Science.gov

Sample records for contemporary timber architecture

  1. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  2. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    English, Nathan B.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75–100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time. PMID:11572943

  3. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    English, N.B.; Betancourt, J.L.; Dean, J.S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75-100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time.

  4. Optimization of Forward Wave Modeling on Contemporary HPC Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Jens; Micikevicius, Paulius; Williams, Samuel

    2012-07-20

    Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is one of the main approaches in the seismic processing industry for imaging the subsurface structure of the Earth. While RTM provides qualitative advantages over its predecessors, it has a high computational cost warranting implementation on HPC architectures. We focus on three progressively more complex kernels extracted from RTM: for isotropic (ISO), vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) and tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) media. In this work, we examine performance optimization of forward wave modeling, which describes the computational kernels used in RTM, on emerging multi- and manycore processors and introduce a novel common subexpression elimination optimization for TTI kernels. We compare attained performance and energy efficiency in both the single-node and distributed memory environments in order to satisfy industry’s demands for fidelity, performance, and energy efficiency. Moreover, we discuss the interplay between architecture (chip and system) and optimizations (both on-node computation) highlighting the importance of NUMA-aware approaches to MPI communication. Ultimately, our results show we can improve CPU energy efficiency by more than 10× on Magny Cours nodes while acceleration via multiple GPUs can surpass the energy-efficient Intel Sandy Bridge by as much as 3.6×.

  5. PCM-enhanced lime plasters for vernacular and contemporary architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Kyriakou, Loucas; Ioannou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    have significantly lower (by 55%) thermal conductivity and increased (by almost 20%) specific heat capacity at 90 days after laboratory production. At the same time, even though porosity values are higher for the PCM-enhanced renders, compared to the reference mixtures, their capillary absorption coefficient is significantly reduced (up to 60%). This is of great importance in the case of renders and may well be an indication for better expected durability in the long-term. Regarding the mechanical properties of the laboratory composites, PCM addition seems to have a negative effect on the hydraulic plasters. In contrast, when PCM is added to the hydrated lime-based plaster, no change is observed for the flexural strength, while the compressive strength is notably improved (up to 36%). The apparently improved properties of the PCM-enhanced plasters render them particularly appropriate for application in southern European climatic conditions. Due to their compatibility with traditional substrate materials (e.g. natural stone), the aforementioned composites may be used not only in new contemporary structures, but also for the renovation and retrofitting of existing buildings. The lime-based nature of their matrix and their physico-mechanical properties further extend their applicability to listed and monumental buildings.

  6. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained bymore » OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.« less

  7. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained by OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  8. The Strontium Fingerprint and Footprint: Using 87Sr/86Sr to Find the Sources and Range of Architectural Timber Acquisition of Great House Construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Reynolds, A. C.; Quade, J.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of timber acquisition by great house builders in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios from annually-dated, architectural logs in 10^{th} to 12^{th} century structures are compared to the 87Sr/86Sr of modern tree stands from the surrounding mountains. Although not a stable isotope system, the long half-life of the 87Sr parent (87Rb, t1/2 = 48.8 Ga) yields a stable isotope system on the timescales used to determine the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. The small mass difference among strontium's isotopes eliminates measurable biologic or kinetic fractionation at earth surface conditions. Strontium tracer studies, however, do require distinct end-member ratios to be feasible. Strontium isotopes, alone or in combination with other isotopes, provide a simple way to study and trace the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. Over the 150 km-wide Chaco Basin, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern trees range from 0.7055 to 0.7192. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from this and other studies show that during great house construction Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away in all directions. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) architectural beams from the high crests of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south, and (3) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the low slopes of the La Platas and San Juan Mountains to the north, the San Pedro Mountains to the east, the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains and nearby mesas. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo) or by time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources from the beginning of large scale construction in or around Chaco Canyon. This is contrary to the view that

  9. Utopia, University and Architecture: A Journey that Changed the Design of Contemporary Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2006-01-01

    In 1927, a group of advisors to King Alfonso XIII of Spain, led by the architect Modesto Lopez-Otero, set out for the United States and Canada. Previously, they had visited a number of European cities where they examined the medieval architectural form of some famous universities. Inspired by a Utopian vision, the journey to the New World studied…

  10. Pleistocene Aridification Cycles Shaped the Contemporary Genetic Architecture of Southern African Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa’s faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region’s biodiversity. PMID:25970269

  11. Communication Characteristics of Large-Scale Scientific Applications for Contemporary Cluster Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; Mueller, F

    2002-02-13

    This paper examines the explicit communication characteristics of several sophisticated scientific applications; which, by themselves, constitute a representative suite of publicly available benchmarks for large cluster architectures. By focusing on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and by using hardware counters on the microprocessor, we observe each application's inherent behavioral characteristics: point-to-point and collective communication, and floating-point operations. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivities of these characteristics to both problem size and number of processors. Our analysis reveals several striking similarities across, our diverse set of applications including the use of collective operations, especially those collectives with very small data payloads. We also highlight a trend of novel applications parting with regimented, static communication patterns in favor of dynamically evolving patterns, as evidenced by our experiments on applications that use implicit linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. Overall, our study contributes a better understanding of the requirements of current and emerging paradigms of scientific computing in terms of their computation and communication demands.

  12. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  13. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  14. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  15. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  16. Spatially Characterizing Effective Timber Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Sailor, J.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of a computer-oriented cartographic model for assessing roundwood supply for generation of base load electricity is discussed. The model provides an analytical procedure for coupling spatial information of harvesting economics and owner willingness to sell stumpages. Supply is characterized in terms of standing timber; of accessibility considering various harvesting and hauling factors; and of availability as affected by ownership and residential patterns. Factors governing accessibility to timber include effective harvesting distance to haulic roads as modified by barriers and slopes. Haul distance is expressed in units that take into account the relative ease of travel along various road types to a central processing facility. Areas of accessible timber are grouped into spatial units, termed 'timbersheds', of common access to particular haul road segments that belong to unique 'transport zones'. Timber availability considerations include size of ownership parcels, housing density and excluded areas. The analysis techniques are demonstrated for a cartographic data base in western Massachusetts.

  17. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  18. Implementing CITES regulations for timber.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Arthur G

    2007-03-01

    Foresters are currently confronted with a new challenge. For the first time a commonly traded timber species has been listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 12th Conference of the Parties in November 2002, countries voted 68 to 30 to place the premier timber species of Latin America, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]), on CITES Appendix II. Under Appendix II regulations, trade in mahogany requires that exporting countries verify that each shipment was legally obtained and that its harvest was non-detrimental to the survival of the species. Unfortunately, implementation has been weak, in part because countries have yet to develop a common, pragmatic, cost-effective system to make the legal and non-detriment findings. This paper recommends what such a system might include. PMID:17489241

  19. Contemporary Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "InSEA News" focuses on contemporary technology and art education. The articles are: "International Travel and Contemporary Technology" (Gilbert Clark); "Recollections and Visions for Electronic Computing in Art Education" (Guy Hubbard); "Using Technologies in Art Education: A Review of Current Issues" (Li-Fen Lu); "Reflections…

  20. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas Michael

    2006-04-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest sought to stabilize local economies, including local employment and income, by stabilizing the flow of wood fiber from public forests. This is also a common forest management objective in other regions and countries. Because this economic strategy ignores basic market adjustments, it is likely to fail and to unnecessarily damage forest ecosystems. Application of basic economic principles on how markets operate significantly changes the apparent efficacy of efforts to manage local economies by managing timber supply. The emphasis on timber supply tends to ignore the dominant role that the demand for wood fiber and wood products, rather than wood-fiber supply, plays in determining levels of harvest and production. Contemporary economics indicates that markets tend to operate to offset reductions in wood-fiber supply. This significantly moderates the economic cost of reducing commercial timber harvest in the pursuit of environmental objectives. In addition, contemporary economic analysis indicates that the economic links between natural forests and local communities are much broader than simply the flow of commercially valuable logs to manufacturing facilities. At least in the United States, the flow of environmental services from natural forests has increasingly become an amenity that has drawn people and economic activity to forested areas. Attractive site-specific qualities, including those supported by natural forests, can potentially support local economic development even in the face of reduced timber harvests. These market-related adjustments partially explain the Northwest Forest Plan's overestimation of the expected regional impacts associated with reduced federal timber supply and the ineffectiveness of the plan's efforts to protect communities by stabilizing federal timber supply PMID:16903095

  1. Tree-mendous Timber Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Funded and administered by NASA, the Affiliated Research Center (ARC) program transfers geospatial technologies from the Space Agency and participating universities to commercial companies, non-profit and trade organizations, and tribal governments. The origins of the ARC program date back to 1988, when NASA's Stennis Space Center initiated the Visiting Investigator Program to bring industry closer to spatial information technologies. The success of this trial program led to an expansion into the ARC program, whose goal is to enhance competitiveness of U.S. industries through more efficient use of remote sensing and related technologies. NASA's ARC program served as the foundation for the development of International Hardwood Resources, which then grew into Falcon Informatics with the acquisition of a technology from a European software company and a change of business models. Doylestown, Pennsylvania-based Falcon Informatics is now a world-leading information services company that combines in-depth timber industry experience with state-of-the-art software to serve the needs of national governments, international paper companies, and timber-investment management organizations.

  2. Nanoparticle-based concretes for the restoration of historical and contemporary buildings: a new way for CO2 reduction in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Verdura, Pietro Damiano; Lo Giudice, Elio; Navarra, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The production of the cement is a highly energy-intensive process and contributes to the release of pollutants into the atmosphere due to both the chemical reactions occurring in the kiln and, in most cases, the burning of fossil fuels for power production. So, the reduction of the cement content in a concrete would be indirectly useful to decrease the pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. The results of our investigation indicate that the replacement levels of cement by the 4 % of nanoparticles show a positive increasing of many physical and chemical properties allowing a relevant saving of cement content inside a concrete mixture. The compressive strengths, tensile splitting, propagations of ultrasonic pulses and water permeability tests were investigated on different models and realistic structures by the ISO EN rules. The influence of the nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties was measured at different ripening times. Both silica and iron oxides make cement pastes harder and accelerated hydration processes of the cements. A remarkable decreasing in water permeability was also observed showing that nanoconcretes can be used as innovative restoration systems for cement-based historical and contemporary artefacts in order to avoid carbonation processes. Moreover, a smaller quantity of cement binder inside the mortar causes relevant positive effects on the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere.

  3. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 1-foundations and historical landmarks in contemporary stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Elder, James B; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery, stem cells have fascinated scientists with their ultimate potential: the ability to cure disease, repair altered physiology, and reverse neurological deficit. Stem cell science unquestionably promises to eliminate many of the tragic limitations contemporary medicine must acknowledge, and cloning may provide young cells for an aging population. Although it is widely believed that stem cells will transform the way medicine is practiced, therapeutic interventions using stem cell technology are still in their infancy. The 3 most common stem cell sources studied today are umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and human embryos. Although cord blood is currently used to treat dozens of disorders and bone marrow stem cells have been used clinically since the 1960s, human embryonic stem cells have yet to be successfully applied to any disease. Undeniably, stem cell therapy has the potential to be one of the most powerful therapeutic options available. In this introductory article of a 5-part series on stem cells, we narrate the evolution of modern stem cell science, delineating major landmarks that will prove responsible for taking stem cell technology from the laboratory into revolutionary clinical applications: from the first milestone of identifying the mouse hematopoietic stem cell to the latest feats of producing pluripotent stem cells without embryos at all. In Part 2, we present the evidence demonstrating the certainty of adult mammalian neurogenesis; in Parts 3 and 4, we describe neurosurgical applications of stem cell technology; and in Part 5, we discuss the philosophical and ethical issues surrounding stem cell therapy, as well as future areas of exploration. PMID:19145154

  4. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  5. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  7. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  8. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by the purchaser for removal of the timber were in place....

  9. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  10. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  11. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  12. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  13. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  14. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  15. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  16. 43 CFR 5511.2-4 - Timber on withdrawn lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber on withdrawn lands. 5511.2-4 Section 5511.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 5511.2-4 Timber on withdrawn lands. Sections 5511.2-1 to 5511.2-5 are inapplicable to timber...

  17. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions...

  18. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National Forest System lands, except for: (1) Timber reserved by a grantor of land, during the life of...

  19. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  20. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  1. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  2. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  3. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  4. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223... further advertisement, at not less than appraised value, any timber previously advertised for competitive... of competitive interest in the product. (b) Extraordinary conditions, as provided for in 16...

  5. Time minimizing transportation of calamity fallen timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolman, P.; Střelec, L.

    2013-10-01

    In the field of transportation problems is usually the most decisive optimization criterion minimizing of transportation costs. However, there are situations where it is necessary to transport the material quickly. This is especially the case of material transport when it is transported a perishable material. In case the material is transported in time, i.e. before its vitiation, it may be further used and brings economic profit. Otherwise, there is the degradation with all the ensuing consequences. In this paper it is optimized calamity timber transportation from collection points to places of processing. Emphasis was placed on minimizing the transportation time. The reason for the solution of the problem was the need for calamity fallen timber transportation after hurricane Kyrill from collection points in the Bohemian Forest to processing sites. For solving the problem it was not possible to use the known methods of transportation problems. Therefore, the authors proposed the method, leading to the optimal solution of the described problem.

  6. The economics of global timber markets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert; Sedjo, Roger

    1997-09-02

    This paper develops a global timber market model which captures how timber supply reacts to future predicted increases in the demand for timber. Higher future demand is expected to increase prices, reflecting greater land scarcity. Investments in growing timber are also expected to increase, expanding output and tempering the price response. A greater reliance on plantations in productive regions is predicted to allow large areas of natural forest in low valued regions to remain largely intact. The quantitative results are sensitive to the rate demand increases, the cost of plantations, and access costs of natural forests.

  7. 43 CFR 9239.1 - Timber and other vegetative resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber and other vegetative resources. 9239.1 Section 9239.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF....1 Timber and other vegetative resources....

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  12. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  13. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  14. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  15. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  16. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  17. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  18. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  19. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  20. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  1. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  2. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  3. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  4. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  5. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  6. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  7. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  8. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  9. 60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly after this photograph was made, the timbers were completely submerged in water, held down by heavy concrete castings. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  10. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  11. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  12. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  13. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  14. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  15. Timber Production and Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Julia K.

    The supply of the nation's forests is very great, and of this supply, approximately 1 1/2 percent comes from American Indian forests. Timber resources are three-fold: the slash (unusable limbs, tops, and stumps), as well as the unmarketable trees, provide wood for fuel; the sale of timber provides tribal revenue from a renewable source; and the…

  16. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  17. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  18. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  19. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  20. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  1. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  2. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  3. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless...

  4. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  6. Photogrammetric Technique for Timber Stack Volume Contol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Maksimov, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of accurate log volume measurement is a very important, especially in case of seaport volume control where logs are put in a huge stack of hundred meters length and a time for volume control is strongly restricted. Current technology of volume control use manual means such as measuring tape, so the process of measurement is rather inaccurate and time consuming. To estimate the volume of timber stack its frontal area is measured and some control parts of a stack are used for stacking coefficient (wood density in a stack) determination. Non-contact vision based technique is proposed for manual measurements substituting. The developed methods are implemented in portable photogrammetric system for stack parameters measuring and documenting.

  7. Design Methods for Load-bearing Elements from Crosslaminated Timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilguts, A.; Serdjuks, D.; Goremikins, V.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.

  8. Short-term response of (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) larvae to timber management in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leuthold, Niels; Adams, Michael J.; Hayes, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark–recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae.

  9. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  10. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  11. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  12. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  13. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  14. In vitro screening of leishmanicidal activity in myanmar timber extracts.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Sekita, Setsuko

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-five Myanmar timber extracts belonging to 27 families were examined for their leishmanicidal activities. Some timber extracts had significant leishmanicidal activity, especially extracts of Millettia pendula, which exhibited the most potent activity (MLC 3.1 microg/ml, MIC 1.6 microg/ml). Other timber extracts showing potent activity included those from Cedrela serrata, Cedrela toona, Cordia fragrantissima, Calophyllum kunstleri, Dalbergia cultrate, Grevillea robusta, Haplophragma adenophyllum, Michelia champaca, and Tectona grandis. From a literature search for reports on the chemical constituents of these plants, most constituents were found to be quinone derivatives or other compounds with unsaturated carbonyl groups. PMID:15187448

  15. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  16. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  17. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  18. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lands. Except as provided for in Sections 4 (c) and (d) of the Wilderness Act and regulations at 36 CFR... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber...

  19. View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner of lock, view towards east - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  20. View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, recent galvanized straps, bolts and washers - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  1. View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, charred piers, recent galvanized fastenings - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  2. 5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  3. Concrete and timber retaining wall and telegraph pole, milepost 145 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Concrete and timber retaining wall and telegraph pole, milepost 145 vicinity, looking northeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  4. 6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER SUPPORTS, AND STONE PORCH FLOOR, TO NORTHWEST - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Main Office, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  5. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. 42. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. 41. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 43. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLED, HEAVY TIMBER TRUSSES IN FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER SUPPORT MEMBERS AND SUSPENDER BAR MOUNTING HARDWARE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  12. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  13. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  14. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  15. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of timber... must be transported in process of exploitation, the probable cost of exploitation and the climate...

  16. AFRD WAREHOUSE, INTERIOR DETAIL OF RAFTER SUPPORT POST TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRD WAREHOUSE, INTERIOR DETAIL OF RAFTER SUPPORT POST TIMBER AND METHOD OF BRACING. THE BRACES PENETRATE THE SHEET ROCK, SUGGESTING THAT THESE ARE ORIGINAL. - Minidoka Relocation Center Warehouse, 111 South Fir Street, Shoshone, Lincoln County, ID

  17. 89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT OF LOCK ENTRANCE) ARE BEING USED AS BUMPERS TO HELP GUIDE SHIP INTO LOCK WHILE AVOIDING CONTACT WITH WALLS. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  18. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) proposes to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private...

  19. 76 FR 9962 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...The Small Business Administration (SBA) is issuing this final rule to amend its Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee bid and performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public and private...

  20. Integrating Technology with Architectural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmasry, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Center of High Performance Learning Technologies (CHPLE), Virginia Tech, conducted a study investigating issues related to integration of learning technologies with architectural systems in contemporary learning environments. The study is qualitative in nature, and focuses on integration patterns of learning technologies with…

  1. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  2. Contemporary Poetry about Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carl R. V.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that teachers of contemporary literature should enjoy the advantages of poetry written in response to, or interpreting, paintings or other works of art. Illustrates the advantages of such poetry with two examples. (PRA)

  3. Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Bassam

    Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

  4. Operational use of Landsat data for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Bowlin, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat TM data, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and field observations were used to generate a timber type/structure and land-cover strata map of the Sequoia National Forest in California, U.S. and to create a classification data set. The spectral classes were identified as 32 information classes of land cover or timber type and structure. DEM data were used for the determination of major timber specie types by topographic regions of natural occurrence. The results suggest that, for inventories over large areas, traditional per-pixel classifiers are not appropriate for TM-resolution data sets over spatially complex regions such as forest lands; either resolution must be degraded, or more context-dependent classifiers, such as the ECHO classifier described by Landgrebe (1979), must be used.

  5. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  6. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  7. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  8. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  9. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  10. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Act of February 27, 1922, 42 Stat. 398; 16 U.S.C. 610); (6) Citizens of Bear Lake County, Idaho, may cut timber from public lands in Lincoln County, Wyoming, and remove such timber to Bear Lake County... 3, 1919 (40 Stat. 1321; 16 U.S.C. 608), citizens of Malheur County, Oregon, may cut timber in...

  11. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources... Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National Forest System lands in Alaska may not be exported from...

  12. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise provided by law, a person who transfers unprocessed private timber to another person and meets all... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic...

  13. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic processing requirement. Each person who acquires... States, and who also possesses or acquires unprocessed timber from private lands located west of...

  14. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free use of timber on mineral and... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  15. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Free use of timber on mineral and... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  16. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  10. VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING SHOWING DETAIL OF TIMBER HOWE TRUSS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ROOF FRAMING SHOWING DETAIL OF TIMBER HOWE TRUSS. 2,000-POUND MOTOR-DRIVEN HAMMER, 1940, BY CHAMBERSBURG ENGINEERING COMPANY, CHAMBERSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, VISIBLE TO LEFT ON FLOOR. - Cambria Iron Company, Blacksmith Shop, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. 31. Interior of fabrication buildingnote pipe truss and timber framing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior of fabrication building-note pipe truss and timber framing. Railway to move vessels in and out of structure. Flying bridge roof of barbour-built vessel Stardust (#1) to right. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  12. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE BALLAST AND LOG PILES IN FOREBAY. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  19. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  20. 4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, POCKETS FOR VERTICAL POSTS AND BRIDGING, STEEL BRACES ADDED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CIRCA 1962. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  1. 3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, CUT STONE FACE OF PARAPET WALL, AND WROUGHT IRON BOLTS USED TO SECURE THE RUBBING RAIL. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  2. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest... concerning this notice should be addressed to Lathrop Smith, Forest Management Service Center, 2150...

  3. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  4. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  5. 9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber degaussing pier, 1951. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN PANELS AND STONE PIER, SHOWING ELEMENTS SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS, BUT ALTERNATE CABLE PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  7. 12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM ABOVE. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  8. 13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. ELEVATION VIEW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  9. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C. 528-531), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of....1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell...

  10. Spatial Pattern of Standing Timber Value across the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Ewers, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome. PMID:22590520

  11. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  12. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  13. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome. PMID:22590520

  14. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, TOP CHORD, GUSSET PLATES, TENSION RODS, TRANSVERSE BEAM, AND FLOOR BEAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  15. Contemporary Cambodian: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hak; And Others

    This volume comprises the basic module of "Contemporary Cambodian." There are 60 lessons, each of which contains a dialogue, drills, and a list of the words introduced in that lesson. In the first 30 lessons, the dialogue and drills are written in a romanized transcription, and the dialogue is written a second time in Cambodian script in order…

  16. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  17. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  18. Contemporary Cambodian: Grammatical Sketch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Sos, Kem

    This is the first of seven interrelated volumes comprising "Contemporary Cambodian". Other texts in the series include introductory lessons, four topic-oriented textbooks, and a comprehensive Cambodian-English English-Cambodian glossary. This volume is a description of aspects of Cambodian grammar and usage. Chapters concentrate on phonology,…

  19. Contemporary American Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bill; And Others

    This nine-week unit from a junior high American government curriculum covers the following topics: (1) What are the current issues in our physical and social environment?; (2) How do we investigate and evaluate issues?; and (3) What contemporary issues in my physical or social environment do I want to investigate? Students are required to do…

  20. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  1. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  2. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  3. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  4. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  5. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  6. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does not... of timber. (e) Significant logging of timber means that a concern uses its own employees to...

  7. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  8. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  9. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.

  10. Timber Management of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Hugh; Johnson, Gary; Smoot, James; Cohan, Tyrus; O'Connor, Tina

    2001-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center occupies over 48560 hectares or just over 120000 acres in southwestern Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana near border of the two states. This area includes the Stennis Fee Area, which is the Center itself and the Acoustic Buffer Zone (ABZ) surrounding the Center. The ABZ is owned by several government, public and private entities and managed accordingly. The Fee Area and ABZ include wetlands, pine woodlands and areas of mixed floral species. The included maps detail the delineation of land in and around the Stennis Space Center. Areas owned by the federal government are divided into three stands to facilitate timber management. The stands are classified by species, density and average size to determine several timber in management issues including the schedule for controlled burns, economic viability of stands, and the creation of low impact recreational areas such as scenic trails or bike paths.

  11. Labeling wood: How timber certification may reduce deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugal, C.

    1996-09-01

    A series of landmark developments, including satellite photography revealing massive burning of the Amazon and scientific findings confirming a link between deforestation and climate change, has greatly heightened public awareness about the loss of tropical forests in the past decade. As a result, the international tropical timber trade has become a target of public campaigns to curb deforestation, the argument being that consumers can {open_quotes}save{close_quotes} the rainforest if they refuse to buy tropical timber products. However, there are other sides to this, and certification is not the complete answer. For example, logging constitutes only a small portion of deforestation in the tropics, most of which is done for agricultural purposes. Fuel wood resources are not included, and other areas of the world are being deforested, so emphasis only on tropical areas creates concerns. This article considers the concerns of certification in depth.

  12. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  13. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  14. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  15. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  16. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  17. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  18. 4. Threefourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Three-fourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber deck resting on the floor stringers. Also note differences in stringer floor beam construction. In span 1, the stringers are connected to the side of the floor beams. Spans 2 and 3 the stringer bear on top of the floor beam. Also note non-continuous eye bar construction through the panel points on the bottom chord. - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  19. Latvian scientists research into chemical uses of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-20

    Scientists of the Institute of Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of Sciences have developed two highly efficient processes for producing furfural, a feedstock for varnishes, synthetic resins and plastics. It is made of production wastes, including branches and small-dimension timber. By one process, the raw material is chipped, treated first with diluted sulphuric acid and then with steam heated to 250 degrees C. The other uses concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Besides furfural, this process also yields sugar solutions used in alcohol and nutrient yeast production.

  20. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  1. Timber resource of the superior national forest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, N.P.; Ramquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest area; timber volume; timber growth and removals; appendix; (accuracy of the survey, survey procedures, comparing minnesota's fifth inventory with the fourth inventory, log grade, metric equivalents of units used in the report, tree species groups in minnesota, definition of terms, and tables).

  2. DEVELOPING A PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY SET OF WILDLIFE SPECIES PERSISTENCE AND TIMBER HARVEST VALUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated model combing a wildlife population simulation model, and timber harvest and growth models was developed to explore the tradeoffs between the likelihood of persistence of a hypothetical wildlife species and timber harvest volumes on a landscape in the Central Oregon...

  3. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  4. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  5. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  6. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  7. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  8. Effects of Timber Harvest on River Food Webs: Physical, Chemical and Biological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    I compared physical, chemical and biological characteristics of nine rivers running through three timber harvest regimes to investigate the effects of land use on river ecosystems, to determine whether these corresponded to changes linked with downstream location, and to compare the response of different types of indicator variables. Physical variables changed with downstream location, but varied little with timber harvest. Most chemical variables increased strongly with timber harvest, but not with downstream location. Most biological variables did not vary systematically with either timber harvst or downstream location. Dissolved organic carbon did not vary with timber harvest or downstream location, but correlated positively with salmonid abundance. Nutrient manipulations revealed no general pattern of nutrient limitation with timber harvest or downstream location. The results suggest that chemical variables most reliably indicate timber harvest impact in these systems. The biological variables most relevant to human stakeholders were surprisingly insensitive to timber harvest, however, apparently because of decoupling from nutrient responses and unexpectedly weak responses by physical variables. PMID:22957030

  9. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  10. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  11. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  12. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  13. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting and removal of timber in free-use...

  14. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program §...

  15. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a...

  16. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  17. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  18. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  19. 36 CFR 219.28 - Determination of land suitable for timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suitable for timber harvest. 219.28 Section 219.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Special... Forest Service; (2) Lands where technology is not available for conducting timber harvesting...

  20. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  1. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  2. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  3. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  4. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber Creek..., go to http://www.regulations.gov , click on the ``submit a comment'' box, which will then...

  5. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  6. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  7. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  8. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  9. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The...

  11. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS The...

  12. 75 FR 10455 - Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ..., (2) manufacturing cost, (3) falling and bucking costs, (4) skidding and loading costs, and (5...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data AGENCY... organizations on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Timber Purchaser Cost and...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION..., App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  14. 36 CFR 223.188 - Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber. 223.188 Section 223.188 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest...

  15. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  16. 78 FR 73818 - Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration AGENCY: Forest... on the revision of a currently approved Information Collection 0596-0225, Timber Sale Contract... also may be submitted by email to contractoperations@fs.fed.us . The public may inspect...

  17. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nonmineral public lands. 5511.1-1 Section 5511.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-1 Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public... public lands as follows: (1) Mineral lands, unoccupied and unreserved and not subject to entry...

  18. A Survey of Timber Impacted Schools and Communities in Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    This survey examines the impact of reduced timber harvests and mill closures by the U.S. Forest Service on timber-dependent schools and communities in the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska. One purpose was to recommend educational programs and services that are necessary to remediate these impacts on children. Between 1990 and 1995,…

  19. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest... statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental environmental impact statement will be prepared for the Salt Project to supplement wildlife management...

  20. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber requirements based on the NFMA. 219.11 Section 219.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.11 Timber requirements based on the NFMA. While meeting the requirements of...

  1. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... available for conducting timber harvest without causing irreversible damage to soil, slope, or other... occur only where soil, slope, or other watershed conditions would not be irreversibly damaged; (3) Timber harvest would be carried out in a manner consistent with the protection of soil, watershed,...

  2. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available for conducting timber harvest without causing irreversible damage to soil, slope, or other... occur only where soil, slope, or other watershed conditions would not be irreversibly damaged; (3) Timber harvest would be carried out in a manner consistent with the protection of soil, watershed,...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This...

  5. Cost estimation of timber bridges using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Creese, R.C.; Li. L.

    1995-05-01

    Neural network models, or more simply {open_quotes}neural nets,{close_quotes} have great potential application in speech and image recognition. They also have great potential for cost estimating. Neural networks are particularly effective for complex estimation where the relationship between the output and the input cannot be expressed by simple mathematic relationships. A neural network method was applied to the cost estimation of timber bridges to illustrate the technique. The results of the neural network method were evaluated by the coefficient of determination, The R square value for the key input variables. A comparison of the neural network results and the standard linear regression results was performed upon the timber bridge data. A step-by-step validation is presented to make it easy to understand the application of neural networks to this estimation process. The input is propagated from the input through each layer until an output is generated. The output is compared with the desired output and the error is distributed for each node in the outer layer. The error is transmitted backward (thus the phase {open_quotes}back propagation{close_quotes}) from the output layer to the intermediate layers and then to the input layer. Based upon the errors, the weights are adjusted and the procedure is repeated. The number of training cycles is 15,000 to 50,000 for simple networks, but this usually takes only a few minutes on a personal computer. 7 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  7. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  8. Photographic technology development project: Timber typing in the Tahoe Basin using high altitude panoramic photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures were developed and tested for using KA-80A optical bar camera panoramic photography for timber typing forest land and classifying nonforest land. The study area was the south half of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Final products from this study include four timber type map overlays on 1:24,000 orthophoto maps. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) established conventional timber typing procedures can be used on panoramic photography if the necessary equipment is available, (2) The classification and consistency results warrant further study in using panoramic photography for timber typing; and (3) timber type mapping can be done as fast or faster with panoramic photography than with resource photography while maintaining comparable accuracy.

  9. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. (a) Public hearings will be... and species of unprocessed timber surplus to the needs of domestic users and processors. Such...

  10. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...