Science.gov

Sample records for contemporary timber architecture

  1. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  2. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    English, N.B.; Betancourt, J.L.; Dean, J.S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75-100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time.

  3. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    English, Nathan B.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75–100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time. PMID:11572943

  4. Optimization of Forward Wave Modeling on Contemporary HPC Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Jens; Micikevicius, Paulius; Williams, Samuel

    2012-07-20

    Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is one of the main approaches in the seismic processing industry for imaging the subsurface structure of the Earth. While RTM provides qualitative advantages over its predecessors, it has a high computational cost warranting implementation on HPC architectures. We focus on three progressively more complex kernels extracted from RTM: for isotropic (ISO), vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) and tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) media. In this work, we examine performance optimization of forward wave modeling, which describes the computational kernels used in RTM, on emerging multi- and manycore processors and introduce a novel common subexpression elimination optimization for TTI kernels. We compare attained performance and energy efficiency in both the single-node and distributed memory environments in order to satisfy industry’s demands for fidelity, performance, and energy efficiency. Moreover, we discuss the interplay between architecture (chip and system) and optimizations (both on-node computation) highlighting the importance of NUMA-aware approaches to MPI communication. Ultimately, our results show we can improve CPU energy efficiency by more than 10× on Magny Cours nodes while acceleration via multiple GPUs can surpass the energy-efficient Intel Sandy Bridge by as much as 3.6×.

  5. PCM-enhanced lime plasters for vernacular and contemporary architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Kyriakou, Loucas; Ioannou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    have significantly lower (by 55%) thermal conductivity and increased (by almost 20%) specific heat capacity at 90 days after laboratory production. At the same time, even though porosity values are higher for the PCM-enhanced renders, compared to the reference mixtures, their capillary absorption coefficient is significantly reduced (up to 60%). This is of great importance in the case of renders and may well be an indication for better expected durability in the long-term. Regarding the mechanical properties of the laboratory composites, PCM addition seems to have a negative effect on the hydraulic plasters. In contrast, when PCM is added to the hydrated lime-based plaster, no change is observed for the flexural strength, while the compressive strength is notably improved (up to 36%). The apparently improved properties of the PCM-enhanced plasters render them particularly appropriate for application in southern European climatic conditions. Due to their compatibility with traditional substrate materials (e.g. natural stone), the aforementioned composites may be used not only in new contemporary structures, but also for the renovation and retrofitting of existing buildings. The lime-based nature of their matrix and their physico-mechanical properties further extend their applicability to listed and monumental buildings.

  6. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained by OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  7. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained bymore » OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.« less

  8. The Strontium Fingerprint and Footprint: Using 87Sr/86Sr to Find the Sources and Range of Architectural Timber Acquisition of Great House Construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Reynolds, A. C.; Quade, J.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of timber acquisition by great house builders in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios from annually-dated, architectural logs in 10^{th} to 12^{th} century structures are compared to the 87Sr/86Sr of modern tree stands from the surrounding mountains. Although not a stable isotope system, the long half-life of the 87Sr parent (87Rb, t1/2 = 48.8 Ga) yields a stable isotope system on the timescales used to determine the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. The small mass difference among strontium's isotopes eliminates measurable biologic or kinetic fractionation at earth surface conditions. Strontium tracer studies, however, do require distinct end-member ratios to be feasible. Strontium isotopes, alone or in combination with other isotopes, provide a simple way to study and trace the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. Over the 150 km-wide Chaco Basin, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern trees range from 0.7055 to 0.7192. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from this and other studies show that during great house construction Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away in all directions. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) architectural beams from the high crests of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south, and (3) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the low slopes of the La Platas and San Juan Mountains to the north, the San Pedro Mountains to the east, the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains and nearby mesas. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo) or by time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources from the beginning of large scale construction in or around Chaco Canyon. This is contrary to the view that

  9. Utopia, University and Architecture: A Journey that Changed the Design of Contemporary Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2006-01-01

    In 1927, a group of advisors to King Alfonso XIII of Spain, led by the architect Modesto Lopez-Otero, set out for the United States and Canada. Previously, they had visited a number of European cities where they examined the medieval architectural form of some famous universities. Inspired by a Utopian vision, the journey to the New World studied…

  10. Pleistocene Aridification Cycles Shaped the Contemporary Genetic Architecture of Southern African Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa’s faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region’s biodiversity. PMID:25970269

  11. Communication Characteristics of Large-Scale Scientific Applications for Contemporary Cluster Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; Mueller, F

    2002-02-13

    This paper examines the explicit communication characteristics of several sophisticated scientific applications; which, by themselves, constitute a representative suite of publicly available benchmarks for large cluster architectures. By focusing on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and by using hardware counters on the microprocessor, we observe each application's inherent behavioral characteristics: point-to-point and collective communication, and floating-point operations. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivities of these characteristics to both problem size and number of processors. Our analysis reveals several striking similarities across, our diverse set of applications including the use of collective operations, especially those collectives with very small data payloads. We also highlight a trend of novel applications parting with regimented, static communication patterns in favor of dynamically evolving patterns, as evidenced by our experiments on applications that use implicit linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. Overall, our study contributes a better understanding of the requirements of current and emerging paradigms of scientific computing in terms of their computation and communication demands.

  12. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  13. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  14. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  15. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  16. Spatially Characterizing Effective Timber Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Sailor, J.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of a computer-oriented cartographic model for assessing roundwood supply for generation of base load electricity is discussed. The model provides an analytical procedure for coupling spatial information of harvesting economics and owner willingness to sell stumpages. Supply is characterized in terms of standing timber; of accessibility considering various harvesting and hauling factors; and of availability as affected by ownership and residential patterns. Factors governing accessibility to timber include effective harvesting distance to haulic roads as modified by barriers and slopes. Haul distance is expressed in units that take into account the relative ease of travel along various road types to a central processing facility. Areas of accessible timber are grouped into spatial units, termed 'timbersheds', of common access to particular haul road segments that belong to unique 'transport zones'. Timber availability considerations include size of ownership parcels, housing density and excluded areas. The analysis techniques are demonstrated for a cartographic data base in western Massachusetts.

  17. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  18. Implementing CITES regulations for timber.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Arthur G

    2007-03-01

    Foresters are currently confronted with a new challenge. For the first time a commonly traded timber species has been listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 12th Conference of the Parties in November 2002, countries voted 68 to 30 to place the premier timber species of Latin America, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]), on CITES Appendix II. Under Appendix II regulations, trade in mahogany requires that exporting countries verify that each shipment was legally obtained and that its harvest was non-detrimental to the survival of the species. Unfortunately, implementation has been weak, in part because countries have yet to develop a common, pragmatic, cost-effective system to make the legal and non-detriment findings. This paper recommends what such a system might include. PMID:17489241

  19. Contemporary Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "InSEA News" focuses on contemporary technology and art education. The articles are: "International Travel and Contemporary Technology" (Gilbert Clark); "Recollections and Visions for Electronic Computing in Art Education" (Guy Hubbard); "Using Technologies in Art Education: A Review of Current Issues" (Li-Fen Lu); "Reflections…

  20. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas Michael

    2006-04-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest sought to stabilize local economies, including local employment and income, by stabilizing the flow of wood fiber from public forests. This is also a common forest management objective in other regions and countries. Because this economic strategy ignores basic market adjustments, it is likely to fail and to unnecessarily damage forest ecosystems. Application of basic economic principles on how markets operate significantly changes the apparent efficacy of efforts to manage local economies by managing timber supply. The emphasis on timber supply tends to ignore the dominant role that the demand for wood fiber and wood products, rather than wood-fiber supply, plays in determining levels of harvest and production. Contemporary economics indicates that markets tend to operate to offset reductions in wood-fiber supply. This significantly moderates the economic cost of reducing commercial timber harvest in the pursuit of environmental objectives. In addition, contemporary economic analysis indicates that the economic links between natural forests and local communities are much broader than simply the flow of commercially valuable logs to manufacturing facilities. At least in the United States, the flow of environmental services from natural forests has increasingly become an amenity that has drawn people and economic activity to forested areas. Attractive site-specific qualities, including those supported by natural forests, can potentially support local economic development even in the face of reduced timber harvests. These market-related adjustments partially explain the Northwest Forest Plan's overestimation of the expected regional impacts associated with reduced federal timber supply and the ineffectiveness of the plan's efforts to protect communities by stabilizing federal timber supply PMID:16903095

  1. Tree-mendous Timber Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Funded and administered by NASA, the Affiliated Research Center (ARC) program transfers geospatial technologies from the Space Agency and participating universities to commercial companies, non-profit and trade organizations, and tribal governments. The origins of the ARC program date back to 1988, when NASA's Stennis Space Center initiated the Visiting Investigator Program to bring industry closer to spatial information technologies. The success of this trial program led to an expansion into the ARC program, whose goal is to enhance competitiveness of U.S. industries through more efficient use of remote sensing and related technologies. NASA's ARC program served as the foundation for the development of International Hardwood Resources, which then grew into Falcon Informatics with the acquisition of a technology from a European software company and a change of business models. Doylestown, Pennsylvania-based Falcon Informatics is now a world-leading information services company that combines in-depth timber industry experience with state-of-the-art software to serve the needs of national governments, international paper companies, and timber-investment management organizations.

  2. Nanoparticle-based concretes for the restoration of historical and contemporary buildings: a new way for CO2 reduction in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Verdura, Pietro Damiano; Lo Giudice, Elio; Navarra, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The production of the cement is a highly energy-intensive process and contributes to the release of pollutants into the atmosphere due to both the chemical reactions occurring in the kiln and, in most cases, the burning of fossil fuels for power production. So, the reduction of the cement content in a concrete would be indirectly useful to decrease the pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. The results of our investigation indicate that the replacement levels of cement by the 4 % of nanoparticles show a positive increasing of many physical and chemical properties allowing a relevant saving of cement content inside a concrete mixture. The compressive strengths, tensile splitting, propagations of ultrasonic pulses and water permeability tests were investigated on different models and realistic structures by the ISO EN rules. The influence of the nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties was measured at different ripening times. Both silica and iron oxides make cement pastes harder and accelerated hydration processes of the cements. A remarkable decreasing in water permeability was also observed showing that nanoconcretes can be used as innovative restoration systems for cement-based historical and contemporary artefacts in order to avoid carbonation processes. Moreover, a smaller quantity of cement binder inside the mortar causes relevant positive effects on the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere.

  3. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 1-foundations and historical landmarks in contemporary stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Elder, James B; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery, stem cells have fascinated scientists with their ultimate potential: the ability to cure disease, repair altered physiology, and reverse neurological deficit. Stem cell science unquestionably promises to eliminate many of the tragic limitations contemporary medicine must acknowledge, and cloning may provide young cells for an aging population. Although it is widely believed that stem cells will transform the way medicine is practiced, therapeutic interventions using stem cell technology are still in their infancy. The 3 most common stem cell sources studied today are umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and human embryos. Although cord blood is currently used to treat dozens of disorders and bone marrow stem cells have been used clinically since the 1960s, human embryonic stem cells have yet to be successfully applied to any disease. Undeniably, stem cell therapy has the potential to be one of the most powerful therapeutic options available. In this introductory article of a 5-part series on stem cells, we narrate the evolution of modern stem cell science, delineating major landmarks that will prove responsible for taking stem cell technology from the laboratory into revolutionary clinical applications: from the first milestone of identifying the mouse hematopoietic stem cell to the latest feats of producing pluripotent stem cells without embryos at all. In Part 2, we present the evidence demonstrating the certainty of adult mammalian neurogenesis; in Parts 3 and 4, we describe neurosurgical applications of stem cell technology; and in Part 5, we discuss the philosophical and ethical issues surrounding stem cell therapy, as well as future areas of exploration. PMID:19145154

  4. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  5. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 43 CFR 5511.2-4 - Timber on withdrawn lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber on withdrawn lands. 5511.2-4 Section 5511.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 5511.2-4 Timber on withdrawn lands. Sections 5511.2-1 to 5511.2-5 are inapplicable to timber...

  7. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  8. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  9. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by the purchaser for removal of the timber were in place....

  10. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  11. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  12. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  13. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  14. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  15. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  16. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  17. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223... further advertisement, at not less than appraised value, any timber previously advertised for competitive... of competitive interest in the product. (b) Extraordinary conditions, as provided for in 16...

  18. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National Forest System lands, except for: (1) Timber reserved by a grantor of land, during the life of...

  19. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions...

  20. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  1. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  2. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  3. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  4. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  5. Time minimizing transportation of calamity fallen timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolman, P.; Střelec, L.

    2013-10-01

    In the field of transportation problems is usually the most decisive optimization criterion minimizing of transportation costs. However, there are situations where it is necessary to transport the material quickly. This is especially the case of material transport when it is transported a perishable material. In case the material is transported in time, i.e. before its vitiation, it may be further used and brings economic profit. Otherwise, there is the degradation with all the ensuing consequences. In this paper it is optimized calamity timber transportation from collection points to places of processing. Emphasis was placed on minimizing the transportation time. The reason for the solution of the problem was the need for calamity fallen timber transportation after hurricane Kyrill from collection points in the Bohemian Forest to processing sites. For solving the problem it was not possible to use the known methods of transportation problems. Therefore, the authors proposed the method, leading to the optimal solution of the described problem.

  6. The economics of global timber markets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert; Sedjo, Roger

    1997-09-02

    This paper develops a global timber market model which captures how timber supply reacts to future predicted increases in the demand for timber. Higher future demand is expected to increase prices, reflecting greater land scarcity. Investments in growing timber are also expected to increase, expanding output and tempering the price response. A greater reliance on plantations in productive regions is predicted to allow large areas of natural forest in low valued regions to remain largely intact. The quantitative results are sensitive to the rate demand increases, the cost of plantations, and access costs of natural forests.

  7. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  8. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  9. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  11. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  12. 43 CFR 9239.1 - Timber and other vegetative resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber and other vegetative resources. 9239.1 Section 9239.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF....1 Timber and other vegetative resources....

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  16. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  17. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  18. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  19. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  20. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  1. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  2. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  3. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  4. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  5. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  6. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  7. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  8. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  9. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  10. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  11. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  12. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  13. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  14. 60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly after this photograph was made, the timbers were completely submerged in water, held down by heavy concrete castings. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  15. Timber Production and Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Julia K.

    The supply of the nation's forests is very great, and of this supply, approximately 1 1/2 percent comes from American Indian forests. Timber resources are three-fold: the slash (unusable limbs, tops, and stumps), as well as the unmarketable trees, provide wood for fuel; the sale of timber provides tribal revenue from a renewable source; and the…

  16. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  17. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  18. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  19. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  20. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  1. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  2. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  3. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless...

  4. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  6. Photogrammetric Technique for Timber Stack Volume Contol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Maksimov, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of accurate log volume measurement is a very important, especially in case of seaport volume control where logs are put in a huge stack of hundred meters length and a time for volume control is strongly restricted. Current technology of volume control use manual means such as measuring tape, so the process of measurement is rather inaccurate and time consuming. To estimate the volume of timber stack its frontal area is measured and some control parts of a stack are used for stacking coefficient (wood density in a stack) determination. Non-contact vision based technique is proposed for manual measurements substituting. The developed methods are implemented in portable photogrammetric system for stack parameters measuring and documenting.

  7. Design Methods for Load-bearing Elements from Crosslaminated Timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilguts, A.; Serdjuks, D.; Goremikins, V.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.

  8. Short-term response of (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) larvae to timber management in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leuthold, Niels; Adams, Michael J.; Hayes, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark–recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae.

  9. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  10. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  11. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  12. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  13. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  14. In vitro screening of leishmanicidal activity in myanmar timber extracts.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Sekita, Setsuko

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-five Myanmar timber extracts belonging to 27 families were examined for their leishmanicidal activities. Some timber extracts had significant leishmanicidal activity, especially extracts of Millettia pendula, which exhibited the most potent activity (MLC 3.1 microg/ml, MIC 1.6 microg/ml). Other timber extracts showing potent activity included those from Cedrela serrata, Cedrela toona, Cordia fragrantissima, Calophyllum kunstleri, Dalbergia cultrate, Grevillea robusta, Haplophragma adenophyllum, Michelia champaca, and Tectona grandis. From a literature search for reports on the chemical constituents of these plants, most constituents were found to be quinone derivatives or other compounds with unsaturated carbonyl groups. PMID:15187448

  15. 42. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. 41. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. 43. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  19. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER SUPPORT MEMBERS AND SUSPENDER BAR MOUNTING HARDWARE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, recent galvanized straps, bolts and washers - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  1. View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, charred piers, recent galvanized fastenings - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  2. 5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  3. Concrete and timber retaining wall and telegraph pole, milepost 145 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Concrete and timber retaining wall and telegraph pole, milepost 145 vicinity, looking northeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  4. 6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER SUPPORTS, AND STONE PORCH FLOOR, TO NORTHWEST - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Main Office, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  5. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) proposes to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private...

  7. 76 FR 9962 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) is issuing this final rule to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee bid and performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public and private...

  8. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  9. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  10. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  11. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  12. View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner of lock, view towards east - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  13. AFRD WAREHOUSE, INTERIOR DETAIL OF RAFTER SUPPORT POST TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRD WAREHOUSE, INTERIOR DETAIL OF RAFTER SUPPORT POST TIMBER AND METHOD OF BRACING. THE BRACES PENETRATE THE SHEET ROCK, SUGGESTING THAT THESE ARE ORIGINAL. - Minidoka Relocation Center Warehouse, 111 South Fir Street, Shoshone, Lincoln County, ID

  14. 89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT OF LOCK ENTRANCE) ARE BEING USED AS BUMPERS TO HELP GUIDE SHIP INTO LOCK WHILE AVOIDING CONTACT WITH WALLS. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  15. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  16. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  17. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  18. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  19. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  20. Integrating Technology with Architectural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmasry, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Center of High Performance Learning Technologies (CHPLE), Virginia Tech, conducted a study investigating issues related to integration of learning technologies with architectural systems in contemporary learning environments. The study is qualitative in nature, and focuses on integration patterns of learning technologies with…

  1. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  2. Contemporary Poetry about Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carl R. V.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that teachers of contemporary literature should enjoy the advantages of poetry written in response to, or interpreting, paintings or other works of art. Illustrates the advantages of such poetry with two examples. (PRA)

  3. Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Bassam

    Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

  4. Operational use of Landsat data for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Bowlin, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat TM data, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and field observations were used to generate a timber type/structure and land-cover strata map of the Sequoia National Forest in California, U.S. and to create a classification data set. The spectral classes were identified as 32 information classes of land cover or timber type and structure. DEM data were used for the determination of major timber specie types by topographic regions of natural occurrence. The results suggest that, for inventories over large areas, traditional per-pixel classifiers are not appropriate for TM-resolution data sets over spatially complex regions such as forest lands; either resolution must be degraded, or more context-dependent classifiers, such as the ECHO classifier described by Landgrebe (1979), must be used.

  5. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  6. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  7. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  8. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  9. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  10. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise provided by law, a person who transfers unprocessed private timber to another person and meets all... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic...

  11. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic processing requirement. Each person who acquires... States, and who also possesses or acquires unprocessed timber from private lands located west of...

  12. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free use of timber on mineral and... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  13. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Free use of timber on mineral and... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  14. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Act of February 27, 1922, 42 Stat. 398; 16 U.S.C. 610); (6) Citizens of Bear Lake County, Idaho, may cut timber from public lands in Lincoln County, Wyoming, and remove such timber to Bear Lake County... 3, 1919 (40 Stat. 1321; 16 U.S.C. 608), citizens of Malheur County, Oregon, may cut timber in...

  15. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources... Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National Forest System lands in Alaska may not be exported from...

  16. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  10. 4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, POCKETS FOR VERTICAL POSTS AND BRIDGING, STEEL BRACES ADDED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CIRCA 1962. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  11. 3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, CUT STONE FACE OF PARAPET WALL, AND WROUGHT IRON BOLTS USED TO SECURE THE RUBBING RAIL. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  12. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest... concerning this notice should be addressed to Lathrop Smith, Forest Management Service Center, 2150...

  13. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  14. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  15. 9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber degaussing pier, 1951. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE BALLAST AND LOG PILES IN FOREBAY. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  2. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  3. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, TOP CHORD, GUSSET PLATES, TENSION RODS, TRANSVERSE BEAM, AND FLOOR BEAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  4. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome. PMID:22590520

  5. 14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN PANELS AND STONE PIER, SHOWING ELEMENTS SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS, BUT ALTERNATE CABLE PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  6. 12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM ABOVE. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  7. 13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. ELEVATION VIEW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  8. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  10. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  11. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C. 528-531), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of....1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell...

  12. VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING SHOWING DETAIL OF TIMBER HOWE TRUSS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING SHOWING DETAIL OF TIMBER HOWE TRUSS. 2,000-POUND MOTOR-DRIVEN HAMMER, 1940, BY CHAMBERSBURG ENGINEERING COMPANY, CHAMBERSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, VISIBLE TO LEFT ON FLOOR. - Cambria Iron Company, Blacksmith Shop, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. 31. Interior of fabrication buildingnote pipe truss and timber framing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior of fabrication building-note pipe truss and timber framing. Railway to move vessels in and out of structure. Flying bridge roof of barbour-built vessel Stardust (#1) to right. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  14. Spatial Pattern of Standing Timber Value across the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Ewers, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome. PMID:22590520

  15. Contemporary Cambodian: Grammatical Sketch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Sos, Kem

    This is the first of seven interrelated volumes comprising "Contemporary Cambodian". Other texts in the series include introductory lessons, four topic-oriented textbooks, and a comprehensive Cambodian-English English-Cambodian glossary. This volume is a description of aspects of Cambodian grammar and usage. Chapters concentrate on phonology,…

  16. Contemporary American Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bill; And Others

    This nine-week unit from a junior high American government curriculum covers the following topics: (1) What are the current issues in our physical and social environment?; (2) How do we investigate and evaluate issues?; and (3) What contemporary issues in my physical or social environment do I want to investigate? Students are required to do…

  17. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  18. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  19. Contemporary Cambodian: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hak; And Others

    This volume comprises the basic module of "Contemporary Cambodian." There are 60 lessons, each of which contains a dialogue, drills, and a list of the words introduced in that lesson. In the first 30 lessons, the dialogue and drills are written in a romanized transcription, and the dialogue is written a second time in Cambodian script in order…

  20. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  1. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  2. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  3. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  4. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  5. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  6. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  7. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  8. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  9. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.

  10. Timber Management of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Hugh; Johnson, Gary; Smoot, James; Cohan, Tyrus; O'Connor, Tina

    2001-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center occupies over 48560 hectares or just over 120000 acres in southwestern Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana near border of the two states. This area includes the Stennis Fee Area, which is the Center itself and the Acoustic Buffer Zone (ABZ) surrounding the Center. The ABZ is owned by several government, public and private entities and managed accordingly. The Fee Area and ABZ include wetlands, pine woodlands and areas of mixed floral species. The included maps detail the delineation of land in and around the Stennis Space Center. Areas owned by the federal government are divided into three stands to facilitate timber management. The stands are classified by species, density and average size to determine several timber in management issues including the schedule for controlled burns, economic viability of stands, and the creation of low impact recreational areas such as scenic trails or bike paths.

  11. Labeling wood: How timber certification may reduce deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugal, C.

    1996-09-01

    A series of landmark developments, including satellite photography revealing massive burning of the Amazon and scientific findings confirming a link between deforestation and climate change, has greatly heightened public awareness about the loss of tropical forests in the past decade. As a result, the international tropical timber trade has become a target of public campaigns to curb deforestation, the argument being that consumers can {open_quotes}save{close_quotes} the rainforest if they refuse to buy tropical timber products. However, there are other sides to this, and certification is not the complete answer. For example, logging constitutes only a small portion of deforestation in the tropics, most of which is done for agricultural purposes. Fuel wood resources are not included, and other areas of the world are being deforested, so emphasis only on tropical areas creates concerns. This article considers the concerns of certification in depth.

  12. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  13. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  14. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  15. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  16. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  17. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  18. 4. Threefourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Three-fourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber deck resting on the floor stringers. Also note differences in stringer floor beam construction. In span 1, the stringers are connected to the side of the floor beams. Spans 2 and 3 the stringer bear on top of the floor beam. Also note non-continuous eye bar construction through the panel points on the bottom chord. - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  19. Latvian scientists research into chemical uses of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-20

    Scientists of the Institute of Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of Sciences have developed two highly efficient processes for producing furfural, a feedstock for varnishes, synthetic resins and plastics. It is made of production wastes, including branches and small-dimension timber. By one process, the raw material is chipped, treated first with diluted sulphuric acid and then with steam heated to 250 degrees C. The other uses concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Besides furfural, this process also yields sugar solutions used in alcohol and nutrient yeast production.

  20. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  1. 36 CFR 219.28 - Determination of land suitable for timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suitable for timber harvest. 219.28 Section 219.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Special... Forest Service; (2) Lands where technology is not available for conducting timber harvesting...

  2. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  3. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  4. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  5. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  6. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber Creek..., go to http://www.regulations.gov , click on the ``submit a comment'' box, which will then...

  7. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  8. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  9. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  11. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  12. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The...

  13. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The...

  14. 75 FR 10455 - Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ..., (2) manufacturing cost, (3) falling and bucking costs, (4) skidding and loading costs, and (5...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data AGENCY... organizations on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Timber Purchaser Cost and...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION..., App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  16. 36 CFR 223.188 - Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber. 223.188 Section 223.188 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest...

  17. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  18. DEVELOPING A PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY SET OF WILDLIFE SPECIES PERSISTENCE AND TIMBER HARVEST VALUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated model combing a wildlife population simulation model, and timber harvest and growth models was developed to explore the tradeoffs between the likelihood of persistence of a hypothetical wildlife species and timber harvest volumes on a landscape in the Central Oregon...

  19. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  20. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  1. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  2. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  3. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  4. Effects of Timber Harvest on River Food Webs: Physical, Chemical and Biological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    I compared physical, chemical and biological characteristics of nine rivers running through three timber harvest regimes to investigate the effects of land use on river ecosystems, to determine whether these corresponded to changes linked with downstream location, and to compare the response of different types of indicator variables. Physical variables changed with downstream location, but varied little with timber harvest. Most chemical variables increased strongly with timber harvest, but not with downstream location. Most biological variables did not vary systematically with either timber harvst or downstream location. Dissolved organic carbon did not vary with timber harvest or downstream location, but correlated positively with salmonid abundance. Nutrient manipulations revealed no general pattern of nutrient limitation with timber harvest or downstream location. The results suggest that chemical variables most reliably indicate timber harvest impact in these systems. The biological variables most relevant to human stakeholders were surprisingly insensitive to timber harvest, however, apparently because of decoupling from nutrient responses and unexpectedly weak responses by physical variables. PMID:22957030

  5. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  6. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  7. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  8. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  9. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting and removal of timber in free-use...

  10. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program §...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This...

  13. 78 FR 73818 - Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration AGENCY: Forest... on the revision of a currently approved Information Collection 0596-0225, Timber Sale Contract... also may be submitted by email to contractoperations@fs.fed.us . The public may inspect...

  14. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nonmineral public lands. 5511.1-1 Section 5511.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  15. A Survey of Timber Impacted Schools and Communities in Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    This survey examines the impact of reduced timber harvests and mill closures by the U.S. Forest Service on timber-dependent schools and communities in the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska. One purpose was to recommend educational programs and services that are necessary to remediate these impacts on children. Between 1990 and 1995,…

  16. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest... statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental environmental impact statement will be prepared for the Salt Project to supplement wildlife management...

  17. Timber resource of the superior national forest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, N.P.; Ramquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest area; timber volume; timber growth and removals; appendix; (accuracy of the survey, survey procedures, comparing minnesota's fifth inventory with the fourth inventory, log grade, metric equivalents of units used in the report, tree species groups in minnesota, definition of terms, and tables).

  18. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a...

  19. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  20. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  1. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  2. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber requirements based on the NFMA. 219.11 Section 219.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.11 Timber requirements based on the NFMA. While meeting the requirements of...

  3. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... available for conducting timber harvest without causing irreversible damage to soil, slope, or other... occur only where soil, slope, or other watershed conditions would not be irreversibly damaged; (3) Timber harvest would be carried out in a manner consistent with the protection of soil, watershed,...

  4. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available for conducting timber harvest without causing irreversible damage to soil, slope, or other... occur only where soil, slope, or other watershed conditions would not be irreversibly damaged; (3) Timber harvest would be carried out in a manner consistent with the protection of soil, watershed,...

  5. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  6. Cost estimation of timber bridges using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Creese, R.C.; Li. L.

    1995-05-01

    Neural network models, or more simply {open_quotes}neural nets,{close_quotes} have great potential application in speech and image recognition. They also have great potential for cost estimating. Neural networks are particularly effective for complex estimation where the relationship between the output and the input cannot be expressed by simple mathematic relationships. A neural network method was applied to the cost estimation of timber bridges to illustrate the technique. The results of the neural network method were evaluated by the coefficient of determination, The R square value for the key input variables. A comparison of the neural network results and the standard linear regression results was performed upon the timber bridge data. A step-by-step validation is presented to make it easy to understand the application of neural networks to this estimation process. The input is propagated from the input through each layer until an output is generated. The output is compared with the desired output and the error is distributed for each node in the outer layer. The error is transmitted backward (thus the phase {open_quotes}back propagation{close_quotes}) from the output layer to the intermediate layers and then to the input layer. Based upon the errors, the weights are adjusted and the procedure is repeated. The number of training cycles is 15,000 to 50,000 for simple networks, but this usually takes only a few minutes on a personal computer. 7 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  8. Photographic technology development project: Timber typing in the Tahoe Basin using high altitude panoramic photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures were developed and tested for using KA-80A optical bar camera panoramic photography for timber typing forest land and classifying nonforest land. The study area was the south half of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Final products from this study include four timber type map overlays on 1:24,000 orthophoto maps. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) established conventional timber typing procedures can be used on panoramic photography if the necessary equipment is available, (2) The classification and consistency results warrant further study in using panoramic photography for timber typing; and (3) timber type mapping can be done as fast or faster with panoramic photography than with resource photography while maintaining comparable accuracy.

  9. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  10. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  11. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  12. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  13. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  14. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... locality for sales of similar National Forest timber and timber products. (4) Slash and debris resulting... with the protection and administration of the National Forest. (11) Operator shall take all reasonable... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14...

  15. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... locality for sales of similar National Forest timber and timber products. (4) Slash and debris resulting... with the protection and administration of the National Forest. (11) Operator shall take all reasonable... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14...

  16. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... locality for sales of similar National Forest timber and timber products. (4) Slash and debris resulting... with the protection and administration of the National Forest. (11) Operator shall take all reasonable... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14...

  17. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. (a) Public hearings will be... and species of unprocessed timber surplus to the needs of domestic users and processors. Such...

  18. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  19. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  20. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  1. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  2. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion. PMID:21141661

  3. PICNIC Architecture.

    PubMed

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source. PMID:16160218

  4. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  5. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  6. IAIMS architecture.

    PubMed

    Hripcsak, G

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  7. Fort Apache Timber Company wood fuel supply assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Quinn, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Fort Apache Timber Company, owned and operated by the White Mountain Apache Tribe, is currently investigating the feasibility of building a cogeneration plant at its sawmill in Whiteriver, Arizona. As part of this effort, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program provided technical assistance to the tribe to conduct a fuel supply study. The fuel supply study determined that 104,000 bone dry tons (BDT) of mill residue are available on an annual basis, at an average cost of $14/BDT. An additional 30,000 BDT/year would be available at an average delivered cost of $25/BDT if 25 percent of the in-forest logging residue is collected and transported to the plant site. Together, the mill and logging residues could supply a 14 megawatt power plant at an average delivered cost of $1.37 per million Btu.

  8. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  9. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Guiterman, Christopher H.; Dean, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon. PMID:26644552

  10. Stable isotopes and inorganic elements as potential indicators of timber geographic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Abe, H.; Fujii, T.; Itoh, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Illegal logging is a major cause of worldwide deforestation. For regulation of such illegally harvested timber, we have to develop identification methods of timber geographic origin. In our 5-year project, chemical fingerprinting techniques using stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O, δ15N) and inorganic element concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, V, Zn ) have been applied to tropical (Shorea spp.) and temperate (Pinus spp.) timber. Since the tropical timber does not have visible annual rings, we used wood taken from the whole radius for chemical analysis. Among the chemical parameters tested, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios have shown the strongest correlation with the geographic origin (latitude and longitude). By plotting the data on a δ13C-δ18O map, we could separate wood from Borneo and Philippines, which are 1000km apart. However, separation of wood from among different areas in Borneo was not possible. Temperate timber has clealy visible annual rings and development of stable isotope time series is easier. By applying "dendroprovenancing" method (Eckstein et al., 1975) to carbon isotope time series, we could achieve provenancing of timber at higher spatial resolution. Estimated timber origins were 100-300 km away from the actual origins (Kagawa et al. 2009, submitted). Inorganic elements reflected soil type and soil water conditions rather than longitude and latitude of the habitat and were not effective indicators for provenancing wood.

  11. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    PubMed

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon. PMID:26644552

  12. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  13. Architectural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for eighth-grade students in which they created their own architectural structures. Stresses a strong discipline-based introduction using slide shows of famous buildings, large metropolitan cities, and 35,00 years of homes. Reports the lesson spanned two weeks. Includes a diagram, directions, and specifies materials. (CMK)

  14. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  15. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  16. Module Architecture for in Situ Space Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes internal outfitting architectures for space exploration laboratory modules. ISS laboratory architecture is examined as a baseline for comparison; applicable insights are derived. Laboratory functional programs are defined for seven planet-surface knowledge domains. Necessary and value-added departures from the ISS architecture standard are defined, and three sectional interior architecture options are assessed for practicality and potential performance. Contemporary guidelines for terrestrial analytical laboratory design are found to be applicable to the in-space functional program. Densepacked racks of system equipment, and high module volume packing ratios, should not be assumed as the default solution for exploration laboratories whose primary activities include un-scriptable investigations and experimentation on the system equipment itself.

  17. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  19. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  20. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  1. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  6. Contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Lindvall, Eric M; Martirosian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cephalomedullary interlocking nails that allow for trochanteric entry and minimally invasive fixation have revolutionized the contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures with improved union rates and decreased incidence of fixation failure. The most successful alternative to intramedullary fixation remains the angled blade plate. Despite biomechanical superiority of contemporary intramedullary implants to previous intramedullary devices, the importance of achieving and maintaining satisfactory fracture reduction prior to and during hardware insertion cannot be overemphasized. In comminuted and more challenging fractures, additional techniques, such as limited open reduction with clamps and/or cables, can allow for canal restoration and more anatomic reductions prior to and/or during nail insertion. PMID:25435032

  7. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs. PMID:12053246

  8. The Social Dynamics of Art Research: Contemporary Photography in Belfast Post the Good Friday Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects critically on "The Social Dynamics of Art Research: Contemporary Photography in Belfast", an engaged research project conducted with photographers, community activists, academics and visual artists in Belfast. Through a critical examination of the project's theoretical architecture and methodological framework…

  9. Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Tegel, Willy; Elburg, Rengert; Hakelberg, Dietrich; Stäuble, Harald; Büntgen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The European Neolithization ∼6000−4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ∼7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters. PMID:23284685

  10. Roads, interrupted dispersal, and genetic diversity in timber rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads. PMID:20151984

  11. Contemporary Cambodian: The Social Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hack; And Others

    "Contemporary Cambodian" consists of seven parts: the "Grammatical Sketch," the "Introduction," four intermediate modules, and a Cambodian-English glossary containing all the words in the series. After completing the "Introduction," a student can study the intermediate modules in any order, since each serves as a partial review of the others. This…

  12. Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Susan; Kocur, Zoya

    1994-01-01

    Argues that much of what is used currently to teach about multiculturalism in art consists of art made "long ago" or "far away." Presents four contemporary art works incorporating elements of mass media, popular culture, and diverse artistic traditions. Includes four full-page color photographs of the art works. (CFR)

  13. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  14. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  15. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  16. Making Connections with Contemporary Echoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernie

    1995-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary high school course that used contemporary films to illustrate overarching themes in the U.S. experience. Themes included individualism/social responsibility, isolation/internationalism, and liberal/conservative. Emphasis was on conceptual rather than historic relationships (e.g. "Norma Rae" illustrated concepts…

  17. Adolescent Egocentrism: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Paul D.; Maynard, Amanda M.; Uzelac, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether adolescent egocentrism is displayed during adolescence in the same patterns as when the constructs were first defined in 1967. We empirically revisited the constructs of personal fable and imaginary audience in contemporary adolescents, hypothesizing a decrease in egocentrism with increasing age. Adolescents…

  18. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  19. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  20. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  1. Lab architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  2. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  3. Vulnerability of Mid-Atlantic forested watersheds to timber harvest disturbance.

    PubMed

    Schaberg, Rex H; Abt, Robert C

    2004-06-01

    Forested watersheds of the Mid-Atlantic Region are an important economic resource. They are also critical for maintaining water quality, sustaining important ecological services, and providing habitat to many animal and plant species of conservation concern. These forests are vulnerable to disturbance and fragmentation from changing patterns of land use in the Mid-Atlantic Region, and from harvests of commercially mature and relatively inexpensive timber. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) compiles data on forest condition by state and county. We have transformed these FIA data to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 6-digithdrologic unit code (HUC 6) watershed base, and projected trends in timber growth, inventory, and harvest to 2025 using a timber economics forecasting model (SRTS). We consider forest sustainability from the perspective of timber production, and from the perspective of landscape stability important to conservation values. Simulation data is combined with FIA planted pine acreage data to form a more complete picture of forest extent, composition, and silvicultural practice. Early recognition of prevailing economic trends which encourage the fragmentation of mature forests due to increasing timber harvests may provide managers and policy makers with a planning tool to mitigate undesirable impacts. PMID:15141449

  4. Forest law compliance and enforcement: the case of on-farm timber extraction in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christian P

    2011-03-01

    The paper investigates law compliance in case of on-farm timber extraction in Ghana. It empirically investigates compliance with rules that (i) require timber operators to obtain prior and informed consent from the farmers, (ii) require timber operators to pay appropriate and timely compensation for crop damage caused by timber extraction and (iii) ban chainsaw lumbering. The study documents a low level of compliance in all three domains. Subsequently, the paper discusses the underlying causes for the observed low compliance. The low compliance level is attributed to a legislation, and enforcement, that provides huge financial incentives for non-compliance for both farmers and timber operators, and in the latter case both with and without legal permits. At the same time the regulation is perceived to violate their moral values. The paper underlines the interests of the political elite as decisive in shaping the current regulation and the way it is implemented on the ground. It asserts that eliciting compliance requires consideration of both the instrumental and normative perspectives; else it becomes illusive. The study thus challenges the typical response of governments in developing countries, who, supported by donor agencies, attempt to elicit compliance through enhanced law enforcement efforts. The results presented on the Ghana case suggest that such an approach is unlikely to elicit compliance. PMID:20970919

  5. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  6. Contemporary management of pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Matthew; Hall, Nigel J

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a common surgical cause of vomiting in infants. Following appropriate fluid resuscitation, the mainstay of treatment is pyloromyotomy. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, its clinical presentation, the role of imaging, the preoperative and postoperative management, current surgical approaches and non-surgical treatment options. Contemporary postoperative feeding regimens, outcomes and complications are also discussed. PMID:27521712

  7. Penile revascularization—contemporary update

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Brian; Bastuba, Martin; Goldstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary therapies for erectile dysfunction are generally targeted towards older men and universally engage pharmacological and/or device related treatment options. Penile revascularization, using microvascular arterial bypass surgical techniques, is a non-pharmacological, non-device-related, and reconstructive surgical strategy for men with erectile dysfunction that was first described by Dr Vaclav Michal in 1973. Contemporary penile revascularization attempts to ‘cure' pure arteriogenic erectile dysfunction in young men with arterial occlusive pathology in the distal internal pudendal, common penile or proximal cavernosal artery secondary to focal endothelial injury from blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. A microvascular anastomosis is fashioned between the donor inferior epigastric and recipient dorsal penile artery. Increased perfusion pressure is theoretically communicated to the cavernosal artery via perforating branches from the dorsal artery. This article will review the history, indications and pathophysiology of blunt trauma-induced focal arterial occlusive disease in young men with erectile dysfunction, current surgical techniques utilized and results of surgery. Contemporary use of penile revascularization is a logical and wanted therapeutic option to attempt to reverse erectile dysfunction in young men who have sustained blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. PMID:23241636

  8. Color in present culture of European architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Verena M.

    2002-06-01

    The influential architect Le Corbusier (1887 - 1965) was also involved in the adventure of contemporary painting, and color occupied half of his day, during twenty years, as he revealed in a study entitled 'Architectural Polychromy' written in the early thirties and recently published in 1997. In the present, contemporary architects in Central Europe are dealing with color in quite a different and exceptional way: most of them engage the artist to collaborate with them in their architectural projects. If painting is concerned with the interaction of color in the two-dimensional plane, architecture is deeply dependent on light and space, and deals entirely with the three- dimensional environment and its human perception. In the 1990s, the way architects and artists employed color in architecture was so striking that color offered a key to larger discussions and opened up an interesting aspect of architectural practice. It must be remembered that recent housing projects, such as the housing estate Pilotengasse in Vienna, Gigon & Guyer's Broelberg in Kilchberg (with Harald F. Muller), next to Zurich, and their Sport Center in Davos (with Adrian Schiess), Jean Nouvel's Cultural and Congress Center in Lucerne, or Sauerbruch & Hutton's Photonic Center and their GSW office building in Berlin have all been contributing to free color from its unconscious and dormant role. These works all impart qualities to color in architecture that were hitherto reserved to other materials and fields: they define the aspects of the interaction of visual and physical space, of materialization of volumes, and of the expression of wealth and luxury.

  9. Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

  10. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia. PMID:24196093

  11. Gross-merchantable timber volume estimation using an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclean, G. A.; Krabill, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study to determine the utility of an airborne laser as a tool for use by forest managers to estimate gross-merchantable timber volume was conducted near the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system. Measured timber volume was regressed against the cross-sectional area of an AOL-generated profile of forest at the same location. The AOL profile area was found to be a very significant variable in the estimation of gross-merchantable timber volume. Significant improvements were obtained when the data were stratified by species. The overall R-squared value obtained was 0.921 with the regression significant at the one percent level.

  12. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  13. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  14. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and

  15. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  16. Balancing conservation and economic sustainability: the future of the Amazon timber industry.

    PubMed

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 +/- 1.35 billion m(3) of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m(3) is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of $15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region's network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of $2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m(3) per year over a 30-year harvest cycle-entirely outside of current protected areas-providing $4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating $1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques. PMID:19636609

  17. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL... of National Forest System land for which payment will be made is to be determined by the appraisal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for...

  18. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL... of National Forest System land for which payment will be made is to be determined by the appraisal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for...

  19. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL... of National Forest System land for which payment will be made is to be determined by the appraisal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for...

  20. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL... of National Forest System land for which payment will be made is to be determined by the appraisal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for...

  1. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cutting contract. 1.631-2 Section 1.631-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. (a) In general. (1) If an owner disposes of... deemed to be the date such timber is cut. However, if payment is made to the owner under the contract...

  2. 36 CFR 223.118 - Appeal process for small business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shares. As such, these rules contain information requirements as defined in 5 CFR Part 1320. These... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. 223.118 Section 223.118 Parks... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. (a) Decisions subject to appeal....

  3. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  4. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  5. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  6. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  7. Comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting in Catamaran Brook (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Serge; Bouchard, Mireille; Poncet, Emmanuel

    2002-02-01

    The forest industry plays a major role in the economy of eastern Canada. The recreational fishery also represents an important source of revenue for this area. Therefore, there is concern over the potential economic effects and ecological impacts from logging operations on aquatic habitats. The present study deals with the comparison of streamflow between pre and post timber harvesting at Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) to identify any potential changes to the hydrological regime. Studies were carried out on two sub-basins of Catamaran Brook, namely the Middle Reach (mid-basin) and the Upper Tributary 1. The harvested area at the Middle Reach represented 2.3% of this sub-basin while 23.4% of Upper Tributary 1 was harvested. It was noted that during both the calibration and timber harvesting phases, meteorological conditions (e.g. precipitation, runoff) contributed to relatively high natural variability. When studying changes on an annual and seasonal basis for the basin cut at 2.3% (i.e. Middle Reach) and using a control basin for comparison, no changes were detected to the annual water yield, seasonal runoff and streamflow timing between the calibration and timber harvesting phases. On a summer rainfall event basis, no changes were detected at the Middle Reach and the Upper Tributary 1 when studying relations between precipitation and stormflow (obtained through hydrograph separation). Alternatively, changes were detected in relations between peak flows and precipitation ( p<0.05) at the Upper Tributary 1 when comparing the calibration and timber harvesting phases. Peak flows showed higher values following timber harvesting. No significant changes were observed between peak flows and precipitation at the Middle Reach. When comparative studies were carried out on peak flow and stormflow between sub-basins (using the Middle Reach as control for treatments vs. the most affected site, i.e. Upper Tributary 1), significant changes were detected in peak flow ( p

  8. Stratification of forest vegetation for timber inventory using Landsat and collateral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    An automated forest stratification procedure based on Landsat and digital terrain data is reviewed. The system uses Landsat multispectral brightness values, a spatial texture channel, and digital terrain data information to divide Klamath National Forest vegetation into timber volume-homogeneous strata. The stratification process involves analyst-supervised class pooling editing, and the modeling of the regional type in a spatial manner using the digital terrain data. It is noted that for a given size and density class, the timber volume will change when the regional type changes, reflecting differences in growth potential.

  9. A climate for contemporary evolution.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David

    2010-01-01

    A new study of divergence in freshwater fish provides strong evidence of rapid, temperature-mediated adaptation. This study is particularly important in the ongoing debate over the extent and significance of evolutionary response to climate change because divergence has occurred in relatively few generations in spite of ongoing gene flow and in the aftermath of a significant genetic bottleneck, factors that have previously been considered obstacles to evolution. Climate change may thus be more likely to foster contemporary evolutionary responses than has been anticipated, and I argue here for the importance of investigating their possible occurrence. PMID:21070684

  10. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  11. Contemporary management of Bell palsy.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-04-01

    Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. PMID:25958893

  12. A contemporary assessment of change in humid tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Rudel, Thomas K; Aide, T Mitchell; Defries, Ruth; Emerson, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades the rate and geographic extent of land-use and land-cover change has increased throughout the world's humid tropical forests. The pan-tropical geography of forest change is a challenge to assess, and improved estimates of the human footprint in the tropics are critical to understanding potential changes in biodiversity. We combined recently published and new satellite observations, along with images from Google Earth and a literature review, to estimate the contemporary global extent of deforestation, selective logging, and secondary regrowth in humid tropical forests. Roughly 1.4% of the biome was deforested between 2000 and 2005. As of 2005, about half of the humid tropical forest biome contained 50% or less tree cover. Although not directly comparable to deforestation, geographic estimates of selective logging indicate that at least 20% of the humid tropical forest biome was undergoing some level of timber harvesting between 2000 and 2005. Forest recovery estimates are even less certain, but a compilation of available reports suggests that at least 1.2% of the humid tropical forest biome was in some stage of long-term secondary regrowth in 2000. Nearly 70% of the regrowth reports indicate forest regeneration in hilly, upland, and mountainous environments considered marginal for large-scale agriculture and ranching. Our estimates of the human footprint are conservative because they do not resolve very small-scale deforestation, low-intensity logging, and unreported secondary regrowth, nor do they incorporate other impacts on tropical forest ecosystems, such as fire and hunting. Our results highlight the enormous geographic extent of forest change throughout the humid tropics and the considerable limitations of the science and technology available for such a synthesis. PMID:20078639

  13. A Manual of Instruction for Log Scaling and the Measurement of Timber Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Board of Vocational Education, Boise. Div. of Trade and Industrial Education.

    This manual was developed by a state advisory committee in Idaho to improve and standardize log scaling and provide a reference in training men for the job of log scaling in timber measurement. The content includes: (1) an introduction containing the scope of the manual, a definition and history of scaling, the reasons for scaling, and the…

  14. TIMBER HARVESTING AND LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY: WEATHERING PROCESSES AND SOIL DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both timber harvesting and amelioration practices can cause chemical and physical changes in soil. hese changes can affect factors which alter soil mineral stability and weathering rates, potentially changing inputs to the nutrient cycle. his paper discusses possible effects of h...

  15. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

  16. 76 FR 13974 - Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the extension with no revision of a currently approved information collection, Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program: Appeal Procedures on Recomputation of...

  17. Hydrological response to timber harvest in northern Idaho: Implications for channel scour and persistence of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tonina, D.; Luce, C.H.; Rieman, B.; Buffington, J.M.; Goodwin, P.; Clayton, S.R.; Ali, S. Md; Barry, J.J.; Berenbrock, C.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for forest harvest to increase snowmelt rates in maritime snow climates is well recognized. However, questions still exist about the magnitude of peak flow increases in basins larger than 10 km2 and the geomorphic and biological consequences of these changes. In this study, we used observations from two nearly adjacent small basins (13 and 30 km2) in the Coeur d'Alene River basin, one with recent, relatively extensive, timber harvest, and the other with little disturbance in the last 50 years to explore changes in peak flows due to timber harvest and their potential effects on fish. Peak discharge was computed for a specitic rain-on-snow event using a series of physical models that linked predicted values of snowmelt input to a runoff-routing model. Predictions indicate that timber harvest caused a 25% increase in the peak flow of the modelled event and increased the frequency of events of this magnitude from a 9-year recurrence interval to a 3-6-year event. These changes in hydrologic regime, with larger discharges at shorter recurrence intervals, are predicted to increase the depth and frequency of streambed scour, causing up to 15% added mortality of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) embryos. Mortality from increased scour, although not catastrophic, may have contributed to the extirpation of this species from the Coeur d'Alene basin, given the widespread timber harvest that occurred in this region. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.485 Subsistence use...

  19. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.485 Subsistence use...

  20. XAS studies of the effectiveness of iron chelating treatments of Mary Rose timbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, A.; Smith, A. D.; Jones, A. M.; Schofield, E. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Chadwick, A. V.

    2009-11-01

    The oxidation of sulfur in marine archaeological timbers under museum storage conditions is a recently identified problem, particularly for major artefacts such as historic ships excavated from the seabed. Recent work on the Vasa has stressed the role of iron in catalysing the oxidative degradation of the wood cellulose and the polyethylene glycols used to restore mechanical integrity to the timbers. In developing new treatment protocols for the long term preservation of Henry VIII of England's flagship, the Mary Rose, we are investigating the potential of chelating agents to neutralise and remove the iron products from the ships timbers. We have explored the use of aqueous solutions of chelating agents of calcium phytate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ammonium citrate to extract the iron compounds. All of these solutions exhibit some level of iron removal; however the key is to find the most effective concentration at pH of around 7 of the reagent solution, to minimise the treatment time and find the most cost-effective treatment for the whole of the Mary Rose hull. Fe K-edge XAFS data from samples of Mary Rose timbers, before and after treatment by the chelating agents mentioned has been collected. The data collected provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the treatment solutions.

  1. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial...) The noncommerical gathering by local rural residents of fruits, berries, mushrooms, and other...

  2. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial...) The noncommerical gathering by local rural residents of fruits, berries, mushrooms, and other...

  3. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial...) The noncommerical gathering by local rural residents of fruits, berries, mushrooms, and other...

  4. 36 CFR 223.193 - Procedures for reporting acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations at 13 CFR part 121; and (ix) A certificate stating that the certifier has read and understands the... Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.193 Procedures for...

  5. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA..., Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.508 Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA... administration of the Army's timber disposal program....

  6. On the question of the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems in timber industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, E. R.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenor, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems on the level of forest farms management and timber industry. Main areas of activity, which currently subjected to automation, are revealed. Objectives, which solved by implementation of APCS, are identified.

  7. People, power and timber: the politics of community-based forest management.

    PubMed

    Pulhin, Juan M; Dressler, Wolfram H

    2009-10-01

    The potential of devolved conservation to empower people, reduce poverty and protect forest resources has yet to be realized in much of the developing world. This is particularly evident in the Philippines where the central state paradoxically recentralizes political power through devolution at the policy, program and project level in forest management. We investigate how centralized state power emanates through devolved networks to affect the success of local timber utilization involving community-based forest management (CBFM) on Mindanao Island, the southern Philippines. By examining broader shifts from centralized to devolved forest management, results suggest that centralized political power continues to control and adversely affect local uses of timber through CBFM. We discuss how in the process of state authorities recentralizing devolved rights and responsibility over timber management, community-based logging operations were threatened but sustained by members relying on community-based structures and their own capabilities. The conclusion asserts that broader state processes of devolving power over timber management remains constrained by political motives and interests and so largely fails to fulfill the objectives of community-based forest management. PMID:19717220

  8. Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lance R.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Clingenpeel, J. Alan

    2002-01-01

    Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses.

  9. 77 FR 11532 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of... Stafford County, New Hampshire. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\...

  10. 77 FR 28871 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of... transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\ 18 CFR 4.106(i)(2011). \\2\\ 21 FERC ]...

  11. 75 FR 7623 - Information Collection; Timber Export Reporting and Substitution Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Information Collection; Timber Export Reporting and Substitution Determination... Land Management (BLM) has submitted an information collection request to the Office of Management and... Department of the Interior (OMB 1004-0058), Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information...

  12. Results of Training for Timber Retraining Benefits Recipients. Research Report No. 99-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This report reviews the accomplishments of the Timber Retraining Benefits (TRB) program of Washington's 32 two-year colleges. These colleges served 1,651 TRB workers in 1997-98, and 7,000 workers since the program inception in 1991. The report, based on data from college enrollment records and unemployment insurance system data, provides detailed…

  13. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... Forest as free-use areas where such action is compatible with land management plans and shall give...

  14. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... originating from the ____ timber sale, Forest Service contract number ____ pursuant to 36 CFR 223.195. I... branded on both ends in full compliance with 36 CFR 223.195. I make this certification with full knowledge... 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.) (Act) and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR part 223. I...

  15. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... originating from the ____ timber sale, Forest Service contract number ____ pursuant to 36 CFR 223.195. I... branded on both ends in full compliance with 36 CFR 223.195. I make this certification with full knowledge... 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.) (Act) and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR part 223. I...

  16. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) For use in disaster relief work conducted by public agencies. (e) For disposal when removal is..., recreation areas or other improvements of value for the protection or the administration of Federal lands. (b... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of timber...

  17. Timber, Minerals, and Social Change: An Exploratory Test of Two Resource-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tests relationship between local resource production and social systems in two natural resource industry communities: one timber-dependent, the other mining-dependent. Data collected for 13 resource-production indicators and 15 social-change indicators. Confirms hypothesis that social change is associated with the production level of local…

  18. Creating Indian Entrepreneurs: Menominees, Neopit Mills, and Timber Exploitation, 1890-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosmer, Brian C.

    1991-01-01

    While other reservations were being forcibly allotted among tribal members, the Menominees retained their land in common, gained control of exploitation of reservation timber resources, and profited from the operations of their own lumber mill. A new theory of the impact of market economies on Indian peoples is needed. (SV)

  19. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...The Rural Utilities Service published a final rule in the Federal Register on June 24, 2011, which amended its regulations on Electric and Telecommunications Standards and Specifications for Materials, Equipment and Construction, by codifying specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control......

  20. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST.... All identifying marks placed on an unprocessed log to identify the National Forest System origin of... storage must be marked on both ends with yellow paint. (c) National Forest System logs. Except...

  1. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST.... All identifying marks placed on an unprocessed log to identify the National Forest System origin of... storage must be marked on both ends with yellow paint. (c) National Forest System logs. Except...

  2. 75 FR 2157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in Williamsburg County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in... Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina. The proposed project includes the harvest of 73.8 ac of...

  3. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.73 How can I trade...

  4. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... development of a program of assistance for small concerns operating in the timber business. This agreement is... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA..., Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.508 Agreement with Small Business Administration...

  5. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... development of a program of assistance for small concerns operating in the timber business. This agreement is... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agreement with Small Business Administration..., Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.508 Agreement with Small Business Administration...

  6. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... development of a program of assistance for small concerns operating in the timber business. This agreement is... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA..., Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.508 Agreement with Small Business Administration...

  7. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  8. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  9. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  10. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  11. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  12. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... originating from the ____ timber sale, Forest Service contract number ____ pursuant to 36 CFR 223.195. I... branded on both ends in full compliance with 36 CFR 223.195. I make this certification with full knowledge... 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.) (Act) and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR part 223. I...

  13. The Contemporary Physics Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, R. Michael

    1996-05-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) has produced full-color wallcharts and accompanying software and educational materials on particle physics and fusion/plasma physics. CPEP is a non-profit organization comprised of physicists, teachers, and educators who volunteer their time. Our World-Wide Web site has received great acclaim and heavy usage. It features "The Particle Adventure: An interactive tour of the inner workings of the atom and the tools for discovery" and "Fusion - Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source: An online interactive "course" for introductory physics students and teachers." CPEP materials have gained world-wide recognition (including in Science magazine and on the BBC World Service). More than 100,000 copies of the Particles chart have been distributed to scientists, students, and the general public in all 50 states and 80 countries. New products are under development. CPEP conducts many workshops around the country that assist teachers in making use of CPEP materials in their classrooms.

  14. Contemporary Issues in Science. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staten Island Continuum of Education, NY.

    Contemporary Issues in Science Program (CIIS) is designed to provide teachers and students with the necessary tools and strategies for bringing contemporary scientific issues into the classroom. Provided in this document are discussions of the three major elements in the program, support elements, and major activities. Major elements include the…

  15. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  16. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  17. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  18. Post and Lintel Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    Author finds that children understand architectural concepts more readily when he refers to familiar non-architectural examples of them such as goal posts, chairs, tables, and playground equipment. (GB)

  19. New computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberghien, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on supercomputers. Topics considered include decentralized computer architecture, new programming languages, data flow computers, reduction computers, parallel prefix calculations, structural and behavioral descriptions of digital systems, instruction sets, software generation, personal computing, and computer architecture education.

  20. The economic viability of smallholder timber production under expanding açaí palm production in the Amazon Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Douglas R. Carter

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the economic potentials and limitations of tropical timber production and management at smallholder scales, with the most relevant research focusing on community forestry efforts. As a rare tropical example of long-lasting small-scale timber production, in this study we explore the economics of smallholder vertically integrated timber use to better understand the activity in the context of its primary land use alternative in the Amazon Estuary, açaí palm fruit production. We use data from landowner and firm surveys, participatory monitoring of firms, and detailed forest and sawmill operation monitoring to devise financial returns models of smallholder timber micro firms and açaí palm fruit production. We then compare the economics of the two activities to better understand how differences may shape decisions at the small holder scale that impact current land use shifts in the region.

  1. In situ assessment of structural timber elements of a historic building by infrared thermography and ultrasonic velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir-Yucel, A.; Tavukcuoglu, A.; Caner-Saltik, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The infrared thermography (IRT) and the ultrasonic velocity measurements (UVM) promise to be particularly important to assess the state of deterioration and the adequacy of the boundary and microclimatic conditions for timber elements. These non-destructive methods supported by laboratory analyses of timber samples were conducted on a 13th century monument, Aslanhane Mosque in Ankara, Turkey. The combined interpretation of the results was done to assess the condition of structural timber elements in terms of their state of preservation, the dampness problems and the recent incompatible repairs affecting them. Results indicated that moist areas in the structure were associated with roof drainage problems and the repairs undertaken with cement-based mortars and plasters and oil-based paints. Juxtaposition of the IRT and UVM together with laboratory analyses was found to be useful to assess the soundness of timber, enhanced the accuracy and effectiveness of the survey and facilitated to build up the urgent and long-term conservation programs.

  2. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  3. UMTS network architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoen, J. P.; Saiedi, A.; Baccaro, I.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a Functional Architecture and a corresponding Network Architecture for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Procedures like call handling, location management, and handover are considered. The architecture covers the domestic, business, and public environments. Integration with existing and forthcoming networks for fixed communications is anticipated and the Intelligent Network (IN) philosophy is applied.

  4. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. 1.631-2 Section 1.631-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-2 Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber...

  5. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  6. The Tera Multithreaded Architecture and Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    The Tera Multithreaded Architecture (MTA) is a new parallel supercomputer currently being installed at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). This machine has an architecture quite different from contemporary parallel machines. The computational processor is a custom design and the machine uses hardware to support very fine grained multithreading. The main memory is shared, hardware randomized and flat. These features make the machine highly suited to the execution of unstructured mesh problems, which are difficult to parallelize on other architectures. We report the results of a study carried out during July-August 1998 to evaluate the execution of EUL3D, a code that solves the Euler equations on an unstructured mesh, on the 2 processor Tera MTA at SDSC. Our investigation shows that parallelization of an unstructured code is extremely easy on the Tera. We were able to get an existing parallel code (designed for a shared memory machine), running on the Tera by changing only the compiler directives. Furthermore, a serial version of this code was compiled to run in parallel on the Tera by judicious use of directives to invoke the "full/empty" tag bits of the machine to obtain synchronization. This version achieves 212 and 406 Mflop/s on one and two processors respectively, and requires no attention to partitioning or placement of data issues that would be of paramount importance in other parallel architectures.

  7. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  8. Spatial Estimation of Timber Production and Carbon in Harvested Wood Products Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, P. Y.; Baiocchi, G.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the annual production of different kinds of timbers at different locations has many science and policy implications. For example, timber type information is needed for accurate estimation of the amount and life cycle of carbon stored in the harvested wood product (HWP) pool, and possible transport of carbon in wood products through trade. Several attempts have been made to estimate the carbon storage in the HWP, regardless which approach to use, information of the annual timber production are required. A statistic model has been developed to estimate the annual roundwood production at the county level. The inputs of the model includes forest disturbance area calculated using the VCT algorithm derived from the Landsat time series stack, a forest type map, and timber product output (TPO) data collected from wood processing mills by the USFS. The model is applied to North Carolina, a state with a large forestry sector and where harvesting and logging are a primary forest disturbance type. Ten-fold cross validation were done to the preliminary estimation for each type of HWP. The root mean square errors range between 13.6 and 31.5 for hardwood types; and between 1.3 and 55.6 for softwood types. The model is empirical as it depends on the local information on forest disturbance, forest types, and the amount of the roundwood output. However, the approach of the model can be used to apply to other areas with the local information provided. The result can be served as a starting point in spatial estimation of carbon storage in HWP.

  9. Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Andrews, David J R; Derhé, Mia A; Docherty, Teegan D S; Hsu, Wayne W; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Williams, Leah J; Laurance, William F; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2014-01-01

    Selective logging is a major driver of rainforest degradation across the tropics. Two competing logging strategies are proposed to meet timber demands with the least impact on biodiversity: land sharing, which combines timber extraction with biodiversity protection across the concession; and land sparing, in which higher intensity logging is combined with the protection of intact primary forest reserves. We evaluate these strategies by comparing the abundances and species richness of birds, dung beetles and ants in Borneo, using a protocol that allows us to control for both timber yield and net profit across strategies. Within each taxonomic group, more species had higher abundances with land-sparing than land-sharing logging, and this translated into significantly higher species richness within land-sparing concessions. Our results are similar when focusing only on species found in primary forest and restricted in range to Sundaland, and they are independent of the scale of sampling. For each taxonomic group, land-sparing logging was the most promising strategy for maximizing the biological value of logging operations. PMID:23955803

  10. Ergonomic factors and production target evaluation in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations in mountainous terrains.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; Sanches, André Luis Petean; da Silva, Emília Pio; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are several forest operations involved in Eucalyptus timber harvesting. This study was carried out during brush-cutting; tree felling, bucking, delimbing, piling and manual extraction operations, with the following objectives: a) analyzing, ergonomically, two systems of brush-cutting: one manual and the other semi-mechanized, using two different machines; b) ergonomically evaluating three different brands of pruner machines used in delimbing felled trees. c) determining the feasible target of productivity as a function of ergonomic factors relevant to establish the time of resting pauses for workers in manual and semi-mechanized timber harvesting systems in mountainous terrain. Brush-cutting, either manual or semimechanized, is an activity carried out prior to timber harvesting. It is usually a hard work, with low productivity when compared with mechanized systems. Pruner machines have been used by forest companies, due to the great possibilities to improve productivity, quality and the health of workers. Ergonomics is a discipline that promotes the adequacy of work to the physical and mental characteristics of human beings, seeking to design production systems and products considering relevant aspects, including social, organizational and environmental factors. Companies should consider the ergonomic factor in the determination of daily worker production targets. PMID:22317486

  11. Archaeological investigation by geotomography: structure of the foundation of Yingxian timber pagoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Rui; Yan, Wei-Zhang; Feng, Guo-Zheng; Tao, Yu-Lu; Zhou, Hai-Nan; Li, Xiao-Qin

    1998-03-01

    It is significant to take a non-destructive inspection, one of advanced techniques, for detecting the internal structure and the present status of ancient cultural relics. The results detected by geotomography in Yingxian timber pagoda, Shanxi Province, are presented in this paper. The embankment in the stepped foundation shows a three circular structure in horizontal: the circular platform core is hard, homogenous and unharmed, out of which there are some radial collapsed grooves. The middle circle with a thickness of 2 to 4 m is a compacted layer and its loading capacity decreases then. The outer protective layer has a larger porosity and a weak loading capacity. An abnormal body is found out in the core, which has a circular shape and a reverse high-absorption coefficient in the shallow part, but appears a long-band shape and a low-absorption coefficient in the deep part. It might be a disturbance caused by artificial activities: the shallow part is probably a channel filled with loosen soil and the deep part is a hidden cave. It is found that the foundation of the courtyard is homogenous and integrated. Two soft and weakened areas in the north are related to the long-term run-off and drainage of groundwater. The inclination of the timber pagoda to the northwest and northeast relates to several factors, such as the inherited subsidence of the northern foundation, the lower loading capacity of the outer stepped foundation, seismic activity and timber deformation.

  12. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm. PMID:26114829

  13. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  14. Contemporary Issues in Student Housing Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents contemporary financial issues in student housing programs framed through the topical areas of occupancy management, facilities, new construction, residential life programs, technology, and residential dining. (Contains 27 references.) (Author)

  15. [Hygienic evaluation of contemporary light sources].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, V N; Lyashko, G G; Kalinina, N I

    2013-01-01

    The article covers problems of illumination hygiene and electromagnetic safety of workers using contemporary light sources. The authors present results of experimental studies of electromagnetic environment in energy-efficient lamps. PMID:24745182

  16. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Lucas B; Cropper, Wendell P; Zarin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region's ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  17. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  18. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  1. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. PMID:26626827

  2. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  3. Changes in timber haul emissions in the context of shifting forest management and infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Sean P; Blackard, Jock A; Morgan, Todd A; Loeffler, Dan; Jones, Greg; Songster, Jon; Brandt, Jason P; Moisen, Gretchen G; DeBlander, Larry T

    2009-01-01

    Background Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product carbon storage. However, attempts to quantify the effects of transport on the net effects of forest management typically use relatively sparse survey data to determine transportation emission factors. We developed an approach for systematically determining transport emissions using: 1) -remotely sensed maps to estimate the spatial distribution of harvests, and 2) - industry data to determine landscape-level harvest volumes as well as the location and processing totals of individual mills. These data support spatial network analysis that can produce estimates of fossil carbon released in timber transport. Results Transport-related emissions, evaluated as a fraction of transported wood carbon at 4 points in time on a landscape in western Montana (USA), rose from 0.5% in 1988 to 1.7% in 2004 as local mills closed and spatial patterns of harvest shifted due to decreased logging on federal lands. Conclusion The apparent sensitivity of transport emissions to harvest and infrastructure patterns suggests that timber haul is a dynamic component of forest carbon management that bears further study both across regions and over time. The monitoring approach used here, which draws only from widely available monitoring data, could readily be adapted to provide current and historical estimates of transport emissions in a consistent way across large areas. PMID:19874619

  4. Effects of riparian timber harvesting on instream habitat and fish assemblages in northern Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  5. Impacts of timber harvesting on historic sediment accumulation rates in the Coos Bay estuary, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathabane, N.; Roering, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion and development of human infrastructure along the coastline of the Pacific Northwest has profound consequences for the habitability and general ecological health of coastal ecosystems. Coos County, one of the most economically critical regions of the Oregon Coast, experienced vigorous timber harvest activity in the aftermath of WWII that declined in the last several decades. This period of extractive land use may have drastically altered the sediment supply in the major catchments of the Coos and Millicoma Rivers and lead to variations in sediment flux into the Coos Bay estuary. Accurate sediment flux histories are critical data for deciphering the relative importance of climate and land use factors such as logging and road construction on sediment production. Reduction of root reinforcement following timber harvest increases the likelihood of shallow landsliding and debris flows. In addition, forest roads increase sediment production due to overland flow and entrainment of fine sediments on hydrologically connected roads. Although these processes have been documented in small watersheds, their compounded effect on estuaries and coastal settings has not been well documented. We use Pb-210 activities derived from sediment cores taken at various locations in the Coos Bay estuary to establish temporal variations in sediment accumulation rates (SARs). Our cores will also be analyzed to assess dissolved oxygen and other proxies for ecosystem functioning. By correlating these SARs with quantitative metrics for timber extraction rate such as board feet per year and qualitative evaluations from historical photos, we propose to document the cumulative effect of historic forest practices. The temporal resolution provided by this technique should allow us to link changes in estuarine sedimentation to changes in land use as well as climatic triggers such as storms. The conclusions of this study will add valuable information regarding the ultimate impact of

  6. Hydrological Response to Timber Harvest in Northern Idaho: Implications for Channel Scour and Persistence of Salmonids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonina, D.; Luce, C. H.; Clayton, S. R.; Ali, S. M.; Barry, J. J.; Rieman, B.; Goodwin, P.; Buffington, J. M.; Berenbrock, C.

    2006-12-01

    The potential for forest harvest to increase snowmelt rates in maritime snow climates is well recognized. However, questions still exist about the magnitude of peak flow increases in basins larger than 10 km2. There is also some question about the geomorphic and biological consequences of the changes in peak flows. In this study, we used a model-assisted paired watershed approach to estimate the contribution of harvest- related snowmelt increases to changes in major peak flows, and the potential for the changes in peak flows to affect fish. We used observations from two nearly adjacent small basins (12 and 30 km2) in the Coeur d'Alene River basin, one with recent, relatively extensive, timber harvest, and the other with little disturbance in the last 50 years. Based on a variety of physical and biological data for the watersheds, we used a series of physical models to assess the impact due to logging on flow peaks. Snowmelt inputs were computed using the physically-based Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model with a probability-distributed approach. These values were then combined with a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1 applied at sub-basin scales to compute the peak discharge for a specific rain-on-snow event in early January 1990. Predictions indicate that timber harvest caused a 25% increase in the peak flow of the 1990 event and increased the frequency of this event from a 77- year recurrence interval for undisturbed conditions, to a 3.6-year event after timber harvest. Predications also indicate that this new hydrologic regime, with larger discharges at short recurrence intervals, increased the depth and frequency of streambed scour. Changes like this in harvested watersheds throughout the Coeur d'Alene River basin may have disrupted redds of fall-spawning bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), now believed to be extinct in the area.

  7. The Technology of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how career and technical education is helping students draw up plans for success in architectural technology. According to the College of DuPage (COD) in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, one of the two-year schools offering training in architectural technology, graduates have a number of opportunities available to them. They may work…

  8. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  9. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  10. Clinical document architecture.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Kai

    2003-01-01

    The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a standard developed by the Health Level Seven organisation (HL7), is an ANSI approved document architecture for exchange of clinical information using XML. A CDA document is comprised of a header with associated vocabularies and a body containing the structural clinical information. PMID:15061557

  11. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  12. Emerging supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will examine the current and near future trends for commercially available high-performance computers with architectures that differ from the mainstream ''supercomputer'' systems in use for the last few years. These emerging supercomputer architectures are just beginning to have an impact on the field of high performance computing. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  14. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  15. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  16. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola dermatitis in eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    McBride, Michael P; Wojick, Kimberlee B; Georoff, Timothy A; Kimbro, Jason; Garner, Michael M; Wang, Xiaoling; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from two geographically isolated Massachusetts populations were observed with skin lesions located primarily on the head but occasionally also on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the body. The snakes underwent health assessments that included physical examination, clinical pathology, full body radiographs, and full thickness biopsies of skin lesions. Each snake had fungal elements present histologically in tissue sections from skin lesions. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified from skin lesions using polymerase chain reaction in all eight snakes. PMID:25993746

  17. A 3D moisture-stress FEM analysis for time dependent problems in timber structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortino, Stefania; Mirianon, Florian; Toratti, Tomi

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a 3D moisture-stress numerical analysis for timber structures under variable humidity and load conditions. An orthotropic viscoelastic-mechanosorptive material model is specialized on the basis of previous models. Both the constitutive model and the equations needed to describe the moisture flow across the structure are implemented into user subroutines of the Abaqus finite element code and a coupled moisture-stress analysis is performed for several types of mechanical loads and moisture changes. The presented computational approach is validated by analyzing some wood tests described in the literature and comparing the computational results with the reported experimental data.

  18. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  19. Spatial inventory integrating raster databases and point sample data. [Geographic Information System for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A timber inventory of the Eldorado National Forest, located in east-central California, provides an example of the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to stratify large areas of land for sampling and the collection of statistical data. The raster-based GIS format of the VICAR/IBIS software system allows simple and rapid tabulation of areas, and facilitates the selection of random locations for ground sampling. Algorithms that simplify the complex spatial pattern of raster-based information, and convert raster format data to strings of coordinate vectors, provide a link to conventional vector-based geographic information systems.

  20. Quantifying environmental performance of Jali screen facades for contemporary buildings in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, Ayesha

    Jali screens are traditional window treatments in vernacular buildings throughout South Asia and the Middle East. Contemporary builders are starting to incorporate Jali screens as decorative facade elements; however, architects and scholars have largely ignored the impact of Jali screens on overall building energy and day-lighting performance. This research evaluates the effect of Jali screens, across a range of perforation ratios, on energy utilization and day-lighting quality in contemporary office buildings. The data collection and analysis is through fieldwork in Lahore, Pakistan, as well as through computational energy modeling. Results demonstrate that Jali screens have a promising positive impact on cooling loads and may improve visual comfort. The findings suggest a holistic perspective combining traditional architecture and performance enhancement by architects and designers.

  1. Architectural design for resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Deters, Ralph; Zhang, W. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resilience has become a new nonfunctional requirement for information systems. Many design decisions have to be made at the architectural level in order to deliver an information system with the resilience property. This paper discusses the relationships between resilience and other architectural properties such as scalability, reliability, and consistency. A corollary is derived from the CAP theorem, and states that it is impossible for a system to have all three properties of consistency, resilience and partition-tolerance. We present seven architectural constraints for resilience. The constraints are elicited from good architectural practices for developing reliable and fault-tolerant systems and the state-of-the-art technologies in distributed computing. These constraints provide a comprehensive reference for architectural design towards resilience.

  2. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  3. Chemical data and variation diagrams of igneous rocks from the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley Caldera Complex, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinlivan, W.D.; Byers, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    Silica variation diagrams presented here are based on 162 chemical analyses of tuffs, lavas, and intrusives, representative of volcanic centers of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex and cogenetic rocks of the Silent Canyon ca1dera. Most of the volcanic units sampled are shown on the U.S. Geological Survey geologic map of the Timber Mountain caldera area (I-891) and are described in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 919. Early effusives of the complex, although slightly altered, are probably chemically, and petrographically, more like the calc-alkalic Fraction Tuff (Miocene) of the northern Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range to the north, whereas effusives of later Miocene age, such as the Paintbrush and Timber Mountain Tuffs, are alkali-calcic.

  4. Fractal Geometry of Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Wolfgang E.

    In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

  5. An improved TIGER2 implementation for NAMD suitable for the Blue Gene architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Aaron H.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an improved implementation of the TIGER2 Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (REMD) method, using the replica exchange Application Programming Interface (API) found in contemporary versions of the NAMD Molecular Dynamics Package. The implementation takes the form of a TCL script which is used in conjunction with the standard configuration file. This implementation is validated against a previous TIGER2 implementation, as well as data reported for the original TIGER2 simulations. Our implementation is compatible with a range of architectures; crucially it enables the use of this wrapper with the BlueGene/Q architecture, in addition to the x86 architecture.

  6. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  7. "Engendering" environmental projects: the case of eco-timber production in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Scheyvens, R

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses the case of timber production in the Solomon Islands and links between environmental protection and gender. Many environmental projects are undertaken without regard for gender roles and relations. The Solomon Western Islands Fair Trade (SWIFT) initiative included women in only a peripheral way. This article justifies the involvement of women in environmental projects and then evaluates the operations of SWIFT. A role for women in local environmental projects should be recognized because of women's roles, knowledge, and interests. Use of natural resources is gender-based. In the Solomon Islands, women are identified as having the greater interest in the long-term sustainability of the environment and greater reliance on natural resources to fulfill their roles, but forestry is men's work. The price of tropical woods has tempted Micronesian governments to exploit forests to enhance their foreign exchange earnings. Environmental degradation from logging is particularly severe in the Solomon Islands. The population fulfills many basic needs from forests. Forests can provide cash earnings. The author conducted an evaluation of effectiveness of SWIFT in 1996. The SWIFT project allows rural people to earn cash from sustainable timber extraction without signing with logging companies. Women are affected by SWIFT due to their husbands' appropriation of their earnings, their peripheral role, and lack of representation in senior positions and use of women's forestry expertise. The article offers a model for genderizing eco-projects. Men need to be encouraged to work more as partners with women. PMID:12321992

  8. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H.

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  9. Contemporary Youth and the Postmodern Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary youth are major players in the postmodern adventure because it is they who will enter the future and further shape the world to come. For youth today, change is the name of the game and they are forced to adapt to a rapidly mutating and crisis-ridden world characterized by novel information, computer and genetic technologies; a…

  10. Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the…

  11. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  12. Language Rights in Historical and Contemporary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a reconceptualisation of language rights, drawing on historical sources and contemporary practice. It shows that early advocates of rights saw these as limits on the state's ability to deprive citizens of basic liberties. Only later did the concept come to include the requirement that the state be proactive in providing…

  13. Contemporary-Music Studies Bloom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the Beijing Contemporary Music Institute where more than 3,000 undergraduates study music and dance. In a country where most music departments and conservatories are dedicated to teaching classical Chinese and Western music, the institute is breaking new ground. The college, which opened in 1993 with just 100…

  14. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  15. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  16. Teachers and Teaching: A Contemporary Muslim Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogra, Imran

    2010-01-01

    This article appreciates Muhammad as an educator based on the primary sources of Islam with a view to establish teaching as a "sunnah" (practice) of Muhammad in particular and of other messengers in general. In so doing it advocates a reconceptualization for prospective and contemporary Muslim teachers. Consequently such a stance then becomes a…

  17. Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of…

  18. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural studies. (MS)

  19. Childhood in America: A Contemporary Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; McAllister, Joseph

    Past and contemporary themes characterizing the structure and quality of children's lives are traced in this discussion. Specifically examined are various changes in family life patterns, new educational involvements in children's lives, and the emerging role of extra-familial and extra-educational sources of influence upon children's development.…

  20. Teaching Conversations, Contemporary Art, and Figure Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    An important problem for high school art teachers is deciding what belongs in the art curriculum. What works of art, media, or ideas will inspire their students to more fully develop their own artistic potential and critically engage with contemporary art and culture? What artifacts of art, visual culture, or material culture should be included…

  1. A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

  2. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    One of several supplementary materials for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society, this sourcebook contains program ideas and resources to help civic leaders and educators plan programs based on the course topics. There are four sections. The first section explains how the topics can be used in planning programs, identifies…

  3. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  4. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  5. Narrative Significations of Contemporary Black Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Sekayi, Dia; Savage, Lorraine; Waller, Ellyn; Picot, Iresha

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…

  6. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  7. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  8. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  9. Contemporary Art: Familiar Objects in New Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhu, Vas

    1990-01-01

    Describes objects from everyday life and analyzes artworks by four contemporary artists whose works make use of familiar objects (Louise Nevelson, Claes Oldenburg, Mitchell Syrop, and Betye Sarr). Divides lesson into four steps: (1) discussing everyday objects; (2) viewing artworks; (3) studying artists; and (4) class activities related to the…

  10. Contemporary Views of Audience: A Rhetorical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coney, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    Finds that current pedagogical emphases on audience analysis and adaptation in the field of technical writing are based largely on classical conceptions of audience and society. Traces the influences of rhetoricians who challenge the classical model as inadequate or inappropriate for contemporary rhetorical situations. (SKC)

  11. Katherine Anne Porter on Her Contemporaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Phyllis

    Personal experiences with and critical judgments of leading artists and intellectuals of the twentieth century are recorded in Katherine Anne Porter's essays, letters and conversations which provide snapshots of her attitudes and encounters. Porter's commentaries about such contemporaries as Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Saul Bellow,…

  12. Contemporary Development of Marxist Philosophy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ouyang

    2002-01-01

    There are many points of interest pertaining to the development of Marxist philosophy in contemporary China. This paper will focus on the following areas and problems: (1) the debate about the criterion of truth; (2) Marxist philosophical textbook reform; (3) the inquiry into the human agent and subjectivity; (4) Marxism and Confucianism; (5) Deng…

  13. Contemporary Drama in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, William

    1968-01-01

    Various approaches that teachers can use to help students interpret contemporary plays are presented in this discussion of teaching drama. Plays discussed include two from the Theater of Illusion ("Look Back in Anger,""A Raisin in the Sun"), two from the Theater of the Absurd ("Rhonoceros,""Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead"), and two from…

  14. Sovereignty Discourse and Contemporary Immigration Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Developing literature on late twentieth century U.S. immigration rhetoric has failed to attend adequately to the character of sovereignty claims in contemporary immigration politics. This essay demonstrates the centrality of sovereignty discourse by examining texts created by the state, specifically public affairs videos produced and distributed…

  15. A Portfolio of Outstanding Contemporary American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Theodore E. B.

    The portfolio contains 24 portraits with biographical sketches of outstanding contemporary American Indians. Representing several tribes, occupations, and points of view, the subjects are: Henry Adams, Louis W. Ballard, Robert L. Bennett, George Blue Spruce, Jarrett Blythe, Louis R. Bruce, Leon Cook, Ada Deer, Vine Deloria, Jr., James Gladstone,…

  16. Teaching Medical Student Psychiatry Through Contemporary Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, William H.

    1977-01-01

    An audio technique uses contemporary music recordings to illustrate various personality disorders, including: schizoid, paranoid, compulsive, antisocial, and hysterical. The works of Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Harry Chapin, the Beatles, Janis Ian, James Taylor, Tammy Wynette, and others are cited. (LBH)

  17. Contemporary Comment on Changing Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majer, Kenneth S., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    A series of writings describing some contemporary thoughts about training professional educators and some efforts to meet changing needs are collected in this issue of "Viewpoints." An article on methods of inquiry, written by Ivor Davies, is the first chapter. The problems of the bilingual Latino, with respect to his American schooling, are…

  18. The Ideology of Logic in Contemporary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Rex

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler sought to resolve the methodological issue that divides much of contemporary psychology--namely, the difference between natural science and human science in their respective views of psychological life. Whereas Kendler…

  19. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  20. Art as Social Practice: Exploring the Contemporary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Maria D.

    2012-01-01

    Art as social practice encourages active, critical reflections on relevant issues among real people in locally situated engagements and with unpredictable outcomes. This instructional resource focuses on art as social practice that puts critical value on processes of engagement over the creation of art products by exploring contemporary artists…

  1. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Tagged token dataflow architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind; Culler, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    The demand for large-scale multiprocessor systems has been substantial for many years. The technology for fabrication of such systems is available, but attempts to extend traditional architectures to this context have met with only mild success. The authors hold that fundamental aspects of the Von Neumann architecture prohibit its extension to multiprocessor systems; they pose dataflow architectures as an alternative. These two approaches are contrasted on issues of synchronization, memory latency, and the ability to share data without constraining parallelism. 12 references.

  3. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  4. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  5. Flexible weapons architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  6. Modular avionic architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Edward

    The author presents an analysis revealing some of the salient features of modular avionics. A decomposition of the modular avionics concept is performed, highlighting some of the key features of such architectures. Several layers of architecture can be found in such concepts, including those relating to software structure, communication, and supportability. Particular emphasis is placed on the layer relating to partitioning, which gives rise to those features of integration, modularity, and commonality. Where integration is the sharing of common tasks or items to gain efficiency and flexibility, modularity is the partitioning of a system into reconfigurable and maintainable items, and commonality is partitioning to maximize the use of identical items across the range of applications. Two architectures, MASA (Modular Avionics System Architecture) and Pave Pillar, are considered in particular.

  7. Robot Electronics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

    2008-01-01

    An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

  8. CORDIC processor architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Johann F.; Timmermann, D.; Hahn, H.; Hosticka, Bedrich J.

    1991-12-01

    As CORDIC algorithms receive more and more attention in elementary function evaluation and signal processing applications, the problem of their VLSI realization has attracted considerable interest. In this work we review the CORDIC fundamentals covering algorithm, architecture, and implementation issues. Various aspects of the CORDIC algorithm are investigated such as efficient scale factor compensation, redundant and non-redundant addition schemes, and convergence domain. Several CORDIC processor architectures and implementation examples are discussed.

  9. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  10. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  11. Security in the Cache and Forward Architecture for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristofi, G. C.; Hadjicostis, C. N.; Raychaudhuri, D.

    The future Internet architecture will be comprised predominately of wireless devices. It is evident at this stage that the TCP/IP protocol that was developed decades ago will not properly support the required network functionalities since contemporary communication profiles tend to be data-driven rather than host-based. To address this paradigm shift in data propagation, a next generation architecture has been proposed, the Cache and Forward (CNF) architecture. This research investigates security aspects of this new Internet architecture. More specifically, we discuss content privacy, secure routing, key management and trust management. We identify security weaknesses of this architecture that need to be addressed and we derive security requirements that should guide future research directions. Aspects of the research can be adopted as a step-stone as we build the future Internet.

  12. Contemporary Practice in the Elementary Classroom: A Study of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school is not too early to introduce contemporary art; young students are especially adept at learning by mimicry and embracing contemporary art practices, including site-specific works. Elementary students are poised and capable to comprehend and respond to contemporary art. Tangible products can be made within a conceptual,…

  13. GPR technique as a tool for decision-making regarding timber beam inner reinforcement: The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier; Valls, Ana

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the decision-making process for the timber beam inner reinforcement of the building The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (15th c.), Spain. This research was based on the study of 13 timber beams for their diagnosis and the characterization before decision-making in structural reinforcement. For this purpose, we integrated the results of analysis of historical documentation, in situ visual inspection and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The rehabilitation project considered the substitution of the upper-storey floor (The Consulate of the Sea Hall) for another one that complied with the original. This room was closed due to the instability of the timber beams. For the flooring renovation it was necessary to increase the rigidity of the timber floor framing. Preliminary conclusions, which derived from the historical documentation and in situ visual inspection of the timber coffered ceiling were: (a) timber beams supported inside masonry walls could suffer moisture and xylophage attacks, (b) timber beams were significantly damaged (splits, ring shakes, failure of beam section that reduced its bearing capacity), (c) substantial timber beam warping. So the main objectives of this GPR study were: to detect splits, to identify failure of section due to biological attacks, to pinpoint epoxy resin reconstructions and to assess the severity of the damages observed on surface. A GPR survey was carried out in timber coffered-ceiling beams of The Consulate of the Sea Hall. Radar measurements were carried out using a SIR-10H system (GSSI) and a 1.6 GHz ground coupled antenna, due to the timber beam dimensions (0.45 x 0.45 x 8.75 m. A total of 37 longitudinal profiles were collected in the centre of all the beam accessible sides. After radragram processing steps, a number of anomalies were detected in the records, which were analysed. The outcomes derived from this GPR study were taken into account when it came to make decisions in the final restoration project of

  14. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14 Section... Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.14 Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise... undertakes to exercise the reserved rights, hereinafter called operator, shall give prior written notice...

  15. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14 Section... Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.14 Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise... undertakes to exercise the reserved rights, hereinafter called operator, shall give prior written notice...

  16. 77 FR 27013 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes Timber Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Forest Service Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes... timber in the Saddle Lakes ] area of Revillagigedo Island, Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District... 2013. ADDRESSES: Send or hand-deliver written comments to the Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger...

  17. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect...

  18. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect...

  19. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  20. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect...

  1. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  2. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  3. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  4. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect...

  5. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  6. Use of DNA fingerprints to control the origin of sapelli timber (Entandrophragma cylindricum) at the forest concession level in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, C; Degen, B

    2012-07-01

    Illegal logging and associated trade are the cause of many economic and ecological problems both in producer and in consumer countries. There are an increasing number of national and international regulations in place that call for efficient timber tracking systems. We present results of a pilot study of a DNA-based method to control the geographical origin of timber in forest concessions in Cameroon. We addressed genetic differentiation at five nuclear microsatellite loci in seven sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum, Meliaceae) populations located in three forest concessions in Eastern Cameroon. In the framework of a blind test, seven anonymous timber sample sets were analysed at three microsatellite loci and compared to the genetic reference data of the forest concessions in Cameroon. Our results show that genetic differentiation was low within and among concessions. Combining the results of Bayesian genetic assignment method and exclusion test, we could determine that the timber stemmed or did not stem from the focus forest concession in six out of the seven blind sample sets. We further discuss the accuracy of the presented method and draw conclusions for a better sampling and genotyping strategy. Our work provides clear evidence that the use of genetic fingerprints is a useful tool to fight against illegal logging. PMID:22169399

  7. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES OF FOREST...

  8. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES OF FOREST...

  9. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES OF FOREST...

  10. 75 FR 20979 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, Ruth, CA, Beaverslide Timber Sale and Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... national social and economic needs. The Six Rivers National Forest seeks to provide a sustainable... Forest's goal to provide a sustainable, predictable, long-term timber supply for local economies;...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment,...

  12. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence

  13. a Historical Timber Frame Model for Diagnosis and Documentation Before Building Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Viale, A.; Reeb, S.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the project that is described in this paper was to define a four-level timber frame survey mode of a historical building: the so-called "Andlau's Seigniory", Alsace, France. This historical building (domain) was built in the late XVIth century and is now in a stage of renovation in order to become a heritage interpretation centre. The used measurement methods combine Total Station measurements, Photogrammetry and 3D Terrestrial Laser scanner. Different modelling workflows were tested and compared according to the data acquisition method, but also according to the characteristics of the reconstructed model in terms of accuracy and level of detail. 3D geometric modelling of the entire structure was performed including modelling the degree of detail adapted to the needs. The described 3D timber framework exists now in different versions, from a theoretical and geometrical one up to a very detailed one, in which measurements and evaluation of deformation by time are potentially allowed. The virtually generated models involving archaeologists, architects, historians and specialists in historical crafts, are intended to be used during the four stages of the project: (i) knowledge of the current state of needs for diagnosis and understanding of former construction techniques; (ii) preparation and evaluation of restoration steps; (iii) knowledge and documentation concerning the archaeological object; (iv) transmission and dissemination of knowledge through the implementation of museum animations. Among the generated models we can also find a documentation of the site in the form of virtual tours created from panoramic photographs before and during the restoration works. Finally, the timber framework model was structured and integrated into a 3D GIS, where the association of descriptive and complementary digital documents was possible. Both offer tools leading to the diagnosis, the understanding of the structure, knowledge dissemination, documentation and the

  14. Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Jake E; Struebig, Matthew J; Davies, Zoe G; Baraloto, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of the world's tropical forests have been selectively logged, and large expanses are allocated for future timber extraction. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is being promoted as best practice forestry that increases sustainability and lowers CO2 emissions from logging, by reducing collateral damage associated with timber extraction. RIL is also expected to minimize the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, although this is yet to be thoroughly tested. We undertake the most comprehensive study to date to investigate the biodiversity impacts of RIL across multiple taxonomic groups. We quantified birds, bats and large mammal assemblage structures, using a before-after control-impact (BACI) design across 20 sample sites over a 5-year period. Faunal surveys utilized point counts, mist nets and line transects and yielded >250 species. We examined assemblage responses to logging, as well as partitions of feeding guild and strata (understorey vs. canopy), and then tested for relationships with logging intensity to assess the primary determinants of community composition. Community analysis revealed little effect of RIL on overall assemblages, as structure and composition were similar before and after logging, and between logging and control sites. Variation in bird assemblages was explained by natural rates of change over time, and not logging intensity. However, when partitioned by feeding guild and strata, the frugivorous and canopy bird ensembles changed as a result of RIL, although the latter was also associated with change over time. Bats exhibited variable changes post-logging that were not related to logging, whereas large mammals showed no change at all. Indicator species analysis and correlations with logging intensities revealed that some species exhibited idiosyncratic responses to RIL, whilst abundance change of most others was associated with time. Synthesis and applications. Our study demonstrates the relatively benign effect of reduced

  15. Timber harvest effect on soil moisture in the southern Sierra Nevada: Is there a measurable impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, M. W.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Goulden, M.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Lucas, R. G.; Malazian, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    We monitored soil-moisture storage, evapotranspiration and streamflow in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest for three post-snowmelt spring/summer seasons during water years 2010-2013. We measured volumetric water content using a COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing Systems (COSMOS) to estimate shallow soil-moisture storage and an eddy-covariance flux tower to measure evapotranspiration, covering an area of about 20 ha. Soil-moisture sensors were also strategically placed at depths of 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm at 30 locations in and around the COSMOS and tower footprints. Timber harvest occurred during the summer of 2012, involving uneven-age thinning limited to trees less than 76.2 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Timber harvest intensity varied by tree size class: approximately 39% of the trees 0 to 25.5 cm DBH, 21% of the trees 25.5 to 50.8 cm DBH, and 4% of trees 50.8-76.2 cm DBH. Merchantable timber removed from the site was about 81-100 cubic m per ha. Annual evapotranspiration was similar for all four years, averaging about 80 cm each year, despite large variability in annual precipitation amounts. Annual evapotranspiration was about 10% lower following harvest. However, 2012 and 2013 were both dry years. Water year 2011 was one of the wettest years on record - approximately 200 cm of precipitation - while 2012 was one of the driest with 70 cm of precipitation. Each year soil desiccation immediately followed snow-cover depletion, dropping from field capacity by about 20% volumetric water content over a 3-month period. The rate of soil-water loss was about the same for all years. In 2012 and 2013 the dates of snow disappearance were 2-3 months earlier than in 2011. About half of the annual total evapotranspiration for 2010-2012 occurred during the 3-month period following snowmelt. Each year, total summer precipitation was only 4-6 cm. Thus soil-water storage derived from snowmelt and rainfall provides much of the moisture for evapotranspiration in the mixed

  16. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  17. Embodiment and aging in contemporary physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hay, Melissa E; Connelly, Denise M; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary discourses in the health sciences vary in their treatment of aging bodies and the mind-body relationship, yet our understanding of aging experiences and health care practices can be limited by an overreliance on biomedical or social constructionist approaches alone. This paper offers a conceptual exploration of embodiment as an innovative approach to enhance our understandings of aging bodies and health in physiotherapy practice. Embodiment attends to body and mind, nature and culture, structure and agency, while appreciating differences in aging bodies and health in aging. Conclusions consider embodiment in the practice and disciplinary discourse of contemporary physiotherapy, specifically, considering the ways embodied perspectives can support therapists in their health care practice and relationships with people with aging bodies. PMID:27253333

  18. Contemporary Review on Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jacqueline; Mancini, G B John; Humphries, Karin H

    2016-07-19

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is gaining recognition as an important cause of myocardial infarction, especially in young women. There has been a surge in the diagnosis of SCAD in recent years, presumably due to an increased use of coronary angiography, and the clinical availability and application of high-resolution intracoronary imaging. The improved recognition and diagnosis, together with increased publications and attention through social media, have considerably raised awareness of this condition, which was once believed to be very rare. Recent publications of moderate to large contemporary case series have helped elucidate the early natural history, presenting characteristics (clinical and angiographic), underlying etiology, management, and cardiovascular outcomes with this condition, thus providing observations and important clinical insights of value to clinicians managing this challenging and perplexing patient cohort. The aim of our review is to provide a comprehensive contemporary update of SCAD to aid health care professionals in managing these patients in both the acute and chronic settings. PMID:27417009

  19. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  20. Timber type separability in Southeastern United States on LANDSAT-1 MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.; Dillman, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative, computer-aided study was made on the spectral separability of timber types and condition classes in the Southeastern United States, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner data. It was concluded that LANDSAT-1 could be used effectively to discriminate the gross forest features of softwood, hardwood, and regeneration. The only significant detectable age difference would be between an established forest versus a young (or denuded) forest. The red or near infrared bands would be better for discrimination; phenological early and late spring data would be better than winter. And a temporal analysis would be superior to single-season analysis. Lastly, two spectral bands would be most cost effective for computer analysis. The study site was Sam Houston National Forest of East Texas, a typical forest in the Flatwoods Zone, Southern Region, U. S. Forest Service.