006). The primary reason that disposal of these large quantities of transuranic radionuclides directly to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site has not resulted in widespread groundwater contamination is that under the typical oxidizing and neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions of the Hanford vadose zone, transuranic radionuclides (plutonium and americium in particular) have a very low solubility and high affinity for surface adsorption to mineral surfaces common within the Hanford vadose zone. Other important factors are the fact that the vadose zone is typically very thick (hundreds of feet) and the net infiltration rate is very low due to the desert climate. In some cases where

  8. Kinetic Desorption and Sorption of U(VI) During Reactive Transport in a Contaminated Hanford Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Zachara, John M.; Liu, Chongxuan; Gassman, Paul L.; Qafoku, Odeta; Smith, Steven C.

    2005-05-12

    Column experiments were conducted to investigate U(VI) desorption and sorption kinetics in a sand-textured, contaminated (22.7 µmol kg-1) capillary fringe sediment that had experienced long-term exposure to U(VI). The clay fraction mineralogy of the sediment was dominated by montmorillonite, muscovite, vermiculite, and chlorite. Saturated column experiments were performed under mildly alkaline/calcareous conditions representative of the Hanford site where uranyl–carbonate and calcium–uranyl–carbonate complexes dominate aqueous speciation. A U(VI) free solution was used to study U(VI) desorption in columns where different flow rates were applied. Uranium(VI) sorption was studied after the desorption of labile contaminant U(VI) using different U(VI) concentrations in the leaching solution. Strong kinetic behavior was observed for both U(VI) desorption and sorption. Although U(VI) is semi–mobile in mildly alkaline, calcareous subsurface environments, our results showed substantial U(VI) sorption, significant retardation during transport, and atypical breakthrough curves with extended tailing. A distributed rate model was applied to describe the effluent data and to allow comparisons between the desorption rate of contaminant U(VI) with the rate of short-term U(VI) sorption. Desorption was the slower process. Our results suggest that U(VI) release and transport in the vadose zone and aquifer system from which the sediment was obtained are kinetically controlled.

  9. Microscopic reactive diffusion of uranium in the contaminated sediments at Hanford, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Yantasee, Wassana; Majors, Paul D.; McKinley, James P.

    2006-12-01

    Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of uranium-contaminated sediments from select locations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site have revealed that sorbed uranium (U) often exists as uranyl precipitates associated with intragrain fractures of granitic clasts. The release of U to contacting fluids appears to be controlled by intragrain ion diffusion coupled with the dissolution kinetics of the precipitates that exist in the form of Na-boltwoodite. Here we present a coupled microscopic reactive diffusion model for the contaminated sediment on the basis of experimental measurements of intragrain diffusivity in the granitic lithic fragments and the dissolution kinetics of synthetic Na-boltwoodite. Nuclear magnetic resonance, pulse gradient spin echo measurements showed that the intragrain fractures of the granitic clasts isolated from the sediment contained two domains with distinct diffusivities. The fast diffusion domain had an apparent tortuosity of 1.5, while that of the slow region was two orders of magnitude larger. A two-domain diffusion model was assembled and used to infer the geochemical conditions that led to intragrain uranyl precipitation during waste-sediment interaction. Rapid precipitation of Na-boltwoodite was simulated with an alkaline U-containing, high-carbonate tank waste solution that diffused into intragrain fractures, which originally contained Si-rich pore water in equilibrium with feldspar grains in the lithic fragments. The model was also used to simulate uranyl dissolution and release from contaminated sediment to recharge waters. With independently characterized parameters for Na-boltwoodite dissolution, the model simulations demonstrated that diffusion could significantly decrease the rates of intragrain uranyl mineral dissolution due to diffusion-induced local solubility limitation with respect to Na-boltwoodite.

  10. Influence of Contact Time on the Extraction of 233Uranyl Spike and Contaminant Uranium From Hanford Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven C.; Szecsody, James E.

    2011-11-01

    In this study 233Uranyl nitrate was added to uranium (U) contaminated Hanford 300 Area sediment and incubated under moist conditions for 1 year. It hypothesized that geochemical transformations and/or physical processes will result in decreased extractability of 233U as the incubation period increases, and eventually the extraction behavior of the 233U spike will be congruent to contaminant U that has been associated with sediment for decades. Following 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year incubation periods, sediment extractions were performed using either batch or dynamic (sediment column flow) chemical extraction techniques. Overall, extraction of U from sediment using batch extraction was less complicated to conduct compared to dynamic extraction, but dynamic extraction could distinguish the range of U forms associated with sediment which are eluted at different times.

  11. Advective Removal of Intraparticle Uranium from Contaminated Vadose Zone Sediments, Hanford, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Liu, Chongxuan; Moore, D. A.; Zachara, John M.

    2008-03-01

    A column study on U contaminated vadose zone sediments from the Hanford Site, WA, was performed in order to aid the development of a model for predicting U(VI) release rates under a dynamic flow regime and for variable geochemical conditions. The sediments of interest are adjacent to and below tank BX-102, part of the BX tank farm that contained high level liquid radioactive waste. Two sediments, with different U(VI) loadings and intraparticle large fracture vs. smaller fracture ratios, were reacted with three different solutions. The primary reservoir for U(VI) appears to be a micron-sized nanocrystalline Na-U-Si phase, possibly Na-boltwoodite, that nucleated and grew on plagioclase grains that line fractures within sand-sized granitic clasts. The solutions were all calcite saturated and in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, where one solution was simply DI-water, the second was a synthetic ground water (SGW) with elevated Na, and the third was the same SGW but with both elevated Na and Si. The latter two solutions were employed, in part, to test the effect of saturation state on U(VI) release. For both sediments and all three electrolytes, there was an initial rapid release of U(VI) to the advecting solution followed by a plateau of low U(VI) concentration. U(VI) effluent concentration increased during subsequent stop flow (SF) events. The electrolytes with elevated Na and Si appreciably depressed U(VI) concentrations relative to DI water. The effluent data for both sediments and all three electrolytes was simulated reasonably well by a three domain model (the advecting fluid, fractures, and matrix) that coupled U(VI) dissolution rates, intraparticle U(VI) diffusion, and interparticle advective transport of U(VI); where key transport and dissolution processes had been parameterized in previous batch studies. For the calcite-saturated DI-water, U(VI) concentrations in the effluent remained far below saturation with respect to Na-boltwoodite and release of U(VI) to

  12. Cation exchange reactions controlling desorption of 90Sr 2+ from coarse-grained contaminated sediments at the Hanford site, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, J. P.; Zachara, J. M.; Smith, S. C.; Liu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear waste that bore 90Sr 2+ was accidentally leaked into the vadose zone at the Hanford site, and was immobilized at relatively shallow depths in sediments containing little apparent clay or silt-sized components. Sr 2+, 90Sr 2+, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+ was desorbed and total inorganic carbon concentration was monitored during the equilibration of this sediment with varying concentrations of Na +, Ca 2+. A cation exchange model previously developed for similar sediments was applied to these results as a predictor of final solution compositions. The model included binary exchange reactions for the four operant cations and an equilibrium dissolution/precipitation reaction for calcite. The model successfully predicted the desorption data. The contaminated sediment was also examined using digital autoradiography, a sensitive tool for imaging the distribution of radioactivity. The exchanger phase containing 90Sr was found to consist of smectite formed from weathering of mesostasis glass in basaltic lithic fragments. These clasts are a significant component of Hanford formation sands. The relatively small but significant cation exchange capacity of these sediments was thus a consequence of reaction with physically sequestered clays in sediment that contained essentially no fine-grained material. The nature of this exchange component explained the relatively slow (scale of days) evolution of desorption solutions. The experimental and model results indicated that there is little risk of migration of 90Sr 2+ to the water table.

  13. Cation Exchange Reactions Controlling Desorption of 90Sr2+ From Coarse-Grained Contaminated Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, J. P.; Zachara, J. M.; Smith, S. C.; Liu, C.

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear waste that bore 90Sr2+ was accidentally leaked into the vadose zone at the Hanford site, and was immobilized at relatively shallow depths in sediments containing little apparent clay or silt-sized components. We desorbed Sr2+, 90Sr2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, and monitored total inorganic carbon concentration during the equilibration of this sediment with varying concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+. A cation exchange model previously developed for similar sediments was applied to these results as a predictor of final solution compositions. The model included binary exchange reactions for the four operant cations and an equilibrium dissolution/precipitation reaction for calcite. The model produced an excellent prediction for desorption data. We also examined the contaminated sediment using digital autoradiography, a sensitive tool for imaging the distribution of radioactivity. The exchanger phase containing 90Sr was found to consist of smectite formed from weathering of mesostasis glass in basaltic lithic fragments. These clasts are a significant component of Hanford formation sands. The relatively small but significant cation exchange capacity of these sediments was thus a consequence of reaction with physically sequestered clays in a sediment that contained essentially no fine-grained material. The nature of this exchange component explains the relatively slow (scale of days) evolution of desorption solutions. The experimental and model results indicate that there is little risk of migration of 90Sr2+ to the water table.

  14. Mineral transformation controls speciation and pore-fluid transmission of contaminants in waste-weathered Hanford sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Thompson, Aaron; O'Day, Peggy A.; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Portions of the Hanford Site (WA, USA) vadose zone were subjected to weathering by caustic solutions during documented releases of high level radioactive waste (containing Sr, Cs and I) from leaking underground storage tanks. Previous studies have shown that waste-sediment interactions can promote variable incorporation of contaminants into neo-formed mineral products (including feldspathoids and zeolites), but processes regulating the subsequent contaminant release from these phases into infiltrating background pore waters remain poorly known. In this paper, reactive transport experiments were conducted with Hanford sediments previously weathered for one year in simulated hyper-alkaline waste solutions containing high or low 88Sr, 127I, and 133Cs concentrations, with or without CO2(aq). These waste-weathered sediments were leached in flow-through column experiments with simulated background pore water (characteristic of meteoric recharge) to measure contaminant release from solids formed during waste-sediment interaction. Contaminant sorption-desorption kinetics and mineral transformation reactions were both monitored using continuous-flow and wet-dry cycling regimes for ca. 300 pore volumes. Less than 20% of contaminant 133Cs and 88Sr mass and less than 40% 127I mass were released over the course of the experiment. To elucidate molecular processes limiting contaminant release, reacted sediments were studied with micro- (TEM and XRD) and molecular- (Sr K-edge EXAFS) scale methods. Contaminant dynamics in column experiments were principally controlled by rapid dissolution of labile solids and competitive exchange reactions. In initially feldspathoidic systems, time-dependent changes in the local zeolitic bonding environment observed with X-ray diffraction and EXAFS are responsible for limiting contaminant release. Linear combination fits and shell-by-shell analysis of Sr K-edge EXAFS data revealed modification in Sr-Si/Al distances within the zeolite cage. Wet

  15. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Partition Coefficients Derived from Aqueous Desorption of Contaminated Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Sklarew, Debbie S.; Brown, Christopher F.; Gent, Philip M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2005-07-08

    Researchers at PNNL determined CCl4 and CHCl3 groundwater/sediment partition coefficients (Kd values) for contaminated aquifer sediments collected from borehole C3246 (299-W15-46) located in the 200 West Area adjacent to the Z-9 trench. Having realistic values for this parameter is critical to predict future movement of CCl4 in groundwater from the 200 West Area.

  16. Survey of Potential Hanford Site Contaminants in the Upper Sediment for the Reservoirs at McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Priddy, M; Yokel, Jerel W.; Delistraty, Damon A.; Stoops, Thomas M.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the results from a multi-agency cooperative environmental surveillance study. of the study looked at sediment from the pools upstream from dams on the Columbia River that are downstream from Hanford Site operations. The radiological and chemical conditions existing in the upper-level sediment found in the pools upstream from McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Lock and Dam, and Bonneville Dam were evaluated. This study also evaluated beach sediment where available. Water samples were collected at McNary Dam to further evaluate potential Hanford contaminants in the lower Columbia River. Samples were analyzed for radionuclides, chemicals, and physical parameters. Results from this study were compared to background values from sediment and water samples collect from the pool upstream of Priest Rapids Dam (upstream of the Hanford Site) by the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project.

  17. Plutonium contamination issues in Hanford soils and sediments: Discharges from the Z-Plant (PFP) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Conradson, Steven D.

    Beginning in 1945, weapons production activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation resulted in the discharge of large quantities of Pu and other transuranic elements to the subsurface. The vast majority of the transuranics was disposed in the Hanford central plateau (200 areas) predominately associated with activities at the Z-Plant (Plutonium Finishing Plant) complex. In the past Pu and Am migrated deep into the subsurface at certain locations, although Pu and other transuranics are not currently being detected in significant concentration in any associated groundwaters. Evaluation of the chemical form of the transuranics in the subsurface along with determining the mechanism(s) of the past subsurface migration is important in establishing strategies for long-term site management practices. Unfortunately, the chemical form of the transuranics in the deep subsurface sediments and the past mechanism of vertical migration remain largely unknown. However, initial studies performed as part of this research indicate that the chemical form of Pu can vary from disposal site to disposal site depending upon the waste type and the chemical form can also differ between surface sediments and deep subsurface sediments at the same site. This paper present a summary of the different waste types and locations where transuranics were disposed, the factors that could have lead to subsurface migration via different transport vectors, the information currently available on the chemical form of Pu in the subsurface, and a summary of current research needs.

  18. Spectroscopic and diffraction study of uranium speciation in contaminated vadose zone sediments from the Hanford site, Washington state.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Jeffrey G; Heald, Steven M; Zachara, John M; Brown, Gordon E

    2004-05-15

    Contamination of vadose zone sediments under tank BX-102 at the Hanford site, Washington, resulted from the accidental release of 7-8 metric tons of uranium dissolved in caustic aqueous sludge in 1951. We have applied synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopic and diffraction techniques to characterize the speciation of uranium in samples of these contaminated sediments. UIII-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that uranium occurs predominantly as a uranium(VI) silicate from the uranophane group of minerals. XAFS cannot distinguish between the members of this mineral group due to the near identical local coordination environments of uranium in these phases. However, these phases differ crystallographically, and can be distinguished using X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. As the concentration of uranium was too low for conventional XRD to detect these phases, X-ray microdiffraction (microXRD) was used to collect diffraction patterns on approximately 20 microm diameter areas of localized high uranium concentration found using microscanning X-ray fluorescence (microSXRF). Only sodium boltwoodite, Na(UO2)(SiO3OH) x 1.5H20, was observed; no other uranophane group minerals were present. Sodium boltwoodite formation has effectively sequestered uranium in these sediments under the current geochemical and hydrologic conditions. Attempts to remediate the uranium contamination will likely face significant difficulties because of the speciation and distribution of uranium in the sediments. PMID:15212255

  19. Geochemical Controls on Contaminant Uranium in Vadose Hanford Formation Sediments at the 200 Area and 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Wan, Jiamin; Mccready, David E.; Heald, Steve M.

    2007-11-01

    differences in uranium contributed by contaminated vadose sediments at two locations was investigated. At the BX tank farms, alkaline waste was accidentally released to a thick vadose zone. At the 300 Area, waste of variable acidity was released by unintended infiltration through the base of settling ponds. The waste form at the BX site was devoid of dissolved silica, and reacted with fluids trapped in microfractures to precipitate uranyl silicates. These secondary deposits were isolated physically from the vadose pore space and are not readily leached into pore fluids. At the 300 Area, the aluminum-rich waste precipitated on the surfaces of sediment clasts, forming a microporous reservoir of solid-phase uranium. Interaction of this coating with water in transit through the vadose zone provides a persistent source of dissolved uranium to groundwater.

  20. Changes in Uranium Speciation through a Depth Sequence of Contaminated Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Heald, Steve M.; Smith, Steven C.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2006-04-16

    The disposal of basic sodium-aluminate and acidic U(VI)-Cu(II) wastes into the now-dry North and South 300 A Process Ponds at the Hanford site resulted in U(VI) groundwater plume. To gain insight into the geochemical processes that occurred during waste disposal and that will affect the future fate and transport of this uranium plume, the solid-phase speciation of uranium in a depth sequence from the base of the North Process Pond through the vadose zone to the water table was investigated using electron microprobe measurements and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Uranium in sediments from the base of the pond was predominantly coprecipitated with calcite. From {approx}2 m below the pond base to the water table uranium occurred dominantly in a sorbed form, likely on the surface aluminosilicate clay minerals. The presence of a U(VI)-phosphate phase was also observed in this region, but it only occurred as a major uranium species at one depth. The initial sequestration of U(VI) in these sediments likely occurred through coprecipitation with calcite as conditions did not favor adsorption. As the calcite-bearing pond sediments have been removed as part of a remediation effort, future uranium fate and transport will likely be controlled primarily by adsorption/desorption phenomena.

  1. Plutonium Contamination Issues in Hanford Soils and Sediments: Discharges from the Z-Plant (PFP) Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2010-08-23

    Beginning in 1945, weapons production activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation resulted in the discharge of large quantities of Pu and other transuranic elements to the subsurface. The vast majority of the transuranics were disposed in the Hanford central plateau (200 areas) predominately associated with activities at the Z-Plant (Plutonium Finishing Plant) complex. In the past the Pu and Am migrated deep into the subsurface at certain locations, although the Pu and other transuranics are not currently being detected in significant concentration in any associated groundwaters. Evaluation of the chemical form of the transuranics in the subsurface along with determining the mechanism(s) of the past subsurface migration is important in establishing strategies for long-term site management practices. Unfortunately, the chemical form of the transuranics in the deep subsurface sediments and the past mechanism of vertical migration remain largely unknown. This paper present a summary of the different waste types and locations where transuranics were disposed, the factors that could have lead to subsurface migration via different transport vectors, the information currently available on the chemical form of Pu in the subsurface, and a summary of current research needs.

  2. Geomicrobiology of High-Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David; Li, Shu-mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to ∼104 CFU g−1, but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples, including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., >10 μCi of 137Cs/g). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples, but other phyla high in G+C content were also represented, including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second-most radioactive sample (>20 μCi of 137Cs g−1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20 kGy. Many of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that gram-positive bacteria, predominantly from phyla high in G+C content, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and that some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste. PMID:15240306

  3. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffery; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2010-02-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated "background" sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ( 233U) tests revealed that ˜51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched "hot spots" using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO 2) 2(SiO 3OH) 2(H 2O) 5

  4. Cryogenic Laser Induced U(VI) Fluorescence Studies of a U(VI) Substituted Natural Calcite: Implications to U(VI) Speciation in Contaminated Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.; McKinley, James P.; Smith, Steven C.

    2005-04-14

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and imaging spectromicroscopy (TRLFISM) were used to examine the chemical speciation of uranyl in contaminated subsurface sediments from the Hanford Site, Washington. Spectroscopic measurements for contaminant U(VI) were compared to those from a natural, uranyl-bearing calcite (NUC) that had been found via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to include uranyl in the same coordination environment as calcium (1). Spectral deconvolution of TRLFS measurements on the NUC revealed the unexpected presence of two distinct chemical environments consistent with published spectra of U(VI)-substituted synthetic calcite and aragonite. Apparently, some U(VI) substitution sites in calcite distorted to exhibit a local, more energetically favorable aragonite structure. TRLFS measurements of the Hanford sediments were similar to the NUC in terms of peak positions and intensity, despite a small CaCO3 content (<0.1 to 3.2 mass%). Spectral deconvolution of the sediment measurements also revealed the presence of U(VI) in calcite and aragonite structural environments. TRLFISM measurements at multiple locations in the different sediments displayed only minor variation indicating a uniform speciation pattern. Collectively, the measurements implied that waste U(VI), long-resident beneath the sampled disposal pond (32 y), had co-precipitated within newly formed carbonates. These results have major implications for the solubility and fate of the contaminated U(VI).

  5. Cation exchange reactions controlling desorption of Sr-90(2+) from coarse-grained contaminated sediments at the Hanford site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Smith, Steven C.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2007-01-15

    Nuclear waste that bore 90Sr2+ was accidentally leaked into the vadose zone at the Hanford site, and was immobilized at relatively shallow depths in sediments containing little apparent clay or silt-sized components. Sr2+, 90Sr2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ was desorbed and total inorganic carbon concentration was monitored during the equilibration of this sediment with varying concentrations of Na+, Ca2+. A cation exchange model previously developed for similar sediments was applied to these results as a predictor of final solution compositions. The model included binary exchange reactions for the four operant cations and an equilibrium dissolution/precipitation reaction for calcite. The model successfully predicted the desorption data. The contaminated sediment was also examined using digital autoradiography, a sensitive tool for imaging the distribution of radioactivity. The exchanger phase containing 90Sr was found to consist of smectite formed from weathering of mesostasis glass in basaltic lithic fragments. These clasts are a significant component of Hanford formation sands. The relatively small but significant cation exchange capacity of these sediments was thus a consequence of reaction with physically sequestered clays in sediment that contained essentially no fine-grained material. The nature of this exchange component explained the relatively slow (scale of days) evolution of desorption solutions. The experimental and model results indicated that there is little risk of migration of 90Sr2+ to the water table.

  6. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments 3 from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, 4 Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    SciTech Connect

    Um, W.; Francis, A.; Icenhower, J. P.; Brown, C. F.; Serne, R. J.; Wang, Z.; Dodge, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate-P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated 'background' sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ({sup 233}U) tests revealed that {approx}51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy ({mu}-XRF and {mu}-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched 'hot spots' using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 2

  7. Characterization of Uranium-Contaminated Sediments From Beneath A Nuclear Waste Storage Tank From Hanford, Washington: Implications for Contaminant Transport and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P; Brown, Christopher F; Serne, R Jeffrey; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J; FRANCIS, AROKIASAMY J

    2010-02-15

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington State, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated “background” sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange (233U) tests revealed that ~51 to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by micro-X-Ray Fluorescence and micro-X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched “hot spots” using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO2

  8. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  9. Contaminant Transport Through Subsurface Material from the DOE Hanford Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, M.N.; Mayes, M.A.; Jardine, P.M.; Fendorf, S.E.; Nehlhorn, T.L.; Yin, X.P.; Ladd, J.; Teerlink, J.; Zachara, J.M.

    2003-03-26

    Accelerated migration of contaminants in the vadose zone has been observed beneath tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation. This paper focuses on the geochemical processes controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the sediments beneath the Hanford tank farms. Laboratory scale batch sorption experiments and saturated transport experiments were conducted using reactive tracers U(VI), Sr, Cs, Co and Cr(VI) to investigate geochemical processes controlling the rates and mechanisms of sorption to Hanford subsurface material. Results indicate that the rate of sorption is influenced by changes in solution chemistry such as ionic strength, pH and presence of competing cations. Sediment characteristics such as mineralogy, iron content and cation/anion exchange capacity coupled with the dynamics of flow impact the number of sites available for sorption. Investigative approaches using a combination of batch and transport experiments will contribute to the conceptual and Hanford vadose zone.

  10. Uranium speciation as a function of depth in contaminated hanford sediments--a micro-XRF, micro-XRD, and micro- and bulk-XAFS study.

    PubMed

    Singer, David M; Zachara, John M; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution and speciation of U and Cu in contaminated vadose zone and aquifer sediments from the U.S. DOE Hanford site (300 Area) were determined using a combination of synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (microXRF) imaging, micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (microXANES) spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (microXRD) techniques combined with bulk U LIII-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from within the inactive North Process Pond (NPP2) at 8 ft (2.4 m, NPP2-8) depth and 12 ft (3.7 m, NPP2-12) depth in the vadose zone, and fines were isolated from turbid groundwater just below the water Table (12-14 ft, approximately 4 m, NPP2-GW). microXRF imaging, microXRD, and microXANES spectroscopy revealed two major U occurrences within the vadose and groundwater zones: (1) low to moderate concentrations of U(VI) associated with fine-textured grain coatings that were consistently found to contain clinochlore (referred to here as chlorite) observed in all three samples, and (2) U(VI)-Cu(II) hotspots consisting of micrometer-sized particles associated with surface coatings on grains of muscovite and chlorite observed in samples NPP2-8' and NPP2-GW. In the aquifer fines (NPP2-GW), these particles were identified as cuprosklodowskite (cps: Cu[(UO2)(SiO2OH)]2 x 6H2O) and metatorbernite (mtb: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 x 8H2O). In contrast, the U-Cu-containing particles in the vadose zone were X-ray amorphous. Analyses of U LIII-edge XAFS spectra by linear-combination fitting indicated that U speciation consisted of (1) approximately 75% uranyl sorbed to chlorite and approximately 25% mtb-like X-ray amorphous U-Cu-phosphates (8 ft depth), (2) nearly 100% sorbed uranyl (12 ft depth), and (3) approximately 70% uranyl sorbed to chlorite and approximately 30% cps/mtb (groundwater zone). These findings suggest that dissolution of U(VI)-Cu(II)-bearing solids as well as desorption of U(VI), mainly from phyllosilicates, are

  11. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  12. CONTAMINANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit River has experienced over a century of heavy contaminant discharges from industry and municipalities. The sources of contaminants vary, and include non-point sources, combined sewer overflows, point sources, tributaries, sediments, and upstream inputs. ---
    Demonst...

  13. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  14. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  15. HANDBOOK: REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments may pose risks to both human and environmental health. Such sediments may be found in

    large sites, such as the harbors of industrialized ports. However, they are also frequently found in smaller sites, such as streams, lakes, bayous, and rivers. In r...

  16. Uranium Speciation As a Function of Depth in Contaminated Hanford Sediments - A Micro-XRF, Micro-XRD, and Micro- And Bulk-XAFS Study

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, David M.; Zachara, John M.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2009-01-05

    Processing ponds at the Hanford, Washington Area 300 site were used for storing basic sodium aluminate and acidic U(VI)-Cu(II)-containing waste from 1943 to 1975. One result of this use is a groundwater plume containing elevated levels of U and Cu beneath the dry ponds and adjacent to the Columbia River. We have used synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) imaging, micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μXANES) spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) techniques combined with bulk U LIII-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to determine the distribution and speciation of U and Cu through the vadose and groundwater zones beneath North Processing Pond #2 (NPP2). Sediment samples were collected from the vadose zone (8’ and 12’ depths), and a sample from the groundwater zone was collected just below the water table (12’-14’ depth). μXRF imaging revealed two major U occurrences within the vadose and groundwater zones: (1) low to moderate concentrations of U(VI) associated with mineral surfaces (particularly chlorite), and (2) high concentration U(VI)-containing micron-sized particles associated with surface coatings on grains of muscovite and chlorite. These U(VI) hot spots are frequently spatially correlated with Cu(II) hot spots. In the groundwater zone, these particles were identified as the copper-uranyl-silicate cuprosklodowskite and the cupper-uranyl-phosphate metatorbernite. In contrast, the U-Cu-containing particles are X-ray amorphous in the vadose zone. Fits of U LIII-edge XAFS spectra by linear-combination fitting indicate that U speciation consists of ~ 75% uranyl sorbed to clays and ~25% metatorbernite-like X-ray amorphous U-Cu-phosphates (8’ depth); nearly 100% sorbed uranyl (12’ depth); and ~70% sorbed uranyl and ~30% cuprosklodowskite/metatorbernite (ground water zone). These findings suggest that the dissolution of U(VI)-Cu(II)-bearing solids as well as the desorption of U(VI), mainly from

  17. Beneficial Use Of Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The western portion of the Lake George Branch of the Indian Harbor Canal (IHC) is no longer used for commercial purposes, but contains petroleum contaminated sediments. The IHC is considered an important habitat for many animal species. Several future development projects have ...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are of interest to a broad group of programs in the agency. OERR and the Regions are interested in monitoring contaminated sediments to characterize/assess existing conditions, determine remediation alternatives, track spatial and temporal changes, and dete...

  19. Colloid Formation in Hanford Sediments Reacted with Simulated Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mashal, Kholoud; Harsh, James B.; Flury, Markus; Felmy, Andrew R.; Zhao, Hongting

    2004-11-01

    Solutions of high pH, ionic strength, and aluminum concentration have leaked into the subsurface from underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Reservation in Washington State. Here, we test the hypothesis that these waste solutions alter and dissolve the native minerals present in the sediments and that colloidal (diameter < 2 m) feldspathoids form. We reacted Hanford sediments with simulated solutions representative of Hanford waste tanks. The solutions consisted of 1.4 or 2.8 mol/kg NaOH, 0.125 or 0.25 mol/kg NaAlO4, and 3.7 mol/kg NaNO3 and were contacted with the sediments for a period of 25 or 40 days at 50 C. The colloidal size fraction was separated from the sediments and characterized in terms of mineralogy, morphology, chemical composition, and electrophoretic mobility. Upon reaction with tank waste solutions, native minerals released Si and other elements into the solution phase. This Si precipitated with the Al present in the waste solutions to form secondary minerals, identified as the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite. The solution phase was modeled with the chemical equilibrium model GMIN for solution speciation and saturation indices with respect to sodalite and cancrinite. The amount of colloidal material in the sediments increased upon reaction with waste solutions. At the natural pH found in Hanford sediments (pH 8) the newly formed minerals are negatively charged, similar to the unreacted colloidal material present in the sediments. The formation of colloidal material in Hanford sediments upon reaction with tank waste solutions is an important aspect to consider in the characterization of Hanford tank leaks and may affect the fate of hazardous radionuclides present in the tank waste.

  20. Colloid formation in Hanford sediments reacted with simulated tank waste.

    PubMed

    Mashal, Kholoud; Harsh, James B; Flury, Markus; Felmy, Andrew R; Zhao, Hongting

    2004-11-01

    Solutions of high pH, ionic strength, and aluminum concentration have leaked into the subsurface from underground waste storage tanks atthe Hanford Reservation in Washington State. Here, we test the hypothesis that these waste solutions alter and dissolve the native minerals present in the sediments and that colloidal (diameter < 2 microm) feldspathoids form. We reacted Hanford sediments with simulated solutions representative of Hanford waste tanks. The solutions consisted of 1.4 or 2.8 mol/kg NaOH, 0.125 or 0.25 mol/kg NaAlO4, and 3.7 mol/kg NaNO3 and were contacted with the sediments for a period of 25 or 40 days at 50 degrees C. The colloidal size fraction was separated from the sediments and characterized in terms of mineralogy, morphology, chemical composition, and electrophoretic mobility. Upon reaction with tank waste solutions, native minerals released Si and other elements into the solution phase. This Si precipitated with the Al present in the waste solutions to form secondary minerals, identified as the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite. The solution phase was modeled with the chemical equilibrium model GMIN for solution speciation and saturation indices with respect to sodalite and cancrinite. The amount of colloidal material in the sediments increased upon reaction with waste solutions. At the natural pH found in Hanford sediments (pH 8) the newly formed minerals are negatively charged, similar to the unreacted colloidal material present in the sediments. The formation of colloidal material in Hanford sediments upon reaction with tank waste solutions is an important aspect to consider in the characterization of Hanford tank leaks and may affect the fate of hazardous radionuclides present in the tank waste. PMID:15575296

  1. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond`s fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study.

  2. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Influence of sediment storage on downstream delivery of contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmon, D.V.; Reneau, S.L.; Dunne, T.; Katzman, D.; Drakos, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment storage in alluvial valleys can strongly modulate the downstream migration of sediment and associated contaminants through landscapes. Traditional methods for routing contaminated sediment through valleys focus on in-channel sediment transport but ignore the influence of sediment exchanges with temporary sediment storage reservoirs outside the channel, such as floodplains. In theory, probabilistic analysis of particle trajectories through valleys offers a useful strategy for quantifying the influence of sediment storage on the downstream movement of contaminated sediment. This paper describes a field application and test of this theory, using 137Cs as a sediment tracer over 45 years (1952-1997), downstream of a historical effluent outfall at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), New Mexico. The theory is parameterized using a sediment budget based on field data and an estimate of the 137Cs release history at the upstream boundary. The uncalibrated model reasonably replicates the approximate magnitude and spatial distribution of channel- and floodplain-stored 137Cs measured in an independent field study. Model runs quantify the role of sediment storage in the long-term migration of a pulse of contaminated sediment, quantify the downstream impact of upstream mitigation, and mathematically decompose the future 137Cs flux near the LANL property boundary to evaluate the relative contributions of various upstream contaminant sources. The fate of many sediment-bound contaminants is determined by the relative timescales of contaminant degradation and particle residence time in different types of sedimentary environments. The theory provides a viable approach for quantifying the long-term movement of contaminated sediment through valleys. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. PROGRESS REPORT. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project addresses the effect of clastic dikes on contaminant transport in the vadose zone. Clastic dikes are vertically oriented subsurface heterogeneities that are common at the Hanford Site, including the subsurface sediments below the tank farms in the 200 West A...

  5. The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Grain Coatings on Contaminant Reactivity in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chambers, Scott; Brown Jr., Gordon E.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2001-06-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely distributed through the Hanford vadose zone as a minor phase. As a result of current and past geochemical processes, CaCO3 exists as grain coatings, intergrain fill, and distinct caliche layers in select locations. Calcium carbonate may also precipitate when high-level wastes react with naturally Ca- and Mg-saturated Hanford sediments. Calcium carbonate is a very reactive mineral phase. Sorption reactions on its surface may slow the migration of certain contaminants (Co, Sr), but its surface coatings on other mineral phases may diminish contaminant retardation (for example, Cr) by blocking surface reaction sites of the substrate. This project explores the behavior of calcium carbonate grain coatings, including how they form and dissolve, their reactivity toward key Hanford contaminants, their impact (as surface coatings) on the reactivity of other mineral substrates, and on their in-ground composition and minor element enrichment. The importance of CaCO3 as a contaminant sorbent will be defined in all of its different manifestations in Hanford sediments: dispersed minor lithic fragments, pedogenic carbonate coatings on gravel and stringers in silt, and nodules in clay and paleosols. Mass action models will be developed that allow understanding and prediction of the geochemical effects of CaCO3 on contaminant retardation in Hanford sediments.

  6. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  7. Final Project Report: Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Chorover, University of Arizona; Peggy O'€™Day, University of California, Merced; Karl Mueller, Penn State University; Wooyong Um, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl Steefel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2012-10-01

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided detailed characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, PCO2, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions.

  8. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable. PMID:26414316

  9. Evaluating Contaminant Flux from the Vadose Zone to the Groundwater in the Hanford Central Plateau. SX Tank Farms Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Last, George V.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, contaminants were discharged to the subsurface through engineered waste sites in the Hanford Central Plateau. Additional waste was released through waste storage tank leaks. Much of the contaminant inventory is still present within the unsaturated vadose zone sediments. The nature and extent of future groundwater contaminant plumes and the growth or decline of current groundwater plumes beneath the Hanford Central Plateau are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to the groundwater. In general, contaminant transport is slow through the vadose zone and it is difficult to directly measure contaminant flux in the vadose zone. Predictive analysis, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, was applied using a structured, systems-based approach to estimate the future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions for the vadose zone and groundwater (Truex and Carroll 2013). The SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of the existing contaminant inventory in the vadose zone, observations of elevated moisture content in portions of the vadose zone, presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount and wide variety of data available for the site. Although the SX Tank Farm case study is most representative of conditions at tank farm sites, the study has elements that are also relevant to other types of disposal sites in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  10. ANNUAL REPORT. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE GRAIN COATINGS ON CONTAMINANT REACTIVITY IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project is to investigate the role of calcium carbonate grain coatings on adsorption and heterogeneous reduction reactions of key chemical and radioactive contaminants in sediments on the Hanford Site. Research will ascertain whether these coatings p...

  11. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  12. Uranium Mobility in Sediments From the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. F.; Serne, R. J.; Pierce, E. M.; Lindberg, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    The Hanford Site, located in South-Eastern Washington, was once home to cold war weapons grade plutonium production. Over the last ten years, the Site has shifted from production and operation to clean up and decontamination. One legacy still remaining at the Hanford Site is the 300 Area North Process Pond, which was used to treat industrial waste byproducts of the uranium fuel processing operation. More than ten thousand pounds of uranium have been recovered from the pond, yet contamination has still been found in the soils and groundwater beneath and around the Pond. The principle risk of this contamination is to groundwater in the 300 Area, where contaminant plumes are known to exceed applicable maximum contaminant levels. Previous studies report highly variable leach rates that appear to be a function of site-specific conditions and parameters. These parameters include: soil grain size and distribution, soil pH, EC, moisture content, organic matter, as well as mineralogical composition. A site-specific laboratory study was performed to determine uranium leach rates and adsorption-desorption partition coefficients for various sediments collected in and around the North Process Pond. Column tests involving saturated flow yielded sediment/sample specific U leach rates. Uranium concentrations in solution varied by as much as three orders of magnitude between sediment samples. Additional sediment characterization studies, including semi-selective extractions and x-ray absorption spectroscopy of size separates, are being conducted to determine if uranium solid-phase speciation can be measured/inferred and responsible for leach rate differences. These data and the site-specific leachates will be used to perform batch and column adsorption-desorption experiments, ultimately enabling us to predict partition coefficients/retardation factors for U under various future conditions and land use options.

  13. Distribution of microbial biomass and potential for anaerobic respiration in Hanford Site 300 Area subsurface sediment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David; Peacock, Aaron; McKinley, James; Resch, Charles T; Fredrickson, James; Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-01

    Subsurface sediments were recovered from a 52-m-deep borehole cored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to assess the potential for biogeochemical transformation of radionuclide contaminants. Microbial analyses were made on 17 sediment samples traversing multiple geological units: the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation (9 to 17.4 m), the oxic fine-grained upper Ringold formation (17.7 to 18.1 m), and the reduced Ringold formation (18.3 to 52 m). Microbial biomass (measured as phospholipid fatty acids) ranged from 7 to 974 pmols per g in discrete samples, with the highest numbers found in the Hanford formation. On average, strata below 17.4 m had 13-fold less biomass than those from shallower strata. The nosZ gene that encodes nitrous oxide reductase (measured by quantitative real-time PCR) had an abundance of 5 to 17 relative to that of total 16S rRNA genes below 18.3 m and <5 above 18.1 m. Most nosZ sequences were affiliated with Ochrobactrum anthropi (97 sequence similarity) or had a nearest neighbor of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (90 similarity). Passive multilevel sampling of groundwater geochemistry demonstrated a redox gradient in the 1.5-m region between the Hanford-Ringold formation contact and the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface. Within this zone, copies of the dsrA gene and Geobacteraceae had the highest relative abundance. The majority of dsrA genes detected near the interface were related to Desulfotomaculum spp. These analyses indicate that the region just below the contact between the Hanford and Ringold formations is a zone of active biogeochemical redox cycling. PMID:22138990

  14. Distribution of Microbial Biomass and Potential for Anaerobic Respiration in Hanford Site 300 Area Subsurface Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David; Peacock, Aaron; McKinley, James; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, James

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface sediments were recovered from a 52-m-deep borehole cored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to assess the potential for biogeochemical transformation of radionuclide contaminants. Microbial analyses were made on 17 sediment samples traversing multiple geological units: the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation (9 to 17.4 m), the oxic fine-grained upper Ringold formation (17.7 to 18.1 m), and the reduced Ringold formation (18.3 to 52 m). Microbial biomass (measured as phospholipid fatty acids) ranged from 7 to 974 pmols per g in discrete samples, with the highest numbers found in the Hanford formation. On average, strata below 17.4 m had 13-fold less biomass than those from shallower strata. The nosZ gene that encodes nitrous oxide reductase (measured by quantitative real-time PCR) had an abundance of 5 to 17 relative to that of total 16S rRNA genes below 18.3 m and <5 above 18.1 m. Most nosZ sequences were affiliated with Ochrobactrum anthropi (97 sequence similarity) or had a nearest neighbor of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (90 similarity). Passive multilevel sampling of groundwater geochemistry demonstrated a redox gradient in the 1.5-m region between the Hanford-Ringold formation contact and the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface. Within this zone, copies of the dsrA gene and Geobacteraceae had the highest relative abundance. The majority of dsrA genes detected near the interface were related to Desulfotomaculum spp. These analyses indicate that the region just below the contact between the Hanford and Ringold formations is a zone of active biogeochemical redox cycling. PMID:22138990

  15. Redistribution of intertidal sediment contaminants by microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Amani; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Nick; Sneddon, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) is a mixed community of microscopic algae inhabiting the top few millimetres of bottom sediment in the intertidal zone. It is a key component of the estuarine ecosystem, interacting with the sediment and fauna to influence sediment distribution and resuspension and forming the base of the estuarine food chain. Estuarine sediments, with which the MPB is closely associated, are a significant sink for contaminants from both fluvial and marine sources. Algae are known to have the capacity to take up contaminants, and the phytoplankton has been well studied in this respect, however there has been little research involving MPB. The extent to which contaminant uptake by MPB occurs and under what conditions is therefore very poorly understood. It seems probable that the paucity of research in this area is due to the complexity of the bioavailability of contaminants in the intertidal zone coupled with difficulties in separating MPB from the sediment. A series of experiments are proposed in which we will investigate (at a range of spatial scales) contaminant partitioning in the presence of MPB; the effect of changing temperatures on contaminant uptake and toxicity to MPB; effects of sediment resuspension on contaminant availability and uptake to MPB; and the uptake of contaminants from MPB to molluscs. A mesocosm (or experimental enclosure) is being constructed to replicate the natural system and enable manipulation of conditions of interest. This will attain greater realism than laboratory toxicity tests, with more statistical power than can be achieved through field studies. By gaining a better understanding of processes governing contaminant bioavailability and mechanisms for uptake by MPB it will be possible to relate these to projected climate change effects and ascertain potential consequences for contaminant redistribution.

  16. Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

  17. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km{sup 2}, the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km{sup 2} or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km{sup 2} are posted as surface contamination and 10 km{sup 2} are posted as underground contamination.

  18. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions. Volume 1, Batch leach and adsorption tests and sediment characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units.

  19. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion.

  20. Contaminated sediment dynamics in peatland headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Clay, Gareth; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, provide multiple ecosystem services, and when located in close proximity to urban and industrial areas, can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. The near-surface layer of the blanket peats of the Peak District National Park, UK, is severely contaminated with high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited lead (Pb). These peats are severely degraded, and there is increasing concern that erosion is releasing considerable quantities of this legacy pollution into surface waters. Despite substantial research into Pb dynamics in peatlands formal description of the possible mechanisms of contaminated sediment mobilisation is limited. However, there is evidence to suggest that a substantial proportion of contaminated surface sediment may be redistributed elsewhere in the catchment. This study uses the Pb contamination stored near the peat's surface as a fingerprint to trace contaminated sediment dynamics and storage in three severely degraded headwater catchments. Erosion is exposing high concentrations of Pb on interfluve surfaces, and substantial amounts of reworked contaminated material are stored on other catchment surfaces (gully walls and floors). We propose a variety of mechanisms as controls of Pb release and storage on the different surfaces, including: (i) wind action on interfluves; (ii) the aspect of gully walls, and (iii) gully depth. Vegetation also plays an important role in retaining contaminated sediment on all surfaces.

  1. Impact Of Groundwater Discharge On Contaminant Behavior In Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discharge of groundwater into surface water may influence the concentrations and availability of contaminants in sediments. There are three predominant pathways by which groundwater may affect the characteristics of contaminated sediments: 1) direct contribution of contamin...

  2. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  3. U(VI) adsorption on aquifer sediments at the Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F; Last, George V

    2007-08-15

    Aquifer sediments collected via split-spoon sampling in two new groundwater wells in the 200-UP-1 operable unit at the Hanford Site were characterized and showed typical Ringold Unit E Formation properties dominated by gravel and sand. High iron-oxide content in Fe oxide/clay coatings caused the highest U(VI) adsorption as quantified by batch K(d) values, indicating iron oxides are the key solid adsorbent in the 200-UP-1 sediments that affect U(VI) fate and mobility. Even though U(VI) adsorption on the gravel-sized fraction of the sediments is considered to be negligible, careful characterization should be conducted to determine U(VI) adsorption on gravel, because of presence of Fe oxides coatings and diffusion-controlled adsorption into the gravel particles' interior surfaces. A linear adsorption isotherm was observed up to 10(-6) M (238 microg/L) of total U(VI) concentration in batch U(VI) adsorption tests with varying total U(VI) concentrations in spiked groundwater. U(VI) adsorption decreased with increasing concentrations of dissolved carbonate, because strong anionic aqueous uranium-carbonate complexes formed at high pH and high alkalinity conditions. Noticeable uranium desorption hysteresis was observed in a flow-through column experiment, suggesting that desorption K(d) values for aged uranium-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site can be larger than adsorption K(d) values determined in short-term laboratory experiments and slow uranium release from contaminated sediments into the groundwater is expected. PMID:17499879

  4. U(VI) adsorption on aquifer sediments at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.

    2007-08-01

    Aquifer sediments collected via split-spoon sampling in two new groundwater wells in the 200-UP-1 operable unit at the Hanford Site were characterized and showed typical Ringold Unit E Formation properties dominated by gravel and sand. High iron-oxide content in Fe oxide/clay coatings caused the highest U(VI) adsorption as quantified by batch Kd values, indicating iron oxides are the key solid adsorbent in the 200-UP-1 sediments that affect U(VI) fate and mobility. Even though U(VI) adsorption on the gravel-sized fraction of the sediments is considered to be negligible, careful characterization should be conducted to determine U(VI) adsorption on gravel, because of presence of Fe oxides coatings and diffusion-controlled adsorption into the gravel particles' interior surfaces. A linear adsorption isotherm was observed up to 10 - 6 M (238 μg/L) of total U(VI) concentration in batch U(VI) adsorption tests with varying total U(VI) concentrations in spiked groundwater. U(VI) adsorption decreased with increasing concentrations of dissolved carbonate, because strong anionic aqueous uranium-carbonate complexes formed at high pH and high alkalinity conditions. Noticeable uranium desorption hysteresis was observed in a flow-through column experiment, suggesting that desorption Kd values for aged uranium-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site can be larger than adsorption Kd values determined in short-term laboratory experiments and slow uranium release from contaminated sediments into the groundwater is expected.

  5. Microscale geochemical gradients in Hanford 300 Area sediment biofilms and influence of uranium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Duc; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; Fredrickson, Jim K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    The presence and importance of microenvironments in the subsurface at contaminated sites were suggested by previous geochemical studies. However, no direct quantitative characterization of the geochemical microenvironments had been reported. We quantitatively characterized microscale geochemical gradients (dissolved oxygen (DO), H(2), pH, and redox potential) in Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms. Our results revealed significant differences in geochemical parameters across the sediment biofilm/water interface in the presence and absence of U(VI) under oxic and anoxic conditions. While the pH was relatively constant within the sediment biofilm, the redox potential and the DO and H(2) concentrations were heterogeneous at the microscale (<500-1000 μm). We found microenvironments with high DO levels (DO hotspots) when the sediment biofilm was exposed to U(VI). On the other hand, we found hotspots (high concentrations) of H(2) under anoxic conditions both in the presence and in the absence of U(VI). The presence of anoxic microenvironments inside the sediment biofilms suggests that U(VI) reduction proceeds under bulk oxic conditions. To test this, we operated our biofilm reactor under air-saturated conditions in the presence of U(VI) and characterized U speciation in the sediment biofilm. U L(III)-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) showed that 80-85% of the U was in the U(IV) valence state. PMID:22078229

  6. Microscale geochemical gradients in Hanford 300 Area sediment biofilms and influence of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    The presence and importance of microenvironments in the subsurface at contaminated sites were suggested by previous geochemical studies. However, no direct quantitative characterization of the geochemical microenvironments had been reported. We quantitatively characterized microscale geochemical gradients (dissolved oxygen (DO), H(2), pH, and redox potential) in Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms. Our results revealed significant differences in geochemical parameters across the sediment biofilm/water interface in the presence and absence of U(VI) under oxic and anoxic conditions. While the pH was relatively constant within the sediment biofilm, the redox potential and the DO and H(2) concentrations were heterogeneous at the microscale (<500-1000 μm). We found microenvironments with high DO levels (DO hotspots) when the sediment biofilm was exposed to U(VI). On the other hand, we found hotspots (high concentrations) of H(2) under anoxic conditions both in the presence and in the absence of U(VI). The presence of anoxic microenvironments inside the sediment biofilms suggests that U(VI) reduction proceeds under bulk oxic conditions. To test this, we operated our biofilm reactor under air-saturated conditions in the presence of U(VI) and characterized U speciation in the sediment biofilm. U L(III)-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) showed that 80-85% of the U was in the U(IV) valence state.

  7. Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Perdrial, Nico; Mueller, Karl; Strepka, Caleb; O’Day, Peggy; Rivera, Nelson; Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Steefel, Carl; Thompson, Aaron

    2012-11-05

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided thorough characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions. In this final report, we provide detailed descriptions of our results from this three-year study, completed in 2012 following a one-year no cost extension.

  8. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P. Evan; Qafoku, Nikolla; McKinley, James P.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S.; Phillips, J. L.

    2008-07-16

    The major objectives of the proposed study were to: 1.) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100 Area spill sites; 2.) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of i.) macroscopic leaching studies and ii.) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3.) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone. In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued were: (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and (2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 Area corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of macroscopic column experiments were conducted with contaminated and uncontaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns in aged and freshly contaminated sediments, evaluate the transport characteristics of dichromate liquid retrieved from old pipelines of the 100 Area; and estimate the effect of strongly reducing liquid on the reduction and transport of Cr(VI). Column experiments used the < 2 mm fraction of the sediment samples and simulated Hanford groundwater solution. Periodic stop-flow events were applied to evaluate the change in elemental concentration during time periods of no flow and greater fluid residence time. The results were fit using a two-site, one dimensional reactive transport model. Sediments were characterized for the spatial and mineralogical associations of the contamination using an array of microscale techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDS, XPS, XMP, and XANES. The following are important conclusions and implications. Results from column experiments indicated that most

  9. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are

  10. Contaminated aquatic sediments: Geochemical engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1995-12-31

    Risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments requires a holistic approach, i.e., the analytical and experimental parameters should always be related to the potential remediation options for a specific sediment problem. Particular emphasis should be posed on evaluation of redox-sensitive components. Regarding the potential release of metals from sediments changing of pH conditions are of prime importance. To incorporate new experience with non-linear and time-delayed processes, special emphasis should be put on the characteristics of the mineral and organic solid matrices, e.g., to capacity controlling properties, and in particular, the buffer capacity against pH-depression. There is a long retention time for sediments in larger catchment areas. Improvement at the source may need decades to become effective in the sediments at the tower reaches and harbors close to the river mouth. Remediation techniques on contaminated sediments generally are much more limited than for most other solid waste materials, except of mine wastes. The widely diverse contamination sources in larger catchment areas usually produces a mixture of pollutants, which is more difficult to treat than an industrial waste. Only a very small percentage of dredged sediments can undergo treatment in the closer sense -- solvent extraction, bioremediation, thermal desorption, vitrification, etc. Mechanical separation of less strongly contaminated fractions, however, may be an useful step prior to storage of the residues. For most sediments from maintenance dredging, there are more arguments in favor of disposal. Final storage conditions would imply that these materials should be deposited in a favorable geochemical environment. At the actual state of knowledge, this could only mean deposition under permanent anoxic conditions. Such conditions can be made artificially or be selected from natural environments.

  11. Quantifying Particulate and Colloidal Release of Radionuclides from Analog Hanford Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, N.; Thompson, A.; Chorover, J.

    2011-12-01

    Contaminated sediment analogs to High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) impacted Hanford sediments have been generated by reacting uncontaminated Hanford sediments with Sr, Cs and I-spiked synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL) for one year. Characterization of the impacted sediments revealed the formation of zeolites and feldspathoids sequestering Sr and Cs, and I to a lesser extent. To simulate the effect of the removal of the HLRW source, the mobility of the contaminant was monitored when analog sediments were subjected to flow-through infiltration of background pore water (BPW). The release of contaminants associated with truly dissolved (TD), colloidal and particulate fractions was monitored and the nature and composition of the mobilized material was investigated by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Columns packed with analog sediments reacted at LOW (10-5 m) and HIGH (10-3 m) contaminant concentrations were infiltrated by BPW (flow-rate 0.045 ml.min-1) for 24 h with either a 20 μm, a 0.45 μm or a 0.025 μm filter. TEM grids were inserted in-line after the 0.45 μm filters. The contributions of the three fractions to contaminant transfer at the end of the experiment are displayed in Table 1. Contaminants were mostly released in TD form. In the LOW neither the colloidal nor particulate fraction significantly contributed to contaminant release. In the HIGH, colloidal Sr, and particulate release of all contaminants were significant. Release curves revealed that each contribution varied during leaching. A correlation between particulate Ca and Sr was observed. The amount of materials deposited on the 0.45 filter was higher for the HIGH (1.0 g.kg-1 of soil) than for the LOW (0.2 g.kg-1 of soil). SEM/EDS observation showed that the majority of the particles released from HIGH were Sr/Cs-containing zeolites, with smaller amounts of feldspathoids of similar composition but smaller counts for Sr and no Cs detected. In the LOW, particles were mostly feldspathoids

  12. An Experimental Study of Diffusivity of Technetium-99 in Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-11-01

    One of the methods being considered at the Hanford site in Washington for safely disposing of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is to encase the waste in concrete and entomb the packages in the Hanford vadose zone sediments. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages with concrete. Any failure of the concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface sediments. It is therefore necessary to conduct an assessment of the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the surrounding soil’s ability to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, the radionuclides, 99Tc and 129I were identified as long-term dose contributors in LLW. The leachability and/or diffusion of these radionuclide species must be measured in order to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone porewater or groundwater. To measure the diffusivity, a set of experiments were conducted using 99Tc-spiked concrete (with 0 and 4% metallic iron additions) in contact with unsaturated soil half-cells that reflected the typical moisture contents of Hanford vadose zone sediments. The 99Tc diffusion profiles in the soil half cells were measured after a time lapse of ~1.9 yr. Using the concentration profiles, the 99Tc diffusivity coefficients were calculated based on Fick’s Second Law.

  13. Dewatering of contaminated river sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

  14. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  15. BIOREMEDIATION OF OIL-CONTAMINATED FINE SEDIMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil contamination has been shown to be effective for cobble and sandy shorelines. To assess the operational limitations of this technology, this project studied its potential to treat buried oil in fine sediments. The effectiveness of bioremediation by nutrient ...

  16. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M.; Harsh, James B.

    2012-10-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility at the Hanford site (Washington State), leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a reason of continued U supply to ground water. We investigated the release of U from Hanford capillary fringe sediments to pore water. Contaminated Hanford sediments were packed into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturated with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios (1:3, 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 25:1 mL:g). After specified times, samples were centrifuged to a gravimetric water content of 0.11 ± 0.06 g g-1. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U from the sediments into the pore water, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios (1:3 and 1:1 mL:g) showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemist workbench simulations, conducted using measured solution concentrations from experiments, indicated that calcite could precipitate in the 1:3 solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the 5:1, 10:1, and 25:1 solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. Up to 22% of total U was released on day 84 for the 25:1 solution-to-solid ratio reaction. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  17. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Peter; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Jürgen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-03-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. PMID:16905227

  18. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will test the hypothesis that clastic dikes at the Hanford Site provide preferential pathways that enhance the vertical movement of moisture and contaminants through the vadose zone. Studies indicate that contaminants have migrated to greater depths at the Hanford ...

  19. STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    CHRONISTER GB

    2011-01-14

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This paper describes processes and technologies being developed to use in the ongoing effort to remediate the contamination in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site.

  20. U(VI) Adsorption on Aquifer Sediments at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.

    2007-08-15

    Aquifer core samples collected in three new groundwater wells in the 200-UP-1 operable unit at the Hanford Site were characterized and showed typical Ringold Formation Unit E dominated by gravel and sand. High iron-oxide content in iron (Fe) oxide/clay coatings caused the highest U(VI) adsorption as quantified by Kd values, indicating these hydrous iron oxides are the key solid adsorbent in the 200-UP-1 sediments that affect U(VI) fate and mobility. In batch adsorption tests with varying total U(VI) concentrations in spiked groundwater, a linear isotherm up to 1 ppm of total U(VI) concentration was observed. However, U(VI) adsorption decreased with increasing concentrations of dissolved carbonate, because strong anionic aqueous uranium-carbonate complexes formed at elevated pH and high carbonate conditions. A small amount of uranium desorption hysteresis was observed in a flow-through column experiment, suggesting that desorption Kd values for aged uranium-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site can be larger than Kd values determined in short-term laboratory experiments and slow uranium release into the groundwater is expected.

  1. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

  2. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  3. TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

  4. Effect of Saline Waste Solution Infiltration Rates on UraniumRetention and Spatial Distribution in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Kim, Yongman; Wang, Zheming; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Saiz, Eduardo; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-03-15

    The accidental overfilling of waste liquid from tank BX-102 at the Hanford Site in 1951 put about 10 metric tons of U(VI) into the vadose zone. In order to understand the dominant geochemical reactions and transport processes occurred during the initial infiltration and help understand current spatial distribution, we simulated the waste liquid spilling event in laboratory sediment columns using synthesized metal waste solution. We found that, as the plume propagating through sediments, pH decreased greatly (as much as 4 units) at the moving plume front. Infiltration flow rates strongly affect U behavior. Slower flow rates resulted in higher sediment-associated U concentrations, and higher flow rates ({ge} 5 cm/day) permitted practically unretarded U transport. Therefore, given the very high K{sub sat} of most of Hanford formation, the low permeability zones within the sediment could have been most important in retaining high concentrations of U during initial release into the vadose zone. Massive amount of colloids, including U-colloids, formed at the plume fronts. Total U concentrations (aqueous and colloid) within plume fronts exceeded the source concentration by up to 5-fold. Uranium colloid formation and accumulation at the neutralized plume front could be one mechanism responsible for highly heterogeneous U distribution observed in the contaminated Hanford vadose zone.

  5. A Physiochemical Analysis of the Mechanisms for Transport and Retention of Technetium (Tc-99) in Hanford Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansik, D. P.; Wellman, D. M.; Istok, J. D.; Cordova, E.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of technetium (Tc-99), like many other radionuclides, is of interest due to the potential for human exposure and impact on ecosystems. Technetium has been released to the environment through nuclear power production and nuclear fuel processing; as a result, further spreading of Tc-99 is a concern at DOE sites across the US. Specifically, technetium is a contaminant of concern at Hanford and Savannah River. The current body of work conducted on Tc-99 has provided a wealth of information regarding the redox relationships, sorption, solubility, and stability of the mineral phases (Artinger et al., 2003; Beals and Hayes, 1995; Cui and Eriksen, 1996b; Gu and Schulz, 1991; Jaisi et al., 2009; Keith-Roach et al., 2003; Kumar et al., 2007), however little work has been conducted on the physical transport of the highly soluble pertechnetate oxyanion (TcO4-), in the subsurface. Current conceptual models do not explain the persistence and presence of technetium in deep vadose zone environments such as the Hanford site. In an oxic reducing environment with low organic content the residence time of technetium is the soil would be expected to be low, due to its low sorption and high solubility. Surprisingly, nearly 50 years following the release of contamination into the site, much of the element has persisted in the subsurface in the 200 Area. In these experiments we combined a variety of techniques to examine the mechanisms for physical and chemical retention and transport of technetium in Hanford sediments. We first determined the aqueous leachability with regard to sediment pore size in sediments containing technetium contamination from the 200 area of the Hanford Site. Using a series of sequential extractions, we then evaluated the mineral association of technetium. In a second series of tests we then used an Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) to evaluate breakthrough curve behavior and the impact of immobile domains on the transport and retention of technetium

  6. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Dresel, P. Evan; McKinley, James P.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Um, Wooyong; Resch, Charles T.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2011-01-04

    At the Hanford Site, chromate was used throughout the 100 Areas (100-B, 100-C, 100-D/DR, 100-F, 100-H, and 100 K) as a corrosion inhibitor in reactor cooling water. Chromate was delivered in rail cars, tanker trucks, barrels, and local pipelines as dichromate granular solid or stock solution. In many occasions, chromate was inevitably discharged to surface or near-surface ground through spills during handling, pipeline leaks, or during disposal to cribs. The composition of the liquids that were discharged is not known and it is quite possible that Cr(VI) fate and transport in the contaminated sediments would be a function of the chemical composition of the waste fluids. The major objectives of this investigation which was limited in scope by the financial resources available, were to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100-D Area spill sites; 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of macroscopic leaching studies, and microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone that can be used for developing options for environmental remediation. The information gathered from this research effort will help to further improve our understanding of Cr(VI) behavior in the vadose zone and will also help in accelerating the 100 Area Columbia River Corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of column experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns. Column experiments used the field size fraction of the sediment samples and a simulated Hanford Site groundwater solution. Periodic stop flow events were applied to

  7. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

  8. Diffusive Release of Uranium from Contaminated Sediments into Capillary Fringe Pore Water

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M.; Harsh, James B.

    2012-09-13

    We investigated the dynamics of U release between pore water fractions, during river stage changes from two contaminated capillary fringe sediments. Samples were from 7.0 m and 7.6 m below ground surface (bgs) in the Hanford 300 area. Sediments were packed into columns and saturated with Hanford groundwater for three to 84 days. After specified times, > 48 µm radius (calculated) sediment pores were drained, followed by draining pores to 15 µm radius. U release in the first two weeks was similar between sediments and pore sizes with a range of 4.4 to 5.6 µM U in the 14 day sample. The 7.0 m bgs sediment U declined in the larger pores to 0.22 µM at day 84, whereas the small pores released U to 6.7 µM at day 84. The 7.6 m bgs sediment released 1.4 µM on day 84, in the large pores, but continuously released U from the smaller pores (13.2 uM on day 84). The continuous release of U has resulted in a diffusion gradient from the smaller to larger pores. The observed differences in U pore-water concentrations between the two sediment samples were attributed to co-precipitation of U with carbonates. A mineral phase in the sediments was also identified as an U-carbonate species, similar to rutherfordine [UO2(CO3)].

  9. Desorption kinetics of radiocesium from subsurface sediments at Hanford Site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Smith, Steve C.; McKinley, James P.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-08-01

    The desorption of 137Cs + was investigated on sediments from the United States Hanford site. Pristine sediments and ones that were contaminated by the accidental release of alkaline 137Cs +-containing high level nuclear wastes (HLW, 2 × 10 6 to 6 × 10 7 pCi 137Cs +/g) were studied. The desorption of 137Cs + was measured in Na +, K +, Rb +, and NH 4+electrolytes of variable concentration and pH, and in presence of a strong Cs +-specific sorbent (self-assembled monolayer on a mesoporous support, SAMMS). 137Cs + desorption from the HLW-contaminated Hanford sediments exhibited two distinct phases: an initial instantaneous release followed by a slow kinetic process. The extent of 137Cs + desorption increased with increasing electrolyte concentration and followed a trend of Rb + ≥ K + > Na + at circumneutral pH. This trend followed the respective selectivities of these cations for the sediment. The extent and rate of 137Cs + desorption was influenced by surface armoring, intraparticle diffusion, and the collapse of edge-interlayer sites in solutions containing K +, Rb +, or NH 4+. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed HLW-induced precipitation of secondary aluminosilicates on the edges and basal planes of micaceous minerals that were primary Cs + sorbents. The removal of these precipitates by acidified ammonium oxalate extraction significantly increased the long-term desorption rate and extent. X-ray microprobe analyses of Cs +-sorbed micas showed that the 137Cs + distributed not only on mica edges, but also within internal channels parallel to the basal plane, implying intraparticle diffusive migration of 137Cs +. Controlled desorption experiments using Cs +-spiked pristine sediment indicated that the 137Cs + diffusion rate was fast in Na +-electrolyte, but much slower in the presence of K + or Rb +, suggesting an effect of edge-interlayer collapse. An intraparticle diffusion model coupled with a two-site cation exchange model was used to interpret the

  10. Sediment contaminant surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    PubMed

    Little, D I; Bullimore, B; Galperin, Y; Langston, W J

    2016-01-01

    Sediment contaminants were monitored in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) since 1978 (hydrocarbons) and 1982 (metals), with the aim of providing surveillance of environmental quality in one of the UK's busiest oil and gas ports. This aim is particularly important during and after large-scale investment in liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. However, the methods inevitably have changed over the years, compounding the difficulties of coordinating sampling and analytical programmes. After a review by the MHW Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG), sediment hydrocarbon chemistry was investigated in detail in 2010. Natural Resources Wales (NRW) contributed their MHW data for 2007 and 2012, collected to assess the condition of the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) designated under the European Union Habitats Directive. Datasets during 2007-2012 have thus been more comparable. The results showed conclusively that a MHW-wide peak in concentrations of sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and other contaminants occurred in late 2007. This was corroborated by independent annual monitoring at one centrally located station with peaks in early 2008 and 2011. The spatial and temporal patterns of recovery from the 2007 peak, shown by MHW-wide surveys in 2010 and 2012, indicate several probable causes of contaminant trends, as follows: atmospheric deposition, catchment runoff, sediment resuspension from dredging, and construction of two LNG terminals and a power station. Adverse biological effects predictable in 2007 using international sediment quality guidelines were independently tested by data from monitoring schemes of more than a decade duration in MHW (starfish, limpets) and in the wider SAC (grey seals). Although not proving cause and effect, many of these potential biological receptors showed a simultaneous negative response to the elevated 2007 contamination following intense dredging activity in 2006. Wetland bird counts were typically at a peak in

  11. Feasibility of supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction as a remediation technology for Hanford contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, T.E.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1994-12-31

    A technology used by the petroleum industry for separation and purification and the coffee industry for caffeine removal is being used by a Hanford scientist with the prospect of remediating organic contaminated Hanford soil. The process is known as Supercritical Fluid Extraction or SFE. Dr. Timothy Moody of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and the Phasex Corporation of Lawrence, Mass., have conducted successful bench-scale experiments at the 50g, 500g, and 5kg levels showing that SFE can remove various chemicals from large volumes of contaminated soil. The results indicate that organic contaminant removal from soil is much more efficient than the current industrial uses of SFE.

  12. Isotopic Studies of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site,WA

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J.N.; Conrad, M.E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    2006-11-01

    Processes of fluid flow and chemical transport through thevadose zone can be characterized through the isotopic systematics ofnatural soils, minerals, pore fluids and groundwater. In thiscontribution, we first review our research using measured isotopicvariations, due both to natural and site related processes, of theelements H, O, N, Sr and U, to study the interconnection between vadosezone and groundwater contamination at the Hanford Site in south-centralWashington. We follow this brief review with a presentation of new datapertaining to vadose zone and groundwater contamination in the WMAT-TX-TY vicinity. Uranium (U) isotopic data for the C3832 core (WMA TX)indicates the involvement of processed natural U fuel, and links theobserved U contamination to the nearby single shelled tank TX-104. Thedata also precludes contamination from an early 1970 s TX-107 leak. Inthe case of the C4104 core (WMA T), the U isotopic data indicates amixture of processed natural and enriched U fuels consistent with themajor leak from T-106 in 1973. Uranium and Strontium isotopic data forthe cores also provides direct evidence for chemical interaction betweenhigh-pH waste fluid and sediment. Isotopic data for groundwater nitratecontamination in the vicinity of WMA-T strongly suggests high-level tankwaste (most likely from T-106) as the source of very high 99Tcconcentrations recently observed at the NE corner of WMAT.

  13. SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments contain contaminants derived from past activities that seriously degraded the environment.

    During low water, sediments are subject to natural erosion or removal for navigation.

    Erosion or dredging of sediment will release contaminants into the environment ...

  14. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M; Harsh, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility, leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford site 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a source for U supply to ground water. We investigated U release from Hanford capillary fringe sediments by packing sediments into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturated with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios. After specified times, samples were centrifuged. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemical modeling indicated that calcite could precipitate in the narrowest solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the wide solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  15. Field Evidence for Strong Chemical Separation of Contaminants in the Hanford Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark E.; Depaolo, D. J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2007-11-01

    Water and chemical transport from a point source within vadose zone sediments at the Hanford Site in Washington State were examined with a leak test consisting of five 3800-L aliquots of water released at 4.5-m depth every week over a 4-wk period. The third aliquot contained bromide, D2O, and 87Sr. Movement of the tracers was monitored for 9 mo by measuring pore water compositions of samples from boreholes drilled 2 to 8 m from the injection point. Graded sedimentary layers acting as natural capillary barriers caused significant lateral spreading of the leak water. Shortly after injections were completed, D2O was found at the 9- to 11-m depth at levels in excess of 50% of the tracer aliquot concentration, while sediment layers with elevated water content at the 6- to 7-m depth had less than 3% of the D2O tracer concentration, suggesting deep penetration of the D2O tracer and limited mixing between different aliquots of leak fluids. Initially, high bromide concentrations decreased more rapidly over time than D2O, suggesting enhanced transport of bromide due to anion exclusion. No significant increase in 87Sr was detected in the sampled pore water, indicating strong retardation of Sr by the sediments. These results highlight some of the processes strongly affecting chemical transport in the vadose zone and demonstrate the significant separation of contaminant plumes that can occur.

  16. A Long-Term Strategic Plan for Hanford Sediment Physical Property and Vadose Zone Hydraulic Parameter Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-09-30

    Physical property data and unsaturated hydraulic parameters are critical input for analytic and numerical models used to predict transport and fate of contaminants in variably saturated porous media and to assess and execute remediation alternatives. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. Efforts have been initiated to transfer sediment physical property data and vadose zone hydraulic parameters to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS-Geo, a new instance of the Hanford Environmental Information System database that is being developed for borehole geologic data. This report describes these efforts and a strategic plan for continued updating and improvement of these datasets.

  17. DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION DUE TO RELEASES FROM HANFORD SITE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI MN

    2008-01-22

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (the Hanford Tank Farm Operations contractor) and the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection have just completed the first phase of the Hanford Single-Shell Tank RCRA Corrective Action Program. The focus of this first phase was to characterize the nature and extent of past Hanford single-shell tank releases and to characterize the resulting fate and transport of the released contaminants. Most of these plumes are below 20 meters, with some reaching groundwater (at 60 to 120 meters below ground surface [bgs]).

  18. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  19. Radioiodine sorption/desorption and speciation transformation by subsurface sediments from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Chen; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Zhang, Saijin; Athon, Matthew; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris; Schwehr, Kathy; Grandbois, Russell; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, considerable research efforts have been extended to identify more effective remediation treatment technologies to lower the 129I concentrations to below federal drinking water standards at the Hanford Site (Richland, USA). Few studies have taken iodate into consideration, though recently iodate, instead of iodide, was identified as the major species in the groundwater of 200-West Area within the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was thus to quantify and understand aqueous radioiodine species transformations and uptake by three sediments collected from the semiarid, carbonate-rich environment of the Hanford subsurface. All three sediments reduced iodate (IO-) to iodide (I-), but the loamy-sand sediment reduced more IO3- (100% reduced within 7 days) than the two sand-textured sediments (~20% reduced after 28 days). No dissolved organo-iodine species were observed in any of these studies.

  20. Distribution of microbial biomass and the potential for anaerobic respiration in Hanford Site 300 Area subsurface sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Peacock, Aaron D.; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-01

    Subsurface sediments were recovered from a 52 m deep borehole cored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to assess the potential for biogeochemical transformation of radionuclide contaminants. Microbial analyses were made on 17 sediment samples traversing multiple geological units: the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation (9-17.4 m), the oxic fine-grained upper Ringold Formation (17.7-18.1 m), and the reduced Ringold Formation (18.3-52m). Microbial biomass (measured as phospholipid) ranged from 7-974 pmols per g in discrete samples, with the highest numbers found in the Hanford formation. On average, strata below 17.4 m had 13-fold less biomass than those from shallower strata. The nosZ gene encoding nitrous oxide reductase had an abundance of 5-17% relative to total 16S rRNA genes below 18.3 m and <5% above 18.1 m. Most nosZ sequences were affiliated with Ochrobactrum anthropi (97% sequence similarity) or had a nearest neighbor of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (90% similarity). Passive multilevel sampling of groundwater geochemistry demonstrated a redox gradient in the 1.5 m region between the Hanford-Ringold formation contact and the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface. Within this zone, copies of the dsrA gene and Geobacteraceae had the highest relative abundance. The majority of dsrA genes detected near the interface were related to Desulfotomaculum sp.. These analyses indicate that the region just below the contact between the Hanford and Ringold formations is a zone of active biogeochemical redox cycling.

  1. Vertical Extent of 100 Area Vadose Zone Contamination of Metals at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleel, R.; Mehta, S.

    2012-12-01

    The 100 Area is part of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington and borders the Columbia River. The primary sources of contamination in the area are associated with the operation of nine former production reactors, the last one shutting down in 1988. The area is undergoing a CERCLA remedial investigation (RI) that will provide data to support final cleanup decisions. During reactor operations, cooling water contaminated with radioactive and hazardous chemicals was discharged to both the adjacent Columbia River and infiltration cribs and trenches. Contaminated solid wastes were disposed of in burial grounds; the estimated Lead-Cadmium used as "reactor poison" and disposed of in 100 Area burial grounds is 1103 metric tons, of which up to 1059 metric tons are Lead and 44 metric tons are Cadmium. We summarize vadose zone site characterization data for the recently drilled boreholes, including the vertical distribution of concentration profiles for metals (i.e., Lead, Arsenic and Mercury) under the near neutral pH and oxygenated conditions. The deep borehole measurements targeted in the RI work plan were identified with a bias towards locating contaminants throughout the vadose zone and targeted areas at or near the waste sites; i.e., the drilling as well as the sampling was biased towards capturing contamination within the "hot spots." Unlike non-reactive contaminants such as tritium, Arsenic, Mercury and Lead are known to have a higher distribution coefficient (Kd), expected to be relatively immobile, and have a long residence time within the vadose zone. However, a number of sediment samples located close to the water table exceed the background concentrations for Lead and Arsenic. Three conceptual models are postulated to explain the deeper than expected penetration for the metals.

  2. Inhibited Release of Mobile Contaminants from Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-03

    Investigations of contaminant release from Hanford Site tank residual waste have indicated that in some cases certain contaminants of interest (Tc and Cr) exhibit inhibited release. The percentage of Tc that dissolved from residual waste from tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, and 241-C-203 ranged from approximately 6% to 10%. The percent leachable Cr from residual waste from tanks C-103, C 202, and C-203 ranged from approximately 1.1% to 44%. Solid phase characterization results indicate that the recalcitrant forms of these contaminants are associated with iron oxides. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of Tc and Cr in residual waste indicates that these contaminants occur in Fe oxide particles as their lower, less soluble oxidation states [Tc(IV) and Cr(III)]. The form of these contaminants is likely as oxides or hydroxides incorporated within the structure of the Fe oxide. Leaching behavior of U from tank residual waste was studied using deionized water, and CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 saturated solutions as leachants. The release behavior of U from tank residual waste is complex. Initial U concentrations in water and CaCO3 leachants are high due to residual amounts of the highly soluble U mineral cejkaite. As leaching and dilution occur NaUO2PO4 {center_dot} xH2O, Na2U2O7(am) and schoepite (or a similar phase) become the solubility controlling phases for U. In the case of the Ca(OH)2 leachant, U release from tank residual waste is dramatically reduced. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the solubility of CaUO4(c) controls release of U from residual waste in the Ca(OH)2 leachants. It is assumed the solubility controlling phase is actually a hydrated version of CaUO4 with a variable water content ranging from CaUO4 to CaUO4 {center_dot} (H2O). The critically reviewed value for CaUO4(c) (log KSP0 = 15.94) produced good agreement with our experimental data for the Ca(OH)2 leachates.

  3. Investigation of Isotopic Signatures for Sources of Groundwater Contamination at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.; Farmer, Orville T.

    2002-01-25

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated selected isotopic signature techniques to aid interpretation of contaminant plumes in Hanford Site groundwater. The main approach was to select groundwater samples expected to exhibit a variety of contaminant characteristics and then develop inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical methods for the groundwater matrix. Initial broad scans were used to identify interferences and to focus the method development on isotopes showing the greatest promise of practical application. In addition, earlier work characterizing chlorine-36 in Hanford Site groundwater by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) will be discussed.

  4. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  5. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Natural selection in highly radioactive waste sites may yield bacteria with favorable bioremediating characteristics. However, until recently the microbial ecology of such environments has remained unexplored because of the high costs and technical complexities associated with extracting and characterizing samples from such sites. We have examined the bacterial ecology within radioactive sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume in the vadose zone on the DOE?s Hanford Site in south-central Washington state (Fredrickson et al, 2004). Manganese-dependent, radiation resistant bacteria have been isolated from this contaminated site including the highly Mn-dependent Deinococcus and Arthrobacter spp.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT INVENTORY FOR NEW ENGLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated aquatic sediments are integrators of historical and recently deposited contaminants, are useful indicators of environmental degradation, and have direct and indirect effects to biota and human health. In 1997, EPA released the first ever comprehensive Report to Cong...

  7. Influence of intraparticle diffusion on the desorption of radiocesium from the subsurface sediments at Hanford site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Zachara, J.; Smith, S.; McKinley, J.

    2002-12-01

    The desorption of 137Cs was investigated on sediments from the United States Hanford site. Pristine sediments and ones that were contaminated by the accidental release of alkaline 137Cs-containing high level nuclear wastes (HLW) were studied. The desorption of 137Cs was measured in Na+, K+, Rb+, and NH4+ electrolytes of variable concentration and pH, and in presence of a strong Cs-specific sorbent (self-assembled monolayer on a mesoporous support, SAMMS). 137Cs desorption from the HLW-contaminated Hanford sediments exhibited two distinct phases: an initial instantaneous release followed by a slow kinetic process. The first phase was driven by the equilibrium ion exchange of Cs located on the mica edges and its release extent followed the respective selectivities of the sediment for exchanging cations. The kinetic process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. X-ray microprobe analyses of Cs-sorbed micas showed that the 137Cs distributed not only on mica edges, but also within internal channels parallel to the basal plane. The diffusion rate was influenced by surface armoring and edge-channel collapse in solutions containing K+, Rb+, or NH4+. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed HLW-induced precipitation of secondary alumino-silicates on the edges of micaceous minerals. The removal of these precipitates by acidified ammonium oxalate extraction significantly increased the desorption rate and extent. Controlled desorption experiments using Cs-spiked pristine sediment indicated that the 137Cs diffusion rate was fast in Na-electrolyte, but much slower in the presence of K or Rb, suggesting an effect of edge-channel collapse. Model simulation using an intraparticle diffusion coupled with a cation exchange suggested that about 40 percent of total sorbed 137Cs in the contaminated Hanford sediment was exchangeable, including equilibrium and diffusive desorbable pools. This ratio increased to 60-80 percent after the removal of secondary precipitates. The

  8. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  10. Kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from contaminated sediments: effect of geochemical conditions and model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M

    2009-09-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl [U(VI)] desorption from a contaminated sedimentcollected from the Hanford 300 Area at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(Vl) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the solutions and sediment The solution chemical composition that led to a larger disequilibrium between adsorbed U(VI) and equilibrium adsorption state yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multirate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sedimentthat contained complex adsorbed U(VI) in mass transfer limited domains (Lui et al. Water Resour. Res. 2008, 44, W08413). The model was modified and supplemented by including multirate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment With the same setof model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multirate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments. PMID:19764217

  11. Pepsin-Digestibility of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A.; Henon, D. N.; Dale, J. L. L.

    2001-11-01

    A standard method for the in vitro digestion of animal protein feeds (2% pepsin in 0·075 N HCl) has been applied to contaminated sediments in order to evaluate a ' bioavailable ' or ' gut-soluble ' fraction of carbon, nitrogen and mineral and trace metals. For most sediment samples, considerably more nitrogen was digested than carbon because of enzymatic digestion of proteinaceous material, and the sequence of metal ' gut-solubility ' was: Cu, Zn>Mn>Fe≫Al. The principal mechanism of metal release appears to be hydrochloric acid digestion of inorganic hydrogenous host phases (e.g. amorphous Fe and Mn oxides), although release of Cu via surface complexation with pepsin molecules may also be significant, and the amount of metal digested enzymatically is restricted to a small and unquantifiable fraction associated with proteinaceous material. Dilute HCl alone does not, however, afford a suitable surrogate for assessing a gut-soluble fraction of metal because enzymatic and acid digestions exhibit synergistic effects, including possible re-adsorption of pepsin-metal complexes under acidic conditions, and exposure and acid attack of otherwise inaccessible hydrogenous material following enzymatic digestion of organic matter.

  12. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  13. Colloid-facilitated transport of cesium in variably saturated Hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Lichtner, Peter C

    2005-05-15

    Radioactive 137Cs has leaked from underground waste tanks into the vadose zone at the Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. There is concern that 137Cs, currently located in the vadose zone, can reach the groundwater. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, colloidal particles can facilitate the transport of 137Cs at Hanford. We used colloidal materials isolated from Hanford sediments. Transport experiments were conducted under variably saturated, steady-state flow conditions in repacked, 20 cm long Hanford sediment columns, with effective water saturations ranging from 0.2 to 1.0. Cesium, pre-associated with colloids, was stripped off during transport through the sediments. The higher the flow rates, the less Cs was stripped off, indicating in part that Cs desorption from carrying colloids was a residence-time-dependent process. Depending on the flow rate, up to 70% of the initially sorbed Cs desorbed from colloidal carriers and was captured in the stationary sediments. Less Cs was stripped off colloids under unsaturated than under saturated flow conditions at similar flow rates. This phenomenon was likely due to the reduced availability of sorption sites for Cs on the sediments as the water content decreased and water flow was divided between mobile and immobile regions. PMID:15952347

  14. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  15. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S H; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources. PMID:25464304

  16. Experimental and Modeling Study of Retarded Diffusive Transport of Uranium(VI) in a Hanford Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Ball, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium(VI) is a common contaminant at sites of nuclear material processing and uranium mining. U(VI) fate and transport is of great concern at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to the high probability of discharging into the nearby Columbia River. While large-scale U migration in the subsurface is generally determined by advection along permeable pathways, local scale transport in less permeable regions, such as rock matrices or fine-grained (e.g. clayey) soils is controlled by diffusion. In this work, a single reservoir diffusion cell (in-diffusion method) was designed to study U(VI) diffusion in the fully saturated silt/clay fraction of a composite Hanford sediment material, under strictly controlled chemical conditions (pH 8.0, I = 0.02M, PCO2=10-3.5atm, saturated with calcite). Time-variant concentrations of tritiated water tracer (3H2O) and U(VI) in the reservoir were monitored during the diffusion phase and used as a measure of diffusion flux into the porous medium of the cell. U(VI) profiles in the pore water and in the solid phase along the cell length were also obtained at the end of the diffusion phase, by using high speed centrifugation and a specially designed extraction procedure. The 3H2O data were used to determine the tortuosity factor of the cell sediment. A retarded diffusive transport model for U(VI) was developed and numerically solved assuming local equilibrium and using a Freundlich sorption isotherm that was independently obtained from batch sorption experiments. The effective diffusion coefficient of U(VI) was determined by fitting the modeling results to experimental data (Optimization Toolbox, Matlab). The U(VI) diffusion showed less sorption retardation than expected based on batch results, indicating either reduced retardation capacity of the sediment, or invalidity of the local equilibrium assumption due to kinetic processes such as intra-particle diffusion at the grain scale. An improved model using first

  17. Transport mechanisms of contaminants released from fine sediment in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pengda; Zhu, Hongwei; Zhong, Baochang; Wang, Daozeng

    2015-12-01

    Contaminants released from sediment into rivers are one of the main problems to study in environmental hydrodynamics. For contaminants released into the overlying water under different hydrodynamic conditions, the mechanical mechanisms involved can be roughly divided into convective diffusion, molecular diffusion, and adsorption/desorption. Because of the obvious environmental influence of fine sediment (D_{90}= 0.06 mm), non-cohesive fine sediment, and cohesive fine sediment are researched in this paper, and phosphorus is chosen for a typical adsorption of a contaminant. Through theoretical analysis of the contaminant release process, according to different hydraulic conditions, the contaminant release coupling mathematical model can be established by the N-S equation, the Darcy equation, the solute transport equation, and the adsorption/desorption equation. Then, the experiments are completed in an open water flume. The simulation results and experimental results show that convective diffusion dominates the contaminant release both in non-cohesive and cohesive fine sediment after their suspension, and that they contribute more than 90 % of the total release. Molecular diffusion and desorption have more of a contribution for contaminant release from unsuspended sediment. In unsuspension sediment, convective diffusion is about 10-50 times larger than molecular diffusion during the initial stages under high velocity; it is close to molecular diffusion in the later stages. Convective diffusion is about 6 times larger than molecular diffusion during the initial stages under low velocity, it is about a quarter of molecular diffusion in later stages, and has a similar level with desorption/adsorption. In unsuspended sediment, a seepage boundary layer exists below the water-sediment interface, and various release mechanisms in that layer mostly dominate the contaminant release process. In non-cohesive fine sediment, the depth of that layer increases linearly with shear

  18. Temporal trends of contaminants recorded in sediments of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Crecelius, E.A.; Curl, H.C. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses the temporal trends of contamination that can be inferred from the chemical composition of age-dated sediment cores from central Puget Sound. The fine-grain sediment (less than 10% sand) of the deep region (>150m) of central Puget Sound, which accumulates relatively undisturbed sediment at a rate of approximately 1 cm per year, provides a useful record of the history of contamination. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Interactions among phosphate amendments, microbes and uranium mobility in contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Brigmon, R L; Kaplan, D I; Paller, M H

    2008-06-01

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of three types of phosphate (rock phosphate, biological phosphate, and calcium phytate) and two microbial amendments (Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida) on U mobility. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentrations more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31%, respectively. Uranium removal in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of the two microbes. Two sediments were evaluated in experiments on the effects of phosphate amendments on U mobility, one from a stream on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC and the other from the Hanford Site, a Department of Energy facility in Washington state. Increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to a reduction in phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl(2) extract from U contaminated sediment was 437 microg/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved), the extractable U concentration was only 103 microg/kg. The U concentration in the 1 M MgCl(2) extract was approximately 0 microg/kg in autoclaved amended sediment treated with autoclaved biological apatite. These results suggest that microbes may reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness. PMID:18374392

  20. Innovative Capping Technology To Prevent The Migration of Toxic Chemicals From Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capping is a common strategy for decreasing the risk associated with contaminated sediments in lakes and streams. Historically, caps have been designed to physically isolate contaminated sediments and prevent the transport of contaminants from sediments into the water above them...

  1. TOOLS FOR ASSESSING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches at this time for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how we...

  2. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

  3. NHEERL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT RESEARCH MULTI-YEAR IMPLEMENTATION PLAN (2005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD has developed a multi-year plan (MYP) called the Contaminated Sites MYP to address the research needs of EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). One of the long-term goals of the Contaminated Sites MYP relates to contaminated sediments, and t...

  4. SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

    2012-01-30

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  5. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. |

    1993-09-01

    The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.

  6. Volatilization of extensively dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls from historically contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Bush, B.; Barnard, E.L.; Bott, A. |

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted as a preliminary characterization of the ability of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments to volatilize PCBs into the air upon drying under conditions meant to be environmentally relevant. Sediments collected from the St. Lawrence River contained high levels of PCBs. The PCB contamination consisted of high levels of mainly ortho-substituted mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, suggesting that the original contamination had been transformed by microbial reductive dechlorination. These sediments lost 0.07 to 1.7% of their total PCB content to the air during a 24-h drying cycle. Sediments with varying amounts of overlying water lost significantly less PCB to the air within the first few cycles than native sediments with no overlying water. Losses due to PCB volatilization were well correlated to sediment PCB concentration and water loss but not to drying temperatures (4--43 C) within 24-h drying cycles. The PCB congeners representing >90% of those volatilized within the first 24 h of drying were those produced in the sediment samples as a result of microbial reductive dechlorination of the original PCB contamination. The presence of these congeners in volatilized air samples was positively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Fourier transform infrared detection (FTIR). These results strongly suggest that significant amounts of mono-, di-, and trichlorobiphenyls may be volatilized from PCB-contaminated sediments at ambient environmental conditions and that this PCB volatilization may be enhanced by microbial reductive dechlorination.

  7. ANNUAL REPORT. FIXATION MECHANISMS AND DESORPTION RATES OF SORBED CS IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAMINATED SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS: IMPLICATIONS TO FUTURE BEHAVIOR AND IN-GROUND STABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research is investigating mineralogic and geochemical factors controlling the desorption rate of 137Cs+ from subsurface sediments on the Hanford Site contaminated with different types of high-level waste. The project will develop kinetic data and models that describe the release ...

  8. A Systematic Approach for Developing Conceptual Models of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. J.; Last, G. V.; Rohay, V. J.; Schelling, F. J.; Hildebrand, R. D.; Morse, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faces many decisions regarding future remedial actions and waste disposal at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. To support these decisions, DOE recognized the need for a comprehensive and systematic approach to developing and documenting complete, consistent, and defensible conceptual models of contaminant release and migration. After reviewing existing conceptual model development methodologies that might be applicable to environmental assessments at the Hanford Site, DOE initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) methodology developed for use in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal systems by NIREX. In adapting this methodology for use in the environmental assessments at Hanford, the international list of FEPs, compiled from nuclear waste disposal programs, was evaluated to develop a list of potentially relevant Hanford-specific FEPs. The international nuclear waste programs focus on deep geologic disposal while waste disposal at the Hanford Site involves burial in shallow unconsolidated geologic deposits. Thus, a graphical tool called the Process Relationship Diagram (PRD) was created to assist in identifying the international FEPs and additional factors that are relevant to Hanford, and to illustrate the relationships among these factors. The PRD is similar in form and function to the Master Directed Diagram used by NIREX to provide a visual and systematic structure for the FEP methodology. Adaptation of this approach is showing promise in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of relevant factors to be incorporated into environmental uncertainty assessments for the Hanford Site.

  9. Detecting and Quantifying Organic Contaminants in Sediments with NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have the potential to detect and monitor free-phase organic contaminants in sediments, both in the laboratory and in the field. NMR directly detects signal from hydrogen-bearing fluids; the signal amplitude is proportional to the total amount of hydrogen present, while the signal decay rate provides information about fluid properties and interactions with the surrounding sediments. Contrasting relaxation times (T2) or diffusion coefficients (D) allow the separation of water signal from contaminant signal. In this work, we conduct a laboratory study to assess the use of NMR measurements to detect and quantify diesel, gasoline, crude oil, and tri-chloroethylene in sediments. We compare the T2 distributions for sediments containing only water, only contaminant, and both water and contaminant, confirming that the identification and quantification of contaminants using T2 data alone is limited by overlapping water and contaminant T2 distributions in some sediments. We leverage the contrast between the diffusion coefficient of water and that of diesel and crude oil to separate contaminant signal from water signal in D-T2 maps. D-T2 distributions are measured both using a pulsed gradient method and a static gradient method similar to methods used with logging tools, allowing us to compare the ability of each method to quantify diesel and crude oil when water is also present. There is the potential to apply these methods to characterize and monitor contaminated sites using commercially available NMR logging tools.

  10. Contaminants in suspended sediment from the Fraser River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sekela, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Moyle, G.; Brewer, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of trace organic contaminants were measured in suspended sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of six pulp mills located in the Fraser River basin. Sampling occurred at three hydrological periods; fall low flow, winter base flow (under ice) and spring freshet. Suspended sediments were analyzed for dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenolics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Initial results indicate that (i) trace organic contaminants are detectable in suspended sediments collected over 265 river kilometers downstream of the nearest pulp mill; (ii) the 1992 to 1994 levels of 2,3,7,8-TCD-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-TCD-furan in Fraser river suspended sediments are lower than the levels measured in 1990; (iii) there is a measurable increase in trace organic contaminant levels in Fraser River suspended sediments associated with the initial rise in the Fraser River hydrograph at freshet.

  11. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  12. GEOELECTRICAL EVIDENCE OF MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynami...

  13. Influence Of Groundwater Discharge On Arsenic Contamination In Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contaminant characteristics at a site adjacent to a landfill in northeastern Massachusetts. Site characterization included assessment of the hydrologic and chemical samples coll...

  14. USING SPMDS TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dredging, in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an appropria...

  15. USING SPMDS TO ASSESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Dredging in-place treatment, capping and monitored natural recovery, used together or separately are the primary approaches for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well different approaches work in different environments is critical for choosing an...

  16. Resuspension of sediment, a new approach for remediation of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Pourabadehei, Mehdi; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2016-06-01

    Natural events and anthropogenic activities are the reasons of undesirable resuspension of contaminated sediments in aquatic environment. Uncontrolled resuspension could remobilize weakly bound heavy metals into overlying water and pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. Shallow harbours, with contaminated sediments are subjected to the risk of uncontrolled resuspension. Remediation of sediments in these areas cannot be performed by conventional in situ methods (e.g. capping with or without reactive amendment). Ex situ remediation also requires dredging of sediment, which could increase the risk of spreading contaminants. Alternatively, the resuspension technique was introduced to address these issues. The concept of the resuspension method is that finer sediments have a greater tendency to adsorb the contamination. Therefore, finer sediments, believed carry more concentration of contaminants, were targeted for removal from aquatic environment by a suspension mechanism in a confined water column. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the resuspension technique as a new approach for remediation of contaminated sediment and a viable option to reduce the risk of remobilization of contaminants in harbours due to an undesirable resuspension event. Unlike the common in situ techniques, the resuspension method could successfully reduce the total concentration of contaminants in almost all samples below the probable effect level (PEL) with no significant change in the quality of overlying water. The results indicated that removal efficiency could be drastically enhanced for metals in sediment with a higher enrichment factor. Moreover, availability of metals (e.g. Cd and Pb) with a high concentration in labile fractions was higher in finer sediments with a high enrichment factor. Consequently, removal of contaminants from sediment through the resuspension method could reduce the risk of mobility and availability of metals under changing

  17. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  18. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans.

    PubMed

    Day, D D; Beyer, W N; Hoffman, D J; Morton, A; Sileo, L; Audet, D J; Ottinger, M A

    2003-05-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 microg/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 microg/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p contaminated sediments. All swans fed diets that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment had renal acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead

  19. Evaluation of sediment contamination in Pearl Harbor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grovhoug, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Pearl Harbor demonstrates remarkable resilience to natural and human-induced contaminant stresses. A review of more than fifty harbor-specific data sets reveals a complex contamination and recovery history. Siltation is a major contaminant pathway in Pearl Harbor. Dredging operations, which are necessary due to high siltation rates, reduce contaminant loading by periodically removing the upper harbor sediment layers. The response of test organisms during sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation studies showed negligible effects from sediment toxicity. The environmental quality at an offshore dredge disposal site for the harbor is not measurable affected. Urban runoff via storm drains and tributaries is an important nonpoint source of contaminant exposure to the Pearl Harbor ecosystem. Most contaminants experience extensive physical, chemical, and biological, modification after entering the harbor environment. Certain contaminants, including PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and silver, were reported at sufficiently elevated sediment concentrations to warrant environmental concern in some harbor regions and may warrant further evaluation. The overall sediment quality in Pearl Harbor, however, is less degraded than that of many U.S. mainland coastal harbors. Further detailed study of the abundance and distribution of important marine resources in Pearl Harbor is recommended.

  20. Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Um, Wooyong; Rod, Kenton; Serne, R Jeff; Thompson, Aaron; Perdrial, Nicolas; Steefel, Carl I; Chorover, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Leaching behavior of Sr and Cs in the vadose zone of Hanford site (Washington) was studied with laboratory-weathered sediments mimicking realistic conditions beneath the leaking radioactive waste storage tanks. Unsaturated column leaching experiments were conducted using background Hanford pore water focused on first 200 pore volumes. The weathered sediments were prepared by 6 months reaction with a synthetic Hanford tank waste leachate containing Sr and Cs (10(-5) and 10(-3) molal representative of LO- and HI-sediment, respectively) as surrogates for (90)Sr and (137)Cs. The mineral composition of the weathered sediments showed that zeolite (chabazite-type) and feldspathoid (sodalite-type) were the major byproducts but different contents depending on the weathering conditions. Reactive transport modeling indicated that Cs leaching was controlled by ion-exchange, while Sr release was affected primarily by dissolution of the secondary minerals. The later release of K, Al, and Si from the HI-column indicated the additional dissolution of a more crystalline mineral (cancrinite-type). A two-site ion-exchange model successfully simulated the Cs release from the LO-column. However, a three-site ion-exchange model was needed for the HI-column. The study implied that the weathering conditions greatly impact the speciation of the secondary minerals and leaching behavior of sequestrated Sr and Cs. PMID:21859142

  1. Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Um, Wooyong; Rod, Kenton A.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thompson, Aaron; Perdrial, Nicolas; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Leaching behavior of Sr and Cs in the vadose zone of Hanford site (WA, USA) was studied with laboratory-weathered sediments mimicking realistic conditions beneath the leaking radioactive waste storage tanks. Unsaturated column leaching experiments were conducted using background Hanford pore water focused on first 200 pore volumes. The weathered sediments were prepared by 6 months reaction with a synthetic Hanford tank waste leachate containing Sr and Cs (10-5 and 10-3 molal representative of LO- and HI-sediment, respectively) as surrogates for 90Sr and 137Cs. The mineral composition of the weathered sediments showed that zeolite (chabazite-type) and feldspathoid (sodalite-type) were the major byproducts but different contents depending on the weathering conditions. Reactive transport modeling indicated that Cs leaching was controlled by ion-exchange, while Sr release was affected primarily by dissolution of the secondary minerals. The later release of K, Al, and Si from the HI-column indicated the additional dissolution of a more crystalline mineral (cancrinite-type). A two-site ion-exchange model successfully simulated the Cs release from the LO-column. However, a three-site ion-exchange model was needed for the HI-column. The study implied that the weathering conditions greatly impact the speciation of the secondary minerals and leaching behavior of sequestrated Sr and Cs.

  2. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. PMID

  3. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. Integr

  4. Uranium Contamination in the Subsurface Beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Mark D.

    2008-02-29

    This report provides a description of uranium contamination in the subsurface at the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The principal focus is a persistence plume in groundwater, which has not attenuated as predicted by earlier remedial investigations. Included in the report are chapters on current conditions, hydrogeologic framework, groundwater flow modeling, and geochemical considerations. The report is intended to describe what is known or inferred about the uranium contamination for the purpose of making remedial action decisions.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED CONTAMINANTS IN SEDIMENTS AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic compounds account for much of the contamination found at sediments sites. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) occur as serious contaminants at 358 major hazardous waste sites in the USA. TCE is widely used as a sol...

  6. Ocean acidification increases the toxicity of contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Lewis, Ceri; Sanders, Matthew B; Bolam, Thi; Sheahan, Dave

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) may alter the behaviour of sediment-bound metals, modifying their bioavailability and thus toxicity. We provide the first experimental test of this hypothesis with the amphipod Corophium volutator. Amphipods were exposed to two test sediments, one with relatively high metals concentrations (Σmetals 239 mg kg(-1) ) and a reference sediment with lower contamination (Σmetals 82 mg kg(-1) ) under conditions that mimic current and projected conditions of OA (390-1140 μatm pCO2 ). Survival and DNA damage was measured in the amphipods, whereas the flux of labile metals was measured in the sediment and water column (WC) using Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films. The contaminated sediments became more acutely toxic to C. volutator under elevated pCO2 (1140 μatm). There was also a 2.7-fold increase in DNA damage in amphipods exposed to the contaminated sediment at 750 μatm pCO2 , as well as increased DNA damage in organisms exposed to the reference sediment, but only at 1140 μatm pCO2 . The projected pCO2 concentrations increased the flux of nickel and zinc to labile states in the WC and pore water. However, the increase in metal flux at elevated pCO2 was equal between the reference and contaminated sediments or, occasionally, greater from reference sediments. Hence, the toxicological interaction between OA and contaminants could not be explained by e ffects of pH on metal speciation. We propose that the additive physiological effects of OA and contaminants will be more important than changes in metal speciation in determining the responses of benthos to contaminated sediments under OA. Our data demonstrate clear potential for near-future OA to increase the susceptibility of benthic ecosystems to contaminants. Environmental policy should consider contaminants within the context of changing environmental conditions. Specifically, sediment metals guidelines may need to be reevaluated to afford appropriate environmental protection under future

  7. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K R

    1993-01-01

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal.

  8. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  9. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  10. Sediments Contamination with Organic Micropollutants: Current State and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popenda, Agnieszka; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the sediment contamination with some organic micropollutants based on the monitoring data together with available literature in Poland. The following persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides (CP) were characterized in sediments with respect to current legislations in force. Based on accessible data, higher PAHs, PCBs and CP concentrations were found in river sediments than in lake sediments. Especially, sediments of the Oder River and its tributary in the southern part of Poland, were highly polluted. In order to minimize the risk of the secondary pollution of surface waters, it is necessary to introduce consolidated management system with sediments proceeding. Furthermore, it is also of great importance to elaborate specific regulations concerning conditions of sediments management.

  11. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  12. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, Paul M.; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2013-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  13. A cation exchange model to describe Cs+ sorption at high ionic strength in subsurface sediments at Hanford site, USA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M; Smith, Steve C

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of cation exchange in high ionic strength electrolytes was performed using pristine subsurface sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site. These sediments are representative of the site contaminated sediments impacted by release of high level waste (HLW) solutions containing 137Cs+ in NaNO3 brine. The binary exchange behavior of Cs+-Na+, Cs+-K+, and Na+-K+ was measured over a range in electrolyte concentration. Vanselow selectivity coefficients (Kv) that were calculated from the experimental data using Pitzer model ion activity corrections for aqueous species showed monotonic increases with increasing electrolyte concentrations. The influence of electrolyte concentration was greater on the exchange of Na+-Cs+ than K+-Cs+, an observation consistent with the differences in ion hydration energy of the exchanging cations. A previously developed two-site ion exchange model [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (2002) 193] was modified to include solvent (water) activity changes in the exchanger phase through application of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. This water activity-corrected model well described the ionic strength effect on binary Cs+ exchange, and was extended to the ternary exchange system of Cs+-Na+-K+ on the pristine sediment. The model was also used to predict 137Cs+ distribution between sediment and aqueous phase (Kd) beneath a leaked HLW tank in Hanfordd's S-SX tank using the analytical aqueous data from the field and the binary ion exchange coefficients for the pristine sediment. The Kd predictions closely followed the trend in the field data and were improved by consideration of water activity effects that were considerable in certain regions of the vadose zone plume. PMID:14734247

  14. A cation exchange model to describe Cs + sorption at high ionic strength in subsurface sediments at Hanford site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Smith, Steve C.

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of cation exchange in high ionic strength electrolytes was performed using pristine subsurface sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site. These sediments are representative of the site contaminated sediments impacted by release of high level waste (HLW) solutions containing 137Cs + in NaNO 3 brine. The binary exchange behavior of Cs +-Na +, Cs +-K +, and Na +-K + was measured over a range in electrolyte concentration. Vanselow selectivity coefficients ( Kv) that were calculated from the experimental data using Pitzer model ion activity corrections for aqueous species showed monotonic increases with increasing electrolyte concentrations. The influence of electrolyte concentration was greater on the exchange of Na +-Cs + than K +-Cs +, an observation consistent with the differences in ion hydration energy of the exchanging cations. A previously developed two-site ion exchange model [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (2002) 193] was modified to include solvent (water) activity changes in the exchanger phase through application of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. This water activity-corrected model well described the ionic strength effect on binary Cs + exchange, and was extended to the ternary exchange system of Cs +-Na +-K + on the pristine sediment. The model was also used to predict 137Cs + distribution between sediment and aqueous phase ( Kd) beneath a leaked HLW tank in Hanfordd's S-SX tank using the analytical aqueous data from the field and the binary ion exchange coefficients for the pristine sediment. The Kd predictions closely followed the trend in the field data and were improved by consideration of water activity effects that were considerable in certain regions of the vadose zone plume.

  15. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  16. Hanford Tanks 241-AY-102 and 241-BX-101: Sludge Composition and Contaminant Release Data

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the results of testing sludge samples from Hanford tanks 241-AY-102 (AY-102) and 241-BX-101 (BX-101). These tests were conducted to characterize the sludge and assess the water leachability of contaminants from the solids. This work is being conducted to support the tank closure risk assessments being performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. This is the first report of testing of BX-101 sludge and the second report of testing of AY-102. Lindberg and Deutsch (2003) described the first phase of testing on AY-102 material.

  17. Colloid-facilitated Cs transport through water-saturated Hanford sediment and Ottawa sand.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Flury, Markus; Jin, Yan

    2003-11-01

    In this study, a series of saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate effects of colloids on Cs transport in two types of porous media (Hanford sediment characteristic of 2:1 clay minerals and silica Ottawa sand). The colloids used were obtained by reacting Hanford sediment with simulated tank waste solutions. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of Cs sorption found in batch experiments, we used two different concentrations of Cs (7.5 x 10(-5) M and 1.4 x 10(-8) M) for the transport experiments. The presence of colloids facilitated the transport of Cs through both Hanford sediment and Ottawa sand via association of Cs with mobile colloidal particles. Due to the nonlinearity of the Cs sorption, the colloid-facilitated Cs transportwas more pronounced atthe low Cs concentration (1.4 x 10(-8) M) than at the high concentration (7.5 x 10(-5) M) when expressed relative to the inflow Cs concentration. In the absence of colloids, no Cs moved through the 10-cm long columns during the experiment within about 20 pore volumes, exceptfor the high Cs concentration in the Ottawa sand where a complete Cs breakthrough was obtained. Also, it was found that colloid-associated Cs could be partially stripped off from colloids during the transport. The stripping effect was controlled by both Cs concentration and sorption capacity of the transport matrix. PMID:14620817

  18. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  19. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many Superfund sites include rivers, reservoirs, and other surface bodies of water (and the adjacent floodplains) that are highly contaminated with PCBs, metals, and other toxic chemicals. Examples of contaminated waters are the Hudson, Fox, Housatonic and Clark Fork Rivers, Lake...

  20. Separation, characterization and initial reaction studies of magnetite particles from Hanford sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, D. R.; Grosz, A. E.; Ilton, E. S.; Krupka, K. M.; Liu, J.; Penn, R. L.; Pepin, A.

    Magnetic and density separation methods have been applied to composite sediment samples from the Hanford formation from sediment recovered during drilling of an uncontaminated borehole located near the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This paper describes the results of using those separation methods and from the characterization and initial reactivity measurements on a highly magnetic fraction isolated from that sediment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the highly magnetic sediment fraction indicates that this material contains predominantly magnetite (Fe 3O 4). Particle morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compositions determined energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are consistent with this identification. Analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that there is a thin coating on the particles that are likely a type of aluminosilicate. This highly magnetic fraction of material is not reactive with indigo carmine, an organic redox probe molecule that was shown to readily react with synthetic magnetite. Because of the limited amounts of material readily available, initial tests have been conducted that demonstrate the ability to complete U(VI) sorption on individual particles (nominally ∼100 μm in size) of the isolated sediment and to remove and mount these individual particles for analysis of the concentration and chemical state of the sorbed U species using small area XPS.

  1. Separation, Characterization and Initial Reaction Studies of Magnetite Particles from Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Liu, Juan; Penn, Ryland L.; Pepin, Alex

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic and density separation methods have been applied to composite sediment sample from the Hanford formation from sediment recovered during drilling of an uncontaminated borehole located near the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This paper describes the results of using those separation methods and from the characterization and initial reactivity measurements on a highly magnetic fraction isolated from that sediment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the highly magnetic sediment fraction indicates that this material contains predominantly magnetite (Fe3O4). Particle morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compositions determined energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are consistent with this identification. Analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that there is a thin coating on the particles that are likely a type of aluminosilicate. This highly magnetic fraction of material is not reactive with indigo carmine, an organic redox probe molecule that was shown to readily react with synthetic magnetite. Because of the limited amounts of material readily available, initial tests have been conducted that demonstrate the ability to complete U(VI) sorption on individual particles (nominally ~100 µm in size) of the isolated sediment and to remove and mount these individual particles for analysis of the concentration and chemical state of the sorbed U species using small area XPS.

  2. Separation, Characterization and Initial Reaction Studies of Magnetite Particles from Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Liu, Juan; Penn, Ryland L.; Pepin, Alex

    2010-04-24

    Magnetic and density separation methods have been applied to composite sediment sample from the Hanford formation from sediment recovered during drilling of an uncontaminated borehole located near the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This paper describes the results of using those separation methods and from the characterization and initial reactivity measurements on a highly magnetic fraction isolated from that sediment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the highly magnetic sediment fraction indicates that this material contains predominantly magnetite (Fe3O4). Particle morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compositions determined energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are consistent with this identification. Analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that there is a thin coating on the particles that are likely a type of aluminosilicate. This highly magnetic fraction of material is not reactive with indigo carmine, an organic redox probe molecule that was shown to readily react with synthetic magnetite. Because of the limited amounts of material readily available, initial tests have been conducted that demonstrate the ability to complete U(VI) sorption on individual particles (nominally ~100 µm in size) of the isolated sediment and to remove and mount these individual particles for analysis of the concentration and chemical state of the sorbed U species using small area XPS.

  3. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. ); Peek, D.C. )

    1994-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  4. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  5. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were {sup 85}Sr, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period.

  6. Accumulation by fish of contaminants released from dredged sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, James G.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Inasmuch as the process of dredging and disposing of dredged materials causes a resuspension of these materials and an increase in bioavailability of associated contaminants, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the potential accumulation by fish of contaminants from suspended sediments. In the first experiment we compared accumulation of contaminants by yellow perch of hatchery and lake origin and found that after 10 days of exposure to nonaerated sediments, fish of hatchery origin accumulated PCBs and Fe, while fish of lake origin accumulated As, Cr, Fe, and Na. Two additional exposures were conducted to evaluate the effects of aerating the sediments prior to measuring bioavailability of associated contaminants. Fish of hatchery origin exposed to nonaerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs and Hg, while fish of hatchery origin exposed to aerated sediments for 10 days accumulated PCBs, DDE, Zn, Fe, Cs, and Se. These results demonstrated not only the potential for uptake of contaminants by fish as a result of dredging but also the potential utility of fish bioassays in evaluating proposed dredging operations.

  7. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

  8. Mechanistic Sediment Quality Guidelines Based on Contaminant Bioavailability: Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, billions of metric tons of contaminated sediments are present in aquatic systems representing a potentially significant ecological risk. Estimated costs to manage (i.e., remediate and monitor) these sediments are in the billions of U.S. dollars. Biologically-based app...

  9. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  10. Mapping and monitoring contaminated-sediment geometry and stability.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, N

    2001-02-01

    Environment Canada's National Water Research Institute (NWRI) conducts research on freshwater contaminated sediments, much of which is focused on designated areas of concern in the Great Lakes and their connecting channels. This paper reviews new acoustic and video equipment and procedures developed to map the geometry and stability of the sediments, and describes their applications. A RoxAnn acoustic seabed-classification system is used for mapping bottom-sediment types and locating the deposits of fine-grained sediments with which contaminants are associated. The system uses the acoustic properties of sediments to distinguish textural types ranging from mud to boulders, and displays the data as they are collected. The sediment thickness is measured with a weighted video-acoustic tripod which is lowered into the sediments to refusal, and which recorded penetration with a video camera or an echosounder transducer. The stability of the contaminated sediments was monitored with a bottom-mounted, high-precision echo sounder-digitizer, which logs changes in the position of the sediment-water interface produced by erosion or deposition. The same procedure can be used in capping or dredging projects to track bottom changes as they occur, or they can be measured by pre- and post-project mapping of bathymetry and morphology with sweep-sonar or side-scan sonar equipment. The new equipment and procedures have been successfully applied to a number of areas of concern in the Great Lakes basin. They provide a faster and more detailed characterization of sediment properties and geometry than was previously available, and have been particularly effective in optimizing sampling surveys and monitoring remediation projects. PMID:11258831

  11. Recent sediments and contaminant history of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, D.W.; Donoghue, J.F.; Cooper, W.T.; Fievre, A. )

    1994-03-01

    The Apalachicola River of northwest Florida is Florida's largest river system and fourth largest in the northern Gulf of Mexico basin. The river drains a 51,000 sq. km. watershed in the Piedmont and Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida, Georgia and Alabama. Throughout much of the Tertiary the Apalachicola has been the principal source of clastic sediment to the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Within the past two millennia the river has established and built an extensive delta that is rapidly infilling the Apalachicola Bay estuary. Today virtually all of the river's annual sediment load of more than one million metric tons is being deposited in the delta and bay, with negligible release of sediment to the gulf of Mexico. A set of sediment cores from Apalachicola Bay was analyzed for texture, mineralogy organic contaminants and lead-210 sedimentation rate. Sedimentation rates in the range of 10 mm/yr document a rapid rate of infilling. Organic carbon in the sediments correlates roughly with distance from delta distributaries. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides and herbicides are found at or below trace levels and only near the tops of the cores, indicating that contaminant levels are low in the estuarine sediments.

  12. Contaminated sediments database for the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Manheim, F. T.; Mecray, E.L.; Hastings, M.E.; Currence, J.M.; Farrington, J.W.; Jones, S.H.; Larsen, P.F.; Tripp, B.W.; Wallace, G.T., Jr.; Ward, L.G.; Fredette, T.J.; Liebman, M.L.; Smith Leo, W.

    2002-01-01

    Bottom sediments in the Gulf of Maine and its estuaries have accumulated pollutants of many types, including metals and organic compounds of agricultural, industrial, and household derivation. Much analytical and descriptive data has been obtained on these sediments over the past decades, but only a small effort had been made, prior to this project, to compile and edit the published and unpublished data in forms suitable for a variety of users. The Contaminated Sediments Database for the Gulf of Maine provides a compilation and synthesis of existing data to help establish the environmental status of our coastal sediments and the transport paths and fate of contaminants in this region. This information, in turn, forms one of the essential bases for developing successful remediation and resource management policies.

  13. Cesium-137 and mercury contamination in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, T; Ueno, T; Chandradjith, R L; Amano, H; Okumura, M; Hashitani, H

    1999-07-01

    The contribution of fluvial discharge and global fallout of 137Cs and mercury to sedimentation fluxes in Lake Shinji and Lake Nakaumi, Japan, was studied. The fluvial flux through soil erosion accounted for 11 to 27% of accumulated 137Cs in the sediments in the 1950's and 1960's, which were the periods of the most extensive atmospheric input, and for 90 to 100% in the 1990's. The vertical profiles of mercury concentrations in the lake sediments studied showed a maximum between 1959 and 1963, which was originated mostly from the extensive use of mercury-agrochemicals in paddyfields of the watershed in the past. These findings are representative examples of long-term contamination of lake sediments caused by the contaminated ground soil erosion. PMID:10399844

  14. Contaminant Release Data Package for Residual Waste in Single-Shell Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-12-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report be submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The RCRA Facility Investigation report will provide a detailed description of the state of knowledge needed for tank farm performance assessments. This data package provides detailed technical information about contaminant release from closed single-shell tanks necessary to support the RCRA Facility Investigation report. It was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., which is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with tank closure. This data package is a compilation of contaminant release rate data for residual waste in the four Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have been tested (C-103, C-106, C-202, and C-203). The report describes the geochemical properties of the primary contaminants of interest from the perspective of long-term risk to groundwater (uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, chromium, transuranics, and nitrate), the occurrence of these contaminants in the residual waste, release mechanisms from the solid waste to water infiltrating the tanks in the future, and the laboratory tests conducted to measure release rates.

  15. Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L.; Moore, T.D.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

  16. Radioiodine sorption/desorption and speciation transformation by subsurface sediments from the Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Athon, Matthew; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Grandbois, Russell; Wellman, Dawn; Santschi, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, considerable research efforts have been extended to identify more effective remediation treatment technologies to lower the (129)I concentrations to below federal drinking water standards at the Hanford Site (Richland, USA). Few studies have taken iodate into consideration, though recently iodate, instead of iodide, was identified as the major species in the groundwater of 200-West Area within the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was thus to quantify and understand aqueous radioiodine species transformations and uptake by three sediments collected from the semi-arid, carbonate-rich environment of the Hanford subsurface. All three sediments reduced iodate (IO3(-)) to iodide (I(-)), but the loamy-sand sediment reduced more IO3(-) (100% reduced within 7 days) than the two sand-textured sediments (∼20% reduced after 28 days). No dissolved organo-iodine species were observed in any of these studies. Iodate uptake Kd values ([Isolid]/[Iaq]; 0.8-7.6 L/kg) were consistently and appreciably greater than iodide Kd values (0-5.6 L/kg). Furthermore, desorption Kd values (11.9-29.8 L/kg) for both iodate and iodide were consistently and appreciably greater than uptake Kd values (0-7.6 L/kg). Major fractions of iodine associated with the sediments were unexpectedly strongly bound, such that only 0.4-6.6 % of the total sedimentary iodine could be exchanged from the surface with KCl solution, and 0-1.2% was associated with Fe or Mn oxides (weak NH2HCl/HNO3 extractable fraction). Iodine incorporated into calcite accounted for 2.9-39.4% of the total sedimentary iodine, whereas organic carbon (OC) is likely responsible for the residual iodine (57.1-90.6%) in sediments. The OC, even at low concentrations, appeared to be controlling iodine binding to the sediments, as it was found that the greater the OC concentrations in the sediments, the greater the values of uptake Kd, desorption Kd, and the greater residual iodine concentrations (non

  17. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SCREENING LEVELS FOR SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments serve as the dominant sink for many chemical pollutants, in particular those which are highly hydrophobic and have a greater tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food webs. A variety of toxicological benchmarks and laboratory bioassays have been developed for assessing...

  18. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  19. Comparison of Field Groundwater Biostimulation Experiments Using Polylactate and Lactate Solutions at the Chromium-Contaminated Hanford 100-H Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Steefel, C.; Larsen, J.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Christensen, J. N.; Brown, S. T.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S. E.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Nico, P. S.; Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Arntzen, E.

    2011-12-01

    The primary contaminant of concern in groundwater at the DOE Hanford 100 Area (Washington State) is hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in Hanford coarse-grained sediments. Three lactate injections were conducted in March, August, and October 2010 at the Hanford 100-H field site to assess the efficacy of in situ Cr(VI) bioreductive immobilization. Each time, 55 gal of lactate solution was injected into the Hanford aquifer. To characterize the biogeochemical regimes before and after electron donor injection, we implemented a comprehensive plan of groundwater sampling for microbial, geochemical, and isotopic analyses. These tests were performed to provide evidence of transformation of toxic and soluble Cr(VI) into less toxic and poorly soluble Cr(III) by bioimmobilization, and to quantify critical and interrelated microbial metabolic and geochemical mechanisms affecting chromium in situ reductive immobilization and the long-term sustainability of chromium bioremediation. The results of lactate injections were compared with data from two groundwater biostimulation tests that were conducted in 2004 and 2008 by injecting Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC°), a slow-release glycerol polylactate, into the Hanford aquifer. In all HRC and lactate injection tests, 13C-labeled lactate was added to the injected solutions to track post-injection carbon pathways. Monitoring showed that despite a very low initial total microbial density (from <104 to 105 cells/mL), both HRC and lactate injections stimulated anaerobic microbial activity, which led to an increase in biomass to >107 cells/mL (including sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria), resulting in a significant decrease in soluble Cr(VI) concentrations to below the MCL. In all tests, lactate was consumed nearly completely within the first week, much faster than HRC. Modeling of biogeochemical and isotope fractionation processes with the reaction-transport code TOUGHREACT captured the biodegradation of lactate, fermentative production

  20. HYDROLASING OF CONTAMINATED UNDERWATER BASIN SURFACES AT THE HANFORD K-AREA

    SciTech Connect

    CHRONISTER, G.B.

    2005-06-14

    This paper discusses selecting and Implementing hydrolasing technology to reduce radioactive contamination in preparing to dispose of the K Basins; two highly contaminated concrete basins at the Hanford Site. A large collection of spent nuclear fuel stored for many years underwater at the K Basins has been removed to stable, dry, safe storage. Remediation activities have begun for the remaining highly contaminated water, sludge, and concrete basin structures. Hydrolasing will be used to decontaminate and prepare the basin structures for disposal. The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is considered the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The site covers 1,517 Km{sup 2} (586 square miles) along the Columbia River in an arid region of the northwest United States (U.S.). Hanford is the largest of the US former nuclear defense production sites. From the World War II era of the mid-1940s until the late-1980s when production stopped, Hanford produced 60 percent of the plutonium for nuclear defense and, as a consequence, produced a significant amount of environmental pollution now being addressed. Spent nuclear fuel was among the major challenges for DOE's environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. The end of production left Hanford with about 105,000 irradiated, solid uranium metal fuel assemblies--representing approximately 2,100 metric tons (80 percent of DOE's spent nuclear fuel). The fuel was ultimately stored in the K Basins water-filled, concrete basins attached to Hanford's K East (KE) and K West (KW) reactors. K Basin's fuel accounted for 95 percent of the total radioactivity in Hanford's former reactor production areas. Located about 457 meters (500 yards) from the Columbia River, the K Basins are two indoor, rectangular structures of reinforced concrete; each filled with more than 3.8 million liters (one million gallons) of water that has become highly contaminated with long-lived radionuclides. At the KW Basin, fuel was packaged and

  1. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  2. The Role of Localized Reducing Zones in Cr(VI)aq Removal by the Hanford Sediments Under Hyperalkaline Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Lichtner, P. C.; Ainsworth, C. C.

    2002-12-01

    amount of CrO4-2 was removed from the aqueous phase in the treatments of the experiment where dissolution occurred in the presence of O2. Appreciable CrO4-2 removal was only observed in the Al-free, 4 M NaOH treatment of the O2-rich experiment. The decreasing trend of CrO4-2 concentration with time observed in this treatment was very similar to the trend observed in its O2-free counterpart. Dissolution of the soil minerals probably mobilized substantial quantities of Fe(II) in this treatment. It is likely that a portion of the Fe(II) released into the soil solution consumed the O2 creating localized zones with predominantly anoxic conditions and excess Fe(II)aq where Cr(VI) reduction may have occurred. In order to better understand quantitatively the behavior of Cr(VI) in the Hanford sediments, a modeling strategy was pursued to first model the relatively simpler batch systems without Cr, followed by batch systems in the presence of Cr. The results from these experiments were modeled using the reaction path option of the computer code FLOTRAN. Because of the high ionic strength of the fluids, the Pitzer model was used to calculate activity coefficient corrections. Preliminary results suggest a reasonably good fit to the experimental data can be obtained for these batch experiments. This work will provide the foundation for modeling more complex column experiments and field-scale contaminant plumes involving Cr(VI).

  3. Effect of Hanford Tank Waste Leachate on Radionuclide Transport Through Unsaturated Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, K. A.; Serne, J. R.; Um, W.

    2006-12-01

    A series of unsaturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of leaking tank waste on radionuclide transport through sediment from the Hanford site in Washington, USA. Previous studies have shown that the caustic tank leachate solution with high ionic strength (I=2-8 M NaNO3) and high pH (~14) conditions dissolves primary minerals (quartz and clays) and forms secondary precipitates on mineral surfaces. The secondary precipitates include zeolite, cancrinite and sodalite. The dissolution followed by precipitation reaction would alter the sediment pore structure as well as the soil surface properties. Both physical and chemical changes of the sediment were found to have an impact on the flow and mobility of radionuclide in unsaturated columns at varying degrees of saturation.

  4. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-06-03

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  5. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  6. Comparison of Model Error for Alternative Conceptual Models of Sediment Geometry at the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. J.; Savelieva-Trofimova, E. A.; Thorne, P. D.; Xie, Y.; Scheibe, T. D.; Cole, C. R.; Kanevski, M.

    2002-12-01

    A number of uncertainties exist in the hydrogeology of the Hanford Site, and the high costs and risks associated with cleanup of sites contaminated with radioactive wastes requires that the uncertainty associated with alternative remediation decisions must fully reflect the uncertainty associated with these decisions. Prior uncertainty analyses of Hanford groundwater model predictions have focused on uncertainties in model parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) given an assumed conceptual model of hydrogeologic structure. In this study we evaluated predictive uncertainty related to the model structure conceptualization. Our study has focused on two major elements of the hydrogeologic structure of the Hanford Site: the geometry of mud units that occur within the aquifer, and the parameter zonation for hydrologic properties of the uppermost conductive portion of the aquifer. For each structural element, we have developed alternative conceptual models that have been evaluated by inverse modeling. The geometry and continuity of mud units exert a strong influence on groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the site. A detailed study of the spatial distribution of the three mud units was performed using a data set consisting of the presence/absence of each mud unit at several hundred boreholes, as well as the thickness if a mud unit was present. The spatial analysis proceeded in two stages. A series of stochastic simulations of the mud units were prepared using geostatistical methods. The stochastic simulations were numerically ranked and a subset of the best and worst simulations (as determined by the connectedness of the aquifer given the simulated mud distributions) was used as inputs to an inverse model. Inverse modeling was performed using UCODE and a finite element flow and transport code (CFEST) and used to test the fit of over 76,000 observed potentiometric head data for several alternative models of the mud distribution. Those conceptual models included

  7. Options To Cleanup Site-wide Vadose Zone Contamination At The Hanford Site, WA, State

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State lies along the Columbia River and is one of DOE's largest legacy waste management sites. Enormous radionuclide and chemical inventories exist below-ground. These include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage facilities where hazardous and radioactive contaminants were discharged and leaked to the soil surface and to the deep vadose zone and groundwater. The vadose zone is also contaminated from facilities regulated by the RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Act. Hanford now contains as much as 28,300 cubic meters of soil contaminated with radionuclides from liquid wastes released near processing facilities. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) has set the completion of the cleanup of these sites by 2024. There are numerous technical and regulatory challenges to cleanup of the vadose zone at the Hanford site. This paper attempts to identify the categories of deep vadose zone problem and identifies a few possible regulatory options to clean up the site under the mix of state and federal regulatory authorities. There are four major categories of vadose contamination areas at the Hanford Site. The first is laterally extensive with intermediate depth (ground surface to about 45 meters depth) mostly related to high volume effluent discharge into cribs, ponds and ditches of designated CERCLA facilities. The second is dominated by laterally less extensive mostly related to leaks from RCRA tank farms. The later contamination is often commingled at depth with wastes from adjacent CERCLA facilities. The third category is from the high volume CERCLA facilities extending from the surface to more than 60 meters below ground. Contamination from the later category crosses the entire thickness of the vadose zone and reached groundwater. The fourth category is the lower volume waste sites

  8. Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Samuel J.; Laperche, Valérie

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous concentrations of heavy metals in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments frequently are controlled by the dissolution and precipitation of discrete mineral phases. Contaminant uptake by organisms as well as contaminant transport in natural systems typically occurs through the solution phase. Thus, the thermodynamic solubility of contaminant-containing minerals in these environments can directly influence the chemical reactivity, transport, and ecotoxicity of their constituent ions. In many cases, Pb-contaminated soils and sediments contain the minerals anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3), and various lead oxides (e.g., litharge, PbO) as well as Pb2+ adsorbed to Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Whereas adsorbed Pb can be comparatively inert, the lead oxides, sulfates, and carbonates are all highly soluble in acidic to circumneutral environments, and soil Pb in these forms can pose a significant environmental risk. In contrast, the lead phosphates [e.g., pyromorphite, Pb5(PO4)3Cl] are much less soluble and geochemically stable over a wide pH range. Application of soluble or solid-phase phosphates (i.e., apatites) to contaminated soils and sediments induces the dissolution of the “native” Pb minerals, the desorption of Pb adsorbed by hydrous metal oxides, and the subsequent formation of pyromorphites in situ. This process results in decreases in the chemical lability and bioavailability of the Pb without its removal from the contaminated media. This and analogous approaches may be useful strategies for remediating contaminated soils and sediments. PMID:10097045

  9. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Conference on Management and Treatment of Contaminated Sediment was held in Cincinnati, OH, May 13 to 14, 1997. This technology transfer meeting was held for 213 professionals from various EPA divisions and other organizations, including Environment Canada, the U.S. ...

  10. Mercury Contaminated Sediment Sites: A Review Of Remedial Solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) can accumulate in sediment from point and non-point sources, depending on a number of physical, chemical, biological, geological and anthropogenic environmental processes. It is believed that the associated Hg contamination in aquatic systems can be decreased by imp...

  11. DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENTS/SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which contaminants are released from sediments/soils and absorbed into the skin are poorly understood. The project will first conduct invitro experiments to study the effects of particle layering and chemical saturation. Secondly, mechanistic models will be de...

  12. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  13. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR REMOVAL OF SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realizing the need to improve the capabilities of response personnel in dealing with cleanup operations involving contaminated sediments, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have jointly funded a research project to: (a) identify, characterize, and c...

  14. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new test system for exposing fish to resuspended sediments and associated contaminants. Test sediments were resuspended by revolving test chambers on rotating shafts driven by an electric motor. The timing, speed, and duration of test-chamber revolution were controlled by a rheostat and electronic timer. Each chamber held 45 litres of water and accommodated about 49 g of test fish. The system described had three water baths, each holding six test chambers. We illustrate the performance of this system with results from a 28-day test in which juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to resuspended, riverine sediments differing in texture and cadmium content. The test had one sediment-free control and five sediment treatments, with three replicates (chambers) per treatment and 25 fish per replicate. Two-thirds (30 litres) of the test water and sediment in each chamber was renewed weekly. The mean concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) did not vary among treatments; the grand-mean TSS in the five sediment treatments was 975 mg litre-1, similar to the target TSS of 1000 mg litre-1. At the end of the test, an average of 50% of the introduced cadmium was associated with the suspended sediment compartment, whereas the filtered (0.45 μm) water contained 0.4% and bluegills 1.8% of the cadmium.

  15. Remobilisation of uranium from contaminated freshwater sediments by bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagauzère, S.; Motelica-Heino, M.; Viollier, E.; Stora, G.; Bonzom, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation can influence the remobilisation of uranium (U) initially associated with freshwater sediments, resulting in a high release of this pollutant through the overlying water column. Given the potential negative effects on aquatic biocenosis and the global ecological risk, it appears crucial to improve our current knowledge concerning the biogeochemical behaviour of U in sediments. The present study aimed to assess the biogeochemical modifications induced by Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) bioturbation within the sediment in order to explain such a release of U. To reach this goal, U distribution between solid and solute phases of a reconstructed benthic system (i.e. in mesocosms) inhabited or not by T. tubifex worms was assessed in a 12-day laboratory experiment. Thanks notably to fine-resolution (mm-scale) measurements (e.g. "diffusive equilibrium in thin-films" DET gel probes for porewater, bioaccumulation in worms) of U and main chemical species (iron, sulfate, nitrate and nitrite), this work (i) confirmed that the removal of bottom sediment particles to the surface through the digestive tract of worms greatly favoured oxidative loss of U in the water column, and (ii) demonstrated that both U contamination and bioturbation of T. tubifex substantially influenced major microbial-driven biogeochemical reactions in sediments (e.g. stimulation of denitrification, sulfate reduction and iron dissolutive reduction). This study provides the first demonstration of biogeochemical modifications induced by bioturbation in freshwater U-contaminated sediments.

  16. Remobilisation of uranium from contaminated freshwater sediments by bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagauzère, S.; Motelica-Heino, M.; Viollier, E.; Stora, G.; Bonzom, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation can influence the remobilization of uranium initially associated with freshwater sediments resulting in a high release of this pollutant through the overlying water column. Giving the potential negative effects on aquatic biocenosis and the global ecological risk, it appeared crucial to improve our current knowledge concerning the uranium biogeochemical behaviour in sediments. The present study aimed to assess the biogeochemical modifications induced by Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) bioturbation within the sediment permitting to explain such a release of uranium. To reach this goal, uranium distribution between solid and solute phases of a reconstructed benthic system (i.e. in mesocosms) inhabited or not by T. tubifex worms was assessed in a 12 day laboratory experiment. Thanks notably to fine resolution (mm-scale) measurements (e.g. DET gels probes for porewater, bioaccumulation in worms) of uranium and main chemical species (iron, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite), this work permitted (i) to confirm that the removal of bottom sediment particles to the surface through the digestive tract of worms greatly favours the oxidative loss of uranium in the water column, and (ii) to demonstrate that both uranium contamination and bioturbation of T. tubifex substantially influence major microbial-driven biogeochemical reactions in sediments (e.g. stimulation of denitrification, sulfate-reduction and iron dissolutive reduction). This study provides the first demonstration of biogeochemical modifications induced by bioturbation in freshwater uranium-contaminated sediments.

  17. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE GRAIN COATINGS ON CONTAMINANT REACTIVITY IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental research is proposed to investigate the role of calcium carbonate grain coatings on the vadose zone chemical reactivity of key Hanford contaminants (i.e., 60Co2+, 90Sr2+, CrO42-, and 99TcO4-). Calcium carbonate is widely distributed through the Hanford vadose zone as...

  19. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL COMPONENTS, GENERATION FACTORS, AND AIRBORNE TRANSPORT ASSOCIATED WITH LIME TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well kno...

  20. The Influence of Glass Leachate on the Hydraulic, Physical, Mineralogical and Sorptive Properties of Hanford Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Parker, Kent E.; Owen, Antionette T.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-08-26

    The Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) generated from the Hanford Site will be disposed of in a vitrified form. It is expected that leachate from the vitrified waste will have a high pH and high ionic strength. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of glass leachate on the hydraulic, physical, mineralogical, and sorptive properties of Hanford sediments. Our approach was to put solutions of NaOH, a simplified surrogate for glass leachate, in contact with quartz sand, a simplified surrogate for the Hanford subsurface sediment, and Warden soil, an actual Hanford sediment. Following contact with three different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solutions, changes in hydraulic conductivity, porosity, moisture retention, mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, and soil-radionuclide distribution coefficients were determined. Under chemical conditions approaching the most caustic glass leachate conditions predicted in the near-field of the ILAW disposal site, approximated by 0.3 M NaOH, significant changes in mineralogy were observed. The clay minerals of the Hanford sediment evidenced the greatest dissolution thereby increasing the relative proportions of the more resistant minerals, e.g., quartz, feldspar, and calcite, in the remaining mass. Some re-precipitation of solids (mostly amorphous gels) was observed after caustic contact with both solids; these precipitates increased the moisture retention in both sediments, likely because of water retained within the gel coatings. The hydraulic conductivities were slightly lower but, because of experimental artifacts, these reductions should not be considered significant. Thus, there does not seem to be large differences in the hydraulic properties of the quartz sand or Warden silt loam soil after 192 days of contact with caustic fluids similar to glass leachate. The long term projected impact of the increased moisture retention has not been evaluated but likely will not make past simplified performance

  1. A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

  2. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  3. Carbon Tetrachloride Partition Coefficients Measured by Aqueous Sorption to Hanford Sediments from Operable Units 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Riley, Robert G.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Parker, Kent E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.

    2007-09-30

    Kd values obtained on sediment samples from 200-UP-1 and 10-ZP-1 contribute to a larger Kd database that exists for other Hanford sediments, and contains significant desorption data for CCl4. Adsorption results presented here validate the use of a linear adsorption isotherm (Kd) to predict short contact time CCl4 adsorption to sediments in 200-UP-1 groundwater plume for a distinct ranges in CCl4 concentration. However, this does not imply that values of Kd will be constant if the groundwater chemical composition at 200-UP-1 changes with space or time. Additionally, results presented here suggest the potential significance of slower intraparticle diffusion on the long-term fate of CCl4 within the subsurface Hanford environment. Such behavior could afford prolonged desorption of CCl4 and serve as a long-term source of contaminant CCl4 to the aquifer. Further evaluation of possible bimodal sorption behavior for CCl4 and the mechanism of CCl¬4 sequestration should be the subject of future investigations to provide a thorough, mechanistic understanding of the retention and long-term fate of CCl4. Comparison of previous data with new results (e.g., from this study) will allow inferences to be made on how the 200-UP-1 Kd values for CCl4 may compare with sediments from other Hanford locations. This site-specific sorption data, when complemented by the chemical, geologic, mineralogic, hydrologic, and physical characterization data that are also being collected (see Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Monitoring Well Network, DOE 2002) can be used to develop a robust, scientifically defensible data base to allow risk predictions to be generated and to aid in future remediation decisions for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units.

  4. STUDIES ON IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY AND TOXICITY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes. The purpose of this research was to compare the toxicity reduction achieved through several sediment treatments. Sediments ...

  5. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  6. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. In situ mobilization of colloids and transport of cesium in Hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Flury, Markus; Mathison, Jon B; Harsh, James B

    2002-12-15

    Radioactive waste, accumulated during Pu production, has leaked into the subsurface from underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. The leaking solutions contained 137Cs and were of high ionic strength. Such a tank leak was simulated experimentally in steady-state flow experiments with packed Hanford sediments. The initial leak was simulated by a 1 M NaNO3 solution, followed by a decrease of ionic strength to 1 mM NaNO3. Cesium breakthrough curves were determined in both 1 M and 1 mM NaNO3 background. Colloidal particles were mobilized during the change of ionic strength. Mobilized colloids consisted mainly of quartz, mica, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite. Electrophoretic mobilities of colloids in the eluent solution were -3(microm/s)(V/cm) and increased to less negative values during later stages of mobilization. Mobilized colloids carried a fraction of the cesium along. While transport of cesium in 1 M NaNO3 background was much faster than in 1 mM NaNO3, cesium attached to colloids moved almost unretarded through the sediments. Cesium attached to mobilized colloids was likely associated with high affinity sorption sites on micas and illites. PMID:12521158

  8. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SEDIMENTS AT THE SANGAMO-WESTON/TWELVEMILE CREEK/LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural recovery of contaminated sediments relies on burial of contaminated sediments with increasingly clean sediments over time (i.e., natural capping). Natural capping reduces the risk of resuspension of contaminated surface sediments, and it reduces the potential for contamin...

  9. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  10. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  11. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  12. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2013-01-10

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit.

  13. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm - 13235

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2013-07-01

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit. (authors)

  14. Active capping technology: a new environmental remediation of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Zhu, Meng-Ying; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhu; Shen, Liu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    The management and treatment of contaminated sediment is a worldwide problem and poses major technical and economic challenges. Nowadays, various attempts have been committed to investigating a cost-effective way in contaminated sediment restoration. Among the remediation options, in situ capping turns out to be a less expensive, less disruptive, and more durable approach. However, by using the low adsorption capacity materials, traditional caps do not always fulfill the reduction of risks that can be destructive for human health, ecosystem, and even natural resources. Active caps, therefore, are designed to employ active materials (activated carbon, apatite, zeolite, organoclay, etc.) to strengthen their adsorption and degradation capacity. The active capping technology promises to be a permanent and cost-efficient solution to contaminated sediments. This paper provides a review on the types of active materials and the ways of these active materials employed in recent active capping studies. Cap design considerations including site-specific conditions, diffusion/advection, erosive forces, and active material selection that should be noticed in an eligible remediation project are also presented. PMID:26762937

  15. Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: the Sediment Quality Triad approach.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

  16. Distribution and retention of 137Cs in sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington.

    PubMed

    McKinley, J P; Zeissler, C J; Zachara, J M; Serne, R J; Lindstrom, R M; Schaef, H T; Orr, R D

    2001-09-01

    137Cesium and other contaminants have leaked from single-shell storage tanks (SSTs) into coarse-textured, relatively unweathered unconsolidated sediments. Contaminated sediments were retrieved from beneath a leaky SST to investigate the distribution of adsorbed 137Cs+ across different sediment size fractions. All fractions contained mica (biotite, muscovite, vermiculatized biotite), quartz, and plagioclase along with smectite and kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. A phosphor-plate autoradiograph method was used to identify particular sediment particles responsible for retaining 137Cs+. The Cs-bearing particles were found to be individual mica flakes or agglomerated smectite, mica, quartz, and plagioclase. Of these, only the micaceous component was capable of sorbing Cs+ strongly. Sorbed 137Cs+ could not be significantly removed from sediments by leaching with dithionite citrate buffer or KOH, but a fraction of the sorbed 137Cs+ (5-22%) was desorbable with solutions containing an excess of Rb+. The small amount of 137Cs+ that might be mobilized by migrating fluids in the future would likely sorb to nearby micaceous clasts in downgradient sediments. PMID:11563643

  17. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  18. Assessing Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved PAHs and PCBs in the water column prior...

  19. Investigation of the Strontium-90 Contaminant Plume along the Shoreline of the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Patton, Gregory W.; Hartman, Mary J.; Spane, Frank A.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts are underway to remediate strontium-laden groundwater to the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Past practices of the 100-N reactor liquid waste disposal sites has left strontium-90 sorbed onto sediments which is a continuing source of contaminant discharge to the river. The Remediation Task of the Science and Technology Project assessed the interaction of groundwater and river water at the hyporheic zone. Limited data have been obtained at this interface of contaminant concentrations, geology, groundwater chemistry, affects of river stage and other variables that may affect strontium-90 release. Efforts were also undertaken to determine the extent, both laterally and horizontally, of the strontium-90 plume along the shoreline and to potentially find an alternative constituent to monitor strontium-90 that would be more cost effective and could possibly be done under real time conditions. A baseline of strontium-90 concentrations along the shoreline was developed to help assess remediation technologies.

  20. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  1. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  2. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ali, Bibi Noorarlijannah; Lin, Chin Yik; Cleophas, Fera; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Musta, Baba

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the Mamut river sediments and evaluate the degree of contamination of the river polluted by a disused copper mine. Based on the analytical results, copper showed the highest concentration in most of the river samples. A comparison with Interim Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (ICSQG) and Germany Sediment Quality Guidelines (GSQG) indicated that the sediment samples in all the sampling stations, except Mamut river control site (M1), exceeded the limit established for Cu, Ni, and Pb. On the contrary, Zn concentrations were reported well below the guidelines limit (ICSQG and GSQG). Mineralogical analysis indicated that the Mamut river sediments were primarily composed of quartz and accessory minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrite, edenite, kaolinite, mica, and muscovite, reflected by the geological character of the study area. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Igeo values indicated that all the sites were strongly polluted with the studied metals in most sampling stations, specifically those located along the Mamut main stream. The enrichment factor with value greater than 1.5 suggested that the source of heavy metals was mainly derived from anthropogenic activity such as mining. The degree of metal changes (δfold) revealed that Cu concentration in the river sediments has increased as much as 20 to 38 folds since the preliminary investigation conducted in year 2004. PMID:25471626

  3. Correlations Between Physical and Hydraulic Properties and Uranium Desorption in Contaminated, Intact Sediment Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockhold, M. L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T. W.; Zachara, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    An unlined disposal pond in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site received uranium-bearing liquid effluents associated with nuclear reactor fuel rod processing from 1943 to 1975. Contaminated sediments from the base and sides of the former pond were excavated and removed from the site in the early 1990s, but a uranium plume has persisted in the groundwater at concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard. The former process pond is located adjacent to the Columbia River and seasonal fluctuations in the river stage and water table provide a mechanism for resupplying residual uranium from the vadose zone to the groundwater when the lower vadose zone is periodically rewetted. Intact cores were collected from the site for measurements of physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties. Multistep outflow experiments were also performed on the intact cores to determine permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations. Pore water displaced during these experiments for two of the vadose zone cores was also analyzed for uranium. For a core containing finer-textured sediment classified as muddy sandy gravel, and a core containing coarser-textured sediment classified as gravel, the relative aqueous uranium concentrations increased by factors of 8.3 and 1.5, respectively, as the cores were desaturated and progressively smaller pore-size classes were drained. Aqueous concentrations of uranium in the extracted pore waters were up to 115 times higher than the current drinking water standard of 30 ppb. These results confirm that there is a continuing source of uranium in the vadose zone at the site, and are consistent with a hypothesis that the persistence of the groundwater uranium plume is also associated, in part, with rate-limited mass transfer from finer-textured sediments. The data from these and several other intact cores from the site are evaluated to explore relationships between physical and hydraulic properties and uranium desorption characteristics.

  4. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Timothy D; Waite, Ian R; Nilsen, Elena B; Hardiman, Jill M; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D

    2014-06-15

    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus-PCP-PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus-PCP-PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest downstream

  5. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  6. Technical letter report: Submerged bed scrubber sediment resuspension testing for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Herrington, M.G.

    1996-03-01

    During-vitrification operations in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), some feed components will be vented from the melter to the melter offgas cleaning equipment. The current HWVP reference process for melter off.-gas treatment includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS) to provide the first stage of off-gas scrubbing and quenching. During most melter/off-gas test runs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with the Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), no significant quantities of sedimentation were accumulated in the SBS scrub tank. However, during test run SF-12, conducted at West Valley, approximately 6 in. of sedimentation accumulated in the scrub tank. This raised concerns that a similar accumulation could occur with the HWVP SBS, If such an accumulation rate occurred during a sustained melter run, the SBS would soon cease to function. To alleviate the potential for sedimentation buildup, the HWVP SBS design includes a sparge ring at the bottom of the scrub tank. The sparge ring will be operated intermittently to prevent buildup of solids which could interfere with circulation with the SBS Scrub tank. This report presents the results of testing conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the HWVP sparge ring design. Section 2 contains-the conclusions and recommendations; Section 3 summarizes the objectives; Section 4 describes the equipment and materials used; Section 5 gives the experimental approach; and Section 6 discusses the results. The appendices contain procedures for sediment resuspension testing and particle size distribution data for silica and sediment.

  7. Development, Evaluation, and Application of Sediment Quality Targets for Assessing and Managing Contaminated Sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Carr, R.S.; Eckenrod, D.; Greening, H.; Grabe, S.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Janicki, S.; Janicki, T.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Long, E.R.; Pribble, R.; Sloane, G.; Smorong, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a large, urban estuary that is located in west central Florida. Although water quality conditions represent an important concern in this estuary, information from numerous sources indicates that sediment contamination also has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms, aquatic-dependent wildlife, and human health. As such, protecting relatively uncontaminated areas of the bay from contamination and reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in contaminated sediments have been identified as high-priority sediment management objectives for Tampa Bay. To address concerns related to sediment contamination in the bay, an ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing sediment quality conditions was developed that included identification of sediment quality issues and concerns, development of ecosystem goals and objectives, selection of ecosystem health indicators, establishment of metrics and targets for key indicators, and incorporation of key indicators, metrics, and targets into watershed management plans and decision-making processes. This paper describes the process that was used to select and evaluate numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for assessing and managing contaminated sediments. These SQTs included measures of sediment chemistry, whole-sediment and pore-water toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. In addition, the paper describes how the SQTs were used to develop site-specific concentration-response models that describe how the frequency of adverse biological effects changes with increasing concentrations of chemicals of potential concern. Finally, a key application of the SQTs for defining sediment management areas is discussed.

  8. INNOVATIVE IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF CONTAMINATION AND EROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-11-28

    New technologies are needed that neutralize contaminant toxicity and control physical transport mechanisms that mobilize sediment contaminants. The last 12 months of this comprehensive project investigated the use of combinations of sequestering agents to develop in situ active sediment caps that stabilize mixtures of contaminants and act as a barrier to mechanical disturbance under a broad range of environmental conditions. Efforts focused on the selection of effective sequestering agents for use in active caps, the composition of active caps, and the effects of active cap components on contaminant bioavailability and retention. Results from this project showed that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective at removing metals from both fresh and salt water. These amendments also exhibited high retention (80% or more) of most metals indicating reduced potential for remobilization to the water column. Experiments on metal speciation and retention in contaminated sediment showed that apatite and organoclay can immobilize a broad range of metals under both reduced and oxidized conditions. These studies were followed by sequential extractions to evaluate the bioavailability and retention of metals in treated sediments. Metal fractions recovered in early extraction steps are more likely to be bioavailable and were termed the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF). Less bioavailable fractions collected in later extraction steps were termed the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). Apatite and organoclay reduced the PMF and increased the RF for several elements, especially Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd. Empirically determined partitioning coefficients and modeling studies were used to assess the retention of organic contaminants on selected sequestering agents. Organoclays exhibited exceptionally high sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicated by a comparison of K{sub d} values among 12 amendments. These results suggested that

  9. Quantifying particulate and colloidal release of radionuclides in waste-weathered hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Thompson, Aaron; LaSharr, Kelsie; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Chorover, Jon

    2015-05-01

    At the Hanford Site in the state of Washington, leakage of hyperalkaline, high ionic strength wastewater from underground storage tanks into the vadose zone has induced mineral transformations and changes in radionuclide speciation. Remediation of this wastewater will decrease the ionic strength of water infiltrating to the vadose zone and could affect the fate of the radionuclides. Although it was shown that radionuclide host phases are thermodynamically stable in the presence of waste fluids, a decrease in solution ionic strength and pH could alter aggregate stability and remobilize radionuclide-bearing colloids and particulate matter. We quantified the release of particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved Sr, Cs, and I from hyperalkaline-weathered Hanford sediments during a low ionic strength pore water leach and characterized the released particles and colloids using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Although most of the Sr, Cs, and I was released in dissolved form, between 3 and 30% of the Sr and 4 to 18% of the Cs was associated with a dominantly zeolitic mobile particulate fraction. Thus, the removal of hyperalkaline wastewater will likely induce Sr and Cs mobilization that will be augmented by particulate- and colloid-facilitated transport. PMID:26024274

  10. Quantification of thorium and uranium sorption to contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-08-01

    Desorption tests using a sequential extraction method were used to characterize and quantify thorium and uranium sorption to contaminated wetland sediments collected from the Savannah River Site located in South Carolina. In situ distribution coefficients, or Kd values (Kd equal to Csolid/Cliquid), were determined. A problem associated with determining desorption Kd values is that it is difficult to identify Csolid, because by definition it must comprise only the fraction that is reversibly (and linearly) sorbed. A series of selective and sequential extractions was used to determine desorption Kd values. Thorium Kd values ranged from 115 to 2255 mL/g. Uranium Kd values ranged from 170 to 6493 mL/g. Compared to sorption Kd values, these desorption Kd values were appreciably greater because they captured the ``aging'' process of the radionuclides with the sediment, making the radionuclide more refractory. Compared to nonsite-specific data, these in situ Kd values improved accuracy, were more defensible, reduced uncertainty, and removed unnecessary conservatism for subsequent transport and risk calculations. Additional tests were conducted to provide geochemical information relevant for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for the contaminated site. Thorium and U were associated with labile fractions and were not concentrated with the smaller sediment particles. These findings suggest that phytoremediation or heap leaching, and not soil washing, are viable remediation approaches for this site.

  11. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  12. Assessing sediment connectivity to understand dynamics of contaminated sediment within coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Ottlé, Catherine; Brossoni, Camille; Lefèvre, Irène; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe; Patin, Jeremy; Ayrault, Sophie

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has led to the release of large radionuclide quantities (e.g., about 20 PBq of Cs-137 and 200 PBq of I-131) into the atmosphere. About 80% of the release was blown out and over the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 20% of emissions were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture, mainly between 15-16 March. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by runoff and erosion processes. A spatial analysis of Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio in soils and river sediments provided a way to trace those transfers. This fingerprinting study showed that particles eroded from inland mountain ranges exposed to the highest initial radionuclide fallout were already dispersed along coastal rivers, most likely during summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. Those results suggest that hillslopes and rivers have become a perennial source of radioactive contaminants to the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima Prefecture. This study aims to specify the location and nature of the preferential sources supplying contaminated material to the main rivers draining the Fukushima contamination plume. To this end, important parameters controlling soil erosion and sediment transfers within catchments, i.e. landscape morphology and land use characteristics, were preliminary derived from DEM data and satellite images for the River Mano, Nitta and Ota catchments (ca. 525 km²) draining the most radioactive part of the contamination plume that formed across Fukushima Prefecture. Then, those data were used to compute indices assessing the potential sediment connectivity (i) between hillslopes and rivers and (ii) between hillslopes and catchment outlets. Finally, spatially-distributed values of connectivity indices were confronted to gamma-emitting radionuclide activities (Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ag-110m) measured in riverbed

  13. TESTING ACUTE TOXICITY OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT IN JINZHOU BAY WITH MARINE AMPHIPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments in some areas of Jinzhou Bay are contaminated seriously by heavy metals and organic contaminants. To assess the biological effects of these compounds in the sediment, seven surface samples of sediment were collected at an interval of about 2km between sampling stations ...

  14. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: State of the science for organic contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lydy, Michael J; Landrum, Peter F; Oen, Amy MP; Allinson, Mayumi; Smedes, Foppe; Harwood, Amanda D; Li, Huizhen; Maruya, Keith A; Liu, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript surveys the literature on passive sampler methods (PSMs) used in contaminated sediments to assess the chemical activity of organic contaminants. The chemical activity in turn dictates the reactivity and bioavailability of contaminants in sediment. Approaches to measure specific binding of compounds to sediment components, for example, amorphous carbon or specific types of reduced carbon, and the associated partition coefficients are difficult to determine, particularly for native sediment. Thus, the development of PSMs that represent the chemical activity of complex compound–sediment interactions, expressed as the freely dissolved contaminant concentration in porewater (Cfree), offer a better proxy for endpoints of concern, such as reactivity, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Passive sampling methods have estimated Cfree using both kinetic and equilibrium operating modes and used various polymers as the sorbing phase, for example, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, and polyoxymethylene in various configurations, such as sheets, coated fibers, or vials containing thin films. These PSMs have been applied in laboratory exposures and field deployments covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A wide range of calibration conditions exist in the literature to estimate Cfree, but consensus values have not been established. The most critical criteria are the partition coefficient between water and the polymer phase and the equilibrium status of the sampler. In addition, the PSM must not appreciably deplete Cfree in the porewater. Some of the future challenges include establishing a standard approach for PSM measurements, correcting for nonequilibrium conditions, establishing guidance for selection and implementation of PSMs, and translating and applying data collected by PSMs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:167–178. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  15. Mycodiversity in marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotti, Mirca; Carbone, Cristina; Cecchi, Grazia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Di Piazza, Simone; Gabutto, Giacomo; Greco, Giuseppe; Vagge, Greta; Capello, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Fungi represent the main decomposers of woody and herbaceous substrates in the marine ecosystems. To date there is a gap in the knowledge about the global diversity and distribution of fungi in marine habitats. On the basis of their biological diversity and their role in ecosystem processes, marine fungi may be considered one of the most attractive groups of organisms in modern biotechnology, e.g. ecotoxic metal bioaccumulation. Here we report the data about the first mycological survey in the metal contaminated coastal sediments of the Gromolo Bay. The latter is located in Ligurian Sea (Eastern Liguria, Italy) and is characterized by an enrichment of heavy metals due to pollution of Gromolo Torrent by acidic processes that interest Fe-Cu sulphide mine. 24 samples of marine sediments were collected along a linear plot in front of the shoreline in July 2015. Each sample was separated into three aliquot for mineralogical, chemical analyses and fungal characterization. The sediment samples are characterised by clay fractions (illite and chlorite), minerals of ophiolitic rocks (mainly serpentine, pyroxene and plagioclase) and quartz and are enriched some chemical elements of environmental importance (such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As). For fungal characterisation the sediment samples were inoculated in Petri dishes on different culture media (Malt Extract Agar and Rose Bengal) prepared with sea water and added with antibiotics. The inoculated dishes were incubated at 20°C in the dark for 28 days. Every week fungal growth was monitored counting the number of colonies. Later, the colonies were isolated in axenic culture for further molecular analysis. The mycodiversity evaluate on the basis of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and microfungal-morphotype characterised by macro-and micro-morphology. Until now on the 72 Petri dishes inoculated 112 CFU of filamentous fungi were counted, among these about 50 morphotypes were characterized. The quantitative results show a mean value of 4

  16. Developmental toxicity of lead contaminated sediment to mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 I?g/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  17. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 ug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  18. Bioavailability Assessment of a Contaminated Field Sediment from Patrick Bayou, Texas, USA: Toxicity Identification Evaluation and Equilibrium Partitioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. At sufficiently high contaminant levels, sediments can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms and impair benthic communities. As a result, remediation is necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity become...

  19. Fe-phyllosilicate redox cycling organisms from a redox transition zone in Hanford 300 Area sediments

    PubMed Central

    Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Kennedy, David W.; McKinley, James P.; Lin, Xueju; Roden, Eric E.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of reducing or oxidizing structural iron (Fe) in Fe-bearing phyllosilicate minerals were enriched and isolated from a subsurface redox transition zone at the Hanford 300 Area site in eastern Washington, USA. Both conventional and in situ “i-chip” enrichment strategies were employed. One Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter (G. bremensis strain R1, Deltaproteobacteria) and six Fe(II) phyllosilicate-oxidizing isolates from the Alphaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains 22, is5, and in8p8), Betaproteobacteria (Cupriavidus necator strain A5-1, Dechloromonas agitata strain is5), and Actinobacteria (Nocardioides sp. strain in31) were recovered. The G. bremensis isolate grew by oxidizing acetate with the oxidized form of NAu-2 smectite as the electron acceptor. The Fe(II)-oxidizers grew by oxidation of chemically reduced smectite as the energy source with nitrate as the electron acceptor. The Bradyrhizobium isolates could also carry out aerobic oxidation of biotite. This is the first report of the recovery of a Fe(II)-oxidizing Nocardioides, and to date only one other Fe(II)-oxidizing Bradyrhizobium is known. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were similar to ones found in clone libraries from Hanford 300 sediments and groundwater, suggesting that such organisms may be present and active in situ. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates is underway, the results of which will enable comparative genomic analysis of mechanisms of extracellular phyllosilicate Fe redox metabolism, and facilitate development of techniques to detect the presence and expression of genes associated with microbial phyllosilicate Fe redox cycling in sediments. PMID:24379809

  20. Fe-phyllosilicate redox cycling organisms from a redox transition zone in Hanford 300 Area sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Benzine, Jason; Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Xiong, Mai Yia; Kennedy, David W.; McKinley, James P.; Lin, Xueju; Roden, Eric E.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of reducing or oxidizing structural iron (Fe) in Fe-bearing phyllosilicate minerals were enriched and isolated from a subsurface redox transition zone at the Hanford 300 Area site in eastern Washington, USA. Both conventional and in situ "i-chip" enrichment strategies were employed. One Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter (G. bremensis strain R1, Deltaproteobacteria) and six Fe(II) phyllosilicate-oxidizing isolates from the Alphaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains 22, is5, and in8p8), Betaproteobacteria (Cupriavidus necator strain A5-1, Dechloromonas agitata strain is5), and Actinobacteria (Nocardioides sp. strain in31) were recovered. The G. bremensis isolate grew by oxidizing acetate with the oxidized form of NAu-2 smectite as the electron acceptor. The Fe(II)-oxidizers grew by oxidation of chemically reduced smectite as the energy source with nitrate as the electron acceptor. The Bradyrhizobium isolates could also carry out aerobic oxidation of biotite. This is the first report of the recovery of a Fe(II)-oxidizing Nocardioides, and to date only one other Fe(II)-oxidizing Bradyrhizobium is known. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were similar to ones found in clone libraries from Hanford 300 sediments and groundwater, suggesting that such organisms may be present and active in situ. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates is underway, the results of which will enable comparative genomic analysis of mechanisms of extracellular phyllosilicate Fe redox metabolism, and facilitate development of techniques to detect the presence and expression of genes associated with microbial phyllosilicate Fe redox cycling in sediments.

  1. COLLOID GENESIS/TRANSPORT AND FLOW PATHWAY ALTERATIONS RESULTING FROM INTERACTIONS OF REACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS AND HANFORD VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hanford Site was one of the DOE's major nuclear weapons production sites from 1940 to 1989. Over time, 67 of the 149 single-shell tanks have leaked or are suspected of having leaked [1]. Contaminants such as 99Tc and U have been found in elevated concentrations in the vados...

  2. Rate of mercury loss from contaminated estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Jahnke, R.A.; Peterson, M.L.; Carpenter, R.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of mercury in contaminated estuarine sediments of Bellingham Bay, Washington was found to decrease with a half-time of about 1.3 yr after the primary anthropogenic source of mercury was removed. In situ measurements of the mercury flux from sediments, in both dissolved and volatile forms, could not account for this decrease. This result suggests that the removal of mercury is associated with sediment particles transported out of the study area. This decrease was modeled using a steady-state mixing model. Mercury concentrations in anoxic interstitial waters reached 3.5 ??g/l, 126 times higher than observed in the overlying seawater. Mercury fluxes from these sediments ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 ?? 10-5 ng/cm2/sec, all in a soluble form. In general, higher Hg fluxes were associated with low oxygen or reducing conditions in the overlying seawater. In contrast, no flux was measurable from oxidizing interstitial water having mercury concentrations of 0.01-0.06 ??/l. ?? 1980.

  3. Electro-bioremediation of contaminated sediment by electrode enhanced capping.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Reible, Danny

    2015-05-15

    In-situ capping often eliminates or slows natural degradation of hydrocarbon due to the reducing conditions in the sediments. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate a reactive capping technique, an electrode enhanced cap, to produce favorable conditions for hydrocarbon degradation and evaluate this reactive capping technique for contaminated sediment remediation. Two graphite electrodes were placed horizontally at different layers in a cap and connected to external power of 2 V. Redox potentials increased and pH decreased around the anode. Phenanthrene concentration decreased and PAH degradation genes increased in the vicinity of the anode. Phenanthrene concentrations at 0-1 cm sediment beneath the anode decreased to ∼50% of initial concentration over ∼70 days, while phenanthrene levels in control reactor kept unchanged. A degradation model of electrode enhanced capping was developed to simulate reaction-diffusion processes, and model results show that a reaction-dominated region was created in the vicinity of the anode. Although the degradation dominated region was thin, transport processes in a sediment cap environment are typically sufficiently slow to allow this layer to serve as a permeable reactive barrier for hydrocarbon decontamination. PMID:25819321

  4. Use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize bottom sediments and guide sampling and remediation of organic contaminants in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael A; Conkle, Jeremy L; Pacheco, Porfirio; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    Sampling of bed sediment for contamination characterization is often limited by the heterogeneity in sediment properties and distribution. In this study, we explored the use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize sediment properties and guide sediment sampling in a small lake contaminated by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs. A dual frequency hydroacoustic survey was conducted to characterize sediment properties, distribution, and thickness in McGrath Lake, near Ventura, CA. Based upon these results, sediment core samples were collected from 15 sites on the lake, and sectioned into 20 cm intervals for sediment characterization and analysis of OCPs and PCBs. Very high concentrations of total DDT and total chlordane were found in the sediments, with mean values of 919 and 34.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of OCPs were highest at 60-80 cm depth near the inflow at the north end of the lake. Total PCB concentrations were much lower (mean concentration of 4.5 ng g(-1)). Using the hydroacoustic and chemical data, it was estimated that nearly 30,000 m(3) of DDT- and chlordane-contaminated sediment (above effects range median values) was present in the uppermost 1.2 m of sediment in the lake. A hydroacoustic survey can be a valuable tool used to delineate sediment distribution in a lake, identify areas with deeper organic sediment where hydrophobic contaminants would likely be found, and guide sampling. Sampling and chemical analyses are nonetheless needed to quantify contaminant levels in bottom sediments. When combined with hydroacoustic measurements, this approach can reasonably estimate the distributions and volumes of contaminated sediment important in the development of remediation strategies. PMID:23644565

  5. Mineralogic Residence and Desorption Rates of Sorbed 90Sr in Contaminated Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Future Behavior and In-Ground Stability

    SciTech Connect

    PIs: John M. Zachara; Jim P. McKinley; S. M. Heald; Chongxuan Liu; Peter C. Lichtner

    2006-06-01

    The project is investigating the adsorption/desorption process of 90Sr in coarse-textured pristine and contaminated Hanford sediment with the goal to define a generalized reaction-based model for use in reactive transport calculations. While it is known that sorbed 90Sr exists in an ion exchangeable state, the mass action relationships that control the solid-liquid distribution and the mineral phases responsible for adsorption have not been defined. Many coarse-textured Hanford sediment display significant sorptivity for 90Sr, but contain few if any fines that may harbor phyllosilicates with permanent negative charge and associated cation exchange capacity. Moreover, it is not known whether the adsorption-desorption process exhibits time dependence within context of transport, and if so, the causes for kinetic behavior.

  6. DIETARY ACCUMULATION OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SOURCE BY A DEMERSAL FISH ('LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation and dietary transfer of PCBs from contaminated harbor sediments were studied in a laboratory food chain. Results demonstrate that contaminated sediments serve as a source of PCBs for uptake and trophic transfer in marine systems. Fish exposed to PCB-contaminated sedi...

  7. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources. PMID:16096501

  8. Cesium migration in Hanford sediment: a multisite cation exchange model based on laboratory transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steefel, Carl I.; Carroll, Susan; Zhao, Pihong; Roberts, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    Cs + transport experiments carried out in columns packed with uncontaminated Hanford formation sediment from the SX tank farm provide strong support for the use of a multisite, multicomponent cation exchange model to describe Cs + migration in the Hanford vadose zone. The experimental results indicate a strong dependence of the effective Cs +Kd on the concentrations of other cations, including Na + that is present at high to extremely high concentrations in fluids leaking from the Hanford SX tanks. A strong dependence of the Cs +Kd on the aqueous Cs + concentration is also apparent, with retardation of Cs + increasing from a value of 41 at a Cs + concentration of 10 -4 M in the feed solution to as much as 282 at a Cs + concentration of 5×10 -7 M, all in a background of 1 M NaNO 3. The total cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the Hanford sediment was determined using 22Na isotopic equilibrium exchange in a flow-through column experiment. The value for the CEC of 120 μeq/g determined with this method is compatible with a value of 121.9 μeq/g determined by multi-cation elution. While two distinct exchange sites were proposed by Zachara et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66 (2002) 193] based on binary batch exchange experiments, a third site is proposed in this study to improve the fit of the Cs +-Na + and Cs +-Ca + exchange data and to capture self-sharpened Cs + breakthrough curves at low concentrations of Cs +. Two of the proposed exchange sites represent frayed edge sites (FES) on weathered micas and constitute 0.02% and 0.22% of the total CEC. Both of the FES show a very strong selectivity for Cs + over Na + ( KNa-Cs=10 7.22 and 10 4.93, respectively). The third site, accounting for over 99% of the total CEC, is associated with planar sites on expansible clays and shows a smaller Na +-Cs + selectivity coefficient of 10 1.99. Parameters derived from a fit of binary batch experiments alone tend to under predict Cs + retardation in the column experiments. The

  9. Cesium migration in Hanford sediment: a multisite cation exchange model based on laboratory transport experiments.

    PubMed

    Steefel, Carl I; Carroll, Susan; Zhao, Pihong; Roberts, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    Cs+ transport experiments carried out in columns packed with uncontaminated Hanford formation sediment from the SX tank farm provide strong support for the use of a multisite, multicomponent cation exchange model to describe Cs+ migration in the Hanford vadose zone. The experimental results indicate a strong dependence of the effective Cs+ Kd on the concentrations of other cations, including Na+ that is present at high to extremely high concentrations in fluids leaking from the Hanford SX tanks. A strong dependence of the Cs+ Kd on the aqueous Cs+ concentration is also apparent, with retardation of Cs+ increasing from a value of 41 at a Cs+ concentration of 10(-4) M in the feed solution to as much as 282 at a Cs+ concentration of 5x10(-7) M, all in a background of 1 M NaNO3. The total cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the Hanford sediment was determined using 22Na isotopic equilibrium exchange in a flow-through column experiment. The value for the CEC of 120 microeq/g determined with this method is compatible with a value of 121.9 microeq/g determined by multi-cation elution. While two distinct exchange sites were proposed by Zachara et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66 (2002) 193] based on binary batch exchange experiments, a third site is proposed in this study to improve the fit of the Cs+-Na+ and Cs+-Ca+ exchange data and to capture self-sharpened Cs+ breakthrough curves at low concentrations of Cs+. Two of the proposed exchange sites represent frayed edge sites (FES) on weathered micas and constitute 0.02% and 0.22% of the total CEC. Both of the FES show a very strong selectivity for Cs+ over Na+ (K(Na-Cs)=10(7.22) and 10(4.93), respectively). The third site, accounting for over 99% of the total CEC, is associated with planar sites on expansible clays and shows a smaller Na+-Cs+ selectivity coefficient of 10(1.99). Parameters derived from a fit of binary batch experiments alone tend to under predict Cs+ retardation in the column experiments. The transport

  10. Sorption of Cs + to micaceous subsurface sediments from the Hanford site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, John M.; Smith, Steven C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Gassman, Paul L.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of Cs + was investigated over a large concentration range (10 -9-10 -2 mol/L) on subsurface sediments from a United States nuclear materials site (Hanford) where high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) have been accidentally released to the vadose zone. The sediment sorbs large amounts of radiocesium, but expedited migration has been observed when HLW (a NaNO 3 brine) is the carrier. Cs + sorption was measured on homoionic sediments (Na +, K +, Ca 2+) with electrolyte concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 mol/L. In Na + electrolyte, concentrations were extended to near saturation with NaNO 3(s) (7.0 mol/L). The sediment contained nonexpansible (biotite, muscovite) and expansible (vermiculite, smectite) phyllosilicates. The sorption data were interpreted according to the frayed edge-planar site conceptual model. A four-parameter, two-site (high- and low-affinity) numeric ion exchange model was effective in describing the sorption data. The high-affinity sites were ascribed to wedge zones on the micas where particle edges have partially expanded due to the removal of interlayer cations during weathering, and the low-affinity ones to planar sites on the expansible clays. The electrolyte cations competed with Cs + for both high- and low-affinity sites according to the trend K + >> Na + ≥ Ca 2+. At high salt concentration, Cs + adsorption occurred only on high-affinity sites. Na + was an effective competitor for the high-affinity sites at high salt concentrations. In select experiments, silver-thiourea (AgTU) was used as a blocking agent to further isolate and characterize the high-affinity sites, but the method was found to be problematic. Mica particles were handpicked from the sediment, contacted with Cs +(aq), and analyzed by electron microprobe to identify phases and features important to Cs + sorption. The microprobe study implied that biotite was the primary contributor of high-affinity sites because of its weathered periphery. The poly-phase sediment

  11. Sorption of Cs+ to Micaceous Subsurface Sediments from the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Smith, Steven C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Gassman, Paul L.

    2002-01-15

    The sorption of Cs{sup +} was investigated over a large concentration range (10{sup -9}-10{sup -2} mol/L) on subsurface sediments from a United States nuclear materials site (Hanford) where high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) have been accidentally released to the vadose zone. The sediment sorbs large amounts of radiocesium, but expedited migration has been observed when HLW (a NaNO{sub 3} brine) is the carrier. Cs{sup +} sorption was measured on homoionic sediments (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}) with electrolyte concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 mol/L. In Na{sup +} electrolyte, concentrations were extended to near saturation with NaNO{sub 3(s)} (7.0 mol/L). The sediment contained nonexpansible (biotite, muscovite) and expansible (vermiculite, smectite) phyllosilicates. The sorption data were interpreted according to the frayed edge-planar site conceptual model. A four-parameter, two-site (high- and low-affinity) numeric ion exchange model was effective in describing the sorption data. The high-affinity sites were ascribed to wedge zones on the micas where particle edges have partially expanded due to the removal of interlayer cations during weathering, and the low-affinity ones to planar sites on the expansible clays. The electrolyte cations competed with Cs{sup +} for both high- and low-affinity sites according to the trend K{sup +} >> Na{sup +} {ge} Ca{sup 2+}. At high salt concentration, Cs{sup +} adsorption occurred only on high-affinity sites. Na{sup +} was an effective competitor for the high-affinity sites at high salt concentrations. In select experiments, silver-thiourea (AgTU) was used as a blocking agent to further isolate and characterize the high-affinity sites, but the method was found to be problematic. Mica particles were handpicked from the sediment, contacted with Cs{sub eq}{sup +}, and analyzed by electron microprobe to identify phases and features important to Cs{sup +} sorption. The microprobe study implied that biotite was the primary

  12. TXRF analysis of soils and sediments to assess environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Cazzago, Davide; Zacco, Annalisa; Bontempi, Elza; Guarneri, Rita; Bernardello, Marco; Attuati, Silvia; Lazo, Pranvera; Depero, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) is proposed for the elemental chemical analysis of crustal environmental samples, such as sediments and soils. A comparative study of TXRF with respect to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was performed. Microwave acid digestion and suspension preparation methods are evaluated. A good agreement was found among the results obtained with different spectroscopic techniques and sample preparation methods for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn. We demonstrated that TXRF is suitable for the assessment of environmental contamination phenomena, even if the errors for Pb, As, V, and Ba are ingent. PMID:24122164

  13. Immobilization of U(VI) from oxic groundwater by Hanford 300 Area sediments and effects of Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bulbul; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; Fredrickson, Jim K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (∼7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (∼93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water

  14. Immobilization of U(VI) from Oxic Groundwater by Hanford 300 Area Sediments and Effects of Columbia River Water

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-23

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (~7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (~93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water

  15. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  16. Influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on uranium(VI) sorption to a hanford subsurface sediment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M

    2005-10-15

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] = 10(-7)-10(-5) mol/L and final pH = 6.0-10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4 +/- 0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3(0)(aq) at pH < 8.4 and thatformation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3(0)(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3(4-) in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity. PMID:16295860

  17. Sorption and Transport of Iodine Species in Sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Moran, J; Seaman, J

    2004-05-20

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we focused on the sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. We conducted both column and batch experiments to investigate the sorption and transport behavior of iodine, and the sediments we examined exhibit a wide range in organic matter, clay mineralogy, soil pH, and texture. The results of our experiments illustrate complex behavior with various processes occurring, including iodate reduction, irreversible retention or mass loss of iodide, and rate-limited and nonlinear sorption. There was an appreciable iodate reduction to iodide, presumably mediated by the structural Fe(II) in some clay minerals; therefore, careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. The different iodine species exhibited dramatically different sorption and transport behavior in three sediment samples collected from different depths at the Savannah River Site. This indicates that, when anthropogenic {sup 129}I is deposited on the surface at this site, the different iodine species will have different residence times as they migrate through the various sediment regimes. Our study results yielded additional insight into processes and mechanisms affecting the geochemical cycling of iodine in the environment, and provided quantitative estimates of key parameters (e.g., extent and rate of sorption) for risk assessment at these sites.

  18. Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M.

    2005-10-15

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] - 10-7-10-5 mol/L and final pH - 6.0-10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4-0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) at pH<8.4 and that formation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3 4- in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity.

  19. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr

  20. Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

  1. Monitoring and modeling contaminated sediment transport in the White Oak Creek watershed. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 47 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of the White Oak Creek drainage system. The containments presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in White Oak Creek. During floods, the erosion of these sediments results in the transport of contaminants out of the catchment into the Clinch River. A long-term strategy is required to monitor the movement of contaminated sediments and to predict the transport of these sediments that could occur during major floods. A monitoring program will provide the information required to (1) evaluate the existing off-site transport of contaminated sediments, (2) evaluate the need for short-term control measures, (3) set priorities for remediation of contaminated areas in White Oak Creek (4) verify the success of completed remedial actions intended to control the movement of contaminated sediments, and (5) develop a computer model to simulate the transport of contaminated sediments in White Oak Creek. A contaminant-transport model will be developed to (1) evaluate the potential for the off-site transport of contaminated sediments during major floods, (2) develop long term control measures and remediation solutions, (3) predict the impact of future land-use changes in White Oak Creek on the transport of contaminated sediment. This report contains a plan for the monitoring and modeling activities required to accomplish these objectives.

  2. Assessing organic contaminant fluxes from contaminated sediments following dam removal in an urbanized river.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Mark G; Perron, Monique M; Sullivan, Julia C; Katz, David R; Burgess, Robert M; King, John

    2014-08-01

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column prior to and following removal of a small, low-head dam in the Pawtuxet River, an urbanized river located in Cranston, RI, USA. During the study, concentrations of particulate and dissolved PAHs ranged from 21.5 to 103 μg/g and from 68 to 164 ng/L, respectively. Overall, temporal trends of PAHs showed no increases in either dissolved or particulate phases following removal of the dam. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs were very low, remaining below 1.72 ng/L at all sites. Particulate PCB concentrations across sites and time showed slightly greater variability, ranging from 80 to 469 ng/g, but with no indication that dam removal influenced any increases. Particulate PAHs and PCBs were sampled continuously at the site located below the dam and did not show sustained increases in concentration resulting from dam removal. The employment of passive sampling technology and sediment traps was highly effective in monitoring the concentrations and flux of contaminants moving through the river system. Variations in river flow had no effect on the concentration of contaminants in the dissolved or particulate phases, but did influence the flux rate of contaminants exiting the river. Overall, dam removal did not cause measurable sediment disturbance or increase the concentration or fluxes of dissolved or particulate PAHs and PCBs. This is due in large part to low volumes of impounded sediment residing above the dam and highly armored sediments in the river channel, which limited erosion. Results from this study will be used to improve methods and approaches that assess the short- and long-term impacts ecological restoration activities such as

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONTAMINANTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...

  4. ISSUES IN ASSESSING LOW LEVEL IONIZABLE CONTAMINANT PARTITIONING IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solubilization has profound implications for such diverse risk assessment activities as assessing sediment contaminant porewater exposures to benthic fauna, determining half lives of refractory toxicants in natural soils and sediments, and assessing the fate and transport of th...

  5. ANNUAL REPORT. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is testing the hypothesis that clastic dikes at the Hanford Site provide preferential pathways that enhance the vertical movement of moisture and contaminants through the vadose zone. Current flow and transport models of the vadose zone at the 200 Areas are based on...

  6. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) sorption to Hanford sediment with varying geochemical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-04-11

    A series of U(VI) adsorption experiments with varying pH, ionic strength, concentrations of dissolved U(VI) and carbonate was conducted to provide a more realistic database for U(VI) adsorption onto near-field vadose zone sediments at the proposed Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) on the Hanford Site. The distribution coefficient, Kd, for U(VI) in predicted “pure” glass leachate is 0 mL/g because the glass leachate has high sodium and carbonate concentrations and high pH. The zero adsorption result suggests that uranium will exhibit no retardation when the subsurface geochemistry is controlled by glass leachate. However, U(VI) can be sequestrated even when the pH, carbonate and sodium concentrations reached levels similar to “pure” glass leachate, because U(VI) coprecipitates with calcite. When glass leachate interacts with existing porewater or surrounding sediments, sorption is observed and the numerical value of the U(VI) Kd varies significantly. A non-electrostatic, general composite approach for surface complexation modeling was applied and a combination of two U(VI) surface species, monodentate (SOUO2+) and bidentate (SO2UO2(CO3)2-), simulated very well the measured U(VI) adsorption data. The general composite surface complexation model, compared to the constant or single-valued Kd model, more accurately predicted U(VI) adsorption under the varying geochemical conditions expected at the IDF.

  7. Physical and hydraulic properties of sediments and engineered materials associated with grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Heller, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    Numerical models are used to predict the fate of contaminants in the environment for durations of 10,000 years and more. At the Hanford Site, these models are being used to evaluate the potential health effects and environmental impacts associated with the disposal of double-shell tank waste in grouted vaults. These models require information on the properties of the earthen and manufactured materials that compose the vault system and its surroundings. This report documents the physical and hydraulic properties of the materials associated with burial of grouted double-shell tank waste at the Hanford Site.

  8. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  9. Establishing the environmental risk of metal contaminated river bank sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sarah; Batty, Lesley; Byrne, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Climate change predictions indicate an increase in the frequency and duration of flood events along with longer dry antecedent conditions, which could alter patterns of trace metal release from contaminated river bank sediments. This study took a laboratory mesocosm approach. Chemical analysis of water and sediment samples allowed the patterns of Pb and Zn release and key mechanisms controlling Pb and Zn mobility to be determined. Trace metal contaminants Pb and Zn were released throughout flooded periods. The highest concentrations of dissolved Pb were observed at the end of the longest flood period and high concentrations of dissolved Zn were released at the start of a flood. These concentrations were found to exceed environmental quality standards. Key mechanisms controlling mobility were (i) evaporation, precipitation and dissolution of Zn sulphate salts, (ii) anglesite solubility control of dissolved Pb, (iii) oxidation of galena and sphalerite, (iv) reductive dissolution of Mn/Fe hydroxides and co-precipitation/adsorption with Zn. In light of climate change predictions these results indicate future scenarios may include larger or more frequent transient 'pulses' of dissolved Pb and Zn released to river systems. These short lived pollution episodes could act as a significant barrier to achieving the EU Water Framework Directive objectives.

  10. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-09-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  11. Assessment of unsaturated zone radionuclide contamination in the 200 areas of the Hanford site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, J.R.; Wittreich, C.D.

    1993-03-01

    The 200 East and 200 West Areas at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington, contain chemical and nuclear fuel processing facilities that disposed of large volumes of chemical and radionuclide effluents to the ground via various structures such as ponds, cribs and ditches. A geophysical logging investigation was implemented in 1992 to assess the nature and extent of contamination beneath select liquid disposal sites in the 200 Areas. The borehole geophysical logging was accomplished with a recently developed spectral gamma-ray logging system called the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). This system has a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium detector mounted in a downhole probe and is calibrated and operated specifically for use in a borehole environment. It provides a means to develop in-situ, gamma-emitting radioelement concentration profiles. Approximately 50 boreholes were logged in this study. The RLS log data provided information about the migration and deposition patterns of specific radionuclides in the unsaturated zone and their impacts on the groundwater. Approximately 10 radionuclide species were detected and quantified. Results of the field investigation are being used to refine site specific conceptual models, support Hanford Site remediation decisions and focus future characterization activities.

  12. Bioavailability of sediment-associated mercury to Hexagenia mayflies in a contaminated floodplain river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Wiener, J.G.; Cope, W.G.; Bloom, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the bioavailability of mercury in sediments from the contaminated Sudbury River (Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia) were exposed in four 21-day bioaccumulation tests to contaminated and reference sediments (treatments) from reservoirs, flowing reaches, palustrine wetlands, and a riverine lake. Mean total mercury (Sigma Hg) ranged from 880 to 22 059 ng.g dry weight(-1) in contaminated sediments and from 90 to 272 ng.g(-1) in reference sediments. Mean final concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) in test water were greatest (8-47 ng Hg.L-1) in treatments with contaminated wetland sediments, which had mean Sigma Hg ranging from 1200 to 2562 ng.g(-1). In mayflies, final mean concentrations of MeHg were highest in treatments with contaminated wetland sediments (122-183 ng Hg.g(-1)), intermediate in treatments with contaminated sediments from reservoirs, flowing reaches, and a riverine lake (75-127 ng Hg.g(-1)), and lowest in treatments with reference sediments (32-41 ng Hg.g(-1)). We conclude that the potential entry of MeHg into the benthic food chain was greater in contaminated palustrine wetlands than in the contaminated reservoirs, which had the most contaminated sediments.

  13. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants in sediments from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, a highly industrialized waterway connecting Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie, were identified and quantified. he four major classes of organic contaminants identified were polycyclic aroma...

  14. Evaluating PCB Bioavailability Using Passive Samplers and Mussles at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  15. CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN SEDIMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SUBMARINE GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theoretical estimations and laboratory studies suggest that capping can effectively retard contaminant transport from sediments under undisturbed conditions. However, contaminated near-shore areas, commonly selected as capping sites, are frequently subjected to submarine groundwa...

  16. Cluster analysis of contaminated sediment data: nodal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian; Claflin, Larry W

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the use of multivariate statistical methods as a means to discern relationships between contaminants and biological and/or toxicological effects in a representative data set from the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program. Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NS&T Program's Bioeffects Survey of Delaware Bay, USA, were examined using various univariate and multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis. Each approach identified consistent patterns and relationships between the three types of triad data. The analyses also identified factors that bias the interpretation of the data, primarily the presence of rare and unique species and the dependence of species distributions on physical parameters. Sites and species were clustered with the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages clustering with the Jaccard coefficient that clustered species and sites into mutually consistent groupings. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, normalized for salinity, also were clustered. The most informative analysis, termed nodal analysis, was the intersection of species cluster analysis with site cluster analysis. This technique produced a visual representation of species association patterns among site clusters. Site characteristics, such as salinity and grain size, not contaminant concentrations, appeared to be the primary factors determining species distributions. This suggests the sediment-quality triad needs to use physical parameters as a distinct leg from chemical concentrations to improve sediment-quality assessments in large bodies of water. Because the Delaware Bay system has confounded gradients of contaminants and physical parameters, analyses were repeated with data from northern Chesapeake Bay, USA, with similar results. PMID:16050601

  17. A field study on phytoremediation of dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals and nutrients: the impacts of sediment aeration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2014-12-01

    Compared to traditional chemical or physical treatments, phytoremediation has proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. A field study was conducted in a sediment disposal site predominantly colonized by Typha angustifolia under different sediment moisture conditions to estimate the phytoremediation effects of dredged sediment. The moisture content was 37.30 % and 48.27 % in aerated and waterlogged sediment, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) content was higher in the waterlogged sediment than in the aerated sediment. The total Cd contents were lower in aerated sediment, which was mainly resulted from the lower exchangeable fraction of Cd. The bioaccumulation of P, Cu and Pb in T. angustifolia was promoted by waterlogging, and the belowground tissue concentrations and accumulation factors (AFs) of Cu were higher than that of other metals, which can be explained by that Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants. Consistent with many previous studies, T. angustifolia showed higher metal levels in roots than in above-ground tissues at both the sediment conditions. Due to the improved biomass produced in the aerated sediment, the removals of nutrients and the metals by plant harvest were higher from aerated sediment than from waterlogged sediment. It was indicated that maintaining the dredged sediment aerated can avoid release risk and plant uptake of metals, while the opposite management option can promote phytoextraction of these contaminants. PMID:25012206

  18. Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinhong; Zhao, Pihong; Moran, Jean E; Seaman, John C

    2005-07-01

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites, where anthropogenic (129)I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. We conducted integrated column and batch experiments to investigate the interconversion, sorption and transport of iodine species, and the sediments we examined exhibit a wide range in organic matter, clay mineralogy, soil pH, and texture. The results of our experiments illustrate complex behavior with various processes occurring, including iodate reduction, irreversible retention or mass loss of iodide, and rate-limited and nonlinear sorption. There was an appreciable iodate reduction to iodide, presumably mediated by the structural Fe(II) in some clay minerals; therefore, careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. The different iodine species exhibited dramatically different sorption and transport behavior in three sediment samples, possessing different physico-chemical properties, collected from different depths at the Savannah River Site. Our study yielded additional insight into processes and mechanisms affecting the geochemical cycling of iodine in the environment, and provided quantitative estimates of key parameters (e.g., extent and rate of sorption) for risk assessment at these sites. PMID:16019109

  19. Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Zhao, Pihong; Moran, Jean E.; Seaman, John C.

    2005-07-01

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites, where anthropogenic 129I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. We conducted integrated column and batch experiments to investigate the interconversion, sorption and transport of iodine species, and the sediments we examined exhibit a wide range in organic matter, clay mineralogy, soil pH, and texture. The results of our experiments illustrate complex behavior with various processes occurring, including iodate reduction, irreversible retention or mass loss of iodide, and rate-limited and nonlinear sorption. There was an appreciable iodate reduction to iodide, presumably mediated by the structural Fe(II) in some clay minerals; therefore, careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. The different iodine species exhibited dramatically different sorption and transport behavior in three sediment samples, possessing different physico-chemical properties, collected from different depths at the Savannah River Site. Our study yielded additional insight into processes and mechanisms affecting the geochemical cycling of iodine in the environment, and provided quantitative estimates of key parameters (e.g., extent and rate of sorption) for risk assessment at these sites.

  20. Sorption of radioactive contaminants by sediment from the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify some of the parameters needed to perform near-field modeling of sites in the Kara Sea that were impacted by the disposal of radioactive waste. The parameters of interest are: the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for several important radionuclides, the mineralogy of the sediment, and the relationship of K{sub d} to liquid to solid ratio. Sediment from the Kara Sea (location: 73{degrees} 00` N, 58{degrees} 00` E) was sampled from a depth of 287 meters on August 23/24, 1992, during a joint Russian/Norwegian scientific cruise. Analysis of the material included mineralogy, grain size and total organic carbon. Uptake kinetics were determined for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}U, and {sup 241}Am and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for these radionuclides using batch type experiments. Sorption isotherms were developed for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs to examine the effect that varying the concentration of a tracer has on the quantity of that tracer taken up by the solid. The effect of liquid to solid ratio on the uptake of contaminants was determined for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs. In another set of experiments, the sediment was separated into four size fractions and uptake was determined for each fraction for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs. In addition, the sediment was analyzed to determine if it contains observable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides.

  1. Contaminated sediments database for Long Island Sound and the New York Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mecray, Ellen L.; Reid, Jamey M.; Hastings, Mary E.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2003-01-01

    The Contaminated Sediments Database for Long Island Sound and the New York Bight provides a compilation of published and unpublished sediment texture and contaminant data. This report provides maps of several of the contaminants in the database as well as references and a section on using the data to assess the environmental status of these coastal areas. The database contains information collected between 1956-1997; providing an historical foundation for future contaminant studies in the region.

  2. Changes in metal contamination levels in estuarine sediments around India--an assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Nagender Nath, B

    2014-01-15

    This review is the first attempt to comprehend the changes in metal contamination levels in surface estuarine sediments with changing time around India. Contamination factor, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, effects range low and effects range median analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the estuarine sediments (by using the available literature data). This study suggests that estuarine sediments from the east coast of India were comparatively less contaminated by metals than the west coast. Sediments from those estuaries were found to be more contaminated by metals on which major cities are located. An improvement in estuarine sediment quality (in terms of metal contamination) over time around India was noticed. This study provides managers and decision-makers of environmental protection agency with a better scientific understanding for decision-making in controlling metal pollution in estuarine sediments around India. PMID:24211100

  3. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    PubMed

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (<63 μm) from clean and contaminated field sites to create 4 treatments of increasing metal concentrations. Sydney rock oysters were then exposed to sediment treatments at different TSS concentrations for 4 d, and cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. PMID:25677686

  4. The effect of contaminant desorption on assimilation of sediment-sorbed hydrophobic contaminants by deposit-feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, B.; Lamoureux, E.; McElroy, A.; Lopez, G.; Ahrens, M.

    1995-12-31

    The literature shows that assimilation efficiencies of lab-spiked nonpolar contaminants by deposit-feeders are generally much greater than the assimilation of the organic carbon sorbent matrix. Thus the rate and extent of contaminant desorption into the aqueous gut environment is likely to play a significant role in uptake from sediments. Contaminated New York Harbor sediments were examined in parallel desorption kinetic and bioaccumulation studies with the clam Yoldia limatula. A clear relationship was observed between the contaminant desorption rates over the first two days and organism/sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) determined across a wide range of individual PCBs, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes. Bioavailability was affected by hydrophobicity, shape of the contaminant, and contaminant class/source. Lower bioavailability of PAH may be the result of matrix associations with soot or fine coal particles. Interestingly, contaminant desorption/bioavailability were not influenced greatly by depth in the sediment core. The authors have initiated a study to determine the critical chemical and biological factors that control contaminant assimilation. They hope that it will become possible to replace expensive biological exposure studies with simple desorption tests when assessing the risk associated with contaminated sediments or dredge materials.

  5. Field evidence for strong chemical separation of contaminants inthe Hanford Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee,Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2007-04-10

    Water and chemical transport from a point source withinvadose zone sediments at Hanford were examined with a leak testconsisting of five 3800-liter aliquots of water released at 4.5 m depthevery week over a 4-week period. The third aliquot contained bromide, D2Oand 87Sr. Movement of the tracers was monitored for 9 months by measuringpore water compositions of samples from boreholes drilled 2-8 m from theinjection point. Graded sedimentary layers acting as natural capillarybarriers caused significant lateral spreading of the leak water. D2Oconcentrations>50 percent of the concentration in the tracer aliquotwere detected at 9-11 m depth. However, increased water contents, lowerd18O values, and geophysical monitoring of moisture changes at otherdepths signified high concentrations of leak fluids were added where D2Oconcentrations were<3 percent above background, suggesting limitedmixing between different aliquots of the leak fluids. Initially highbromide concentrations decreased more rapidly over time than D2O,suggesting enhanced transport of bromide due to anion exclusion. Nosignificant increase in 87Sr was detected in the sampled pore water,indicating strong retardation of Sr by the sediments. These resultshighlight some of the processes strongly affecting chemical transport inthe vadose zone and demonstrate the significant separation of contaminantplumes that can occur.

  6. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  7. Heavy metal contamination of sediments in the upper connecting channels of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Manny, Bruce A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Edsall, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1985, sampling at 250 stations throughout the St. Marys, St. Clair, and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair — the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes — revealed widespread metal contamination of the sediments. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc each exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment pollution guidelines at one or more stations throughout the study area. Sediments were polluted more frequently by copper, nickel, zinc, and lead than by cadmium, chromium, or mercury. Sediments with the highest concentrations of metals were found (in descending order) in the Detroit River, the St. Marys River, the St. Clair River, and Lake St. Clair. Although metal contamination of sediments was most common and sediment concentrations of metals were generally highest near industrial areas, substantial contamination of sediments by metals was present in sediment deposition areas up to 60 km from any known source of pollution.

  8. Relative role of pore water versus ingested sediment in bioavailability of organic contaminants in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, T.L.; Hansen, R.; Kure, L.K.; Forbes, V.E.; Giessing, A. |

    1998-12-01

    Experimental data for fluoranthene and feeding selectivity in combination with reaction-diffusion modeling suggest that ingestion of contaminated sediment may often be the dominant uptake pathway for deposit-feeding invertebrates in sediments. A dietary absorption efficiency of 56% and accompanying forage ratio of 2.4 were measured using natural sediment that had been dual-labeled ({sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr) with fluoranthene and fed to the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella species I. Only 3 to 4% of the total absorption could be accounted for by desorption during gut passage. These data were then used as input into a reaction-diffusion model to calculate the importance of uptake from ingested sediment relative to pore-water exposure. The calculations predict a fluoranthene dietary uptake flux that is 20 to 30 times greater than that due to pore water. Factors that act to modify or control the formation of local chemical gradients, boundary layers, or dietary absorption rates including particle selection or burrow construction will be important in determining the relative importance of potential exposure pathways. From a chemical perspective, the kinetics of the adsorption and desorption process are especially important as they will strongly influence the boundary layer immediately surrounding burrowing animals or irrigated tubes. The most important biological factors likely include irrigation behavior and burrow density and size.

  9. Accumulation of radionuclides in bed sediments of the Columbia River between Hanford reactors and McNary Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Haushild, W.L.

    1970-01-01

    Amounts of radionuclides from the Hanford reactors contained in bed sediments of the Columbia River were estimated by two methods: (1) from data on radionuclide concentration for the bed sediments between the reactors and McNary Dam, and (2) from data on radionuclide discharge for river stations at Pasco, Washington, and Umatilla, Oregon. Umatilla is 3.2 kilometers below McNary Dam. Accumulations of radionuclides in the Pasco to Umatilla reach estimated by the two methods agree within about 8%. In October 1965 approximately 16,000 curies of gamma emitting radionuclides were resident in bed sediments of the river between the Hanford reactors and McNary Dam. Concentrations and accumulations of chromium-51, zinc-65, cobalt-60, manganese-54, and scandium-46 generally are much higher near McNary Dam than they are in the vicinity of the reactors. These changes are caused by an increase downstream from the reactors in the proportion of the bed sediment that is fine grained and the proportions of the transported zinc, cobalt, manganese, and scandium radionuclides associated with sediment particles.

  10. Bioleaching of multiple metals from contaminated sediment by moderate thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Gan, Min; Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Zhu, Jianyu; Liu, Xinxing

    2015-08-15

    A moderately thermophilic consortium was applied in bioleaching multiple metals from contaminated sediment. The consortium got higher acidification and metals soubilization efficiency than that of the pure strains. The synergistic effect of the thermophilic consortium accelerated substrates utilization. The utilization of substrate started with sulfur in the early stage, and then the pH declined, giving rise to making use of the pyrite. Community dynamic showed that A. caldus was the predominant bacteria during the whole bioleaching process while the abundance of S. thermotolerans increased together with pyrite utilization. Solubilization efficiency of Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd reached 98%, 94%, 95%, and 89% respectively, while As, Hg, Pb was only 45%, 34%, 22%. Logistic model was used to simulate the bioleaching process, whose fitting degree was higher than 90%. Correlation analysis revealed that metal leaching was mainly an acid solubilization process. Fraction analysis revealed that metals decreased in mobility and bioavailability. PMID:26140749

  11. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutralmore » conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and processes that have a significant effect and/or control U mobility.« less

  12. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutral conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and

  13. The value of information for managing contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Sparrevik, Magnus; de Lichy, Nicolas; Linkov, Igor

    2014-08-19

    Effective management of contaminated sediments is important for long-term human and environmental health, but site-management decisions are often made under high uncertainty and without the help of structured decision support tools. Potential trade-offs between remedial costs, environmental effects, human health risks, and societal benefits, as well as fundamental differences in stakeholder priorities, complicate decision making. Formal decision-analytic tools such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) move beyond ad hoc decision support to quantitatively and holistically rank management alternatives and add transparency and replicability to the evaluation process. However, even the best decisions made under uncertainty may be found suboptimal in hindsight, once additional scientific, social, economic, or other details become known. Value of information (VoI) analysis extends MCDA by systematically evaluating the impact of uncertainty on a decision. VoI prioritizes future research in terms of expected decision relevance by helping decision makers estimate the likelihood that additional information will improve decision confidence or change their selection of a management plan. In this study, VoI analysis evaluates uncertainty, estimates decision confidence, and prioritizes research to inform selection of a sediment capping strategy for the dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan contaminated Grenland fjord system in southern Norway. The VoI model extends stochastic MCDA to model decisions with and without simulated new information and compares decision confidence across scenarios with different degrees of remaining uncertainty. Results highlight opportunities for decision makers to benefit from additional information by anticipating the improved decision confidence (or lack thereof) expected from reducing uncertainties for each criterion or combination of criteria. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of VoI analysis for environmental decisions by predicting when

  14. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments: A greenhouse feasibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted t...

  15. Equilibrium Partitioning Approach for Assessing Toxicity of Contaminants in Sediments: Linking Measured Concentrations to Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of approaches exist for assessing the degree, extent and/or risk of metals contamination in sediments. Selection of the “correct” approach depends on the nature of the question being asked (e.g., the degree of metals contamination in marine sediments may be estimated by...

  16. BIOLOGICAL REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These proceedings describe a workshop at which biological remediation of contaminated sediments was discussed. or the purpose of the workshop, contaminated sediments of primary interest were those within six of the Areas of Concern (AOC) identified in the U.S./Canada Internationa...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  18. Spectroscopic evidence for uranium bearing precipitates in vadose zone sediments at the Hanford 300-area site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Marcus, M.A.; Tamura, N.; Davis, J.A.; Zachara, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium (U) solid-state speciation in vadose zone sediments collected beneath the former North Process Pond (NPP) in the 300 Area of the Hanford site (Washington) was investigated using multi-scale techniques. In 30 day batch experiments, only a small fraction of total U (???7.4%) was released to artificial groundwater solutions equilibrated with 1% pCO2. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analyses showed that U was distributed among at least two types of species: (i) U discrete grains associated with Cu and (ii) areas with intermediate U concentrations on grains and grain coatings. Metatorbernite (Cu[UO2]2[PO 4]2??8H2O) and uranophane (Ca[UO 2]2[SiO3(OH)]2?? 5H 2O) at some U discrete grains, and muscovite at U intermediate concentration areas, were identified in synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses revealed 8-10 ??m size metatorbernite particles that were embedded in C-, Al-, and Si-rich coatings on quartz and albite grains. In ??- and bulk-X-ray absorption structure (??-XAS and XAS) spectroscopy analyses, the structure of metatorbernite with additional U-C and U-U coordination environments was consistently observed at U discrete grains with high U concentrations. The consistency of the ??- and bulk-XAS analyses suggests that metatorbernite may comprise a significant fraction of the total U in the sample. The entrapped, micrometer-sized metatorbernite particles in C-, Al-, and Si-rich coatings, along with the more soluble precipitated uranyl carbonates and uranophane, likely control the long-term release of U to water associated with the vadose zone sediments. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  19. Chemical contamination and physical characteristics of sediments in the upper Great Lakes connecting channels 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertram, Paul E.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Nichols, Susan J.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of sediments by toxic organic substances and heavy metals was widespread throughout the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes in 1985. Sediments at 250 stations in the connecting channels were analyzed for total PCBs, oil and grease, phenols, total cyanide, total volatile solids, mercury, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, and the results were evaluated according to U.S. EPA guidelines for polluted sediments. Sediments were most heavily contaminated near industrialized areas, although some areas more than 40 km downstream from known point sources of pollution were moderately contaminated by oil and metals.

  20. Changes in the pore network structure of Hanford sediment after reaction with caustic tank wastes.

    PubMed

    Crandell, L E; Peters, C A; Um, W; Jones, K W; Lindquist, W B

    2012-04-01

    At the former nuclear weapon production site in Hanford, WA, caustic radioactive tank waste leaks into subsurface sediments and causes dissolution of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals, and precipitation of sodalite and cancrinite. This work examines changes in pore structure due to these reactions in a previously-conducted column experiment. The column was sectioned and 2D images of the pore space were generated using backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A pre-precipitation scenario was created by digitally removing mineral matter identified as secondary precipitates. Porosity, determined by segmenting the images to distinguish pore space from mineral matter, was up to 0.11 less after reaction. Erosion-dilation analysis was used to compute pore and throat size distributions. Images with precipitation had more small and fewer large pores. Precipitation decreased throat sizes and the abundance of large throats. These findings agree with previous findings based on 3D X-ray CMT imaging, observing decreased porosity, clogging of small throats, and little change in large throats. However, 2D imaging found an increase in small pores, mainly in intragranular regions or below the resolution of the 3D images. Also, an increase in large pores observed via 3D imaging was not observed in the 2D analysis. Changes in flow conducting throats that are the key permeability-controlling features were observed in both methods. PMID:22360994

  1. Changes in the pore network structure of Hanford sediment after reaction with caustic tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2012-04-01

    At the former nuclear weapon production site in Hanford, WA, caustic radioactive tank waste leaks into subsurface sediments and causes dissolution of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals, and precipitation of sodalite and cancrinite. This work examines changes in pore structure due to these reactions in a previously-conducted column experiment. The column was sectioned and 2D images of the pore space were generated using backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A pre-precipitation scenario was created by digitally removing mineral matter identified as secondary precipitates. Porosity, determined by segmenting the images to distinguish pore space from mineral matter, was up to 0.11 less after reaction. Erosion-dilation analysis was used to compute pore and throat size distributions. Images with precipitation had more small and fewer large pores. Precipitation decreased throat sizes and the abundance of large throats. These findings agree with previous findings based on 3D X-ray CMT imaging, observing decreased porosity, clogging of small throats, and little change in large throats. However, 2D imaging found an increase in small pores, mainly in intragranular regions or below the resolution of the 3D images. Also, an increase in large pores observed via 3D imaging was not observed in the 2D analysis. Changes in flow conducting throats that are the key permeability-controlling features were observed in both methods.

  2. Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-01-06

    Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

  3. 70193-Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J Murray; Anderson L. Ward; John L. Wilson

    2004-04-07

    that depend on input flux rates and boundary type and that may sometimes mask the underlying heterogeneity. The networks occupy two complementary states: a high-permeability region in the fine-textured media at low fluxes and a high-permeability region in the coarse-textured media at high fluxes. Transition between the two states occurred at an input flux of about 100 mm yr{sup -1}. At this input flux, preferential channels essentially disappear with the dike and host matrix conducting at similar rates. This suggests that clastic dikes might serve as a conduit for more rapid movement of moisture and mobile contaminants to the water table, but only under a restricted set of recharge (or leak) conditions. However, owing to the relatively high content of reactive minerals, especially clay, that is found in the clastic dikes, the movement of reactive contaminants like heavy metals and radionuclides may be restricted. The field site developed for this project, as well as the data and numerical models, are now the focus of several ongoing studies funded by the Hanford Groundwater Protection Program's Science and Technology (S&T) Project. These studies focus on collecting datasets to support conceptual model development and model calibration, the development and use of advanced scaling methods to facilitate inverse modeling of heterogeneous systems, and the identification of appropriate parameters for predictive modeling of field-scale reactive transport.

  4. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater and marine sediment toxicity test were used to measure baseline toxicity of sediment samples collected from New York/New Jersey Harbor (NY/NJH) and East River (ER) (PAH contaminated) sediments and to determine the effectiveness of the developed biotreatment strategies ...

  5. SEDIMENT TOXICITY AS AN INDICATOR OF CONTAMINANT STRESS IN EMAP-ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of sediments is widely used in EPA, ACOE, and NOAA monitoring and regulatory programs as a complement to measuring of chemical concentrations as it provides an indication of the bioavailability of sediment contaminants. Sediment toxicity was included as an abiotic condit...

  6. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH TO EVALUATING IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater and marine sediment toxicity tests were used to measure baseline toxicity of sediment samples collected from New Jersey/New York Harbor (NJ/NY) (non-PAH- contaminated) sediment (ERC). Four freshwater toxicity tests were used: 1) amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and...

  7. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

  8. Residual waste from Hanford tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204. 2. Contaminant release model.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Krupka, Kenneth M; Deutsch, William J; Lindberg, Michael J

    2006-06-15

    Release of U and 99Tc from residual sludge in Hanford waste tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204 atthe U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state was quantified by water-leaching, selective extractions, empirical solubility measurements, and thermodynamic modeling. A contaminant release model was developed based on these experimental results and solid-phase characterization results presented elsewhere. Uranium release was determined to be controlled by two phases and occurred in three stages. In the first stage, U release is controlled by the solubility of tejkaite, which is suppressed by high concentrations of sodium released from the dissolution of NaNO3 in the residual sludges. Equilibrium solubility calculations indicate the U released during this stage will have a maximum concentration of 0.021 M. When all the NaNO3 has dissolved from the sludge, the solubility of the remaining cejkaite will increase to 0.28 M. After cejkaite has completely dissolved, the majority of the remaining U is in the form of poorly crystalline Na2U2O7 [or clarkeite Na[(UO2)O(OH)](H20)0-1]. In contact with Hanford groundwater this phase is not stable, and becquerelite becomes the U solubility controlling phase, with a calculated equilibrium concentration of 1.2 x 10(-4) M. For Tc, a significant fraction of its concentration in the residual sludge was determined to be relatively insoluble (20 wt % for C-203 and 80 wt % for C-204). Because of the low concentrations of Tc in these sludge materials, the characterization studies did not identify any discrete Tc solids phases. Release of the soluble fraction of Tc was found to occur concomitantly with NO3-. It was postulated that a NaNO3-NaTcO4 solid solution could be responsible for this behavior. The Tc release concentrations for the soluble fraction were estimated to be 2.4 x 10-6 M for C-203 and 2.7 x 10(-5) M for C-204. Selective extraction results indicated that the recalcitrant fraction of Tc was

  9. Pertechnetate (TcO4-) reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms in naturally anoxic, redox transition zone sediments from the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Heald, Steve M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Resch, Charles T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Jerry L.; Moore, Dean A.

    2012-09-01

    Technetium is an important environmental contaminant introduced by the processing and disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and atmospheric nuclear tests. Under oxic conditions technetium is soluble and exists as pertechnatate anion (TcO4-), while under anoxic conditions Tc is usually insoluble and exists as precipitated Tc(IV). Here we investigated abiotic Tc(VII) reduction in mineralogically heterogeneous, Fe(II)-containing sediments. The sediments were collected from a 55 m borehole that sampled a semi-confined aquifer at the Hanford Site, USA that contained a dramatic redox transition zone. One oxic facies (18.0-18.3 m) and five anoxic facies (18.3-18.6 m, 30.8-31.1 m, 39.0-39.3 m, 47.2-47.5 m and 51.5-51.8 m) were selected for this study. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied to characterize the Fe(II) mineral suite that included: Fe(II)-phyllosilicates, pyrite, magnetite and siderite. The Fe(II) mineral phase distribution differed between the sediments. Sediment suspensions were adjusted to the same 0.5 M HCl extracted Fe(II) concentration (0.6 mM) for Tc(VII) reduction experiments. Aqueous Fe was low in all sediment suspensions (<2 μM) and below the Fe(II)aq detection limit (10 μM). Technetium(VII) reduction occurred in all anoxic sediments at depths greater than 18.3 m and reaction time differed significantly between the sediments (8-219 d). Mössbauer analysis of the Tc-reacted, 30.8-31.1 m sediment confirmed that Tc(VII) was reduced by solid-phase Fe(II), with siderite and Fe(II)-containing phyllosilicates implicated as redox reactive phases. Technetium-XAS analysis demonstrated that Tc associated with sediments was in the Tc(IV) valence state and immobilized as clusters of a TcO2·nH2O-like phase. The speciation of redox product Tc(IV) was not affected by reduction rate or Fe(II) mineralogy.

  10. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY2007

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-07-10

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address residual wastes that will

  11. Chronic effects of contaminated sediment on Daphnia magna and Chironomus tentans (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Onjukka, S.T.; Cairns, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic tests were conducted with Daphnia magna (cladoceran) and Chironomus tentans (midge) to determine their usefulness as test organisms for chronic sediment assays, and to estimate the potential long-term impact of contaminated freshwater sediments and contaminated Superfund-site soils on freshwater invertebrates. These two species were used successfully in acute sediment tests and were shown to be useful in chronic tests in water.

  12. Chronic effects of contaminated sediment on Daphnia magna and Chironomus tentans

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Onjukka, S.T.; Cairns, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    Chronic tests were conducted with Daphnia magna (cladoceran) and Chironomus tentans (midge) to determine their usefulness as test organisms for chronic sediment assays, and to estimate the potential long-term impact of contaminated freshwater sediments and contaminated Superfund site soils on freshwater invertebrates. These two species have been used successfully in acute sediment tests, and have been shown to be useful in chronic tests in water--only bioassays.

  13. PROGRESS REPORT. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE GRAIN COATINGS ON CONTAMINANT REACTIVITY IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project explores the behavior of calcium carbonate grain coatings, including how they form and dissolve, their reactivity toward key Hanford contaminants, their impact (as surface coatings) on the reactivity of other mineral substrates, and on their in-ground composition and...

  14. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-11-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr–1, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L–1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr–1, and compared to the base case (100 mm yr–1) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  15. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect

    KHALEEL R

    2007-11-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr{sup -1}, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10{sup 6} pCi L{sup -1}. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr{sup -1}, and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr{sup -1}) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  16. MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Beyenal, Haluk; McLEan, Jeff; Majors, Paul; Fredrickson, Jim

    2013-11-14

    The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

  17. Investigations into methods of removing from marine sediments that toxicity attributable to organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Gibson, V.L.; Ho, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from contaminated estuaries such as New York/New Jersey Harbor are toxic due to the presence of a diversity of contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, ammonia, and organics such as PCBs, PAHs, PCDDs and PCDFs. To facilitate Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) studies of whole sediments, the authors have developed a strategy for selectively reducing or removing organic contaminant residues with minimal disruption of the dynamics of other classes of contaminants that contribute to whole sediment toxicity. The strategy consists of an optional prewash of the sediment slurry with a nonpolar volatile solvent to remove globular and crystalline contaminant phases, turbation of sediment slurry (elevated temperature may be required) in the presence of polyethylene strips (PE) or charcoal-impregnated PE strips and triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and finally addition of small amounts of fine-grained activated carbon (shown to be nontoxic) to the test sediment. Replicate (n = 2) samples of a marine sediment spiked and aged with 500 {micro}g/g dieldrin were successfully detoxified using these procedures, as 48 h bioassays (Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita) showed no toxicity, while untreated sediment and SPMD dialysates were toxic. Gas chromatographic analysis of the treated sediment samples showed that 97 and > 99 percent of the dieldrin had been removed. Detoxification of other sediments with naturally incurred high-K{sub oc} organic pollutants may be more problematic.

  18. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

  19. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  20. Experimental investigation of cesium mobility in the course of secondary mineral formations in Hanford sediment columns at 50 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mashal, Kholoud Y; Cetiner, Ziya S

    2010-10-01

    Formation of secondary minerals and Cs mobility in Hanford sediments were investigated under conditions similar to the Hanford tank leak in a dynamic flow system at 50 degrees C. The objectives were to (1) examine the nature and locations of secondary mineral phases precipitated in the sediments and (2) quantify the amount of Cs retained by the sediment matrix at 50 degrees C. To this end, Hanford sediments were packed into 10-cm long columns and leached with simulated tank waste consisting of 1.4 M NaOH, 0.125 M NaAlO(2), 3.7 M NaNO(3), and 1.3 x 10(-4) M Cs at 50 degrees C. Compositions of outflow solution were monitored with time for up to 25 days, and the columns were then segmented into four 2.5-cm long layers. The colloidal fraction in these segments was characterized in terms of mineralogy, particle morphology, Cs content, and short-range Al and Si structure. It was observed that cancrinite and sodalite precipitated at 50 degrees C. Approximately 53% Cs was retained in the column treated by the simulated tank waste at this temperature. Cesium retention in the column was lowered in the high ionic strength solution due to competition from Na for the exchange sites. This can be explained by alteration of distribution and number of sorption sites which reduces the selectivity of Cs for Na, and through the formation of cancrinite and sodalite. The formation of hydroxide complexes in highly alkaline solutions could also contribute to relatively poor retention of Cs by hindering ion exchange mechanism. PMID:19757110

  1. Distributions of pesticides and organic contaminants between water and suspended sediment, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and water samples were collected from San Francisco Bay in 1991 during low river discharge and after spring rains. All samples were analyzed for organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides; petroleum hydrocarbons; biomarkers; and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The objectives were to determine the concentrations of these contaminants in water and suspended sediment during two different hydrologic conditions and to determine partition coefficients of the contaminants between water and sediment. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, varied with location of sample collection, riverine discharge, and tidal cycle. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants in suspended sediments were highest during low river discharge but became diluted as agricultural soils entered the bay after spring rains. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons defined as dissolved in the water column were not detected. The concentrations sorbed on suspended sediments were variable and were dependent on sediment transport patterns in the bay. In contrast, the relatively hydrophilic organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon, has a more uniform concentration in suspended sediment. These pesticides were detected only after spring rains. Most of the measured diazinon, at least 98% for all samples, was in the dissolved phase. Measured partition coefficients for diazinon generally were uniform, which suggests that suspended-sediment concentrations were close to equilibrium with dissolved concentrations. The concentration of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, at any given sampling site, was driven primarily by the more abundant solution concentration. The concentrations of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, therefore, were independent of the patterns of sediment movement. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  2. Microscale Controls on the Fate of Contaminant Uranium in the Vadose Zone, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Liu, Chongxuan; Heald, Steve M.; Prenitzer, Brenda I.; Kempshall, Brian

    2006-04-15

    An alkaline brine containing uranyl (UO22+) leaked to the thick unsaturated zone at the Hanford Site. X-ray and electron microprobe imaging showed that the uranium was associated with a minority of clasts, specifically granitic clasts occupying less than four percent of the sediment volume. XANES analysis at micron resolution showed the uranium to be hexavalent. The uranium was precipitated in microfractures as radiating clusters of uranyl silicates, and sorbed uranium was not observed on other surfaces. Compositional determinations of the 1-3 µm precipitates were difficult, but indicated a sodium potassium uranyl silicate, likely sodium boltwoodite. Observations suggested that uranyl was removed from pore waters by diffusion and precipitation in microfractures, where dissolved silica within the granite-equilibrated solution would cause supersaturation with respect to sodium boltwoodite. This hypothesis was tested using a diffusion reaction model operating at microscale. Conditions favoring precipitation were simulated to be transient, and driven by the compositional contrast between pore and fracture space. Pore-space conditions, including alkaline pH, were eventually imposed on the microfracture environment. However, conditions favoring precipitation were prolonged within the microfracture by reaction at the silicate mineral surface to buffer pH in a solubility limiting acidic state, and to replenish dissolved silica. During this time, uranyl was additionally removed to the fracture space by diffusion from pore space. Uranyl is effectively immobilized within the microfracture environment within the presently unsaturated vadose zone.

  3. Pertechnetate (TcO4-) reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms in naturally anoxic, redox transition zone sediments from the Hanford Site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Zachara, J. M.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Heald, S. M.; Kutnyakov, I. V.; Resch, C. T.; Arey, B. W.; Wang, C. M.; Kovarik, L.; Phillips, J. L.; Moore, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    Technetium is an important environmental contaminant introduced by the processing and disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and atmospheric nuclear tests. Under oxic conditions technetium is soluble and exists as pertechnatate anion (TcO4-), while under anoxic conditions Tc is usually insoluble and exists as precipitated Tc(IV). Here we investigated abiotic Tc(VII) reduction in mineralogically heterogeneous, Fe(II)-containing sediments. The sediments were collected from a 55 m borehole that sampled a semi-confined aquifer at the Hanford Site, USA that contained a dramatic redox transition zone. One oxic facies (18.0-18.3 m) and five anoxic facies (18.3-18.6 m, 30.8-31.1 m, 39.0-39.3 m, 47.2-47.5 m and 51.5-51.8 m) were selected for this study. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied to characterize the Fe(II) mineral suite that included Fe(II)-phyllosilicates, pyrite, magnetite and siderite. The Fe(II) mineral phase distribution differed between the sediments. Sediment suspensions were adjusted to the same 0.5 M HCl extractable Fe(II) concentration (0.6 mM) for Tc(VII) reduction experiments. Total aqueous Fe was below the Feaq detection limit (<2 μM). Technetium(VII) reduction occurred in all anoxic sediments at depths greater than 18.3 m and reaction time differed significantly between the sediments (8-219 d). Mössbauer analysis of the Tc-reacted, 30.8-31.1 m sediment revealed changes in the concentrations of solid-phase Fe(II) and Fe(III). A decrease in the spectral areas of siderite and Fe(II)-containing phyllosilicates illustrated that these phases were oxidized following reaction with Tc(VII). XAS analysis demonstrated that Tc associated with sediments was in the Tc(IV) valence state and immobilized as clusters of a TcO2·nH2O-like phase. The speciation of redox product Tc(IV) was not affected by reduction rate or Fe(II) mineralogy.

  4. Community-level field method for testing the toxicity of contaminated sediments in estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Watzin, M.C.; Roscigno, P.F. . National Wetlands Research Center); Burke, W.D. )

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate a method for testing the toxicity of contaminated sediments under field conditions. An artificial sediment that matches field sediment in grain-size distribution and organic matter content was mixed from 11 components and used as the test substrate. Clean sediments and sediments spiked with zinc were exposed in the field on a holding rack anchored on the bottom of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate recruits were used as indicators of sediment quality. The number of recruits was significantly reduced by the presence of zinc in one-week exposures.

  5. The effect of biological and physical disturbances on the transport of arsenic from contaminated estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Gerhardt F.; Sanders, James G.; Osman, Richard W.

    1987-12-01

    From the distribution of dissolved and solid arsenic species in a contaminated estuarine sediment and measured rates of flux of the various arsenic species we propose an empirical model for the cycling of arsenic between sediments and water column. The chemical form of arsenic in the sediment was largely determined by the redox state of the sediment. Arsenite was the dominant dissolved and solid species in the deeper reduced sediment, and arsenate was dominant in the oxidized surface layer. Arsenite in the interstitial water diffused toward the surface layer, where it was mostly oxidized to arsenate prior to leaving the sediments. Some arsenate adsorbed to the surface sediments and produced a surface layer enriched in arsenic. Small concentrations of methyl and dimethyl arsenic were produced in the sediments, and these also diffused into the overlying water. Nereis succinea, a burrowing polychaete, affected distribution and flux of arsenic from the sediments by its production of irrigated burrows. These burrows increased both the effective surface area of the sediment and the diffusion of arsenic by a factor of five. When the relative effects of the activities of Nereis succinea and physical resuspension are compared, results indicate that although physical resuspension can produce large pulses of materials from contaminated sediments, continuous biological activity is likely to be more important in the mobilization of contaminants from sediments in many estuarine environments.

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of platinum in estuarine and coastal sediments (Tagus Estuary and Prodelta, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cobelo-García, Antonio; Neira, Patricia; Mil-Homens, Mario; Caetano, Miguel

    2011-03-01

    Platinum contamination in estuarine and coastal sediments has been evaluated in three cores collected from the Tagus Estuary and Prodelta shelf sediments. Elevated concentrations, up to 25-fold enrichment compared to background values, were found in the upper layers of the estuarine sediments. The degree of Pt enrichment in the estuarine sediments varied depending on the proximity to vehicular traffic sources, with a maximum concentration of 9.5 ng g(-1). A considerable decrease of Pt concentrations with depth indicated the absence of significant contamination before the introduction of catalytic converters in automobiles. Platinum distribution in the Tagus Prodelta shelf sediment core showed no surface enrichment; instead a sub-surface maximum at the base of the mixed layer suggested the possibility of post-depositional mobility, thereby blurring the traffic-borne contamination signature in coastal sediments. PMID:21256526

  7. Nereis diversicolor and copper contamination effect on the erosion of cohesive sediments: A flume experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, S.; Sobral, P.; Alcântara, F.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of bioturbation on the erodability of natural and manipulated copper spiked sediments (3 μmol Cu g -1 dw) was investigated using sediments collected in the Tagus estuary and Nereis diversicolor (900 ind m -2). The input of particulate matter and Cu into the water column as a result of erosion was quantified in an annular flume at 7 shear velocities (1-13 cm s -1). The biogeochemical characteristics of the sediment were analysed in depth down to 8 cm. Cu contamination elicited lower levels of eroded matter and lower shear strength profiles. Eroded matter and sediment shear strength values were higher (up to 1.7 kg m -2) in the presence of N. diversicolor, whose effect was less pronounced under contamination. Sediment erodability was not only related to hydrodynamics but was highly affected by the biogeochemical characteristics and contamination of the sediments.

  8. Investigation of the mechanism of contaminant release through the sediment-overlying water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia-Hong; Zheng, Shu-Jun; Wang, Dao-Zeng; Environment Fluid Dynamics Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    After the external pollutant discharge has been reduced, the release of the contaminant from the sediment to the overlying water may cause the river and lake be contaminated again. On the condition that the overlying water flow does not lead to sediment suspension, numerical and experimental researches are carried out for the contaminant release mechanism through the sediment-overlying water interface. In the numerical simulation, the overlying water flow is calculated as turbulent flow. The sediment is regarded as isotropic homogeneous porous medium, therefore the seepage field in the porous sediment layer is obtained by solving Darcy's equations. Several coupled two dimensional steady and unsteady flows of the overlying water and the pore water in the sediment are calculated. Based on the flow fields obtained, the unsteady contaminant solute transportation process in the sediment and the overlying water is numerically simulated, as the shapes of the sediment-overlying water interface are flat or periodic triangular respectively. The numerical results agree with the experimental results quite well. The results show that the exchange of the pore water and the overlying water is an important factor which decides the release flux of the contaminant from the sediment to the overlying water. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11032007) and Shanghai Program for Innovative Research Team in Universities.

  9. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

  10. Fate and Impact of Contaminants in Sediments of the NE United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholtz Ten Brink, M. R.; Butman, B.; Bothner, M.; Poppe, L.; Murray, R. W.; Varekamp, J.; Thomas, E.; Mecray, E. L.; Harris, C. K.; Signell, R.

    2002-12-01

    Estuaries and coastal sediments may be the ultimate sink for particle-reactive contaminants and excess nutrients.Their distribution in these sediments of the northeastern United States is a function of the location and magnitude of contaminant sources, which are correlated with population distribution and the history of land use, and of the dynamic physical and geochemical processes that occur in the sediments and on the sea floor. New York Bight, Long Island Sound, Massachusetts Bay, and the coastal regions of the Gulf of Maine have heterogeneous geology and bathymetry, variable currents, and each encompasses areas of both increasing and decreasing human impact. Chemical and geophysical mapping indicates that contaminants introduced into the environment during the past 250 years of population growth and industrial activity are present in muddy deposits up to 2 m thick, and are dispersed with fine-grained sediment throughout the region. Lower concentrations of regulated contaminants (e.g., metals such as Hg, Pb, and Cu) in the most recently deposited sediments verify the effectiveness of source reduction. Decreases in sediment metal concentrations, however, are not always accompanied by a decrease in sewage tracers and nutrient loading because of continuous population growth. Bottom currents focus and remobilize sediments periodically, creating complex patterns of habitat and sedimentation, large gradients in contaminant distributions, and non-steady state geochemical conditions. Results from analysis of over 200 sediment cores in coastal waters of the Northeast identify areas where contaminated sediments have accumulated in the last few centuries. Benthic populations in some of these areas have been impacted by local substrate changes, toxicity, hypoxia, and anoxia. The existing contaminant pool is often mobile. A multi-disciplinary approach, including predictive models that include changing sources and physical, chemical, and biological transport processes, is

  11. Volatilization of contaminants from suspended sediment in a water column during dredging.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, Raghunathan; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Thibodeaux, Louis J; Price, Cynthia B; Brannon, James M; Yost, Sally

    2002-10-01

    Remedial dredging of contaminated bed sediments in rivers and lakes results in the suspension of sediment solids in the water column, which can potentially be a source for evaporation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) associated with the sediment solids. Laboratory experiments were conducted in an oscillating grid chamber to simulate the suspension of contaminated sediments and flux to air from the surface of the water column. A contaminated field sediment from Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) and a laboratory-inoculated University Lake (UL) sediment, Baton Rouge, LA, were used in the experiments, where water and solids concentration and particle size distribution were measured in addition to contaminant fluxes to air. A transient model that takes into account contaminant desorption from sediment to water and evaporation from the water column was used to simulate water and sediment concentrations and air fluxes from the solids suspension. In experiments with both sediments, the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and the average particle diameter of the suspended solids decreased with time. As expected, the evaporative losses were higher for compounds with higher vapor pressure and lower hydrophobicity. For the laboratory-inoculated sediment (UL), the water concentrations and air fluxes were high initially and decreased steadily implying that contaminant release to the water column from the suspended solids was rapid, followed by evaporative decay. For the field sediments (IHC), the fluxes and water concentrations increased initially and subsequently decreased steadily. This implied that the initial desorption to water was slow and that perhaps the presence of oil and grease and aging influenced the contaminant release. Comparison of the model and experimental data suggested that a realistic determination of the TSS concentration that can be input into the model was the most critical parameter for predicting air emission rates. PMID:12418732

  12. Evidence for mild sediment Pb contamination affecting leaf-litter decomposition in a lake.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    Much work has focused on the effects of metal-contaminated sediment on benthic community structure, but effects on ecosystem functions have received far less attention. Decomposition has been widely used as an integrating metric of ecosystem function in lotic systems, but not for lentic ones. We assessed the relationship between low-level sediment lead (Pb) contamination and leaf-litter decomposition in a lentic system. We measured 30-day weight loss in 30 litter-bags that were deployed along a Pb-contamination gradient in a cypress-forested lake. At each deployment site we also quantified macrobenthos abundance, dissolved oxygen, water depth, sediment organic content, sediment silt/clay content, and both total sediment and porewater concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Principal components (PC) analysis revealed a negative relationship between Pb concentration and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and this covariation dominated the first PC axis (PC1). Subsequent correlation analyses revealed a negative relationship between PC1 and percent leaf-litter loss. Our results indicate that leaf-litter decomposition was related to sediment Pb and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. They also showed that ecosystem function may be affected even where sediment Pb concentrations are mostly below threshold-effects sediment quality guidelines--a finding with potential implications for sediment risk assessment. Additionally, the litter-bag technique used in this study showed promise as a tool in risk assessments of metal-contaminated sediments in lentic systems. PMID:26115904

  13. Hanford waste-form release and sediment interaction: A status report with rationale and recommendations for additional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J. ); Wood, M.I. )

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the currently available geochemical data base for release and retardation for actual Hanford Site materials (wastes and/or sediments). The report also recommends specific laboratory tests and presents the rationale for the recommendations. The purpose of this document is threefold: to summarize currently available information, to provide a strategy for generating additional data, and to provide recommendations on specific data collection methods and tests matrices. This report outlines a data collection approach that relies on feedback from performance analyses to ascertain when adequate data have been collected. The data collection scheme emphasizes laboratory testing based on empiricism. 196 refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.

  14. Mobilization of PAHs and PCBs from In-Place Contaminated Marine Sediments During Simulated Resuspension Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, J. S.; Davis, W. R.; Keith, D. J.

    1999-10-01

    A particle entrainment simulator was used to experimentally produce representative estuarine resuspension conditions to investigate the resulting transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the overlying water column. Contaminants were evaluated in bulk sediments, size fractionated sediments, resuspended particulate material and in some cases, dissolved phases during the experiments. The two types of sediments used in the experiments, dredged material and bedded estuarine sediment, represented gradients in contaminant loadings and sediment textural characteristics. For the bedded sediment, resuspension tended to winnow the sediments of finer particles. However, in the case of the more highly contaminated dredge material, non-selective resuspension was most common. Resuspension resulted in up to orders of magnitude higher particle-bound organic contaminant concentrations in the overlying water column. Dissolved phase PAH changes during resuspension were variable and at most, increased by a factor of three. The sifting process resulted in the partitioning of fine and coarse particle contaminant loading. For bedded sediments, accurate predictions of PAH and PCB loadings on resuspended particles were made using the mass of resuspended particles of different sizes and the concentrations of contaminants in the particle pools of the bulk sediment. However, due possibly to contributions from other unmeasured particles (e.g. colloids), predictions were not possible for the dredge material. Thus, knowledge of the redistribution and fate of colloids may be important. The partitioning of PAHs between the dissolved and particulate phases during resuspension events was predicted to within a factor of two from the amount of organic carbon in each of the resuspended samples. These experiments show that contaminant transport is a function of the chemistry and textural characteristics of the bulk sediment and the winnowing action

  15. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: methodology and applications.

    PubMed

    Mahler, B J; Van Metre, P C

    2003-04-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport. PMID:12712287

  16. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: Methodology and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  17. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  18. Impact of Highly Basic Solutions on Sorption of Cs+ to Subsurface Sediments from the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Zachara, John M.; Wagnon, Ken B.; McKinley, Susan G.; Liu, Chongxuan; Smith, Steven C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Gassman, Paul L.

    2005-11-28

    The effect of caustic NaNO3 solutions on the sorption of 137Cs to the Hanford site micaceous subsurface sediment was investigated as a function of time, temperature (10 C or 50 C), and NaOH concentration. At 100C and 0.1 M NaOH, the slow evolution of [Al]aq was in stack contrast to the rapid increase and subsequent loss of [Al]aq observed at 50 C (regardless of base concentration). At 50 C, dissolution of phyllosilicate minerals increased with [OH], at 1 and 3 M NaOH solutions, almost complete dissolution of clay-sized phyllosilicates occurred. At 0.1 M NaOH, a zeolite (tetranatrolite) precipitated after about 7 days, while an unnamed mineral phase (Na2Al2Si3O10?2H2O) precipitated after 4 and 2 days of exposure to 1 M and 3 M NaOH solutions. At 100C there was no conclusive evidence of secondary mineral precipitation. The effect of base dissolution on Cs+ sorption by the Hanford sediment was investigated via (1) Cs+ sorption over a large concentration range (10-9 ? 10-2 mol/L) to sediment after exposure to 0.1 M NaOH for 56, 112, and 168 days, (2) Cs+ sorption to sediment in the presence of NaOH (0.1 M, 1 M, and 3 M NaOH) at Cs+ concentrations selected to probe high affinity, transition, and low affinity cation exchange sites, and (3) the application of a two-site numeric ion exchange model (Zachara et al. 2002a). No effect on Cs+ sorption to the Hanford sediment was observed during the 168 days sediment was exposed to 0.1 M NaOH, at 10 C; Cs+ sorption in the presence of base was well described by the ion exchange model when enthalpy effects were considered. In contrast, at 50 C, there was a trend toward slightly lower (log {approx} 0.25) conditional equilibrium exchange constants over the entire range of surface coverage, and a slight loss of high affinity sites (15%) after 168 days of exposure to 0.1 M base solution. However, model simulations of Cs+ sorption to the sediment in the presence of 0.1 M base for 112 days were good at the lower Cs+ surface densities

  19. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM: CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTIONS IN PECONIC ESTUARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study design uses sediment quality as an indicator of overall ecosystem health. The utility of using sediment quality as an integrative indicator of ecosystem health underlies the application of the Sediment Quality Triad method and similar assessment approaches. Toxic contam...

  20. Response of estuarine benthic communities to zinc contamination: Tests using formulated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Watzin, M.C.; Roscigno, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of historic industrial sources, zinc contamination in Mobile Bay is of widespread concern. Using formulated sediment and a newly developed field technique, the authors examined the effects of a series of concentrations of zinc on the benthic invertebrate community at two sites. A formulated sediment that matches field sediment in grain size distribution and organic matter content was mixed from 11 components and used as the test substrate. Clean sediments and sediments dosed with zinc at concentrations from 250--5,000 mg/kg were exposed in the field on holding racks anchored on the bottom of the bay. The abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate recruits were used as indicators of sediment quality. The authors found significant differences in both the abundances and species composition of recruits between clean controls and the zinc contaminated sediments. All taxa did not respond similarly to changing zinc concentrations, and effects on some groups were more apparent at lower concentrations. Several families of polychaete worms, harpacticoid copepods, and ostracods appeared to be most sensitive to the zinc. Under certain conditions, some taxa were attracted to zinc contaminated sediments. Taken together, the results suggest that zinc contamination can profoundly affect the nature of the benthic community recruiting into such sediments.

  1. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments.

    PubMed

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H; Milliken, Charles E; Redder, Todd M; Wolfe, John R; Seaman, John

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. PMID:27135572

  2. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-04-29

    One challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixedmore » amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 hour experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Moreover, Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. Finally, these findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination.« less

  3. Hanford tank residual waste – contaminant source terms and release models

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2011-08-23

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P±H phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less

  4. An evaluation of the toxicity of contaminated sediments from Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, following remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, N.E.; Hardesty, D.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B.T.; Dwyer, F.J.; MacDonald, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Waukegan Harbor in Illinois was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to high concentrations of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 20 sediment samples collected after remediation (primarily dredging) of Waukegan Harbor for PCBs. A 42-day whole sediment toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day sediment exposure followed by a 14-day reproductive phase) and sediment toxicity tests with Microtox?? were conducted to evaluate sediments from Waukegan Harbor. Endpoints measured were survival, growth, and reproduction (amphipods) and luminescent light emission (bacteria). Survival of amphipods was significantly reduced in 6 of the 20 sediment samples relative to the control. Growth of amphipods (either length or weight) was significantly reduced relative to the control in all samples. However, reproduction of amphipods identified only two samples as toxic relative to the control. The Microtox basic test, conducted with organic extracts of sediments identified only one site as toxic. In contrast, the Microtox solid-phase test identified about 50% of the samples as toxic. A significant negative correlation was observed between reproduction and the concentration of three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) normalized to total organic carbon. Sediment chemistry and toxicity data were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (consensus-based probable effect concentrations, PECs). Results of these analyses indicate that sediment samples from Waukegan Harbor were toxic to H. azteca contaminated at similar Contaminant concentrations as sediment samples that were toxic to H. azteca from other areas of the United States. The relationship between PECs and the observed toxicity was not as strong for the Microtox test. The results of this study indicate that the first phase of sediment remediation in Waukegan Harbor successfully lowered concentrations of PCBs at the site

  5. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gibson, T.

    1996-07-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well.

  6. Physical verification of contaminated sediment remediation: Capping, confined aquatic disposal, and enhanced natural recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, D.

    1995-12-31

    Dredging and disposal in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site, capping with clean sediment, and natural recovery are commonly used, cost-effective remedial practices for contaminated sediments. Recent projects in Puget Sound, Washington and Southern California involved dredging and use of the material for capping and CAD fill. Both of these projects required physical monitoring to document sediment placement. Dredged sediments placed at these sites were optically identified using sediment vertical profile system (SVPS) photography. Optical criteria to distinguish cap/construction materials include grain-size, reflectance, and texture. Environmental parameters such as the extent and thickness of the CAD material or sediment cap deposits are evaluated against design and performance goals, typically the isolation of contaminants from the biologically active portion of the sediment column. Using SVPS, coring and other technologies, the stratigraphic contact between the capping/CAD sediment and the native sediment can be discerned. These measurements observations can ground-truth and be coupled with remote sensing to provide a more complete characterization of the entire remedial area. Physical isolation of the benthic community can be discerned by examining SVPS images for depth of bioturbation and sediment stratigraphy. On the periphery of cap/CAD deposits, thin layers of clean sediment ranging upwards from 1 mm thick can be identified. Dependent on the pre-remediation benthic community at the site, these thin layers of CAP/CAD sediment can be bioturbated by resident benthic infauna immediately after placement. The deposition and subsequent assimilation of the clean cap material into the contaminated sediments effectively reduces the concentration of contaminants in the biologically active zone thereby enhancing natural recovery in areas where regulatory criteria are focused on the biologically active zone.

  7. A Feasibility Study On Pd/Mg Application In Historically Contaminated Sediments And PCB Spiked Substrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vast majority of literature on bimetals deals with aqueous contaminants, very little being on organics strongly adsorbed on sediments and hence very challenging to remediate. Having previously reported materials, mechanistic and parametric aspects of PCB dechlorination with Pd...

  8. STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY, AND TOXICITY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...

  9. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  10. EPA'S FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RISK MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on capping technologies is directed at assessing the effectiveness of innovative capping materials, factors that control contaminant release at the sediment-water interface, installation of cap, resuspension mechanism, and gas ebullition. U.S. EPA's Land Remediation and ...

  11. EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL ENHANCED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical conductivity of sediments during microbial mineralization of diesel was investigated in a mesoscale column experiment consisting of biotic contaminated and uncontaminated columns. Microbial population numbers increased with a clear pattern of depth zonation within the ...

  12. EQUILIBRIUM PARTIONING AND BIOACCUMULATION OF SEDIMENT ASSOCIATED CONTAMINANTS BY INFAUNAL ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility and limits of applicability of a simple equilibrium partitioning model for predicting the maximum concentration of neutral organic compounds which can be accumulated by infaunal organisms exposed to a contaminated sediment were examined. Accumulation factors (AFs) for...

  13. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENT BY THREE BENTHIC MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sedim...

  14. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight PAHs are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...

  15. Selecting Performance Reference Compounds (PRCS)for Polyethylene Passive Samplers Deployed at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of equilibrium passive samplers for performing aquatic environmental monitoring at contaminated sediment sites, including Superfund sites, is becoming more common. However, a current challenge in passive sampling is determining when equilibrium is achieved between the sampl...

  16. Tidal river sediments in the Washington, D.C. area. 111 Biological effects associated with sediment contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Schlekat, C.E.; McGee, B.L.; Boward, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity and benthic marcroinvertebrate community structure were measured as one component of a study conceived to determine the distribution and effect of sediment contamination in tidal freshwater portions of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers in the Washington, D.C., area. Samples were collected at 15 sites. Analyses included a partial life cycle (28 d) whole sediment test using the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Talitridae) and an assessment of benthic community structure. Survival and growth (as estimated by amphipod length) were experimental endpoints for the toxicity test. Significant mortality was observed in 5 to 10 sites in the lower Anacostia River basin and at the main channel Potomac River site. Sublethal toxicity, as measured by inhibition of amphipod growth, was not observed. Toxicity test results were in general agreement with synoptically measured sediment contaminant concentrations. Porewater total ammonia (NH{sub 3} + NH{sub 4}{sup +}) appears to be responsible for the toxicity of sediments from the Potomac River, while correlation analysis and simultaneously extracted metals: acid volatile sulfide (SEM:AVA) results suggest that the toxicity associated with Anacostia River sediments was due to organic compounds. Twenty-eight macroinvertebrate taxa were identified among all sites, with richness varying from 5 to 17 taxa per site. Groups of benthic assemblages identified by group-average cluster analysis exhibited variable agreement with sediment chemical and sediment toxicity results. Integration of toxicological, chemical, and ecological components suggests that adverse environmental effects manifest in lower Anacostia River benthos result from chemical contamination of sediment. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Geoelectrical Evidence of Microbial Degradation of Diesel Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkema, D. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.; Sauck, W. A.

    2003-12-01

    The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynamics were determined by the rDNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), microbial mineralization of diesel fuel was assessed using dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), enhanced mineral dissolution was determined by dissolved calcium, and the vertical geoelectrical profile was measured using DC resistivity (converted to conductivity). The columns simulated a saturation profile and contained sanitized, uniform sand with the following experimental treatments: diesel + microbes, diesel, microbes, and no treatment. After 16 months, two important conclusions were drawn. First, the relative increase in magnitude of the parameters measured was highest in the diesel + microbe column (showing at least 110% increase), lower in the diesel column and lowest (actually showing a decrease) in the column with no treatment. Further, the diesel + microbe column showed the greatest increase in oil degrading microbial populations (135%) compared to the column with no treatment, which showed no changes. Secondly, the depth at which the conductivity reached the maximum occurred within and slightly above the diesel layer (which represents a depth that was originally water wet). It was further observed that the relative change in bulk conductivity below the saturated zone is of a lower magnitude than above (<10%). These results suggest the diesel layer, and the zone slightly above, were the most biologically active. Additionally, the diesel + microbe column showed RISA fragments attributed to microbial succession typically observed in organic contaminant plumes. A simple Archie's Law analysis was used to estimate the pore water conductivities necessary to reproduce the bulk conductivity measured. This analysis shows that

  18. Determining the Desorption Kinetics of U(VI) from Contaminated Sediments Under Complex and Changing Solution Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, M. B.; Curtis, G. P.; Johnson, K. J.; Greskowiak, J.; Davis, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium(VI) transport in contaminated sediments is strongly controlled by the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption on mineral surfaces. Many studies on natural sediments and synthetic mineral phases have demonstrated the dependence of U(VI) sorption equilibrium on aqueous chemical conditions, with alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, and Ca concentration of particular importance in many natural systems. Desorption of U(VI) from contaminated sediments from DOE sites in Hanford, WA, Rifle, CO, and Naturita, CO also exhibits a significant kinetic limitation, with timescales of several weeks to months required to reach desorption equilibrium in some cases. This kinetic limitation is believed to be due to diffusion in intragranular pore space, which includes small fractures within grains and pores within clay aggregates and grain coatings. Development of appropriate reactive transport models that can be applied to predict the fate and transport of U(VI) in contaminated aquifers relies on accurately quantifying sorption equilibrium and kinetics at the grain scale, which vary from site to site based on sediment characteristics. This analysis typically involves laboratory batch- and column-scale adsorption/desorption experiments performed under a variety of chemical conditions to fully constrain surface complexation and kinetic models, requiring a constant set of chemical conditions over the duration of the experiment. In practice, however, this can be difficult in experiments aiming to quantify long-term kinetics (weeks to months time scale), due to slow ion exchange, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and redox processes. Long-term changes in solution conditions affect U(VI) sorption equilibrium, making it necessary to determine model parameters for U(VI) surface complexation, diffusion kinetics, and chemical weathering/ion exchange processes simultaneously from a given data set. We will present kinetic surface complexation model results obtained for size

  19. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Nsikak U.; Asuquo, Francis E.; Williams, Akan B.; Essien, Joseph P.; Ekong, Cyril I.; Akpabio, Otobong; Olajire, Abaas A.

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria). The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF) and global contamination factor (GCF). Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources. PMID:27257934

  20. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  1. Mobile sediment in an urbanizing karst aquifer: Implications for contaminant transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Lynch, L.; Bennett, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Here we investigate geochemical characteristics of sediment in different compartments of a karst aquifer and demonstrate that mobile sediments in a karst aquifer can exhibit a wide range of properties affecting their contaminant transport potential. Sediment samples were collected from surface streams, sinkholes, caves, wells, and springs of a karst aquifer (the Barton Springs portion of the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) Aquifer, Central Texas) and their mineralogy, grain-size distribution, organic carbon content, and specific surface area analyzed. Statistical analysis of the sediments separated the sampling sites into three distinct groups: (1) streambeds, sinkholes, and small springs; (2) wells; and (3) caves. Sediments from the primary discharge spring were a mix of these three groups. High organic carbon content and increased potential to transport contaminants; the volume of these sediments is likely to increase with continued urbanization of the watershed.

  2. Characterization of the Contaminated Soil Under the Hanford 324 Building B Cell, Washington, USA - 12182

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Walter S.

    2012-07-01

    The 324 Building on the Hanford site played a key role in radiochemical and metallurgical research programs conducted by DOE. The B hot cell in the 324 Building was the site of high-level waste vitrification research. During clean-out operations in November 2009, a tear was noted in the stainless steel liner on the floor of B Cell. Exposure rate readings taken at various locations in the soil about 0.5 meters below B Cell reached 8,900 Roentgen (R) per hour, confirming the existence of a significant soil contamination field. The source of the radioactive material was likely a 510 L spill from the Canister Fabrication Project, consisting of purified, concentrated Cs-137 and Sr-90 solutions totaling 48,000 TBq (1.3 MCi). MCNP modeling was used to estimate that the measured exposure rates were caused by 5,900 TBq (160 kCi) of Sr- 90 and Cs-137, although additional contamination was thought to exist deeper in the soil column. Two physical soil samples were obtained at different depths, which helped verify the contamination estimates. A detailed exposure rate survey inside B Cell was combined with additional MCNP modeling to estimate that an additional 1,700 TBq (460 kCi) is present just below the floor. Based on the results of the sampling campaign, it is likely that the radioactive material below B Cell is primarily consists of feed solutions from the FRG Canister Fabrication Project, and that it contains purified Sr-90 and Cs-137 with enough actinide carryover to make some of the soil transuranic. The close agreement between the Geoprobe calculations and the physical samples adds confidence that there are more than 3700 TBq (100,000 Ci) of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the soil approximately 1 meter below the cell floor. The majority of the Cs-137 is contained in the first meter of soil, while significant Sr-90 contamination extends to 10 meters below the cell floor. It is also likely that an additional 15,000 TBq (400,000 Ci) of Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity is present directly

  3. Speciation of metals in contaminated sediments from Oskarshamn Harbor, Oskarshamn, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun; Kaczala, Fabio; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2014-02-01

    Bottom sediments in coastal regions have been considered the ultimate sink for a number of contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. In this current study, speciation of metals in contaminated sediments of Oskarshamn harbor in the southeast of Sweden was performed in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility and bioavailability. Sediment speciation was carried out by the sequential extraction BCR procedure for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (R) fractionswere determined. The results have shown that Zn and Cd were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (F1) with 42–58 % and 43–46 %, respectively, of their total concentrations in the mobile phase. The assessment of sediment contamination on the basis of quality guidelines established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Italian Ministry of Environment (Venice protocol for dredged sediments) has shown that sediments from Oskarshamn harbor are highly contaminated with toxic metals, especially Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, and Zn posing potential ecological risks. Therefore, it is of crucial importance the implementation of adequate strategies to tackle contaminated sediments in coastal regions all over the world. PMID:24078237

  4. Contributions of contamination and organic enrichment to sediment toxicity near a sewage outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.M.; Greenstein, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment and interstitial water toxicity and contamination were measured at 12 sites near the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts sewage outfall on the Palos Verdes (Calif.) shelf, a region contaminated with many metal and organic contaminants. The spatial pattern of biological effects (sea urchin growth and fertilization) was compared with chemical concentrations in sediment, interstitial water, and gonad tissue to identify potentially meaningful relationships. Tissue analyses indicated that sediment metals were not bioavailable and therefore unlikely to be a significant factor in the sediment toxicity test responses. Sediment DDTs, PCBs, and PAHs were bioavailable and showed significant correlations with sea urchin growth effects. Interstitial water toxicity was most strongly correlated with measures of organic enrichment (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia) and hydrocarbon contamination. Subsequent dose response experiments confirmed the important role of hydrogen sulfide in interstitial water toxicity but failed to demonstrate an effect of DDE (the most abundant sediment organic contaminant) on growth. Overall, variations in measured sediment characteristics accounted for a relatively small portion of the biological responses.

  5. Catchment-scale environmental controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Globally river sediment associated contaminants, most notably heavy metals, radionuclides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and phosphorous, constitute one the most significant long-term risks to ecosystems and human health. These can impact both urban and rural areas and, because of their prolonged environmental residence times, are major sources of secondary pollution if contaminated soil and sediment are disturbed by human activity or by natural processes such as water or wind erosion. River catchments are also the primary source of sediment-associated contaminants to the coastal zone, and to the ocean, and an understanding of the factors that control contaminated sediment fluxes and delivery in river systems is essential for effective environmental management and protection. In this paper the catchment-scale controls of sediment-associated contaminant dispersal are reviewed, including climate-related variations in flooding regime, land-use change, channel engineering, restoration and flood defence. Drawing on case studies from metal mining impacted catchments in Bolivia (Río Pilcomayo), Spain (Río Guadiamar), Romania (River Tisa) and the UK (River Swale) some improved methodologies for identifying, tracing, modelling and managing contaminated river sediments are proposed that could have more general application in similarly affected river systems worldwide.

  6. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  7. Passive sampling in contaminated sediment assessment: building consensus to improve decision making.

    PubMed

    Parkerton, Thomas F; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-04-01

    Contaminated sediments pose an ongoing, pervasive, global challenge to environmental managers, because sediments can reflect a legacy of pollution that can impair the beneficial uses of water bodies. A formidable challenge in assessing the risks of contaminated sediments has been the elucidation and measurement of contaminant bioavailability, expressed as the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) in interstitial water, which serves as a surrogate measure of the substances' chemical activity. Recent advances in passive sampling methods (PSMs) enable Cfree of sediment-associated contaminants to be quantified at trace levels, thereby overcoming current limitations of predictive models. As a result, PSMs afford the opportunity for a paradigm shift from traditional practice that can effectively reduce uncertainty in risk assessment and bolster confidence in the science used to support management of contaminated sediments. This paper provides a brief overview of the 5 subsequent papers in this series that review literature on PSM use in sediments for both organic and metal(loid) contaminants, outline the technical rationale for using PSMs as a preferred basis for risk assessment over conventional chemical analyses, describe practical considerations for and uncertainties associated with laboratory and field deployment of PSMs, discuss management application of PSMs, including illustrative case studies in which PSMs have been used in decision making, and highlight future research and communication needs. PMID:24142815

  8. Historical accumulation of organic contaminants in sediment cores from Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, J.A.; Shea, D.; Weisbrod, A.V.; Hofelt, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Trace level concentrations of over 50 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and linear alkyl benzenes (LAB), 16 chlorinated pesticides, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were measured in sediment cores collected at ten sampling stations located in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. The sediment cores were dated by using Pb-210. PAH and LAB values ranged from 36--30388 ng/g and < 1--181 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Pesticide and PCB values ranged from 0.8--23 ng/g and 0.8--35 ng/g, respectively. As expected, the contaminant concentrations correlate with the amount of organic carbon in the sediment and generally decrease with increasing age of the sediment and increasing distance from Boston Harbor, the major historical source of many of these contaminants. Total inventories of contaminants in Massachusetts Bay were calculated and used to help construct a contaminant mass balance for the region. Down-core profiles were used to help reconstruct historical loading to the region. The relative distributions of contaminants in the sediment were used, along with source distributions (fingerprints), to calculate the contribution of each source to the measured sediment inventory. LABs were particularly useful in distinguishing the Boston Harbor sewage effluent from other sources. Implications to the long term fate and effects of contaminants in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays will be presented.

  9. Investigation of potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination on Hanford site arc-loop roads

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Riley, R.G.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Two roads on the Hanford Site, which had been treated during past Site operations with oil for dust suppression, were analyzed for potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. The general locations of these roads are (1) off Washington State Route 240, north of Horn Rapids Dam, and (2) between the 200 East and 200 West areas, south of the 200 Area fire station. Each road had an intact crust of oil/tar on top of the underlying soil surface. A set of control samples were collected at an untreated soil site near the Prosser Barricade air sampling station. Samples were collected of the oil/tar surface crust, the soil immediately beneath the surface crust (0 - 3 cm below the crust), and a deeper soil sample (13 - 23 cm below the surface crust). Samples were collected at two locations on each road. The PCBs were extracted from the samples using a roller technique with methylene chloride, cleaned using column chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography, and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The samples were analyzed for PCBs as the following technical mixtures: Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Aroclor 1254, and Aroclor 1260. All samples at all locations were less than the following detection limits: surface crust (41 ug/kg dry weight) and soil (2.1 ug/kg dry weight). These concentrations are below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX preliminary remediation goals for PCBs in residential soil (66 ug/kg) and well below the preliminary remediation goal for PCBs in industrial soil (340 ug/kg).

  10. Uptake and depuration of nonionic organic contaminants from sediment by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Wang, F.N.; Dwyer, J.; Ankley, G.T.; Mount, D.R.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Landrum, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was evaluated after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of exposure to a field-collected sediment contaminated with DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or to a field-collected sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Depuration of contaminants by oligochaetes in a control sediment or in water was also evaluated over a 7-d period after 28 d of exposure to the field-collected sediments. Accumulation of PAHs with a log octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) 5.6 or DDD and DDE typically exhibited a steady increase from day 1 to about day 14 or 28, followed by a plateau. Therefore, exposures conducted for a minimum of 14 to 28 d better reflected steady-state concentrations for DDT and its metabolites and for PAHs. Depuration rates for DDT and its metabolites and high-Kow PAHs were much higher in organisms held in clean sediment relative to both water-only depuration and model predictions. This suggests that depuration in clean sediment may artificially accelerate depuration of hydrophobic compounds. Comparisons between laboratory-exposed L. variegatus and oligochaetes collected in the field from these sediments indicate that results of laboratory tests can be extrapolated to the field with a reasonable degree of certainty.

  11. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA is described. The application is meant to characterize and forecast sediment and arsenic (As) distributions before and after proposed dredging activit...

  12. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA for the purpose of characterizing and forecasting sediment and arsenic distributions before and after proposed dredging activitie...

  13. EFFECT OF NITRATE-BASED BIOREMEDIATION ON CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION AND SEDIMENT TOXICITY-COLUMN STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory column study was set up to evaluate changes in contaminant distribution and sediment toxicity following nitrate-based bioremediation and to correlate toxicity reduction with loss of fuel components. Glass columns were packed with sediment from an aquifer that had be...

  14. PILOT IN SITU CAPPING PROJECT FOR PALOS VERDES SHELF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palos Verdes Shelf Pilot Capping Project will evaluate the short-term results of capping the DDT- and PCB-contaminated sediment with clean sediment. It will also determine how these results are affected by variables such as cap material, placement method and water depth. The ...

  15. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiying; Zhang, Qin; Xia, Chunyu; Zhong, Yuming; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is an important nutrient and electron acceptor for microorganisms, having a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling and electron transfer in anoxic sediments. High-nitrate inputs into sediments could have a significant effect on N cycling and its associated microbial processes. However, few studies have been focused on the effect of nitrate addition on the functional diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of sediment microbial communities in contaminated aquatic ecosystems with persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here we analyzed sediment microbial communities from a field-scale in situ bioremediation site, a creek in Pearl River Delta containing a variety of contaminants including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), before and after nitrate injection using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 4.0). Our results showed that the sediment microbial community functional composition and structure were markedly altered, and that functional genes involved in N-, carbon (C)-, sulfur (S)-and phosphorus (P)- cycling processes were highly enriched after nitrate injection, especially those microorganisms with diverse metabolic capabilities, leading to potential in situ bioremediation of the contaminated sediment, such as PBDE and PAH reduction/degradation. This study provides new insights into our understanding of sediment microbial community responses to nitrate addition, suggesting that indigenous microorganisms could be successfully stimulated for in situ bioremediation of POPs in contaminated sediments with nitrate addition. PMID:24671084

  16. DETERMINATION OF RATES AND EXTENT OF DECHLORINATION IN PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS DURING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This "Sediment Issue" summarizes investigations carried out by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of U.S. EPA to evaluate the long-term recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments via reductive dechlorination. The magnitude, extent, an...

  17. Sediment-water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from...

  18. TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

  19. Preliminary Results: Release Of Metals From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments Under Anaerobic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the western U.S. are contaminated with acid-mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned metal mines. Treatment of these streams may include removal of the existing sediments, with subsequent burial (e.g., in a repository). Burial of previously aerobic sediments ma...

  20. Remediation of Hylebos Waterway (Tacoma, WA): A common sense approach to determining contaminated sediment volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglevand, P.; Revelas, G.; Striplin, B.; Striplin, P.

    1995-12-31

    Hylebos Waterway is a three mile long industrial waterway located in Commencement Bay, Washington. A CERCLA program RI/FS, conducted in the mid-1980`s, found that surface sediments (0--2 cm) were contaminated with chlorinated organics, PAHs, and metals. An ongoing pre-remedial design effort, initiated in 1993, is evaluating natural recovery and four sediment confinement options for sediments that exceed programmatic sediment quality objectives: confined aquatic disposal, near-shore disposal, upland disposal, and in-place capping. The first three confinement options require dredging of contaminated sediments which, in turn, requires accurate determination of the three dimensional distribution of contaminated sediments. To place a maximum depth boundary on the sediment sampling approach, isopach maps were created by contouring the difference between the deepest historic dredging depth and current depth along the entire waterway. These isopach maps revealed the pattern of post-industrial sediment deposition in the waterway. For example, in some areas, little or no sediment accumulation had occurred in the navigation channel. Conversely, significant accumulation had occurred along some channel edges and in near-shore areas as the result of deposition, bank sloughing and historic dredging/filling activities. The isopach maps were used to place a lower depth boundary on waterway-wide sediment contamination and to establish the maximum core sampling depth required to reach ``native`` sediments, i.e., those below the deepest historic dredging depth and believed to be uncontaminated. Subsequent geo-technical and chemical analyses of the core samples confirmed the accuracy of the isopach approach. The data generated from this sampling effort are being used to estimate the areas and volumes of subtidal sediments requiring remedial action.

  1. A catchment-integrated approach to determine the importance of secondary sources of contaminated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Byrne, Patrick; Mullan, Donal; Smith, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution has been identified as one of the most important environmental challenges of the early 21st Century. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2008/105/EC) explicitly recognises the risk to water resources posed by sediment-associated contaminants in European river basins. The potential impacts on water supply and the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems from sediment and associated contaminants may be further exacerbated by climate change pressures on water resources, as highlighted in the 2009 EU White Paper "Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action" (SEC(2009) 386, 387, 388). Despite these concerns, the role of floodplains and other storage areas as secondary sources of contaminated sediment (i.e. metals) in river basins affected by historic industrial or mining pollution has been largely overlooked. Thereby, besides the sediment which is transported by the river, secondary sources of contaminants represent a credible threat to achieving EU water quality targets set by the WFD. This project addresses this issue by developing a catchment-based approach looking at metal geochemistry from source to sink (i.e., from sediment generation at slopes, passing through sediment transported by the river system, to sediment deposition at the storage areas to the outlet) and develop a geochemical model to predict the chemical aspects of metals transport and transformation. This approach will allow us to quantify (i) the sediment fluxes and associated contaminants flowing through the river, (ii) the storage areas contributions to downstream contaminated sediment fluxes, (ii) the timescales for the storage and removal of contaminated sediment in the sinks, and (iv) the transformation and bioavailability of the pollutants (i.e. metals) along the basin. Both physical and chemical aspects of metal transport will be considered by looking at metal geochemistry, mobility and bioavailability, hence producing information on chemical metal transport

  2. Sediment contamination and associates laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, L.B.; Barrows, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from 10 New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for metals, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples. The results highlight the range and magnitude of sediment contamination in NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of some metals in sediments, compared with NY Bight sediment, were at least 10 times higher. Total PAHs reached 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). The sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, the dominant pesticides, exceeded 3,000{micro}g/kg (dry weight). Total PCBs approached 3,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. Metals were bioaccumulated to a lesser degree. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated contaminants, along with sediment chemistry and benthic toxicity, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  3. Radioactive contamination of the Balchug (Upper Yenisey) floodplain, Russia in relation to sedimentation processes and geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Linnik, V G; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Potapov, V N; Surkov, V V; Korobova, E M; Volosov, A G; Vakulovsky, S M; Tertyshnik, E G

    2005-03-01

    The radioactive contamination of a riverine floodplain, heavily influenced by discharges from Krasnoyarsk-26, has been studied with respect to sedimentation processes and the geomorphology of the Upper Yenisey floodplain. The study was effected by implementation of a regime of in situ observations and measurements, sampling, and the interpretation of satellite images. The results of the study indicate that on the Balchug Bypass Floodplain, radionuclide contamination is primarily influenced by the thickness of the deposited sediments, and the area can be considered as two depositional environments. The Balchug floodplain area was contaminated due to sedimentation of radionuclide-contaminated alluvium, whose depositional regime significantly changed after the construction of a hydroelectric power station in 1967. Contamination levels are lower on the upstream part of the floodplain where sediment depth is less than 0.2-0.3 m, and this contamination started to accumulate in 1967, while the downstream part of the floodplain, exhibiting deeper deposits, displays higher levels of radionuclide contamination because radionuclides began to deposit here in 1958 when the Krasnoyarsk-26 Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) commenced operation. Radionuclide contamination of the floodplain is also related to the elevation of the floodplain, higher regions of the floodplain typically having lower contamination than low-lying areas, which tend to be frequently inundated with sediments being deposited during such inundations. Local relief, its orientation, and vegetation cover have also combined to form sediment traps with significantly higher radionuclide contamination. Lithological analysis combined with radiometric assay indicates a total 137Cs floodplain inventory of 33.7 GBq. PMID:15740772

  4. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs{sup +} ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs{sup +} ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors.

  5. Polychaete burrows harbour distinct microbial communities in oil-contaminated coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joe D; Cunliffe, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the bioturbating polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor can affect the composition of bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments, but have not considered diversity specifically within bioturbator burrows or the impact on microbial eukaryotes. We tested the hypothesis that H. diversicolor burrows harbour different eukaryotic and bacterial communities compared with un-bioturbated sediment, and that bioturbation stimulates oil degradation. Oil-contaminated sediment was incubated with or without H. diversicolor for 30 days, after which sediment un-affected by H. diversicolor and burrow DNA/RNA samples were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and high-throughput sequencing. Fungi dominated both burrow and un-bioturbated sediment sequence libraries; however, there was significant enrichment of bacterivorous protists and nematodes in the burrows. There were also significant differences between the bacterial communities in burrows compared with un-bioturbated sediment. Increased activity and relative abundance of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the burrows coincided with the significant reduction in hydrocarbon concentration in the bioturbated sediment. This study represents the first detailed assessment of the effect of bioturbation on total microbial communities in oil-contaminated sediments. In addition, it further shows that bioturbation is a significant factor in determining microbial diversity within polluted sediments and plays an important role in stimulating bioremediation. PMID:25858418

  6. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, A; Phillips, D H; Bowen, J; Sen Gupta, B

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO3-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. PMID:25634731

  7. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  8. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  9. SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION: RESEARCH TO EVALUATE RELEASE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF CONTAMINANTS AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, the Superfund program usually must decide whether to leave the site alone, cap it, or dredge it. This decision is based in part upon the relative risk to the environment and human health posed by each option. Resuspension of contaminants from the...

  10. A method for estimation of historic contaminant loads using dated sediment cores

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dated sediment cores were used to assess the history of contaminant loads. The contaminant selected must be one that is not significantly remobilized by post depositional processes such as diagenesis. In addition, the core must be from an area with a high deposition rate and litt...

  11. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241 C 204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct 90Sr values in Chapter 3. The changes were made on page 3.9, paragraph two and Table 3.10; page 3.16, last paragraph on the page; and Tables 3.21 and 3.31. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in October 2004. This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-10-28

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. PILOT LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous dredged sediments are typically placed in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) which are designed to dewater and contain but not treat sediments. Since navigational dredging in the U.S. is quickly filling many CDFs, these facilities have little available capacity for ne...

  14. Changing contaminant mobility in a dredged canal sediment during a three-year phytoremediation trial.

    PubMed

    King, Rosalind F; Royle, Anna; Putwain, Philip D; Dickinson, Nicholas M

    2006-09-01

    Metal mobility and degradation of organic pollutants were investigated in a contaminated canal sediment in NW England. Sediment was dredged and exposed above the water surface, planted with multiple taxa of Salix, Populus and Alnus and monitored over 32 months. Short-term metal fractionation and phytotoxicity during sediment oxidation were also evaluated in separate laboratory studies. Zinc and Pb redistributed into more mobile fractions, which increased toxicity of the sediment to plants in the laboratory. In contrast, at the canal site, mobility of most elements decreased and total concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd fell. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decreased, but the tree-planted treatments appeared less effective at reducing PAH concentrations than treatments colonised by invasive plants. Tree survivorship decreased over time, suggesting increasing phytotoxicity of the exposed sediment in the longer term. Trees provided little benefit in terms of sediment remediation. Options for future management of the sediment are evaluated. PMID:16427727

  15. Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Barros, Sérgio Ricardo; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves

    2013-05-30

    Dredging of contaminated sediments has shown to be a harmful activity for the environment, because a number of contaminants can be resuspended and become available to the organisms. Furthermore, dredged contaminated sediments may cause significant damages in the dumping site. In order to avoid the drawbacks of this activity, better techniques have to be developed and the present article presents a new procedure for the planning of dredging that reduces the environmental impacts by reducing the amount of dredged sediments and, at the same time, reduces costs. The new technique uses screening of contaminant concentrations in the sediments that are normally part of the environmental impact assessment for dredging activity. A detailed mapping of the contamination, layer by layer is carried out and the areas where the action levels are reached are outlined with polygons, establishing limits within which sediments have to be dredged with safe procedures. In the case presented, construction of a harbor in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the safe procedure is cutter/suction dredging and pumping into a sub-aquatic confined disposal facility (CDF). A detailed evaluation of costs showed that if the whole layers of sediment were to be dumped into the CDF, the cost of the activity would be at least 63.82% more expensive than the proposed procedure, constituting an attractive advantage. Furthermore, as the size of the CDF is significantly smaller, less dredging is necessary, causing smaller environmental impact. PMID:23524396

  16. Recent advances in the use of estuarine meiobenthos to assess contaminated sediment effects in multi-species whole sediment microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Schizas, N.V.; Donelan, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Many marine meiobenthic taxa (i.e. invertebrates passing a 1-mm sieve but retaining on a 0.063 mm sieve) are ideal for ``whole-sediment`` and porewater bioassay of sedimented pollutants. Annual production of meiobenthos is 5--10 times that of the more commonly studied macrobenthos, and > 95% of all meiobenthos live in the oxic zone of muddy sediments at densities of 4--12 million per M{sup 2}. Most spend their entire lifecycles, burrowing freely and feeding on/within the sediment:porewater matrix, many taxa undergo 10--14 generations per year, most larval/juvenile stages are benthic, and many have easily quantifiable reproductive output. Furthermore, many meiobenthic taxa can be cultured indefinitely over multiple life-cycles within simple sediment microcosms consisting of sealed whole-sediment cores collected intact from intertidal mudflats. The authors describe several recent technical developments exploiting meiofaunal sediment culture for rapid contaminated sediment bioassays of toxicant effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of meiobenthic taxa in whole-sediment microcosms. Currently meiobenthic copepods, nematodes, foraminifers and polychaetes are being continuously cultured to study these parameters under exposure to model sediment-associated toxicants (e.g. cadmium). Bioassays are run for 21-d under flowing seawater. With this approach, fertile benthic copepods (e.g. Amphiascus tenuiremis) can be added to core microcosms to assess survival and growth of a fixed population cohort. All other meiobenthic taxa are enumerated relative to controls and evaluated for toxicant effects on higher order community-level endpoints. This approach exploits meiobenthos` high abundance and rapid reproductive rates to yield on a micro scale better endpoints than much larger sediment mesocosms targeted at macrofaunal endpoints.

  17. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses. PMID:25522855

  18. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants and the importance of digestive history

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, D.P.; Penry, D.L.; Baker, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    It is generally recognized that animals will optimize their gain of energy and nutrients from a given food source, and acclimation processes operating over a period of days are important to this optimization. This research investigates whether the bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants varies as a function of acclimation period to a given sediment type. In other words, would the bioavailability of a sediment-associated contaminant be determined by whether the animal had in the recent past fed on a sediment with similar physical characteristics? If this dependence did exist, it could be of considerable importance to sediment toxicity testing and toxicokinetic modeling. The polychaete, Abarenicola Pacifica, was exposed to sediments spiked with phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene. Bioavailability of these contaminants was determined both by assimilation efficiency and body burden. Preliminary data suggest that PAH bioavailability is not a function of digestive history, i.e., the rate or efficiency of PAH uptake was not dependent upon whether the animal had spent a pre-exposure period in sediment physically similar to the contaminated material. This observation would support either: (1) minimal importance of digestion as a route of PAH uptake, or (2) passive uptake of PAH across the gut wall with little involvement of enzymatic digestion.

  19. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants and the importance of digestive history

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, D.P.; Penry, D.L.; Baker, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    It is generally recognized that animals will optimize their gain of energy and nutrients from a given food source, and acclimation processes operating over a period of days are important to this optimization. This research investigates whether the bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants varies as a function of acclimation period to a given sediment type. In other words, would the bioavailability of a sediment-associated contaminant be determined by whether the animal had, in the recent past, fed on a sediment with similar physical characteristics? If this dependence did exist, it could be of considerable importance to sediment toxicity testing and toxico-kinetic modeling. The polychaete, Abarenicola pacifica, was exposed to sediments spiked with phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene. Bioavailability of these contaminants was determined both by assimilation efficiency and body burden. The data suggest that PAH bioavailability is not a function of digestive history, i.e., the rate or efficiency of PAH uptake was not dependent upon whether the animal had spent a pre-exposure period in sediment physically similar to the contaminated material. This observation would support either: (1) minimal importance of digestion as a route of PAH uptake, or (2) passive uptake of PAH across the gut wall with little involvement of enzymatic digestion.

  20. In vivo bioaccumulation of contaminants from historically polluted sediments - relation to bioavailability estimates.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Allan, Ian J; Oxnevad, Sigurd; Schaanning, Morten T; Borgå, Katrine; Bakke, Torgeir; Næs, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    Many contaminants are recalcitrant against degradation. Therefore, when primary sources have been discontinued, contaminated sediments often function as important secondary pollution sources. Since the management and potential remediation of contaminated marine sediments may be very costly, it is important that the environmental risks of contaminants present in these sediments and benefits of remediation are evaluated as accurately as possible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of common organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected polluted sediments from Norway by simple generic sorption models (free energy relationships), as well as by pore water concentration measurements. Furthermore, the aim was to predict bioaccumulation from these bioavailability estimates for comparison with in vivo bioaccumulation assessments using ragworm (Nereis virens) and netted dogwhelk (Hinia reticulata). Predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from pore water concentration estimates were in better agreement with the bioaccumulation observed in the test organisms, than the generic BSAFs expected based on linear sorption models. The results therefore support that site-specific evaluations of bioaccumulation provide useful information for more accurate risk assessments. A need for increased knowledge of the specific characteristics of benthic organisms, which may influence the exposure, uptake and elimination of contaminants, is however emphasized. PMID:23178838

  1. Molecular tools to understand the bioremediation effect of plants and earthworms on contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Beatriz; Cañizares, Rosa; Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Masciandaro, Grazia; Benitez, Emilio

    2015-12-30

    A meso-scale pilot plant was set up to test the efficiency of a bioremediation scheme applied to marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was implemented for three years in two stages using two remediation agents: plants (Paspalum vaginatum and Tamarix gallica) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DNA and RNA-based methodologies were applied to elucidate the dynamics of the bacterial population and were related to improving biological and chemical conditions of the sediments. Bioremediation strategies were successful in removing pollutants from the contaminated sediments and specialization within the bacterial community related to the type of contamination present was detected in the different stages of the process. The highest response of Gram-positive PAH-degraders to the contamination was detected at the beginning and after the first stage of the experiment, corresponding to the uppermost values of degradation. PMID:26223013

  2. Effects of the 1993 Mississippi River flood on bed sediment distribution of municipal contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Moody, J.

    1995-12-31

    Completion of a bed sediment sampling effort in the Upper Mississippi River prior to the 1993 flood event, followed by sampling of the same locations in 1994, provided new information on the influence of a major flood on organic contaminants that accumulate in aquatic bed sediments and are indicative of sewage contamination. In both sampling events fecal sterols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), were measured in the bed sediments of 24 of the navigation pools. Bed sediment composite samples from each pool were collected at the identical composite locations ({+-} 5 m) in each event and were analyzed using similar analytical procedures. Definitive differences were observed in the fecal sterol distribution pattern. PAH concentrations were lower in the composite bed sediment samples collected downstream of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, but overall, PAH distribution was not significantly affected by the flood. LAS concentrations apparently were distributed, but analytical variability precluded a definitive comparison.

  3. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  4. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  5. Assessment of sediment contaminants, toxicity, and benthic community structure in Massachusetts bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, J.

    1994-12-31

    Sediments samples were collected during July 1993 at 12 stations in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays along the Massachusetts coastline. The stations consisted of foursites from shallow subtidal depths in each of three harbor systems: Wellfleet Harbor, Boston Harbor, and Salem/Beverly Harbors. Synoptic measurements were made of pollutant concentrations, sediment/porewater toxicity, and benthic community structure as a basis for examining potential linkages between sediment contamination and adverse impacts on living benthic resources of the Massachusetts Bay/Cape Cod Bay nearshore ecosystem. Results from this application of the Sediment Quality Triad approach will be presented.

  6. Spatial and temporal trends in surface water and sediment contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Chris; Painter, Scott; Williams, Donald; Richardson, Violeta; Rossmann, Ronald; Van Hoof, Patricia

    2004-05-01

    Data from recent sediment and surface water surveys have been collated and mapped to illustrate the spatial distribution of contaminants across the entire Great Lakes basin. Information from historical surveys, together with data from surface water monitoring programs in three major connecting channels, has also been collated in order to evaluate temporal trends. In general, Lakes Superior and Michigan exhibited the lowest levels of sediment contamination while Lake Ontario had the highest. Contaminants such as gamma-HCH (lindane) and dieldrin were ubiquitous in surface waters across the entire basin, which was indicative of atmospheric sources. The distribution of other compounds including hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene and mirex indicated the presence of local sources within the watersheds of the connecting channels. Surficial sediment contamination was found to have decreased markedly since the late 1960s and 1970s. Similarly, surface water contamination decreased over the period 1986-1997 with concentrations of dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene and mirex reduced by over 50%. However, the spatial distributions of both sediment and surface water contamination indicate that further effort is warranted in reducing local sources of contaminants, particularly in Lake Ontario. PMID:14749077

  7. Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Nitrate to Distinguish Contaminant Sources in Hanford Soil and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark; Bill, Markus

    2008-08-01

    The nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotopic compositions of nitrate in the environment are primarily a function of the source of the nitrate. The ranges of isotopic compositions for nitrate resulting from common sources are outlined in Figure 1 from Kendall (1998). As noted on Figure 1, processes such as microbial metabolism can modify the isotopic compositions of the nitrate, but the effects of these processes are generally predictable. At Hanford, nitrate and other nitrogenous compounds were significant components of most of the chemical processes used at the site. Most of the oxygen in nitrate chemicals (e.g., nitric acid) is derived from atmospheric oxygen, giving it a significantly higher {delta}{sup 18}O value (+23.5{per_thousand}) than naturally occurring nitrate that obtains most of its oxygen from water (the {delta}{sup 18}O of Hanford groundwater ranges from -14{per_thousand} to -18{per_thousand}). This makes it possible to differentiate nitrate from Hanford site activities from background nitrate at the site (including most fertilizers that might have been used prior to the Department of Energy plutonium production activities at the site). In addition, the extreme thermal and chemical conditions that occurred during some of the waste processing procedures and subsequent waste storage in select single-shell tanks resulted in unique nitrate isotopic compositions that can be used to identify those waste streams in soil and groundwater at the site (Singleton et al., 2005; Christensen et al., 2007). This report presents nitrate isotope data for soil and groundwater samples from the Hanford 200 Areas and discusses the implications of that data for potential sources of groundwater contamination.

  8. Tracking the origin and dispersion of contaminated sediments transported by rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive contaminant plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Chartin, C.; Lefevre, I.; Sophie, A.; Bonte, P.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted in several catchments draining the main Fukushima Dai-ichi Power Plant contaminant plume in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. We collected soils and sediment drape deposits (n = 128) and investigated the variation in 137Cs enrichment during five sampling campaigns, conducted every six months, which typically occurred after intense erosive events such as typhoons and snowmelt. We show that upstream contaminated soils are eroded during summer typhoons (June-October) before being exported during the spring snowmelt (March-April). However, this seasonal cycle of sediment dispersion is further complicated by the occurrence of dam releases that may discharge large amounts of contaminants to the coastal plains during the coming years.

  9. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) ammocoetes exposed to contaminated Portland Harbor sediments: Method development and effects on survival, growth, and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unrein, Julia R.; Morris, Jeffrey M.; Chitwood, Rob S.; Lipton, Joshua; Peers, Jennifer; van de Wetering, Stan; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to the decline of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus), but potential negative effects of contaminants on lampreys are unclear. Lamprey ammocoetes are the only detritivorous fish in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, USA, and have been observed in Portland Harbor sediments. Their long benthic larval stage places them at risk from the effects of contaminated sediment. The authors developed experimental methods to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on the growth and behavior of field-collected ammocoetes reared in a laboratory. Specifically, they developed methods to assess individual growth and burrowing behavior. Burrowing performance demonstrated high variability among contaminated sediments; however, ammocoetes presented with noncontaminated reference sediment initiated burrowing more rapidly and completed it faster. Ammocoete reemergence from contaminated sediments suggests avoidance of some chemical compounds. The authors conducted long-term exposure experiments on individually held ammocoetes using sediment collected from their native Siletz River, which included the following: contaminated sediments collected from 9 sites within Portland Harbor, 2 uncontaminated reference sediments collected upstream, 1 uncontaminated sediment with characteristics similar to Portland Harbor sediments, and clean sand. They determined that a 24-h depuration period was sufficient to evaluate weight changes and observed no mortality or growth effects in fish exposed to any of the contaminated sediments. However, the effect on burrowing behavior appeared to be a sensitive endpoint, with potentially significant implications for predator avoidance.

  10. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) ammocoetes exposed to contaminated Portland Harbor sediments: Method development and effects on survival, growth, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Unrein, Julia R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Chitwood, Rob S; Lipton, Joshua; Peers, Jennifer; van de Wetering, Stan; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-08-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to the decline of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus), but potential negative effects of contaminants on lampreys are unclear. Lamprey ammocoetes are the only detritivorous fish in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, USA, and have been observed in Portland Harbor sediments. Their long benthic larval stage places them at risk from the effects of contaminated sediment. The authors developed experimental methods to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on the growth and behavior of field-collected ammocoetes reared in a laboratory. Specifically, they developed methods to assess individual growth and burrowing behavior. Burrowing performance demonstrated high variability among contaminated sediments; however, ammocoetes presented with noncontaminated reference sediment initiated burrowing more rapidly and completed it faster. Ammocoete reemergence from contaminated sediments suggests avoidance of some chemical compounds. The authors conducted long-term exposure experiments on individually held ammocoetes using sediment collected from their native Siletz River, which included the following: contaminated sediments collected from 9 sites within Portland Harbor, 2 uncontaminated reference sediments collected upstream, 1 uncontaminated sediment with characteristics similar to Portland Harbor sediments, and clean sand. They determined that a 24-h depuration period was sufficient to evaluate weight changes and observed no mortality or growth effects in fish exposed to any of the contaminated sediments. However, the effect on burrowing behavior appeared to be a sensitive endpoint, with potentially significant implications for predator avoidance. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2092-2102. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26762215

  11. TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS FROM THREE METAL-CONTAMINATED AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments from Phillips Chain of Lakes (Wisconsin), Torch Lake (Michigan), and Little Grizzly Creek system (California) were tested for acute toxicity using the water flea. Daphnia magna, and the burrowing mayfly nymph, Hexagenia limbata. The organisms were tested simultaneously ...

  12. GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses of sediment samples collected along a transect in New Bedford harbor revealed a gradient of increasing concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydro...

  13. CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN SEDIMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ADVECTIVE FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical flux across the sediment/water interface is controlled by a combination of diffusive, dispersive and advective processes. The advective process is a function of submarine groundwater discharge and tidal effects. In areas where surface water interacts with groundwater, ...

  14. Do aquatic insects avoid cadmium-contaminated sediments?

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, L.; Shooner, F.

    1995-06-01

    The long-term colonization of profundal lake sediments having a range of spiked cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0.007 to 2.7 {mu}mol/g dry wt.) was measured in the field. Population densities of two of the most abundant colonizing insects (the chironomids Procladius [Holotanypus] sp., and Sergentia coracina) were unrelated to the Cd gradient, even though both taxa accumulated Cd in direct relation to its concentration in sediment Cd gradient Cd gradient. Cadmium concentrations in Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. larvae also responded positively to the sediment Cd gradient and ranged from 0.2 to 50 {mu}g/g. In contrast with the two other taxa, the abundance of Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. was the result of a behavioral or a toxic response, larvae of the three chironomid taxa were given a choice between field-control and Cd-spiked sediments in the laboratory. None of the taxa avoided the Cd-spiked sediments, suggesting that the lower abundance of Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. at high Cd concentrations in the field was due to Cd toxicity and not to avoidance of the Cd-rich sediments.

  15. Hydrocarbon depuration and abiotic changes in artificially oil contaminated sediment in the subtidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, John A.; Lichtenthaler, Rainer G.; Oreld, Frøydis

    1987-04-01

    North Sea crude oil was mixed with sediment in concentrations similar to those found in heavily polluted areas (10 000 and 18 000 ppm) and placed in experimental boxes in the subtidal. Experiments were performed in two Norwegian fjords, the eutrophicated Oslofjord (experimental period of 3 months) and the non-eutrophicated Raunefjord (13 months). Physical and chemical responses of the contaminated sediment were compared with similarly treated control sediment without oil. Depuration was investigated using gas and liquid chromatographic analyses for determination of total hydrocarbon content and selected single aromatic components. Biodegradation was followed using n-alkane/branched alkane ratios. No depuration or biodegradation of hydrocarbon, or pronounced changes in sediment nitrogen and carbon content were observed after exposure in the Oslofjord. In the Raunefjord the redox potential was reduced by 75-200 mV in the oil contaminated sediment after 9 and 13 months. In the control sediment nitrogen and carbon content were significantly reduced after 9 and 13 months but did not change in the oil contaminated sediment except at the sediment surface (0-1 cm). A significantly higher macrofaunal biomass was found in the control sediment after 9 and 13 months but not after 5 months. After 13 months of exposure in the Raunefjord 33% of the originally added oil remained in the sediment. The most soluble components such as naphthalene and methylnaphthalene were reduced by two orders of magnitude and less soluble components such as phenanthrene and methylphenanthrene by one order of magnitude. Reduction was most pronounced at the sediment surface. Biodegradation in the Raunefjord sediment was documented after an initial lag period of 4-9 months. It is suggested that lower bioturbation and resuspension rates are responsible for the reducing conditions and the conservation of carbon, nitrogen and particle size distribution in the oil contaminated sediment. Results found as a

  16. CHROMATOGRAPHIC ALTERATION OF A NONIONIC SURFACTANT MIXTURE DURING TRANSPORT IN DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromatographic alteration of a nonionic surfactant mixture during transport through DNAPL-contaminated aquifer sediment may occur due to differential loss of oligomers to sediment and to dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). These losses may significantly alter the solubilizing...

  17. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT USING THE NEW MUTAGENIC BIOASSAY, MUTATOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic compounds was performed on an organic solvent extract of a contaminated estuarine sediment from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, using the new mutagenic bioassay, Mutatox-. hemical fractionation methods of the sediment extract included si...

  18. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Brown, Christopher F.; Um, Wooyong; Nimmons, Michael J.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Spane, Frank A.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2007-11-01

    Four new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in FY 2006 to fulfill commitments for well installations proposed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-24-57. Wells were installed to collect data to determine the distribution of process uranium and other contaminants of potential concern in groundwater. These data will also support uranium contaminant transport simulations and the wells will supplement the water quality monitoring network for the 300-FF-5 OU. This report supplies the information obtained during drilling, characterization, and installation of the new groundwater monitoring wells. This document also provides a compilation of hydrogeologic, geochemical, and well construction information obtained during drilling, well development, and sample collection/analysis activities.

  19. Modelling suspended-sediment propagation and related heavy metal contamination in floodplains: a parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, R.; Hissler, C.; Matgen, P.; Guignard, C.; Bates, P.

    2014-09-01

    Fine sediments represent an important vector of pollutant diffusion in rivers. When deposited in floodplains and riverbeds, they can be responsible for soil pollution. In this context, this paper proposes a modelling exercise aimed at predicting transport and diffusion of fine sediments and dissolved pollutants. The model is based upon the Telemac hydro-informatic system (dynamical coupling Telemac-2D-Sysiphe). As empirical and semiempirical parameters need to be calibrated for such a modelling exercise, a sensitivity analysis is proposed. An innovative point in this study is the assessment of the usefulness of dissolved trace metal contamination information for model calibration. Moreover, for supporting the modelling exercise, an extensive database was set up during two flood events. It includes water surface elevation records, discharge measurements and geochemistry data such as time series of dissolved/particulate contaminants and suspended-sediment concentrations. The most sensitive parameters were found to be the hydraulic friction coefficients and the sediment particle settling velocity in water. It was also found that model calibration did not benefit from dissolved trace metal contamination information. Using the two monitored hydrological events as calibration and validation, it was found that the model is able to satisfyingly predict suspended sediment and dissolve pollutant transport in the river channel. In addition, a qualitative comparison between simulated sediment deposition in the floodplain and a soil contamination map shows that the preferential zones for deposition identified by the model are realistic.

  20. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B., II; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  1. Metal contamination of active stream sediments in upper Weardale, northern Pennine Orefield, UK.

    PubMed

    Lord, R A; Morgan, P A

    2003-03-01

    In the Upper Weardale area the headwaters of the River Wear bisect the Northern Pennine Orefield, where Pb-Zn-F-Ba vein-type mineralisation has been exploited since the Roman Conquest. The area contains evidence of open pit, underground and hydraulic mining of base metal ores, associated mineral processing and smelting, exploitation of ironstones during the industrial revolution, recent extraction of fluorite and active quarrying. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of modern sediment contamination arising from these past activities. Samples of active stream sediments were collected from all major drainage channels at 1 km intervals. The sediments were analysed for Pb, Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, As, Sb, Ag and compared to data from earlier regional geochemical surveys of low order drainage samples using ArcView software. The significance of contamination levels was assessed using the Ontario aquatic sediment quality guidelines. Our results indicate widespread contamination of some major drainages by Pb, Mn, Zn and As at concentration levels anticipated to significantly affect use of the sediments by benthic organisms. Furthermore, Pb contamination shows persistence in stream sediments downstream towards agricultural areas of the floodplain and drinking water abstraction points, above which interaction with colliery mine water discharges may occur. PMID:12901084

  2. Use of Buried Sediment Traps to Estimate Deposition of Fine-Grained Sediment and Organic Contaminants in Salmon Spawning Gravels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.

    2005-05-01

    Deposition of fine-grained sediments into spawning gravels was estimated in the McKenzie River, OR, in conjunction with reservoir drawdown. Collapsed bags were buried at a depth of 40 cm during August 2003 and retrieved in July 2004. The deployment period included several mid-winter storms when sediment transport was high. Retrieval captured the column of bed sediment overlying the bags, including possible contaminants. Grain size distribution, percent and mass of fine material, chlorinated organic compounds, and organic carbon were measured in the retrieved sediment and pore waters. Deposition of fine materials was least in upstream reference areas, greatest in tributaries downstream of two different reservoirs, and intermediate downstream on the mainstem McKenzie River. Low-levels of organochlorine compounds were detected at two of the five sites, including below one reservoir where historical DDT spraying had occurred, and at the downstream mainstem location. The collapsed bag design, with Teflon lining, was an effective method to estimate time-integrated deposition of fine sediment and contaminants into a streambed.

  3. Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-02-12

    Rates of contaminant U(VI) release from individual size fractions of a composite sediment from the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone of the Hanford 300-Area were examined in flow-through batch reactors to maintain quasi-constant chemical conditions. Variability in equilibrium adsorption among the various size fractions was determined in static batch reactors and analyzed using the surface complexation modeling approach. The estimated stoichiometric coefficients of U(VI) surface complexation reactions with respect to pH and carbonate concentrations varied with size fractions. This source of variability significantly increased the uncertainty in U(VI) conditional equilibrium constants over that estimated from experimental errors alone. A minimum difference between conditional equilibrium constants was established in order to evaluate statistically significant differences between sediment adsorption properties. A set of equilibrium and kinetic expressions for cation exchange, calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, and silica dissolution were incorporated in a reaction-rate model to describe the temporal evolution of solute concentrations observed during the flow-through batch experiments. Parameters in the reaction-rate model, calibrated using experimental data for select size fractions, predicted the changes in solute concentrations for the bulk, <2 mm, sediment sample. Kinetic U(VI) desorption was well described using a multi-rate surface complexation model with an assumed lognormal distribution for the rate constants. The estimated mean and standard deviation were the same for all < 2mm size fractions, but differed in the 2-8mm size fraction. Micropore volumes in the varied size fractions were also similar as assessed using t-plots to analyze N2 desorption data. These findings provide further support for the link between microporosity and particle-scale mass transfer rates controlling kinetic U(VI) adsorption/desorption and for the utility of N2 desorption

  4. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26372939

  5. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  6. Complex patterns in fish - sediment mercury concentrations in a contaminated estuary: The influence of selenium co-contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. J.; Swadling, K. M.; Butler, E. C. V.; Macleod, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) loads do not always correspond to Hg concentrations in resident fish and selenium (Se) presence has been reported to play a pivotal role in mitigating Hg bioaccumulation. Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations were measured in sediments and a benthic fish species (Platycephalus bassensis) from a contaminated estuary (Derwent Estuary, Tasmania). Elevated sediment concentrations of Se did not result in increased Se concentrations in fish, but low concentrations of Se were associated with increased MeHg bioavailability (% MeHg) from sediments to fish. Where MeHg (≈99% of total Hg) concentration in fish was high Se uptake also increased, indicating that maintaining positive Se:Hg ratios may reduce the toxicity of MeHg. MeHg was detectable in sediments throughout the estuary, and a molar excess of THg over Se suggested that there was insufficient Se to prevent methylation from the sediments. Se:Hg ratios of less than 1.0 in sediments, coupled with high %MeHg fraction and high biotic sediment accumulation factors for MeHg (BSAFMeHg), indicated that the lower region of the Derwent Estuary could be a hotspot for Hg methylation, despite having significantly lower THg concentrations. In contrast, Hg bioavailability to fish from sediments close to the source may be reduced by both inorganic Hg species complexation and lower methylation rates. There was a strong association between THg and Se in estuarine sediments, suggesting that Se plays an important role in sediment Hg cycling and should be a key consideration in any future assessments of Hg methylation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation.

  7. Identifying the sources of subsurface contamination at the Hanford site in Washington using high-precision uranium isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2004-03-30

    In the mid-1990s, a groundwater plume of uranium (U) was detected in monitoring wells in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area (WMA) at the Hanford Site in Washington. This area has been used since the late 1940s to store high-level radioactive waste and other products of U fuel-rod processing. Using multiple collector ICP source magnetic sector mass spectrometry (MC ICPMS) high precision uranium isotopic analyses were conducted of samples of vadose zone contamination and of groundwater. The ratios {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are used to distinguish contaminant sources. Based on the isotopic data, the source of the groundwater contamination appears to be related to a 1951 overflow event at tank BX-102 that spilled high level U waste into the vadose zone. The U isotopic variation of the groundwater plume is a result of mixing between contaminant U from this spill and natural background U. Vadose zone U contamination at tank B-110 likely predates the recorded tank leak and can be ruled out as a source of groundwater contamination, based on the U isotopic composition. The locus of vadose zone contamination is displaced from the initial locus of groundwater contamination, indicating that lateral migration in the vadose zone was at least 8 times greater than vertical migration. The time evolution of the groundwater plume suggests an average U migration rate of {approx}0.7-0.8 m/day showing slight retardation relative to a ground water flow of {approx}1 m/day.

  8. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  9. Coupled effects of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry on Zn mobility and speciation in highly contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Minwei; Jarrett, Brooke A; Da Silva-Cadoux, Cécile; Fetters, Kyle J; Burton, G Allen; Gaillard, Jean-François; Packman, Aaron I

    2015-05-01

    Porewater transport and diagenetic reactions strongly regulate the mobility of metals in sediments. We executed a series of laboratory experiments in Gust chamber mesocosms to study the effects of hydrodynamics and biogeochemical transformations on the mobility and speciation of Zn in contaminated sediments from Lake DePue, IL. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that the oxidation of surficial sediments promoted the formation of more mobile Zn species. Bulk chemical measurements of porewater, overlying water, and sediment also suggested that this process liberated aqueous metals to porewater and facilitated Zn efflux to the overlying water. In addition, sediment resuspension events increased the release of aqueous metals to both surficial porewater and the overlying water column. XAS analysis indicated that resuspension increased dissolution of Zn-sequestering mineral phases. These results show that both steady slow porewater transport and rapid episodic resuspension are important to the release of metal from fine-grained, low-permeability contaminated sediments. Thus, information on metals speciation and mobility under time-varying overlying flow conditions is essential to understanding the long-term behavior of metals in contaminated sediments. PMID:25875468

  10. Using in situ bacterial communities to monitor contaminants in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuwei; Wang, Jizhong; Wu, Yaketon; Ren, Chen; Song, Chao; Yang, Jianghua; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial communities in sediments of human-impacted rivers are exposed to multiple anthropogenic contaminants and eventually lead to biodiversity lost and ecological functions disable. Nanfei River of Anhui province has been contaminated by pollutants from industrial and/or agricultural sources. This study was conducted to investigate the structure of in situ sediment bacterial communities in Nanfei River and to examine the correlation between the different taxonomic components and contaminant concentrations. The bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi. Both the profiles of environmental predictors and the composition of microbial communities differed among agriculture, industrial and confluence regions. There were significant associations between bacterial community phylogenies and the measured contaminants in the sediments. Nutrients (TN and TP) and two metals (Cd and Zn) were negatively correlated with the essential "core" of the bacterial interaction network (Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria). Metals (Fe, Ni and Zn) and nutrients (TN and TP) had higher impact on bacterial community compositions than PAHs, OPs and PRTs according to the correlation and network analyses. Furthermore, several sensitive candidate genera were identified as potential bioindicators to monitor key contaminants by species contaminant correlation analysis. Overall, in situ bacterial communities could provide a useful tool for monitoring and assessing ecological stressors in freshwater sediments. PMID:26866572

  11. Tracing peatland geomorphology: sediment and contaminant movements in eroding and restored systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, play a vital role in global carbon cycling, and can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. However, large areas of blanket peat are significantly degraded and actively eroding as a direct result of anthropogenic pressures, which negatively impacts carbon and pollutant storage. The restoration of eroding UK peatlands is a major conservation concern, and over the last decade measures have been taken to control erosion and restore large areas of degraded peat. In severely eroded peatlands, topography is highly variable, and an appreciation of geomorphological form and process is key in understanding the controls on peatland function, and in mitigating the negative impacts of peatland erosion. The blanket peats of the Peak District, Southern Pennines, UK embody many problems and pressures faced by peatlands globally, and are amongst the most heavily eroded and contaminated in the world. The near-surface layer of the peat is contaminated by high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited heavy metals which are released into the fluvial system as a consequence of widespread erosion. Whilst not desirable, this legacy of lead pollution and its release offer a unique opportunity to trace peatland sediment movements and thus investigate the controls on sediment and contaminant mobility. A suite of established field, analytical and modelling techniques have been modified and adapted for use in peatland environments and these have been successfully employed in combination to address issues of sediment and contaminant release at a range of scales, including: (i) the development of field portable XRF to assess in situ lead concentrations in wet organic sediments; (ii) adaptation of time integrated mass flux samplers to explore spatial and temporal sediment dynamics in peatland streams; and (iii) the application of sediment source fingerprinting and numerical mixing models to

  12. Relating ground water and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, S M; Palumbo, A V; Gibson, T; Ringelberg, D B; McCarthy, J F

    1997-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site near Belleville, MI. As part of this study, we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers, and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by the phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids, which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the highly contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate to the subsurface. Ground water chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences that resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate. These differences included an increase in Eh, small decrease in pH, and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well. Injected nitrate was rapidly utilized by the subsurface microbial communities, and significant nitrite amounts were observed in the injection well and in nearby down-gradient observation wells. Microbial and molecular analyses indicated an increase in

  13. Toxicological effects of short-term resuspension of metal-contaminated freshwater and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Kyle J; Costello, David M; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-03-01

    Sediments in navigation-dominated waterways frequently are contaminated with a variety of particle-associated pollutants and are subject to frequent short-term resuspension events. There is little information documenting whether resuspension of metal-contaminated sediments has adverse ecological effects on resident aquatic organisms. Using a novel laboratory approach, the authors examined the mobilization of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr during resuspension of 1 freshwater and 2 coastal marine sediments and whether resuspension and redeposition resulted in toxicity to model organisms. Sediment flux exposure chambers were used to resuspend metal-contaminated sediments from 1 site in Lake DePue, Illinois (USA), and 2 sites in Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Maine (USA). Short-term (4-h) resuspension of sediment at environmentally relevant suspended particulate matter concentrations (<1 g/L) resulted in metal mobilization to water that was sediment and metal specific. Overall, the net release of metals from suspended particles was limited, likely because of scavenging by organic matter and Fe oxides that formed during sediment interaction with oxic water. Minimal toxicity to organisms (survival of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna; survival, growth, and tissue metal concentration of Neanthes arenaceodentata; bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula) was observed during 4-h exposure to resuspended sediments and during 4-d to 10-d post-exposure recovery periods in uncontaminated water. Redeposited suspended particles exhibited increased metal bioavailability and toxicity to H. azteca, highlighting the potential for adverse ecological impacts because of changes in metal speciation. It is important to consider interactions between organisms' life histories and sediment disturbance regimes when assessing risks to ecosystems. PMID:26313755

  14. STUDY OF ABYSSAL SEAFLOOR ISOLATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCLUDED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the rapidly decreasing availability of disposal sites on land, in 1993 Congress directed the Department of Defense to assess the technical and scientific feasibility of isolating contaminated dredged material on the abyssal seafloor. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL...

  15. DISTINGUISHING ANTHROPOGENIC AND GEOGENIC IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental forensics is an area of scientific research that addresses contamination within the environmental media of air, water, soil and biota, and is subject to law court, arbitration, public debate, or formal argumentation. Environmental forensics involves scientific studi...

  16. ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) utilizes high redox potential at the anode and low redox potential at the cathode to oxidize and/or reduce organic and inorganic contaminants. EDC of Trichloroethylene (TCE), although theoretically possible, has not been experimentally proven. Th...

  17. Uranium Adsorption to A Hanford Sediment Sample: Effects of Suspended Particle Concentration at High pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Ball, W. P.

    2006-05-01

    Adsorption (surface complexation) is an important retardation process involved in the transport of uranium(VI) in the subsurface environment at the Hanford, WA DOE site. Accurate evaluation of adsorption equilibrium by means of adsorption isotherm experiments is a prerequisite for understanding and modeling uranium(VI) transport and fate. In this study, several series of batch adsorption experiments were performed at controlled pH (8.0, 8.5 and 9.5) on replicate samples of a silt/clay-size fraction of sediment culled from core borings located roughly 43 meters below the SX Tank farm at the Hanford site. At pH 8.0 and 8.5, the adsorption isotherm was found to be reversible and independent of the concentration of suspended sediment particles, and to be well described by a Freundlich model. At pH 9.5, however, the observed adsorption was found to depend on the experimental conditions of particle concentration - 100g/L, 200g/L and 400g/L were tested. Stronger adsorption was observed for lower particle concentrations, and desorption was less complete under these conditions. Various hypotheses, including colloidal effects, solid aggregation, and surface precipitation, are being explored as explanation of these observations. Centrifugation and ultra-filtration results suggest that colloidal effects are unlikely, and flow-through columns are currently being conducted (with re-circulated stock uranium solution) to investigate whether physical phenomena (e.g. effects of particle-particle contact) are a possible cause. It is also possible that surface precipitation may be occurring under some conditions, and on- going investigations will explore this possibility.

  18. Comparing the Accumulation of PCBs by Passive Samplers and Mussels from the Water Column at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  19. Digestive proteases of the lugworm (Arenicola marina) inhibited by Cu from contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Mayer, L.M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors examined potential toxic effects of copper released from contaminated sediments during deposit feeding of the lugworm, Arenicola marina. Titration of Cu solution into gut fluids can result in decreases in protease activity if sufficient Cu is added. The effects of Cu on gut proteases were confirmed by incubation of gut fluids with Cu-contaminated harbor sediments. Monitoring of Cu titration into gut fluids shows that enzyme inhibition and quenching of gut protein fluorescence occur only when sufficient Cu has been added to allow inorganic Cu species to become abundant. This threshold level probably represents the exhaustion of strong binding sites that act as protection against enzyme inhibition. Thus, sediments contaminated with Cu may have inhibitory effects on digestive processes in lugworms.

  20. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  1. Ecotoxicity of uranium to Tubifex tubifex worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Lagauzère, Sandra; Terrail, Raphaële; Bonzom, Jean-Marc

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. However, they are also the habitats of numerous benthic macroinvertebrates that directly influence the structure and functioning of such environments. Consequently, these organisms could be affected by uranium. This laboratory study aimed to assess the ecotoxicity of uranium on Tubifex tubifex through 12-day exposure to contaminated sediment (0-5980 microg U g(-1) dry wt). At high concentrations (>599 microg U g(-1) dry wt), malformations were observed, and survival, biomass and burrowing activity were all reduced. This relative high resistance in polluted environments can be explained mainly by the implementation of several processes as autotomy, regeneration ability, increased production of mucus, a hormetic effect on biomass and a probable strategy for avoiding the contaminated sediment. This study represents the first assessment of uranium impact on T. tubifex at realistic concentrations in sediments near mining sites. PMID:18555526

  2. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  3. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment: a greenhouse feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Schwab, A P; Banks, M K

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate plant treatments and the addition of an organic amendment to decrease the concentration of PCB congeners found in Arochlor 1260. Sediment treated with the amendment and either low transpiring plants or no plants had the greatest removal of the PCB congeners. High-transpiring plants apparently prevented the highly reducing conditions required for reductive dechlorination of highly chlorinated PCBs. Most likely, the amendment provided labile carbon that initiated the reducing conditions needed for dechlorination. The sediment moisture content and moisture-related plant parameters were significant predictors of the PCB loss. Carex aquatalis and Spartina pectinata are predicted to be the most effective plant treatments for phytoremediation of PCBs. PMID:17215232

  4. Hanford Tank 241-C-103 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-01-15

    This report tabulates data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of three samples collected from tank C-103. The data presented here will form the basis for a release model that will be developed for tank C-103. These release models are being developed to support the tank risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for DOE.

  5. Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

  6. Comparison of methods for developing contaminant-particle size distributions for suspended sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.D.; Burgoa, B.B.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1994-10-01

    Relationships between contaminant concentration and particle size distribution are required for modeling the transport of contaminated sediment. Standard methods, including the pipette and bottom withdrawal techniques, are unsatisfactory because of the lack of homogeneous separations of each size fraction, which results in uncertainty in the contaminant-particle size relation. In addition, the size fractions produced with these techniques do not contain enough mass for accurate contaminant analyses. To avoid these problems, an alternative method using a settling column and withdrawal times based on Stokes Law has been developed. Tests have been conducted using sediment samples contaminated with Cs-137 from a waste area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The samples were separated into sand, coarse and fine silt, and clay-sized particles. The results for particle size distribution and associated contaminant concentrations were evaluated for the settling column, pipette, and bottom withdrawal methods. The settling column method provides homogeneous size fractions, larger aliquots of sediment for contaminant analysis, and is quicker in some cases and less complicated to perform than the other two methods.

  7. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree. Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:197–209. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:24288295

  8. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

  9. Contamination and screening level toxicity of sediments from remediated and unremediated wetlands near Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Peng, Ping-An; Warne, Michael S J; Tremblay, Louis A; Laginestra, Edwina; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water. PMID:19589001

  10. Mercury Contaminated Sediment Sites- An Evaluation of Remedial Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to m...

  11. Sequential Leaching of Chromium Contaminated Sediments - A Study Characterizing Natural Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, D.; Ding, M.; Beroff, S.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Ware, D.; Harris, R.; Kluk, E.; Katzman, D.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural attenuation is an important process in slowing down the transport of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), an anthropogenic environmental contaminant, either by adsorption of Cr(VI) to sediments, or by reduction to nontoxic trivalent chromium, Cr(III). The capacity and mechanism of attenuation is explored in this sequential leaching study of different particle size fractions of chromium contaminated sediments and similar uncontaminated sediments from the regional aquifer near Los Alamos, New Mexico. Using this leaching protocol each sediment sample is split in two: one half is leached three times using a 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate/carbonate solution, while the second half is leached three times using a 0.01 M nitric acid, followed by two consecutively increasing magnitudes of nitric acid concentrations. Based on the amphoteric nature of chromium, alkaline leaching is used to establish the amount of Cr(VI) sorbed on the sediment, whereas acid leaching is used to establish the amount of Cr(III). The weak acid is predicted to release the attenuated anthropogenic Cr(III), without affecting Cr-bearing minerals. The sequential, stronger, acid is anticipated to leach Cr(III)-incorporated in the minerals. The efficiency and validation of the sequential leaching method is assessed by comparing the leaching behavior of bentonite and biotite samples, with and without loaded Cr(VI). A 97% chromium mass balance of leached Cr(VI)-loaded bentonite and biotite proves the viability of this method for further use on leaching contaminated sediments. By comparing contaminated and uncontaminated sediment leachate results, of chromium and other major and trace elements, the signature of anthropogenic chromium is determined. Further mineralogical characterization of the sediments provides a quantitative measure of the natural attenuation capacity for chromium. Understanding these results is pertinent in delineating the optimal procedure for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the regional aquifer

  12. Thallium dispersal and contamination in surface sediments from South China and its source identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Jiang, Xiuyang; Xie, Xiaofan; Chen, Diyun; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin

    2016-06-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential element in humans and it is considered to be highly toxic. In this study, the contents, sources, and dispersal of Tl were investigated in surface sediments from a riverine system (the western Pearl River Basin, China), whose catchment has been contaminated by mining and roasting of Tl-bearing pyrite ores. The isotopic composition of Pb and total contents of Tl and other relevant metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni) were measured in the pyrite ores, mining and roasting wastes, and the river sediments. Widespread contamination of Tl was observed in the sediments across the river, with the highest concentration of Tl (17.3 mg/kg) measured 4 km downstream from the pyrite industrial site. Application of a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction scheme in representative sediments unveiled that 60-90% of Tl and Pb were present in the residual fraction of the sediments. The sediments contained generally lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios compared with the natural Pb isotope signature (1.2008 and 2.0766 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively). These results suggested that a significant fraction of non-indigenous Pb could be attributed to the mining and roasting activities of pyrite ores, with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb (1.1539) and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb (2.1263). Results also showed that approximately 6-88% of Tl contamination in the sediments originated from the pyrite mining and roasting activities. This study highlights that Pb isotopic compositions could be used for quantitatively fingerprinting the sources of Tl contamination in sediments. PMID:27038575

  13. Accelerating progress at contaminated sediment sites: moving from guidance to practice.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Todd S; Nadeau, Steven C; McCulloch, Megan C

    2012-04-01

    Contaminated sediments are a pervasive problem in the United States. Significant economic, ecological, and social issues are intertwined in addressing the nation's contaminated sediment problem. Managing contaminated sediments has become increasingly resource intensive, with some investigations costing tens of millions of dollars and the majority of remediation projects proceeding at a slow pace. At present, the approaches typically used to investigate, evaluate, and remediate contaminated sediment sites in the United States have largely fallen short of producing timely, risk-based, cost-effective, long-term solutions. With the purpose of identifying opportunities for accelerating progress at contaminated sediment sites, the US Army Corps of Engineers-Engineer Research and Development Center and the Sediment Management Work Group convened a workshop with experienced experts from government, industry, consulting, and academia. Workshop participants identified 5 actions that, if implemented, would accelerate the progress and increase the effectiveness of risk management at contaminated sediment sites. These actions included: 1) development of a detailed and explicit project vision and accompanying objectives, achievable short-term and long-term goals, and metrics of remedy success at the outset of a project, with refinement occurring as needed throughout the duration of the project; 2) strategic engagement of stakeholders in a more direct and meaningful process; 3) optimization of risk reduction, risk management processes, and remedy selection addressing 2 important elements: a) the deliberate use of early action remedies, where appropriate, to accelerate risk reduction; and b) the systematic and sequential development of a suite of actions applicable to the ultimate remedy, starting with monitored natural recovery and adding engineering actions as needed to satisfy the project's objectives; 4) an incentive process that encourages and rewards risk reduction; and 5

  14. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  15. Contaminant trends in reservoir sediment cores as records of influent stream quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    When reconstructing water-quality histories from lake and reservoir cores, it is sometimes assumed that the chemical signatures in the cores reflect historical water quality in the influent streams. To investigate this assumption, concentrations of metals, PAHs, and organochlorine compounds in sediment cores were compared to those associated with an influent-stream suspended sediment for three reservoirs in Fort Worth, TX, and two reservoirs in Boston, MA, U.S.A., and interpreted in light of land-use and regulation histories. In evaluating relations between suspended sediments and cores, three levels of preservation were indicated: (1) influent concentrations and historical trends are preserved in cores (metals at all sites; some organic contaminants at some sites); (2) some loss occurs during transport and initial deposition but relative historical trends are preserved in cores (some organic contaminants at some sites); and (3) neither stream concentrations nor relative historical trends are preserved (dieldrin and p,p???-DDT). The degree of preservation of influent concentration histories varied between lakes, particularly for PAHs. The results support the use of sediment cores to infer streamwater-quality histories for many contaminants but indicate that reservoir-bottom sediment samples might underestimate concentrations of organic contaminants in some streams.

  16. Does bioleaching represent a biotechnological strategy for remediation of contaminated sediments?

    PubMed

    Fonti, Viviana; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Bioleaching is a consolidated biotechnology in the mining industry and in bio-hydrometallurgy, where microorganisms mediate the solubilisation of metals and semi-metals from mineral ores and concentrates. Bioleaching also has the potential for ex-situ/on-site remediation of aquatic sediments that are contaminated with metals, which represent a key environmental issue of global concern. By eliminating or reducing (semi-)metal contamination of aquatic sediments, bioleaching may represent an environmentally friendly and low-cost strategy for management of contaminated dredged sediments. Nevertheless, the efficiency of bioleaching in this context is greatly influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. These factors need to be carefully taken into account before selecting bioleaching as a suitable remediation strategy. Here we review the application of bioleaching for sediment bioremediation, and provide a critical view of the main factors that affect its performance. We also discuss future research needs to improve bioleaching strategies for contaminated aquatic sediments, in view of large-scale applications. PMID:27139303

  17. Characterization and Extraction of Uranium Contamination Perched within the Deep Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. A.; Rohay, V. J.; Benecke, M. W.; Chronister, G. B.; Doornbos, M. H.; Morse, J.

    2012-12-01

    A highly contaminated perched water zone has been discovered in the deep vadose zone above the unconfined aquifer during drilling of wells to characterize groundwater contamination within the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington. The perched water, which contains nitrate, uranium, and technetium-99 at concentrations that have exceeded 100,000 μg/L, 70,000 μg/L, and 45,000 pCi/L respectively, is providing contamination to the underlying unconfined aquifer. A perched zone extraction well has been installed and is successfully recovering the contaminated perched water as an early remedial measure to reduce impacts to the unconfined aquifer. The integration and interpretation of various borehole hydrogeologic, geochemical, and geophysical data sets obtained during drilling facilitated the delineation of the perching horizon and determination of the nature and extent of the perched contamination. Integration of the borehole geologic and geophysical logs defined the structural elevation and thickness of the perching low permeability silt interval. Borehole geophysical moisture logs, gamma logs, and sample data allowed detailed determination of the elevation and thickness of the oversaturated zone above the perching horizon, and the extent and magnitude of the radiological uranium contamination within the perching interval. Together, these data sets resolved the nature of the perching horizon and the location and extent of the contaminated perched water within the perching zone, allowing an estimation of remaining contaminant extent. The resulting conceptual model indicates that the contaminated perched water is contained within a localized sand lens deposited in a structural low on top of a semi-regional low-permeability silt layer. The top of the sand lens is approximately 72 m (235 ft) below ground surface; the maximum thickness of the sand lens is approximately 3 m (10 ft). The lateral and vertical extent of the

  18. Scale-dependency of macroinvertebrate communities: responses to contaminated sediments within run-of-river dams.

    PubMed

    Colas, Fanny; Archaimbault, Virginie; Devin, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Due to their nutrient recycling function and their importance in food-webs, macroinvertebrates are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. These organisms also constitute an important component of biodiversity. Sediment evaluation and monitoring is an essential aspect of ecosystem monitoring since sediments represent an important component of aquatic habitats and are also a potential source of contamination. In this study, we focused on macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dams, that are prime areas for sediment and pollutant accumulation. Little is known about littoral macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dam or their response to sediment levels and pollution. We therefore aimed to evaluate the following aspects: the functional and structural composition of macroinvertebrate communities in run-of-river dams; the impact of pollutant accumulation on such communities, and the most efficient scales and tools needed for the biomonitoring of contaminated sediments in such environments. Two run-of-river dams located in the French alpine area were selected and three spatial scales were examined: transversal (banks and channel), transversal x longitudinal (banks/channel x tail/middle/dam) and patch scale (erosion, sedimentation and vegetation habitats). At the patch scale, we noted that the heterogeneity of littoral habitats provided many available niches that allow for the development of diversified macroinvertebrate communities. This implies highly variable responses to contamination. Once combined on a global 'banks' spatial scale, littoral habitats can highlight the effects of toxic disturbances. PMID:21272919

  19. Contaminated Coastal Sediments in the Northeastern United States: Changing Sources Over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Bothner, M. H.; Mecray, E. L.

    2001-05-01

    Regional studies of coastal sediments in the northeastern United States, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, show that trace metal contamination from land-based activities has occurred near all major urban centers. Concentrations of metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, and Ag, are 2-5 times background levels in sediments of Boston Harbor, Long Island Sound (LIS), offshore of Gulf of Maine coastal cities, and in the New York Bight (NYB). Contaminant accumulations are strongly influenced by sediment lithology and sediment transport properties in local areas, in addition to proximity to pollutant sources. Inventories are greatest in muddy depo-centers of the NYB, western LIS, and Boston Harbor. Based on sediment cores, the onset of metal contamination in the northeast occurs in the mid-1800s, with inputs increasing in the mid-1900s and decreasing (20-50%) from the 1970s to present. The increases correlate with local population growth and abundance of a bacterial sewage indicator, Clostridium perfringens. Increases of N and Corg in cores also reflect population growth and changing wastewater treatment practices. Corg values reach a high of 6% in buried sediments near the NYB disposal sites. Cores from western LIS have increasing values of C, N, and P in the most recently deposited sediments, in contrast to metal concentrations that have decreased in recent years. Cessation of sludge disposal and reduction of chemical discharges have been effective at reducing inputs; however, contaminated sediment deposits remain in rivers (e.g., the Charles), floodplains (e.g., the Housatonic), and coastal sediments. In the future, high concentrations of metal contaminants stored in buried sediments of marine and fluvial systems are likely to be a lingering and significant source of pollution to coastal environments. Until more effective source-reduction occurs, land-use and industrial practices associated with population growth in the northeast will remain dominant factors for

  20. Phosphorus amendment reduces hematological effects of lead in mallards ingesting contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Audet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as related to adverse hematological effects and altered plasma chemistries. Mallards received diets containing 12% clean sediment (controls) or 12% sediment from three different CDARB sites containing 4520, 5390, or 6990 :g/g lead (dw) with or without phosphoric acid amendment. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in all CDARB treatment groups and ranged from geometric mean values of 5.0 ug/g for the first two sites to 6.2 ug/g for the third site. With amendments, all blood lead concentrations became 41% to 64% lower. Red blood cell ALAD activity was depressed by 90% or more with lead-contaminated sediment from all sites and did not differ with amended diets. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) concentrations were elevated by contaminated sediment from all sites. Amendment decreased the elevations in FEP by as much as 80%. Hematocrit values and hemoglobin concentrations were lower for all lead site sediments by as much as 30% for site 3. Plasma enzyme activities for ALT, CK, and LDH-L were elevated by as much as 2.2-fold, and plasma creatinine concentration was 1.7-fold higher for site 3 sediment. Amendments restored hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma enzyme activities so that they did not differ from controls. Although amendments of phosp