Science.gov

Sample records for context aware applications

  1. Context-aware workflow management of mobile health applications.

    PubMed

    Salden, Alfons; Poortinga, Remco

    2006-01-01

    We propose a medical application management architecture that allows medical (IT) experts readily designing, developing and deploying context-aware mobile health (m-health) applications or services. In particular, we elaborate on how our application workflow management architecture enables chaining, coordinating, composing, and adapting context-sensitive medical application components such that critical Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Context (QoC) requirements typical for m-health applications or services can be met. This functional architectural support requires learning modules for distilling application-critical selection of attention and anticipation models. These models will help medical experts constructing and adjusting on-the-fly m-health application workflows and workflow strategies. We illustrate our context-aware workflow management paradigm for a m-health data delivery problem, in which optimal communication network configurations have to be determined. PMID:17095803

  2. Context-Aware Monitoring of Untrusted Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew; Ryan, Mark

    Current measures to enhance the security of untrusted mobile applications require a user to trust the software vendor. They do not guarantee complete protection against the behaviours that mobile malware commonly exhibits. This paper expands execution monitoring, building a more precise system to prevent mobile applications deviating from their intended functions. User judgements about program execution can be specified abstractly and compiled into a monitor capable of identifying an event’s context. We demonstrate our development of a prototype system for the BlackBerry platform and show how it can defend the device against unseen malware more effectively than existing security tools.

  3. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required— only—to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs. PMID:26834512

  4. Improving Understanding and Trust with Intelligibility in Context-Aware Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Brian Y.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate everyday activities, context-aware applications use sensors to detect what is happening and use increasingly complex mechanisms ( e.g., by using big rule-sets or machine learning) to infer the user's context and intent. For example, a mobile application can recognize that the user is in a conversation and suppress any incoming…

  5. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  6. Context-aware tunable office lighting application and user response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nancy H.; Nawyn, Jason; Thompson, Maria; Gibbs, Julie; Larson, Kent

    2013-09-01

    LED light sources having multiple independently controllable color channels allow tuning of both the intensity and color output. Consequently, highly tailored lighting can be applied according to instantaneous user needs and preferences. Besides improving lighting performance, energy use can also be reduced since the brightest illumination is applied only when necessary. In an example application, low activity or vacant areas of a multi-zone office are lit by low power illumination, including colored light options, which can reduce energy consumption to 20-45% of typical full-time, fullbrightness, office-wide illumination. The availability of color also allows communication functions and additional aesthetic design possibilities. To reduce user burden in frequent switching between various illumination settings, an activity recognition sensor network is used to identify selected office activities. The illumination is then adjusted automatically to satisfy the needs of the occupants. A handheld mobile device provides an interactive interface for gathering user feedback regarding impressions and illumination preferences. The activity-triggered queries collect contemporaneous feedback that reduces reliance on memory; immediate previews of illumination options are also provided. Through mobile queries and post-experience interviews, user feedback was gathered regarding automation, colored lighting, and illumination preferences. Overall reaction was indicated by a range of response words such as fun, stimulating, very cool, very pleasant, enjoyed, good, comfortable, satisfactory, fine, energy saving, interesting, curious, dim, cave, isolated, distracting, and unfamiliar. Positive reaction from a meaningful, though not universal, fraction of users indicates reasonable application potential, particularly as personal preferences and control are accommodated.

  7. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work. PMID:26307988

  8. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work. PMID:26307988

  9. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems. PMID:15687797

  10. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  11. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  12. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  13. A Context-Aware Application to Increase Elderly Users Compliance with Physical Rehabilitation Exercises at Home via Animatronic Biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gamecho, Borja; Silva, Hugo; Guerreiro, José; Gardeazabal, Luis; Abascal, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Biofeedback from physical rehabilitation exercises has proved to lead to faster recovery, better outcomes, and increased patient motivation. In addition, it allows the physical rehabilitation processes carried out at the clinic to be complemented with exercises performed at home. However, currently existing approaches rely mostly on audio and visual reinforcement cues, usually presented to the user on a computer screen or a mobile phone interface. Some users, such as elderly people, can experience difficulties to use and understand these interfaces, leading to non-compliance with the rehabilitation exercises. To overcome this barrier, latest biosignal technologies can be used to enhance the efficacy of the biofeedback, decreasing the complexity of the user interface. In this paper we propose and validate a context-aware framework for the use of animatronic biofeedback, as a way of potentially increasing the compliance of elderly users with physical rehabilitation exercises performed at home. In the scope of our work, animatronic biofeedback entails the use of pre-programmed actions on a robot that are triggered in response to certain changes detected in the users biomechanical or electrophysiological signals. We use electromyographic and accelerometer signals, collected in real time, to monitor the performance of the user while executing the exercises, and a mobile robot to provide animatronic reinforcement cues associated with their correct or incorrect execution. A context-aware application running on a smartphone aggregates the sensor data and controls the animatronic feedback. The acceptability of the animatronic biofeedback has been tested on a set of volunteer elderly users, and results suggest that the participants found the animatronic feedback engaging and of added value. PMID:26319272

  14. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction) with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling. PMID:25249944

  15. Configuring a context-aware middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Nadia; Cubo, Javier; Fuentes, Lidia; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    In the Future Internet, applications based on Wireless Sensor Networks will have to support reconfiguration with minimum human intervention, depending on dynamic context changes in their environment. These situations create a need for building these applications as adaptive software and including techniques that allow the context acquisition and decisions about adaptation. However, contexts use to be made up of complex information acquired from heterogeneous devices and user characteristics, making them difficult to manage. So, instead of building context-aware applications from scratch, we propose to use FamiWare, a family of middleware for Ambient Intelligence specifically designed to be aware of contexts in sensor and smartphone devices. It provides both, several monitoring services to acquire contexts from devices and users, and a context-awareness service to analyze and detect context changes. However, the current version of FamiWare does not allow the automatic incorporation related to the management of new contexts into the FamiWare family. To overcome this shortcoming, in this work, we first present how to model the context using a metamodel to define the contexts that must to be taken into account in an instantiation of FamiWare for a certain Ambient Intelligence system. Then, to configure a new context-aware version of FamiWare and to generate code ready-to-install within heterogeneous devices, we define a mapping that automatically transforms metamodel elements defining contexts into elements of the FamiWare family, and we also use the FamiWare configuration process to customize the new context-aware variant. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of our process, and we analyze both that the new version of the middleware works as expected and that it manages the contexts in an efficient way. PMID:23012505

  16. Configuring a Context-Aware Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gámez, Nadia; Cubo, Javier; Fuentes, Lidia; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    In the Future Internet, applications based on Wireless Sensor Networks will have to support reconfiguration with minimum human intervention, depending on dynamic context changes in their environment. These situations create a need for building these applications as adaptive software and including techniques that allow the context acquisition and decisions about adaptation. However, contexts use to be made up of complex information acquired from heterogeneous devices and user characteristics, making them difficult to manage. So, instead of building context-aware applications from scratch, we propose to use FamiWare, a family of middleware for Ambient Intelligence specifically designed to be aware of contexts in sensor and smartphone devices. It provides both, several monitoring services to acquire contexts from devices and users, and a context-awareness service to analyze and detect context changes. However, the current version of FamiWare does not allow the automatic incorporation related to the management of new contexts into the FamiWare family. To overcome this shortcoming, in this work, we first present how to model the context using a metamodel to define the contexts that must to be taken into account in an instantiation of FamiWare for a certain Ambient Intelligence system. Then, to configure a new context-aware version of FamiWare and to generate code ready-to-install within heterogeneous devices, we define a mapping that automatically transforms metamodel elements defining contexts into elements of the FamiWare family, and we also use the FamiWare configuration process to customize the new context-aware variant. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of our process, and we analyze both that the new version of the middleware works as expected and that it manages the contexts in an efficient way. PMID:23012505

  17. Context-Aware Personal Navigation Using Embedded Sensor Fusion in Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Sara; Moussa, Adel; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Context-awareness is an interesting topic in mobile navigation scenarios where the context of the application is highly dynamic. Using context-aware computing, navigation services consider the situation of user, not only in the design process, but in real time while the device is in use. The basic idea is that mobile navigation services can provide different services based on different contexts—where contexts are related to the user's activity and the device placement. Context-aware systems are concerned with the following challenges which are addressed in this paper: context acquisition, context understanding, and context-aware application adaptation. The proposed approach in this paper is using low-cost sensors in a multi-level fusion scheme to improve the accuracy and robustness of context-aware navigation system. The experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of the context-aware Personal Navigation Systems (PNS) for outdoor personal navigation using a smartphone. PMID:24670715

  18. Context Awareness in a Handheld Exercise Agent

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy W.; Mauer, Daniel; Brown, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Work towards the development of a handheld health counseling agent designed to promote physical activity is described. Previous work on automated health counselors is discussed, along with the affordances of mobility and context awareness for health behavior interventions. We present a general-purpose software architecture for the rapid design and deployment of mobile health counseling agents. We also describe the results of an initial field trial in which such a mobile agent plays the role of an exercise coach designed to motivate users to walk more. Results were mixed. We found that the context awareness mechanism that was implemented for detecting walking led to greater user-agent social bonding, but less walking in study participants. PMID:20161031

  19. A wearable context aware system for ubiquitous healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Oh; Lee, Hyung-Jik; Ko, Eun-Jung; Kang, Kyuchang; Lee, Jeunwoo

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of information technologies are leading the advent of the era of ubiquitous healthcare, which means healthcare services at any time and at any places. The ubiquitous healthcare service needs a wearable system for more continual measurement of biological signals of a user, which gives information of the user from wearable sensors. In this paper, we propose a wearable context aware system for ubiquitous healthcare, and its systematic design process of a ubiquitous healthcare service. Some wearable sensor systems are introduced with Zigbee communication. We develop a context aware framework to send information from wearable sensors to healthcare service entities as a middleware to solve the interoperability problem between sensor makers and healthcare service providers. And, we propose a systematic process of design of ubiquitous healthcare services with the context aware framework. In order to show the feasibility of the proposed system, some application examples are given, which are applied to remote monitoring, and a self check service. PMID:17947132

  20. Context-awareness in ubiquitous computing and the mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçit, Nuhcan; Tomur, Emrah; Karsl?o?lu, Mahmut Onur

    2015-06-01

    Mobile device use has vastly increased in the last few years. Many people use many mobile devices in their daily lives. Context-aware computing is the main feature of pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Context awareness is also an important topic that becomes more available with ubiquitous computing. As the sensors increase, the data collected via mobile device sensors and sensor networks do not have much value because of the difficulty in analysis and understanding the data. Context-aware computing helps us store contextual information and use or search it by mobile devices when we want to see or analyze it. Contextual data can be made more meaningful by context-aware processing. There are different types of data and context information that must be considered. By combining spatial and contextual data, we obtain more meaningful data based on the entities. Contextual data is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of the entity. The entity is a person, place, or object considered relevant to the interaction between the user and an application, including the users and the applications. Using contextual data and good integration to mobile devices adds great value to this data, and combining these with our other data sets will allow us to obtain more useful information and analysis.

  1. A Multi-Temporal Context-Aware System for Competences Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, João H.; Barbosa, Jorge L.; Kich, Marcos; Brito, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of computing technology and wireless networks has contributed to the miniaturization of mobile devices and their increase in power, providing services anywhere and anytime. In this scenario, applications have considered the user's contexts to make decisions (Context Awareness). Context-aware applications have enabled new…

  2. A Multi-Temporal Context-Aware System for Competences Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, João H.; Barbosa, Jorge L.; Kich, Marcos; Brito, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of computing technology and wireless networks has contributed to the miniaturization of mobile devices and their increase in power, providing services anywhere and anytime. In this scenario, applications have considered the user's contexts to make decisions (Context Awareness). Context-aware applications have enabled new…

  3. Context aware adaptive security service model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  4. Context Aware Dynamic Traffic Signal Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandwala, Kandarp; Sharma, Rudra; Rao, Snehal

    2014-08-01

    Conventional urban traffic control systems have been based on historical traffic data. Later advancements made use of detectors, which enabled the gathering of real time traffic data, in order to reorganize and calibrate traffic signalization programs. Further evolvement provided the ability to forecast traffic conditions, in order to develop traffic signalization programs and strategies precomputed and applied at the most appropriate time frame for the optimal control of the current traffic conditions. We, propose the next generation of traffic control systems based on principles of Artificial Intelligence and Context Awareness. Most of the existing algorithms use average waiting time or length of the queue to assess an algorithms performance. However, a low average waiting time may come at the cost of delaying other vehicles indefinitely. In our algorithm, besides the vehicle queue, we use fairness also as an important performance metric to assess an algorithms performance.

  5. Introduction to This Special Issue on Context-Aware Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Thomas P.; Dourish, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses pervasive, or ubiquitous, computing; explains the notion of context; and defines context-aware computing as the key to disperse and enmesh computation into our lives. Considers context awareness in human-computer interaction and describes the broad topic areas of the essays included in this special issue. (LRW)

  6. Technical Feasibility of a Mobile Context-Aware (Social) Learning Schedule Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y. K.; Joy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the technical feasibility of implementing their mobile context-aware learning schedule (mCALS) framework as a software application on a mobile device using current technologies, prior to its actual implementation. This process draws a set of compatible mobile and context-aware technologies at present and can be…

  7. Toward sensor-based context aware systems.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information. PMID:22368489

  8. Toward Sensor-Based Context Aware Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information. PMID:22368489

  9. Bluetooth-Assisted Context-Awareness in Educational Data Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Castano, F. J.; Garcia-Reinoso, J.; Gil-Castineira, F.; Costa-Montenegro, E.; Pousada-Carballo, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an auxiliary "location network", to support user-independent context-awareness in educational data networks; for example, to help visitors in a museum. We assume that, in such scenarios, there exist "service servers" that need to be aware of user location in real-time. Specifically, we propose the implementation of a…

  10. Bluetooth-Assisted Context-Awareness in Educational Data Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Castano, F. J.; Garcia-Reinoso, J.; Gil-Castineira, F.; Costa-Montenegro, E.; Pousada-Carballo, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an auxiliary "location network", to support user-independent context-awareness in educational data networks; for example, to help visitors in a museum. We assume that, in such scenarios, there exist "service servers" that need to be aware of user location in real-time. Specifically, we propose the implementation of a…

  11. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-10-15

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

  12. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  13. Trust-Based and Context-Aware Authentication in a Software Architecture for Context and Proximity-Aware Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzini, Gabriele

    We describe an existing software architecture for context and proximity aware services that enables trust-based and context-aware authentication. A service is proximity aware when it automatically detects the presence of entities in its proximity. Authentication is context-aware when it uses contextual information to discern among different identities and to evaluate to which extent they are authentic. The software architecture that we describe here is functioning in our Institute: It manages a sensor network to detect the presence and location of users and their devices. A context manager is responsible to merge the different sources of contextual information, to solve potential contradictions, and to determine the level of authentication of the identity of the person approaching one of the services offered in the coffee-break corners of our Institute. In our solution for context-aware authentication, sensors are managed as if they were recommenders having subjective belief, disbelief, and uncertainty (i.e., trust) on the position and identity of users. A sensor’s subjective trust depends on what it has been sensing in the environment. We discuss the results of an array of simulations that we conducted to validate our concept of trust-based and context-aware authentication. We use Subjective Logic to manage trust.

  14. Context-Aware Reviewer Assignment for Trust Enhanced Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yan; Liu, Guanfeng; Wang, Meng; Wu, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Reviewer assignment is critical to peer review systems, such as peer-reviewed research conferences or peer-reviewed funding applications, and its effectiveness is a deep concern of all academics. However, there are some problems in existing peer review systems during reviewer assignment. For example, some of the reviewers are much more stringent than others, leading to an unfair final decision, i.e., some submissions (i.e., papers or applications) with better quality are rejected. In this paper, we propose a context-aware reviewer assignment for trust enhanced peer review. More specifically, in our approach, we first consider the research area specific expertise of reviewers, and the institution relevance and co-authorship between reviewers and authors, so that reviewers with the right expertise are assigned to the corresponding submissions without potential conflict of interest. In addition, we propose a novel cross-assignment paradigm, and reviewers are cross-assigned in order to avoid assigning a group of stringent reviewers or a group of lenient reviewers to the same submission. More importantly, on top of them, we propose an academic CONtext-aware expertise relevanCe oriEnted Reviewer cross-assignmenT approach (CONCERT), which aims to effectively estimate the “true” ratings of submissions based on the ratings from all reviewers, even though no prior knowledge exists about the distribution of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers. The experiments illustrate that compared with existing approaches, our proposed CONCERT approach can less likely assign more than one stringent reviewers or lenient reviewers to a submission simultaneously and significantly reduce the influence of ratings from stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers, leading to trust enhanced peer review and selection, no matter what kind of distributions of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers are. PMID:26090849

  15. Context-Aware Scientific Workflow Systems using KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, Anne H.; Jamnagarwala, Arwa; Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2010-04-01

    Data-intensive scientific workflows are often modeled using a dataflow-oriented model. The simplicity of a dataflow model facilitates intuitive workflow design, analysis, and optimization. However, some amount of control-flow modeling is often necessary for engineering fault-tolerant, robust, and adaptive workflows. Modeling the control-flow using inherent dataflow constructs will quickly end up with a workflow that is hard to comprehend, reuse, and maintain. In this paper, we propose a context-aware architecture for scientific workflows. By incorporating contexts within a data-flow oriented scientific workflow system, we enable the development of context-aware scientific workflows without the need to use numerous low-level control-flow actors. This results in a workflow that is aware of its environment during execution with minimal user input and responds intelligently based on such awareness at runtime. A further advantage of our approach is that the defined contexts can be reused and shared across other workflows. We demonstrate our approach with two prototype implementation of context-aware actors in KEPLER.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Reasoning and Context Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesgen, Hans W.; Marsland, Stephen

    Smart homes provide many research challenges, but some of the most interesting ones are in dealing with data that monitors human behaviour and that is inherently both spatial and temporal in nature. This means that context becomes all important: a person lying down in front of the fireplace could be perfectly normal behaviour if it was cold and the fire was on, but otherwise it is unusual. In this example, the context can include temporal resolution on various scales (it is winter and therefore probably cold, it is not nighttime when the person would be expected to be in bed rather than the living room) as well as spatial (the person is lying in front of the fireplace) and extra information such as whether or not the fire is lit. It could also include information about how they reached their current situation: if they went from standing to lying very suddenly there would be rather more cause for concern than if they first knelt down and then lowered themselves onto the floor. Representing all of these different temporal and spatial aspects together is a major challenge for smart home research. In this chapter we will provide an overview of some of the methodologies that can be used to deal with these problems. We will also outline our own research agenda in the Massey University Smart Environments (MUSE) group.

  17. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  18. Intelligent Context-Aware and Adaptive Interface for Mobile LBS

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiangfan; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Context-aware user interface plays an important role in many human-computer Interaction tasks of location based services. Although spatial models for context-aware systems have been studied extensively, how to locate specific spatial information for users is still not well resolved, which is important in the mobile environment where location based services users are impeded by device limitations. Better context-aware human-computer interaction models of mobile location based services are needed not just to predict performance outcomes, such as whether people will be able to find the information needed to complete a human-computer interaction task, but to understand human processes that interact in spatial query, which will in turn inform the detailed design of better user interfaces in mobile location based services. In this study, a context-aware adaptive model for mobile location based services interface is proposed, which contains three major sections: purpose, adjustment, and adaptation. Based on this model we try to describe the process of user operation and interface adaptation clearly through the dynamic interaction between users and the interface. Then we show how the model applies users' demands in a complicated environment and suggested the feasibility by the experimental results. PMID:26457077

  19. Pragmatic Awareness in ESL and EFL Contexts: Contrast and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauer, Gila A.

    2006-01-01

    The study reported on in this article set out to replicate and extend Bardovi-Harlig and Dornyei's (1998) investigation of pragmatic awareness by addressing two research questions: (a) Do learners in English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL) contexts display differences in their recognition and rating of pragmatic…

  20. A Context Awareness System for Online Learning: Design Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James; Amelung, Chris; Goggins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    A design based research strategy examining the impressions and behavior of members of courses taught entirely online is used for refining a context-aware activity notification system (CANS). The findings show that CANS must address substantial variety in courses and members while also fitting with multitasking between online and real world…

  1. Privacy in Georeferenced Context-Aware Services: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboni, Daniele; Pareschi, Linda; Bettini, Claudio

    Location based services (LBS) are a specific instance of a broader class of Internet services that are predicted to become popular in a near future: context-aware services. The privacy concerns that LBS have raised are likely to become even more serious when several context data, other than location and time, are sent to service providers as part of an Internet request. This paper provides a classification and a brief survey of the privacy preservation techniques that have been proposed for this type of services. After identifying the benefits and shortcomings of each class of techniques, the paper proposes a combined approach to achieve a more comprehensive solution for privacy preservation in georeferenced context-aware services.

  2. PLEXIL-DL: Language and Runtime for Context-Aware Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Herwig; Reichelt, Toni; Oswald, Norbert; Förster, Stefan

    Faced with the growing complexity of application scenarios social robots are involved with, the perception of environmental circumstances and the sentient reactions are becoming more and more important abilities. Rather than regarding both abilities in isolation, the entire transformation process, from context-awareness to purposive behaviour, forms a robot’s adaptivity. While attaining context-awareness has received much attention in literature so far, translating it into appropriate actions still lacks a comprehensive approach. In this paper, we present PLEXIL-DL, an expressive language allowing complex context expressions as an integral part of constructs that define sophisticated behavioural reactions. Our approach extends NASA’s PLEXIL language by Description Logic queries, both in syntax and formal semantics. A prototypical implementation of a PLEXIL-DL interpreter shows the basic mechanisms facilitating the robot’s adaptivity through context-awareness.

  3. A Framework of Context-Awareness Support for Peer Recommendation in the e-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanlin; Yano, Yoneo

    2007-01-01

    For learners in distributed e-learning environments, it is difficult, but very important, to locate the right peer for collaboration on the right knowledge, at the right time and in the right way. This paper proposes the use of context awareness (CA) to support peer recommendation in the e-learning context. For this purpose, this paper explores…

  4. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  5. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

  6. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

  7. Healthcare Information Fusion Using Context-Aware Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Dante I.; Fraile, Juan A.; de Luis, Ana; Bajo, Javier

    Context aware systems have evolved into complex information systems capable of providing large quantities of information obtained from network sensors with heterogeneous characteristics. This article proposes a multi-agent system that monitors patients and maintains a permanent fix on their location within a given context. The system uses information provided by sensors distributed throughout the environment. The system agents take the information they receive and fuse it to improve the decisions and actions involved in their processing. The multi-agent system implements a SOA-based platform, which allows heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks to communicate in a distributed way. This article presents the evaluation of the solutions provided by the agents through the information flow for the organization.

  8. Situation awareness and virtual globes: Applications for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewski, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research on the use of virtual globes to support the development of disaster event situation awareness in humans via open source information analysis and visualization. The key technology used for this research is the Context Discovery Application (CDA), which is a geovisual analytic environment designed to integrate implicit geographic information with Google Earth™. A case study of humanitarian disaster management is used to demonstrate the unique abilities of the CDA and Google Earth TM to support situation awareness. The paper provides some of the first empirical evidence on the utility of the virtual globes to support situation awareness for disaster management using implicit geographic information. The evidence presented was derived from evaluations by disaster management practitioners at the United Nations (UN) ReliefWeb project, an extremely relevant, yet difficult group to access for conducting academic disaster management research. Finally, ideas for future research on developing virtual globe applications to support situation awareness are described.

  9. A Methodology and a Web Platform for the Collaborative Development of Context-Aware Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martín, David; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; Lamsfus, Carlos; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Information and services personalization is essential for an optimal user experience. Systems have to be able to acquire data about the user's context, process them in order to identify the user's situation and finally, adapt the functionality of the system to that situation, but the development of context-aware systems is complex. Data coming from distributed and heterogeneous sources have to be acquired, processed and managed. Several programming frameworks have been proposed in order to simplify the development of context-aware systems. These frameworks offer high-level application programming interfaces for programmers that complicate the involvement of domain experts in the development life-cycle. The participation of users that do not have programming skills but are experts in the application domain can speed up and improve the development process of these kinds of systems. Apart from that, there is a lack of methodologies to guide the development process. This article presents as main contributions, the implementation and evaluation of a web platform and a methodology to collaboratively develop context-aware systems by programmers and domain experts. PMID:23666131

  10. Global-Aware and Multi-Order Context-Based Prefetching for High-Performance Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Zhu, Huaiyu; Roth, Philip C; Jin, Hui; Sun, Xian-He

    2011-01-01

    Data prefetching is widely used in high-end computing systems to accelerate data accesses and to bridge the increasing performance gap between processor and memory. Context-based prefetching has become a primary focus of study in recent years due to its general applicability. However, current context-based prefetchers only adopt the context analysis of a single order, which suffers from low prefetching coverage and thus limits the overall prefetching effectiveness. Also, existing approaches usually consider the context of the address stream from a single instruction but not the context of the address stream from all instructions, which further limits the context-based prefetching effectiveness. In this study, we propose a new context-based prefetcher called the Global-aware and Multi-order Context-based (GMC) prefetcher. The GMC prefetcher uses multi-order, local and global context analysis to increase prefetching coverage while maintaining prefetching accuracy. In extensive simulation testing of the SPEC-CPU2006 benchmarks with an enhanced CMP$im simulator, the proposed GMC prefetcher was shown to outperform existing prefetchers and to reduce the data-access latency effectively. The average Instructions Per Cycle (IPC) improvement of SPEC CINT2006 and CFP2006 benchmarks with GMC prefetching was over 55% and 44% respectively.

  11. Enabling network-aware applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Stouffer, Martin

    2001-08-01

    Many high performance distributed applications use only a small fraction of their available bandwidth. A common cause of this problem is not a flaw in the application design, but rather improperly tuned network settings. Proper tuning techniques, such as setting the correct TCP buffers and using parallel streams, are well known in the networking community, but outside the networking community they are infrequently applied. In this paper, we describe a service that makes the task of network tuning trivial for application developers and users. Widespread use of this service should virtually eliminate a common stumbling block for high performance distributed applications.

  12. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, De- CAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  13. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha; Wang, Yurong; Elbaum, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, DeCAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  14. Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,…

  15. A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

  16. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  17. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  18. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  19. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  20. A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

  1. A Two-Stage Composition Method for Danger-Aware Services Based on Context Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junbo; Cheng, Zixue; Jing, Lei; Ota, Kaoru; Kansen, Mizuo

    Context-aware systems detect user's physical and social contexts based on sensor networks, and provide services that adapt to the user accordingly. Representing, detecting, and managing the contexts are important issues in context-aware systems. Composition of contexts is a useful method for these works, since it can detect a context by automatically composing small pieces of information to discover service. Danger-aware services are a kind of context-aware services which need description of relations between a user and his/her surrounding objects and between users. However when applying the existing composition methods to danger-aware services, they show the following shortcomings that (1) they have not provided an explicit method for representing composition of multi-user' contexts, (2) there is no flexible reasoning mechanism based on similarity of contexts, so that they can just provide services exactly following the predefined context reasoning rules. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a two-stage composition method based on context similarity to solve the above problems. The first stage is composition of the useful information to represent the context for a single user. The second stage is composition of multi-users' contexts to provide services by considering the relation of users. Finally the danger degree of the detected context is computed by using context similarity between the detected context and the predefined context. Context is dynamically represented based on two-stage composition rules and a Situation theory based Ontology, which combines the advantages of Ontology and Situation theory. We implement the system in an indoor ubiquitous environment, and evaluate the system through two experiments with the support of subjects. The experiment results show the method is effective, and the accuracy of danger detection is acceptable to a danger-aware system.

  2. An Architecture and Supporting Environment of Service-Oriented Computing Based-On Context Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianxiao; Wu, Gang; Huang, Jun

    Service-oriented computing (SOC) is emerging to be an important computing paradigm of the next future. Based on context awareness, this paper proposes an architecture of SOC. A definition of the context in open environments such as Internet is given, which is based on ontology. The paper also proposes a supporting environment for the context-aware SOC, which focus on services on-demand composition and context-awareness evolving. A reference implementation of the supporting environment based on OSGi[11] is given at last.

  3. Multi-core aware applications in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Elmer, P.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Green, C.; Baldooci, A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the significant trends of recent years has been the move towards multicore CPU's with ever increasing numbers of cores. CMS has been preparing multicore aware applications that rely on "multi-processing", namely the sharing of memory between processes forked from a single parent process. First experience with deploying these applications for production will be presented, as well as results from detailed profiling done to understand the limits of scaling with increasing numbers of cores.

  4. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  5. An Infrastructure to Enable Lightweight Context-Awareness for Mobile Users

    PubMed Central

    Curiel, Pablo; Lago, Ana B.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones enable us to carry out a wider range of tasks every day, and as a result they have become more ubiquitous than ever. However, they are still more limited in terms of processing power and interaction capabilities than traditional computers, and the often distracting and time-constricted scenarios in which we use them do not help in alleviating these limitations. Context-awareness is a valuable technique to address these issues, as it enables to adapt application behaviour to each situation. In this paper we present a context management infrastructure for mobile environments, aimed at controlling context information life-cycle in this kind of scenarios, with the main goal of enabling application and services to adapt their behaviour to better meet end-user needs. This infrastructure relies on semantic technologies and open standards to improve interoperability, and is based on a central element, the context manager. This element acts as a central context repository and takes most of the computational burden derived from dealing with this kind of information, thus relieving from these tasks to more resource-scarce devices in the system. PMID:23899932

  6. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services. PMID:26016916

  7. Modeling battery behavior on sensory operations for context-aware smartphone sensing.

    PubMed

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services. PMID:26016916

  8. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds. PMID:26266411

  9. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds. PMID:26266411

  10. Study on the Context-Aware Middleware for Ubiquitous Greenhouses Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwang; Yoe, Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is one of the important technologies to implement the ubiquitous society, and it could increase productivity of agricultural and livestock products, and secure transparency of distribution channels if such a WSN technology were successfully applied to the agricultural sector. Middleware, which can connect WSN hardware, applications, and enterprise systems, is required to construct ubiquitous agriculture environment combining WSN technology with agricultural sector applications, but there have been insufficient studies in the field of WSN middleware in the agricultural environment, compared to other industries. This paper proposes a context-aware middleware to efficiently process data collected from ubiquitous greenhouses by applying WSN technology and used to implement combined services through organic connectivity of data. The proposed middleware abstracts heterogeneous sensor nodes to integrate different forms of data, and provides intelligent context-aware, event service, and filtering functions to maximize operability and scalability of the middleware. To evaluate the performance of the middleware, an integrated management system for ubiquitous greenhouses was implemented by applying the proposed middleware to an existing greenhouse, and it was tested by measuring the level of load through CPU usage and the response time for users’ requests when the system is working. PMID:22163861

  11. Study on the context-aware middleware for ubiquitous greenhouses using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeonghwang; Yoe, Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is one of the important technologies to implement the ubiquitous society, and it could increase productivity of agricultural and livestock products, and secure transparency of distribution channels if such a WSN technology were successfully applied to the agricultural sector. Middleware, which can connect WSN hardware, applications, and enterprise systems, is required to construct ubiquitous agriculture environment combining WSN technology with agricultural sector applications, but there have been insufficient studies in the field of WSN middleware in the agricultural environment, compared to other industries. This paper proposes a context-aware middleware to efficiently process data collected from ubiquitous greenhouses by applying WSN technology and used to implement combined services through organic connectivity of data. The proposed middleware abstracts heterogeneous sensor nodes to integrate different forms of data, and provides intelligent context-aware, event service, and filtering functions to maximize operability and scalability of the middleware. To evaluate the performance of the middleware, an integrated management system for ubiquitous greenhouses was implemented by applying the proposed middleware to an existing greenhouse, and it was tested by measuring the level of load through CPU usage and the response time for users' requests when the system is working. PMID:22163861

  12. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  13. Towards a flexible middleware for context-aware pervasive and wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Conte, Gianni

    2012-11-01

    Ambient intelligence and wearable computing call for innovative hardware and software technologies, including a highly capable, flexible and efficient middleware, allowing for the reuse of existing pervasive applications when developing new ones. In the considered application domain, middleware should also support self-management, interoperability among different platforms, efficient communications, and context awareness. In the on-going "everything is networked" scenario scalability appears as a very important issue, for which the peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigm emerges as an appealing solution for connecting software components in an overlay network, allowing for efficient and balanced data distribution mechanisms. In this paper, we illustrate how all these concepts can be placed into a theoretical tool, called networked autonomic machine (NAM), implemented into a NAM-based middleware, and evaluated against practical problems of pervasive computing. PMID:22527692

  14. Context-Aware Intelligent Assistant Approach to Improving Pilot's Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2004-01-01

    Faulty decision making due to inaccurate or incomplete awareness of the situation tends to be the prevailing cause of fatal general aviation accidents. Of these accidents, loss of weather situational awareness accounts for the largest number of fatalities. We describe a method for improving weather situational awareness through the support of a contextaware,domain and task knowledgeable, personalized and adaptive assistant. The assistant automatically monitors weather reports for the pilot's route of flight and warns her of detected anomalies. When and how warnings are issued is determined by phase of flight, the pilot s definition of acceptable weather conditions, and the pilot's preferences for automatic notification. In addition to automatic warnings, the pilot is able to verbally query for weather and airport information. By noting the requests she makes during the approach phase of flight, our system learns to provide the information without explicit requests on subsequent flights with similar conditions. We show that our weather assistant decreases the effort required to maintain situational awareness by more than 5.5 times when compared to the conventional method of in-flight weather briefings.

  15. A Context-Aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Framework for Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulehouache, Soufiane; Maamri, Ramdane; Sahnoun, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    The Pedagogical Agents (PAs) for Mobile Learning (m-learning) must be able not only to adapt the teaching to the learner knowledge level and profile but also to ensure the pedagogical efficiency within unpredictable changing runtime contexts. Therefore, to deal with this issue, this paper proposes a Context-aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Component…

  16. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

  17. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

  18. A Context-Aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Framework for Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulehouache, Soufiane; Maamri, Ramdane; Sahnoun, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    The Pedagogical Agents (PAs) for Mobile Learning (m-learning) must be able not only to adapt the teaching to the learner knowledge level and profile but also to ensure the pedagogical efficiency within unpredictable changing runtime contexts. Therefore, to deal with this issue, this paper proposes a Context-aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Component…

  19. Logic depth aware context independent timing model generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parag; Kumar, Naresh; Bhatnagar, P. S.; Agarwal, N. K.

    2016-03-01

    Logic depth aware static timing analysis involves a pre-characterized library that models the variability over the path on the basis of total timing path depth. With shrinking design geometries and rush to pack more components in a reduced size chip, hierarchical timing analysis has emerged as a stronger alternative to closing the designs however logic depth based timing analysis brings new set of challenges in generating timing models for the multiply instantiated hierarchical blocks at the chip level. In this paper, we discuss challenges imposed by logic depth in creating hierarchical timing analysis and propose a new algorithm in generating a model comprehending logic depths for multiply instantiated blocks. We demonstrate that usage of such timing model generation algorithm can significantly speedup the process of model extraction and process accuracy within 10% of the original block timing.

  20. Flexible Macroblock Ordering for Context-Aware Ultrasound Video Transmission over Mobile WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maria G.; Hewage, Chaminda T. E. R.

    2010-01-01

    The most recent network technologies are enabling a variety of new applications, thanks to the provision of increased bandwidth and better management of Quality of Service. Nevertheless, telemedical services involving multimedia data are still lagging behind, due to the concern of the end users, that is, clinicians and also patients, about the low quality provided. Indeed, emerging network technologies should be appropriately exploited by designing the transmission strategy focusing on quality provision for end users. Stemming from this principle, we propose here a context-aware transmission strategy for medical video transmission over WiMAX systems. Context, in terms of regions of interest (ROI) in a specific session, is taken into account for the identification of multiple regions of interest, and compression/transmission strategies are tailored to such context information. We present a methodology based on H.264 medical video compression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) for ROI identification. Two different unequal error protection methodologies, providing higher protection to the most diagnostically relevant data, are presented. PMID:20827292

  1. Locality Aware Concurrent Start for Stencil Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Gao, Guang R.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.

    2015-02-10

    Stencil computations are at the heart of many physical simulations used in scientific codes. Thus, there exists a plethora of optimization efforts for this family of computations. Among these techniques, tiling techniques that allow concurrent start have proven to be very efficient in providing better performance for these critical kernels. Nevertheless, with many core designs being the norm, these optimization techniques might not be able to fully exploit locality (both spatial and temporal) on multiple levels of the memory hierarchy without compromising parallelism. It is no longer true that the machine can be seen as a homogeneous collection of nodes with caches, main memory and an interconnect network. New architectural designs exhibit complex grouping of nodes, cores, threads, caches and memory connected by an ever evolving network-on-chip design. These new designs may benefit greatly from carefully crafted schedules and groupings that encourage parallel actors (i.e. threads, cores or nodes) to be aware of the computational history of other actors in close proximity. In this paper, we provide an efficient tiling technique that allows hierarchical concurrent start for memory hierarchy aware tile groups. Each execution schedule and tile shape exploit the available parallelism, load balance and locality present in the given applications. We demonstrate our technique on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture with selected and representative stencil kernels. We show improvement ranging from 5.58% to 31.17% over existing state-of-the-art techniques.

  2. Network Awareness in P2P-TV Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, Stefano; Leonardi, Emilio; Mellia, Marco; Meo, Michela

    The increasing popularity of applications for video-streaming based on P2P paradigm (P2P-TV) is raising the interest of both broadcasters and network operators. The former see a promising technology to reduce the cost of streaming content over the Internet, while offering a world-wide service. The latter instead fear that the traffic offered by these applications can grow without control, affecting other services, and possibly causing network congestion and collapse. The “Network-Aware P2P-TV Application over Wise Networks” FP7 project aims at studying and developing a novel P2P-TV application offering the chance to broadcast high definition video to broadcasters and to carefully manage the traffic offered by peers to the network, therefore avoiding worries to Internet providers about network overload. In such context, we design a simulator to evaluate performance of different P2P-TV solutions, to compare them both considering end-users’ and network providers’ perspectives, such as quality of service perceived by subscribers and link utilization. In this paper, we provide some results that show how effective can be a network aware P2P-TV system.

  3. Understanding social disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control: the role of neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E

    2007-11-01

    The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension. PMID:17640788

  4. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  5. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  6. FleXConf: A Flexible Conference Assistant Using Context-Aware Notification Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenatzoglou, Nikos; Marketakis, Yannis; Kriara, Lito; Apostolopoulos, Elias; Papavasiliou, Vicky; Kampas, Dimitris; Kapravelos, Alexandros; Kartsonakis, Eythimis; Linardakis, Giorgos; Nikitaki, Sofia; Bikakis, Antonis; Antoniou, Grigoris

    Integrating context-aware notification services to ubiquitous computing systems aims at the provision of the right information to the right users, at the right time, in the right place, and on the right device, and constitutes a significant step towards the realization of the Ambient Intelligence vision. In this paper, we present FlexConf, a semantics-based system that supports location-based, personalized notification services for the assistance of conference attendees. Its special features include an ontology-based representation model, rule-based context-aware reasoning, and a novel positioning system for indoor environments.

  7. Context-specific learning and control: the roles of awareness, task relevance, and relative salience.

    PubMed

    Crump, Matthew J C; Vaquero, Joaquín M M; Milliken, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    The processes mediating dynamic and flexible responding to rapidly changing task-environments are not well understood. In the present research we employ a Stroop procedure to clarify the contribution of context-sensitive control processes to online performance. In prior work Stroop interference varied as a function of probe location context, with larger Stroop interference occurring for contexts associated with a high proportion of congruent items [Crump, M. J., Gong, Z., & Milliken, B. (2006). The context-specific proportion congruent stroop effect: location as a contextual cue. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 13, 316-321.] Here, we demonstrate that this effect does not depend on awareness of the context manipulation, but that it can depend on attention to the predictive context dimension, and on the relative salience of the target and predictive context dimensions. We discuss the implications of our results for current theories of cognitive control. PMID:17349805

  8. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  9. Effects of attention to and awareness of preceding context tones on auditory streaming.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, David M; Metzger, Brian A; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-04-01

    This study determined whether facilitation of auditory stream segregation could occur when facilitating context tones are accompanied by other sounds. Facilitation was measured as the likelihood of a repeated context tone that could match the low (A) or high (B) frequency of a repeating ABA test to increase the likelihood of hearing the test as segregated. We observed this type of facilitation when matching tones were alone, or with simultaneous bandpass noises or continuous speech, neither of which masked the tones. However, participants showed no streaming facilitation when a harmonic complex masked the context tones. Mistuning or desynchronizing the context tone relative to the rest of the complex did not facilitate streaming, despite the fact that the context tone was accessible to awareness and attention. Even presenting the context tone in a separate ear from the rest of the harmonic complex did not facilitate streaming, ruling out peripheral interference. Presenting the test as mistuned or desynchronized tones relative to complex tones eliminated the possibility that timbre changes from context to test interfered with facilitation resulting from the context. These results demonstrate the fragility of streaming facilitation and show that awareness of and attention to the context tones are not sufficient to overcome interference. PMID:24188403

  10. Context and task-aware knowledge-enhanced compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shankar; Ni, Kang-Yu; Owechko, Yuri

    2013-09-01

    We describe a foveated compressive sensing approach for image analysis applications that utilizes knowledge of the task to be performed to reduce the number of required measurements compared to conventional Nyquist sampling and compressive sensing based approaches. Our Compressive Optical Foveated Architecture (COFA) adapts the dictionary and compressive measurements to structure and sparsity in the signal, task, and scene by reducing measurement and dictionary mutual coherence and increasing sparsity using principles of actionable information and foveated compressive sensing. Actionable information is used to extract task-relevant regions of interest (ROIs) from a low-resolution scene analysis by eliminating the effects of nuisances for occlusion and anomalous motion detection. From the extracted ROIs, preferential measurements are taken using foveation as part of the compressive sensing adaptation process. The task-specific measurement matrix is optimized by using a novel saliency-weighted coherence minimization with respect to the learned signal dictionary. This incorporates the relative usage of the atoms in the dictionary. Therefore, the measurement matrix is not random, as in conventional compressive sensing, but is based on the dictionary structure and atom distributions. We utilize a patch-based method to learn the signal priors. A treestructured dictionary of image patches using KSVD is learned which can sparsely represent any given image patch with the tree-structure. We have implemented COFA in an end-to-end simulation of a vehicle fingerprinting task for aerial surveillance using foveated compressive measurements adapted to hierarchical ROIs consisting of background, roads, and vehicles. Our results show 113x reduction in measurements over conventional sensing and 28x reduction over compressive sensing using random measurements.

  11. Developing Critical Social Awareness through Digital Literacy Practices within the Context of Higher Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Denise Bertoli

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a teaching experience developed in the context of Brazilian higher education, which had as its central goal developing critical social awareness through digital literacy teaching. The discussion begins with an explanation of a Neo-Gramscian approach to critical literacy education, contextualising this perspective within…

  12. College Students' Conceptions of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning: A Phenomenographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' conceptions of context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning). The students participated in a u-learning exercise using PDAs equipped with RFID readers. The data were collected from individual interviews with each of the students by a trained researcher, and the responses of the interviewees were…

  13. Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in wireless and sensor technologies has lead to a new development of learning environments, called context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, which is able to sense the situation of learners and provide adaptive supports. Many researchers have been investigating the development of such new learning environments; nevertheless,…

  14. An Adaptive Navigation Support System for Conducting Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Heller, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    In context-aware ubiquitous learning, students are guided to learn in the real world with personalized supports from the learning system. As the learning resources are realistic objects in the real world, certain physical constraints, such as the limitation of stream of people who visit the same learning object, the time for moving from one object…

  15. College Students' Conceptions of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning: A Phenomenographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' conceptions of context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning). The students participated in a u-learning exercise using PDAs equipped with RFID readers. The data were collected from individual interviews with each of the students by a trained researcher, and the responses of the interviewees were…

  16. The Effectiveness of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, context-aware mobile learning (CAML) has been widely applied to various fields and has become a popular issue in educational research. Despite the tremendous potential of CAML and its growing significance, continued evaluations and refinements under the advice of field experts and instructors are crucial to ensure its validity,…

  17. Developing Critical Social Awareness through Digital Literacy Practices within the Context of Higher Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Denise Bertoli

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a teaching experience developed in the context of Brazilian higher education, which had as its central goal developing critical social awareness through digital literacy teaching. The discussion begins with an explanation of a Neo-Gramscian approach to critical literacy education, contextualising this perspective within…

  18. Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chao, Po-Yao

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ubiquitous computing technologies have brought reality augmentation of traditional objects to context-aware and social supports. Although a significant proportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous…

  19. Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

  20. The Effectiveness of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, context-aware mobile learning (CAML) has been widely applied to various fields and has become a popular issue in educational research. Despite the tremendous potential of CAML and its growing significance, continued evaluations and refinements under the advice of field experts and instructors are crucial to ensure its validity,…

  1. An Adaptive Navigation Support System for Conducting Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Heller, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    In context-aware ubiquitous learning, students are guided to learn in the real world with personalized supports from the learning system. As the learning resources are realistic objects in the real world, certain physical constraints, such as the limitation of stream of people who visit the same learning object, the time for moving from one object…

  2. iMuseumA: an agent-based context-aware intelligent museum system.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Pinto, Mónica; Fuentes, Lidia; Gámez, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, museums provide their visitors with interactive tour guide applications that can be installed in mobile devices and provide timely tailor-made multimedia information about exhibits on display. In this paper, we argue that mobile devices not only could provide help to visitors, but also to museum staff. Our goal is to integrate, within the same system, multimedia tour guides with the management facilities required by museums. In this paper, we present iMuseumA (intelligent museum with agents), a mobile-based solution to customize visits and perform context-aware management tasks. iMuseumA follows an agent-based approach, which makes it possible to interact easily with the museum environment and make decisions based on its current status. This system is currently deployed in the Museum of Informatics at the Informatics School of the University of Málaga, and its main contributions are: (i) a mobile application that provides management facilities to museum staff by means of sensing and processing environmental data; (ii) providing an integrated solution for visitors, tour guides and museum staff that allows coordination and communication enrichment among different groups of users; (iii) using and benefiting from group communication for heterogeneous groups of users that can be created on demand. PMID:25390409

  3. iMuseumA: An Agent-Based Context-Aware Intelligent Museum System

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Pinto, Mónica; Fuentes, Lidia; Gámez, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, museums provide their visitors with interactive tour guide applications that can be installed in mobile devices and provide timely tailor-made multimedia information about exhibits on display. In this paper, we argue that mobile devices not only could provide help to visitors, but also to museum staff. Our goal is to integrate, within the same system, multimedia tour guides with the management facilities required by museums. In this paper, we present iMuseumA (intelligent museum with agents), a mobile-based solution to customize visits and perform context-aware management tasks. iMuseumA follows an agent-based approach, which makes it possible to interact easily with the museum environment and make decisions based on its current status. This system is currently deployed in the Museum of Informatics at the Informatics School of the University of Málaga, and its main contributions are: (i) a mobile application that provides management facilities to museum staff by means of sensing and processing environmental data; (ii) providing an integrated solution for visitors, tour guides and museum staff that allows coordination and communication enrichment among different groups of users; (iii) using and benefiting from group communication for heterogeneous groups of users that can be created on demand. PMID:25390409

  4. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user’s physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  5. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user's physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  6. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  7. Context-aware brain-computer interfaces: exploring the information space of user, technical system and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, T. O.; Jatzev, S.

    2012-02-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are usually applied in highly controlled environments such as research laboratories or clinical setups. However, many BCI-based applications are implemented in more complex environments. For example, patients might want to use a BCI system at home, and users without disabilities could benefit from BCI systems in special working environments. In these contexts, it might be more difficult to reliably infer information about brain activity, because many intervening factors add up and disturb the BCI feature space. One solution for this problem would be adding context awareness to the system. We propose to augment the available information space with additional channels carrying information about the user state, the environment and the technical system. In particular, passive BCI systems seem to be capable of adding highly relevant context information—otherwise covert aspects of user state. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework based on general human-machine system research for adding context awareness to a BCI system. Building on that, we present results from a study on a passive BCI, which allows access to the covert aspect of user state related to the perceived loss of control. This study is a proof of concept and demonstrates that context awareness could beneficially be implemented in and combined with a BCI system or a general human-machine system. The EEG data from this experiment are available for public download at www.phypa.org. Parts of this work have already been presented in non-journal publications. This will be indicated specifically by appropriate references in the text.

  8. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  9. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  10. Technological Applications to Support Children's Development of Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, David; Geist, Eugene A.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents methods and theory behind promoting children's spatial awareness through representing 3D reality in 2D cyberspace. Spatial awareness in children is an often neglected aspect in early education. However, applications such as GPS and 3D modeling programs can be used to offer children rich experiences that allow children to…

  11. Context-Aware Mobile Collaborative Systems: Conceptual Modeling and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Guerrero, Edgard; Mezura-Godoy, Carmen; Montané-Jiménez, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    A Mobile Collaborative System (MCOS) enable the cooperation of the members of a team to achieve a common goal by using a combination of mobile and fixed technologies. MCOS can be enhanced if the context of the group of users is considered in the execution of activities. This paper proposes a novel model for Context-Aware Mobile COllaborative Systems (CAMCOS) and a functional architecture based on that model. In order to validate both the model and the architecture, a prototype system in the tourism domain was implemented and evaluated. PMID:23202007

  12. Context-aware Mobile Collaborative Systems: conceptual modeling and case study.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Guerrero, Edgard; Mezura-Godoy, Carmen; Montané-Jiménez, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    A Mobile Collaborative System (MCOS) enable the cooperation of the members of a team to achieve a common goal by using a combination of mobile and fixed technologies. MCOS can be enhanced if the context of the group of users is considered in the execution of activities. This paper proposes a novel model for Context-Aware Mobile COllaborative Systems (CAMCOS) and a functional architecture based on that model. In order to validate both the model and the architecture, a prototype system in the tourism domain was implemented and evaluated. PMID:23202007

  13. Contextual Semantic: A Context-aware Approach for Semantic Web Based Data Extraction from Scientific Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The paper explores whether the semantic context is good enough to cope with ever increasing number of available resources in different repositories including the web. Here a problem of identifying authors of scientific papers is used as an example. A set of problem still do arise in case we apply exclusively the semantic context. Fortunately contextual semantic can be used to derive more information required to separate ambiguous cases. Semantic tags, well-structured documents and available databases of articles do provide a possibility to be more context-aware. Under the context we use co-authors names, references and headers to extract key-words and identify the subject. The real complexity of the considering problem comes from the dynamical behaviour of authors as they can change the topic of the research in the next paper. As the final judge the paper proposes applying words usage patterns analysis. Final the contextual intelligence engine is described.

  14. The Role of Context-Aware Computing in Support of People with Dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Matthias; Mulvenna, Maurice D.

    There is a strong motivation, in particular in the domain of healthcare, for new perspectives on context-driven research and computing in order to provide next-generation services to people that are tailored to individual needs rather than generalised assumptions that could potentially endanger human life. For that, context awareness is a key requirement in order to reach a better understanding of human-centric computing systems and environments, and subsequently, the deployment of dedicated services that are specifically adapted to the context to which they are applied. Such context-driven services would be able to provide the means of delivering situation-aware and person-centric services that ultimately may even anticipate future behaviour and problems of the user itself and the context in which the user finds themselves. However, the perpetual provision of contextual data in pervasive environments is far from being easy and includes major challenges that vary between environments. The reason for this is not only the sensor diversity within the environments themselves but also the contextual scope to be analysed and the amount of data to be collected and correlated to actually reach a minimum degree of contextual understanding. For that reason, in this chapter, contextual environments have been categorised as well as their interaction into different groups that reflect individual contextual levels of interest of which contextual understanding is required and consequently to which services can be applied.

  15. Context-Aware and Locality-Constrained Coding for Image Categorization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Improving the coding strategy for BOF (Bag-of-Features) based feature design has drawn increasing attention in recent image categorization works. However, the ambiguity in coding procedure still impedes its further development. In this paper, we introduce a context-aware and locality-constrained Coding (CALC) approach with context information for describing objects in a discriminative way. It is generally achieved by learning a word-to-word cooccurrence prior to imposing context information over locality-constrained coding. Firstly, the local context of each category is evaluated by learning a word-to-word cooccurrence matrix representing the spatial distribution of local features in neighbor region. Then, the learned cooccurrence matrix is used for measuring the context distance between local features and code words. Finally, a coding strategy simultaneously considers locality in feature space and context space, while introducing the weight of feature is proposed. This novel coding strategy not only semantically preserves the information in coding, but also has the ability to alleviate the noise distortion of each class. Extensive experiments on several available datasets (Scene-15, Caltech101, and Caltech256) are conducted to validate the superiority of our algorithm by comparing it with baselines and recent published methods. Experimental results show that our method significantly improves the performance of baselines and achieves comparable and even better performance with the state of the arts. PMID:24977215

  16. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kati?, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  17. Multicore Architecture-aware Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasa, Avinash

    2011-11-28

    Modern high performance systems are becoming increasingly complex and powerful due to advancements in processor and memory architecture. In order to keep up with this increasing complexity, applications have to be augmented with certain capabilities to fully exploit such systems. These may be at the application level, such as static or dynamic adaptations or at the system level, like having strategies in place to override some of the default operating system polices, the main objective being to improve computational performance of the application. The current work proposes two such capabilites with respect to multi-threaded scientific applications, in particular a large scale physics application computing ab-initio nuclear structure. The first involves using a middleware tool to invoke dynamic adaptations in the application, so as to be able to adjust to the changing computational resource availability at run-time. The second involves a strategy for effective placement of data in main memory, to optimize memory access latencies and bandwidth. These capabilties when included were found to have a significant impact on the application performance, resulting in average speedups of as much as two to four times.

  18. CAST: Effective and Efficient User Interaction for Context-Aware Selection in 3D Particle Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of three interactive Context-Aware Selection Techniques (CAST) for the analysis of large 3D particle datasets. For these datasets, spatial selection is an essential prerequisite to many other analysis tasks. Traditionally, such interactive target selection has been particularly challenging when the data subsets of interest were implicitly defined in the form of complicated structures of thousands of particles. Our new techniques SpaceCast, TraceCast, and PointCast improve usability and speed of spatial selection in point clouds through novel context-aware algorithms. They are able to infer a user's subtle selection intention from gestural input, can deal with complex situations such as partially occluded point clusters or multiple cluster layers, and can all be fine-tuned after the selection interaction has been completed. Together, they provide an effective and efficient tool set for the fast exploratory analysis of large datasets. In addition to presenting Cast, we report on a formal user study that compares our new techniques not only to each other but also to existing state-of-the-art selection methods. Our results show that Cast family members are virtually always faster than existing methods without tradeoffs in accuracy. In addition, qualitative feedback shows that PointCast and TraceCast were strongly favored by our participants for intuitiveness and efficiency. PMID:26390474

  19. Activity Theory Approach to Developing Context-Aware Mobile Learning Systems for Understanding Scientific Phenomenon and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing offers potential opportunities for students' learning especially when it combines a sensing device such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). Researchers have indicated that a key feature of in-field learning supported by mobile devices and technology is context awareness, with which context and functionality provided by…

  20. Activity Theory Approach to Developing Context-Aware Mobile Learning Systems for Understanding Scientific Phenomenon and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing offers potential opportunities for students' learning especially when it combines a sensing device such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). Researchers have indicated that a key feature of in-field learning supported by mobile devices and technology is context awareness, with which context and functionality provided by…

  1. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Context-Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Foslien, Wendy K; Curtner, Keith L

    2013-01-15

    Because of growing energy demands and shortages, residential home owners are turning to energy conservation measures and smart home energy management devices to help them reduce energy costs and live more sustainably. In this context, the Honeywell team researched, developed, and tested the Context Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM) as a trusted advisor for home energy management. The project focused on connecting multiple devices in a home through a uniform user interface. The design of the user interface was an important feature of the project because it provided a single place for the homeowner to control all devices and was also where they received coaching. CASHEM then used data collected from homes to identify the contexts that affect operation of home appliances. CASHEM’s goal was to reduce energy consumption while keeping the user’s key needs satisfied. Thus, CASHEM was intended to find the opportunities to minimize energy consumption in a way that fit the user’s lifestyle.

  2. Terminology challenges implementing the HL7 context-aware knowledge retrieval ('Infobutton') standard.

    PubMed

    Strasberg, Howard R; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care information needs are common and frequently unmet. One solution to this problem is the use of Infobuttons, which are context-sensitive links from electronic health records (EHR) to knowledge resources, sometimes involving an intermediate broker known as an Infobutton Manager. Health Level Seven (HL7) has developed the Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) standard to standardize the integration between EHR systems and knowledge resources. While the standard specifies a set of context attributes and standard terminologies, it leaves to knowledge resources the flexibility to decide how to use these attributes and terminologies to retrieve the most relevant content. This paper describes some of the challenges faced by knowledge resources in trying to locate the most relevant content based on the attribute values for a given Infobutton request. Various approaches to content retrieval are discussed, including the role of indexing with standardized codes, the role of text-based search engines together with their ranking algorithms, and the role of hybrid approaches. Knowledge resource developers must carefully consider business rules, heuristics, and precision/recall tradeoffs when implementing the HL7 Infobutton standard. PMID:23077131

  3. Prompting technologies: A comparison of time-based and context-aware transition-based prompting

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kayela; Rosasco, Cody; Feuz, Kyle; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND While advancements in technology have encouraged the development of novel prompting systems to support cognitive interventions, little research has evaluated the best time to deliver prompts, which may impact the effectiveness of these interventions. OBJECTIVE This study examined whether transition-based context prompting (prompting an individual during task transitions) is more effective than traditional fixed time-based prompting. METHODS Participants were 42 healthy adults who completed 12 different everyday activities, each lasting 1–7 minutes, in an experimental smart home testbed and received prompts to record the completed activities from an electronic memory notebook. Half of the participants were delivered prompts during activity transitions, while the other half received prompts every 5 minutes. Participants also completed Likert-scale ratings regarding their perceptions of the prompting system. RESULTS Results revealed that participants in the transition-based context prompting condition responded to the first prompt more frequently and rated the system as more convenient, natural, and appropriate compared to participants in the time-based condition. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that prompting during activity transitions produces higher adherence to the first prompt and more positive perceptions of the prompting system. This is an important finding given the benefits of prompting technology and the possibility of improving cognitive interventions by using context-aware transition prompting. PMID:26409520

  4. Terminology challenges implementing the HL7 context-aware knowledge retrieval (‘Infobutton’) standard

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Howard R; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care information needs are common and frequently unmet. One solution to this problem is the use of Infobuttons, which are context-sensitive links from electronic health records (EHR) to knowledge resources, sometimes involving an intermediate broker known as an Infobutton Manager. Health Level Seven (HL7) has developed the Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) standard to standardize the integration between EHR systems and knowledge resources. While the standard specifies a set of context attributes and standard terminologies, it leaves to knowledge resources the flexibility to decide how to use these attributes and terminologies to retrieve the most relevant content. This paper describes some of the challenges faced by knowledge resources in trying to locate the most relevant content based on the attribute values for a given Infobutton request. Various approaches to content retrieval are discussed, including the role of indexing with standardized codes, the role of text-based search engines together with their ranking algorithms, and the role of hybrid approaches. Knowledge resource developers must carefully consider business rules, heuristics, and precision/recall tradeoffs when implementing the HL7 Infobutton standard. PMID:23077131

  5. RFID sensor-tags feeding a context-aware rule-based healthcare monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; Esposito, Alessandra; Tarricone, Luciano; Zappatore, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Along with the growing of the aging population and the necessity of efficient wellness systems, there is a mounting demand for new technological solutions able to support remote and proactive healthcare. An answer to this need could be provided by the joint use of the emerging Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies and advanced software choices. This paper presents a proposal for a context-aware infrastructure for ubiquitous and pervasive monitoring of heterogeneous healthcare-related scenarios, fed by RFID-based wireless sensors nodes. The software framework is based on a general purpose architecture exploiting three key implementation choices: ontology representation, multi-agent paradigm and rule-based logic. From the hardware point of view, the sensing and gathering of context-data is demanded to a new Enhanced RFID Sensor-Tag. This new device, de facto, makes possible the easy integration between RFID and generic sensors, guaranteeing flexibility and preserving the benefits in terms of simplicity of use and low cost of UHF RFID technology. The system is very efficient and versatile and its customization to new scenarios requires a very reduced effort, substantially limited to the update/extension of the ontology codification. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by reporting both customization effort and performance results obtained from validation in two different healthcare monitoring contexts. PMID:22083369

  6. A context-aware approach for progression tracking of medical concepts in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Chen, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2015-12-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) for diabetic patients contain information about heart disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and smoking status. Discovering the described risk factors and tracking their progression over time may support medical personnel in making clinical decisions, as well as facilitate data modeling and biomedical research. Such highly patient-specific knowledge is essential to driving the advancement of evidence-based practice, and can also help improve personalized medicine and care. One general approach for tracking the progression of diseases and their risk factors described in EMRs is to first recognize all temporal expressions, and then assign each of them to the nearest target medical concept. However, this method may not always provide the correct associations. In light of this, this work introduces a context-aware approach to assign the time attributes of the recognized risk factors by reconstructing contexts that contain more reliable temporal expressions. The evaluation results on the i2b2 test set demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieved an F-score of 0.897. To boost the approach's ability to process unstructured clinical text and to allow for the reproduction of the demonstrated results, a set of developed .NET libraries used to develop the system is available at https://sites.google.com/site/hongjiedai/projects/nttmuclinicalnet. PMID:26432355

  7. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care. PMID:26265236

  8. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  9. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  10. An Investigation of Attitudes of Students and Teachers about Participating in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, digital learning has been converting from e-learning to m-learning because of the significant growth of wireless and mobile computing technologies. Students can learn any time and any where with mobile devices. Consequently, context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is emerging as a new research area. It integrates wireless,…

  11. A Decision-Tree-Oriented Guidance Mechanism for Conducting Nature Science Observation Activities in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…

  12. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Providing Instant Learning Support in Personal Computer Assembly Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…

  13. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Providing Instant Learning Support in Personal Computer Assembly Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…

  14. A Decision-Tree-Oriented Guidance Mechanism for Conducting Nature Science Observation Activities in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…

  15. Semantic classification of diseases in discharge summaries using a context-aware rule-based classifier.

    PubMed

    Solt, Illés; Tikk, Domonkos; Gál, Viktor; Kardkovács, Zsolt T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated and disease-specific classification of textual clinical discharge summaries is of great importance in human life science, as it helps physicians to make medical studies by providing statistically relevant data for analysis. This can be further facilitated if, at the labeling of discharge summaries, semantic labels are also extracted from text, such as whether a given disease is present, absent, questionable in a patient, or is unmentioned in the document. The authors present a classification technique that successfully solves the semantic classification task. DESIGN The authors introduce a context-aware rule-based semantic classification technique for use on clinical discharge summaries. The classification is performed in subsequent steps. First, some misleading parts are removed from the text; then the text is partitioned into positive, negative, and uncertain context segments, then a sequence of binary classifiers is applied to assign the appropriate semantic labels. Measurement For evaluation the authors used the documents of the i2b2 Obesity Challenge and adopted its evaluation measures: F(1)-macro and F(1)-micro for measurements. RESULTS On the two subtasks of the Obesity Challenge (textual and intuitive classification) the system performed very well, and achieved a F(1)-macro = 0.80 for the textual and F(1)-macro = 0.67 for the intuitive tasks, and obtained second place at the textual and first place at the intuitive subtasks of the challenge. CONCLUSIONS The authors show in the paper that a simple rule-based classifier can tackle the semantic classification task more successfully than machine learning techniques, if the training data are limited and some semantic labels are very sparse. PMID:19390101

  16. Semantic Classification of Diseases in Discharge Summaries Using a Context-aware Rule-based Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Illés; Tikk, Domonkos; Gál, Viktor; Kardkovács, Zsolt T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Automated and disease-specific classification of textual clinical discharge summaries is of great importance in human life science, as it helps physicians to make medical studies by providing statistically relevant data for analysis. This can be further facilitated if, at the labeling of discharge summaries, semantic labels are also extracted from text, such as whether a given disease is present, absent, questionable in a patient, or is unmentioned in the document. The authors present a classification technique that successfully solves the semantic classification task. Design The authors introduce a context-aware rule-based semantic classification technique for use on clinical discharge summaries. The classification is performed in subsequent steps. First, some misleading parts are removed from the text; then the text is partitioned into positive, negative, and uncertain context segments, then a sequence of binary classifiers is applied to assign the appropriate semantic labels. Measurement For evaluation the authors used the documents of the i2b2 Obesity Challenge and adopted its evaluation measures: F1-macro and F1-micro for measurements. Results On the two subtasks of the Obesity Challenge (textual and intuitive classification) the system performed very well, and achieved a F1-macro = 0.80 for the textual and F1-macro = 0.67 for the intuitive tasks, and obtained second place at the textual and first place at the intuitive subtasks of the challenge. Conclusions The authors show in the paper that a simple rule-based classifier can tackle the semantic classification task more successfully than machine learning techniques, if the training data are limited and some semantic labels are very sparse. PMID:19390101

  17. Towards a social and context-aware multi-sensor fall detection and risk assessment platform.

    PubMed

    De Backere, F; Ongenae, F; Van den Abeele, F; Nelis, J; Bonte, P; Clement, E; Philpott, M; Hoebeke, J; Verstichel, S; Ackaert, A; De Turck, F

    2015-09-01

    For elderly people fall incidents are life-changing events that lead to degradation or even loss of autonomy. Current fall detection systems are not integrated and often associated with undetected falls and/or false alarms. In this paper, a social- and context-aware multi-sensor platform is presented, which integrates information gathered by a plethora of fall detection systems and sensors at the home of the elderly, by using a cloud-based solution, making use of an ontology. Within the ontology, both static and dynamic information is captured to model the situation of a specific patient and his/her (in)formal caregivers. This integrated contextual information allows to automatically and continuously assess the fall risk of the elderly, to more accurately detect falls and identify false alarms and to automatically notify the appropriate caregiver, e.g., based on location or their current task. The main advantage of the proposed platform is that multiple fall detection systems and sensors can be integrated, as they can be easily plugged in, this can be done based on the specific needs of the patient. The combination of several systems and sensors leads to a more reliable system, with better accuracy. The proof of concept was tested with the use of the visualizer, which enables a better way to analyze the data flow within the back-end and with the use of the portable testbed, which is equipped with several different sensors. PMID:25542073

  18. A Context-Aware Model to Provide Positioning in Disaster Relief Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Daniel; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them) will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities. PMID:26437406

  19. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  20. A Context-Aware Model to Provide Positioning in Disaster Relief Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel; Ochoa, Sergio F; Meseguer, Roc

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them) will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities. PMID:26437406

  1. Horror Image Recognition Based on Context-Aware Multi-Instance Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Xiong, Weihua; Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    Horror content sharing on the Web is a growing phenomenon that can interfere with our daily life and affect the mental health of those involved. As an important form of expression, horror images have their own characteristics that can evoke extreme emotions. In this paper, we present a novel context-aware multi-instance learning (CMIL) algorithm for horror image recognition. The CMIL algorithm identifies horror images and picks out the regions that cause the sensation of horror in these horror images. It obtains contextual cues among adjacent regions in an image using a random walk on a contextual graph. Borrowing the strength of the fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM), we define a heuristic optimization procedure based on the FSVM to search for the optimal classifier for the CMIL. To improve the initialization of the CMIL, we propose a novel visual saliency model based on the tensor analysis. The average saliency value of each segmented region is set as its initial fuzzy membership in the CMIL. The advantage of the tensor-based visual saliency model is that it not only adaptively selects features, but also dynamically determines fusion weights for saliency value combination from different feature subspaces. The effectiveness of the proposed CMIL model is demonstrated by its use in horror image recognition on two large-scale image sets collected from the Internet. PMID:26390459

  2. Web-of-Objects (WoO)-Based Context Aware Emergency Fire Management Systems for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Shamszaman, Zia Ush; Ara, Safina Showkat; Chong, Ilyoung; Jeong, Youn Kwae

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Web of Things (WoT) accompany a smart life where real world objects, including sensing devices, are interconnected with each other. The Web representation of smart objects empowers innovative applications and services for various domains. To accelerate this approach, Web of Objects (WoO) focuses on the implementation aspects of bringing the assorted real world objects to the Web applications. In this paper; we propose an emergency fire management system in the WoO infrastructure. Consequently, we integrate the formation and management of Virtual Objects (ViO) which are derived from real world physical objects and are virtually connected with each other into the semantic ontology model. The charm of using the semantic ontology is that it allows information reusability, extensibility and interoperability, which enable ViOs to uphold orchestration, federation, collaboration and harmonization. Our system is context aware, as it receives contextual environmental information from distributed sensors and detects emergency situations. To handle a fire emergency, we present a decision support tool for the emergency fire management team. The previous fire incident log is the basis of the decision support system. A log repository collects all the emergency fire incident logs from ViOs and stores them in a repository. PMID:24531299

  3. Web-of-Objects (WoO)-based context aware emergency fire management systems for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Shamszaman, Zia Ush; Ara, Safina Showkat; Chong, Ilyoung; Jeong, Youn Kwae

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Web of Things (WoT) accompany a smart life where real world objects, including sensing devices, are interconnected with each other. The Web representation of smart objects empowers innovative applications and services for various domains. To accelerate this approach, Web of Objects (WoO) focuses on the implementation aspects of bringing the assorted real world objects to the Web applications. In this paper; we propose an emergency fire management system in the WoO infrastructure. Consequently, we integrate the formation and management of Virtual Objects (ViO) which are derived from real world physical objects and are virtually connected with each other into the semantic ontology model. The charm of using the semantic ontology is that it allows information reusability, extensibility and interoperability, which enable ViOs to uphold orchestration, federation, collaboration and harmonization. Our system is context aware, as it receives contextual environmental information from distributed sensors and detects emergency situations. To handle a fire emergency, we present a decision support tool for the emergency fire management team. The previous fire incident log is the basis of the decision support system. A log repository collects all the emergency fire incident logs from ViOs and stores them in a repository. PMID:24531299

  4. Sharing a driver's context with a caller via continuous audio cues to increase awareness about driver state.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christian P; Iqbal, Shamsi T; Ju, Yun-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    In an experiment using a driving simulator we investigated whether sharing information of a driver's context with a remote caller via continuous audio cues can make callers more aware of the driving situation. Increased awareness could potentially help in making the conversation less distracting. Prior research has shown that although sharing context using video can create such beneficial effects, it also has some practical disadvantages. It is an open question whether other modalities might also provide sufficient context for a caller. In particular, the effects of sharing audio, a cheaper, more salient, and perhaps more practical alternative than video, are not well understood. We investigated sharing context using direct cues in the form of realistic driving sounds (e.g., car honks, sirens) and indirect cues in the form of elevated heartbeats. Sound sharing affected the caller's perception of the driver's busyness. However, this had at most a modest effect on conversation and driving performance. An implication of these results is that although sharing sounds can increase a caller's awareness of changes in the driver's busyness, they need more training or information on how to leverage such context information to reduce disruption to driving. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24955592

  5. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks. PMID:26496370

  6. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks. PMID:26496370

  7. Mobile phone middleware architecture for energy and context awareness in location-based services.

    PubMed

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  8. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

    PubMed Central

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  9. The Application of Context Theory in English Teaching of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jiang; Han, Lemeng

    2010-01-01

    Context theory is a very important theory in English teaching, especially the teaching of reading. This paper first analyzes the theory of context, including the features of context and some principles in context theory. Then the paper discusses the application of context theory in English teaching of reading, including some problems met in…

  10. ERMHAN: A Context-Aware Service Platform to Support Continuous Care Networks for Home-Based Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, Federica; Spinicci, Emilio; Giuli, Dino

    2008-01-01

    Continuous care models for chronic diseases pose several technology-oriented challenges for home-based continuous care, where assistance services rely on a close collaboration among different stakeholders such as health operators, patient relatives, and social community members. Here we describe Emilia Romagna Mobile Health Assistance Network (ERMHAN) a multichannel context-aware service platform designed to support care networks in cooperating and sharing information with the goal of improving patient quality of life. In order to meet extensibility and flexibility requirements, this platform has been developed through ontology-based context-aware computing and a service oriented approach. We also provide some preliminary results of performance analysis and user survey activity. PMID:18695739

  11. E-Learning and Context Aware e-Support Software for Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanasiou, N.; Emmanouilidis, C.; Pistofidis, P.; Karampatzakis, D.

    2012-05-01

    Industrial Maintenance is seeking to enhance the efficiency of asset usage according to multiple criteria and constraints. Its implementation is facilitated by the application of a range of enabling technologies, termed in this context as e-Maintenance. Integrated e-Maintenance solutions can support a multitude of industrial maintenance procedures, from top-level management to low-level machinery technical issues. The level of complexity in these procedures varies greatly and requires a multidisciplinary level of skills from the involved personnel. Therefore, e-Maintenance applications can benefit from incorporating e-Learning and e-Support solutions. E-Learning can be an effective training method for maintenance, by providing cost effective, location-independent and easily updated training content. E-Support can be employed to provide technical staff with contextualized information and services in order to aid them with their assigned tasks. The WelCOM e-Maintenance architecture offers a framework that combines a networked infrastructure of intelligent wireless sensors, and a toolset of maintenance support services, linked to a CMMS. In this setting, one of the objectives is to integrate e-Learning in the form of web-based training modules and e-Support, by providing ubiquitous help through mobile devices to technical staff. The web-based learning is tailored to condition monitoring tasks, whereas the e-Support is planned to include instructions, videos, manuals or technical reports, all specially formatted to be delivered by a mobile device (tablet), exploiting its graphic, storage and networking capabilities. In this way, we aim for a smooth acceptance of the new e-Maintenance system, by providing easily accessible and context-depended support for maintenance personnel.

  12. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiubin; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Besides, compared to the other state-of-the-art prostate segmentation methods, the authors’ method achieves the best performance. Conclusions: By appropriate use of valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images, the authors’ proposed online update scheme can obtain satisfactory results for both landmark detection and prostate segmentation.

  13. Space situational awareness applications for radio astronomy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Galen; Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) builds, operates, and maintains a suite of premier radio antennas, including the 100m aperture Green Bank Telescope, the largest fully-steerable antenna in the world. For more than five decades the NRAO has focused on astrophysics, providing researchers with the most advanced instruments possible: large apertures, extremely low-noise receivers, and signal processors with high frequency and time resolution. These instruments are adaptable to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) tasks such as radar detection of objects in near-Earth and cis-Lunar space, high accuracy orbit determination, object surveillance with passive methods, and uplink and downlink communications. We present the capabilities of antennas and infrastructure at the NRAO Green Bank Observatory in the context of SSA tasks, and discuss what additions and modifications would be necessary to achieve SSA goals while preserving existing radio astronomy performance. We also discuss how the Green Bank Observatory's surrounding topography and location within the National Radio Quiet Zone will enhance SSA endeavors.

  14. Energy aware VLSI architectures for mobile video applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Tarek Khaled

    The increased concern for energy aware system design has kept pace with current practices among circuit and system engineers like never before. The big thrusts for this concern are the excessive heat generation and the corresponding expensive cooling techniques, the devices reliability problems due to increased temperatures, and most importantly, the incapability of battery technology to supply systems with the anticipated amounts of energy, especially for portable devices. Multimedia applications, which are data-intensive applications, play a chief role in the wireless revolution, and the key requirements for the success of systems supporting multimedia applications will be suitable transmission/storage bandwidths and system power consumption. In this work, these two issues are addressed. A new DCT-based Algorithm, Coefficient Elimination, is proposed and implemented with three DCT architectures: NEDA, Direct-DCT, and LP-DCT. Simulation results show that this algorithm can reduce the DCT energy dissipation by 26--60%. In addition, new algorithms, Dynamic Profiling, are proposed for Low Bit-Rate video coding. Unlike many of the available LBR techniques, this technique is suitable for mobile devices with reduced sources such as computing power and energy resources. These algorithms not only outperform coarse quantization technique, but also result in a low energy implementation of the decoder where IQ-IDCT operations are replaced by simple buffer accessing operation.

  15. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. Approach. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. Main results. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. Significance. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  16. Introducing Intertextuality-Aware Instruction as a Novel Approach of Teaching Reading Passages in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of intertextuality-aware instruction of reading passages on a sample of intermediate EFL learners of both genders. First, the intertextuality deployed through the reading passages of the study's course-book was focused inspired by Fairclough's (192) framework in terms of genre,…

  17. Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Student Writers in a Chinese ELT Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Zhoulin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into metacognitive awareness of Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) student writers, under a threefold metacognition framework--person, task, and strategy variables, and within the broader domain of cognitive writing theories. Data were collected in a Chinese tertiary English language teaching (ELT)…

  18. Creating a Culture of Language Awareness in Content-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen; Watkins, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    A "toolkit" approach to professional development is frequently used to assist teachers of English language learners (ELLs), wherein teachers are provided a grab bag of activities and strategies to implement in their classrooms. However, today's heightened language demands call for teachers to develop teacher language awareness (TLA), a…

  19. Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Student Writers in a Chinese ELT Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Zhoulin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into metacognitive awareness of Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) student writers, under a threefold metacognition framework--person, task, and strategy variables, and within the broader domain of cognitive writing theories. Data were collected in a Chinese tertiary English language teaching (ELT)…

  20. Context Management Platform for Tourism Applications

    PubMed Central

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-01-01

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model. PMID:23797739

  1. Development of Coherent Laser Radar for Space Situational Awareness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; DiMarcantonio, A.

    2013-09-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is working on an innovative and high performance mobile coherent laser radar (ladar) system known as ExoSPEAR for space situational awareness applications in LEO and beyond. Based on continuously agile pulse doublet technology, the 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser based coherent ladar is being developed for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs). ExoSPEAR system is designed to provide rapid and precision tracking of RSOs over very long ranges. The goal is to demonstrate mm-class range resolution, mm/s class velocity resolution and microrad angular resolution with significantly reduced error-covariance in track accuracy. Precise orbit determination would help in advancing functionality of early warning systems for tracking uncooperative targets for planetary protection applications. Furthermore, improvements in resolution of micromotion measurements would enhance our understanding of astrodymanical properties of resident space objects. In this paper, salient features of the evolution and current experimental status of ExoSPEAR ladar architecture will be discussed. Performance simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar power aperture product will be presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits will be analyzed.

  2. A Mobile Context-Aware Framework for Managing Learning Schedules--Data Analysis from a Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y.-K.; Joy, Mike; Dickert, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a diary study to determine whether a diary approach could be used as a successful way of retrieving a) the user's learning contexts, b) which learning contexts are significant for consideration within an m-learning application, and c) which learning materials are appropriate for which learning situation. Analyses of data…

  3. A Mobile Context-Aware Framework for Managing Learning Schedules--Data Analysis from a Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y.-K.; Joy, Mike; Dickert, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a diary study to determine whether a diary approach could be used as a successful way of retrieving a) the user's learning contexts, b) which learning contexts are significant for consideration within an m-learning application, and c) which learning materials are appropriate for which learning situation. Analyses of data…

  4. Team Awareness, Problem Drinking, and Drinking Climate: Workplace Social Health Promotion in a Policy Context

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed no change at 13%. Employees receiving Team Awareness also showed significant improvements in drinking climate. For example, scores on the measure of coworker enabling decreased from pretest (mean = 2.19) to posttest (mean = 2.05) and follow up (mean = 1.94). Posttest measures of drinking climate also predicted alcohol outcomes at 6 months. Conclusion Employers should consider the use of prevention programming as an enhancement to standard drug-free workplace efforts. Team Awareness training targets work group social health, aligns with employee assistance efforts, and contributes to reductions in problem drinking. PMID:15559710

  5. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

  6. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user's preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  7. Vision-Aided Context-Aware Framework for Personal Navigation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi, S.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N., , Dr.

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablet-PCs) has encouraged the use of location-based services (LBS) that are relevant to the current location and context of a mobile user. The main challenge of LBS is to find a pervasive and accurate personal navigation system (PNS) in different situations of a mobile user. In this paper, we propose a method of personal navigation for pedestrians that allows a user to freely move in outdoor environments. This system aims at detection of the context information which is useful for improving personal navigation. The context information for a PNS consists of user activity modes (e.g. walking, stationary, driving, and etc.) and the mobile device orientation and placement with respect to the user. After detecting the context information, a low-cost integrated positioning algorithm has been employed to estimate pedestrian navigation parameters. The method is based on the integration of the relative user's motion (changes of velocity and heading angle) estimation based on the video image matching and absolute position information provided by GPS. A Kalman filter (KF) has been used to improve the navigation solution when the user is walking and the phone is in his/her hand. The Experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of this method for outdoor personal navigation systems.

  8. Adaptive Multimedia Content Delivery for Context-Aware U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xinyou; Okamoto, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Empowered by mobile computing, teachers and students can benefit from computing in more scenarios beyond the traditional computer classroom. But because of the much diversity of device specification, learning contents and mobile context existing today, the learners get a bad learning experience (e.g. rich contents cannot be displayed correctly)…

  9. Raising Language Awareness in Peer Interaction: A Cross-Context, Cross-Methodology Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masatoshi; Ballinger, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, both a cognitive and a sociocultural theoretical perspective are used to bring together findings from two studies that investigated the effects of instruction designed to enhance the potentially positive effect of peer interaction on L2 development. Despite differences between the studies' learning contexts, participants' age, and…

  10. Geo-Social Interaction: Context-Aware Help in Large Scale Public Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Nasim; Aksenov, Petr; Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque; Preuveneers, Davy; Luyten, Kris; Coninx, Karin; Berbers, Yolande

    We present an approach to exploit social and spatio-temporal context in order to improve information dissemination in dynamic large-scale public spaces. We illustrate it by applying a proposed measure of geo-social relevance of each individual in a simulated vehicular network and by comparing the performance of different network message passing techniques in an inter-vehicle 'help-me-best-and-do-it-fast' communication scenario. We conclude that the use of social networking capabilities of an individual combined with knowledge about their spatio-temporal context information significantly improves purposeful interaction between individuals in terms of both the efficiency of the network data dissemination and the quality of the delivered information.

  11. Integrating context-aware public displays into a mobile hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Favela, Jesus; Rodríguez, Marcela; Preciado, Alfredo; González, Victor M

    2004-09-01

    Hospitals are convenient settings for deployment of ubiquitous computing technology. Not only are they technology-rich environments, but their workers experience a high level of mobility resulting in information infrastructures with artifacts distributed throughout the premises. Hospital information systems (HISs) that provide access to electronic patient records are a step in the direction of providing accurate and timely information to hospital staff in support of adequate decision-making. This has motivated the introduction of mobile computing technology in hospitals based on designs which respond to their particular conditions and demands. Among those conditions is the fact that worker mobility does not exclude the need for having shared information artifacts particular locations. In this paper, we extend a handheld-based mobile HIS with ubiquitous computing technology and describe how public displays are integrated with handheld and the services offered by these devices. Public displays become aware of the presence of physicians and nurses in their vicinity and adapt to provide users with personalized, relevant information. An agent-based architecture allows the integration of proactive components that offer information relevant to the case at hand, either from medical guidelines or previous similar cases. PMID:15484433

  12. Awareness of Biotechnological Application: A Study among University Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Ali; Terzi, Irfan; Ozel, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the differences of university geography students about biotechnology. Therefore an awareness scale was developed by the researcher. 102 students from six different universities and their academic levels were included in the survey. The findings of the survey were evaluated both descriptively and statistically.…

  13. Awareness of Biotechnological Application: A Study among University Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Ali; Terzi, Irfan; Ozel, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the differences of university geography students about biotechnology. Therefore an awareness scale was developed by the researcher. 102 students from six different universities and their academic levels were included in the survey. The findings of the survey were evaluated both descriptively and statistically.…

  14. Scientist-Centered Workflow Abstractions via Generic Actors, Workflow Templates, and Context-Awareness for Groundwater Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong

    2011-07-04

    A drawback of existing scientific workflow systems is the lack of support to domain scientists in designing and executing their own scientific workflows. Many domain scientists avoid developing and using workflows because the basic objects of workflows are too low-level and high-level tools and mechanisms to aid in workflow construction and use are largely unavailable. In our research, we are prototyping higher-level abstractions and tools to better support scientists in their workflow activities. Specifically, we are developing generic actors that provide abstract interfaces to specific functionality, workflow templates that encapsulate workflow and data patterns that can be reused and adapted by scientists, and context-awareness mechanisms to gather contextual information from the workflow environment on behalf of the scientist. To evaluate these scientist-centered abstractions on real problems, we apply them to construct and execute scientific workflows in the specific domain area of groundwater modeling and analysis.

  15. Pattern of life from WAMI objects tracking based on visual context-aware tracking and infusion network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianjun; Ling, Haibin; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe

    2013-05-01

    With the emergence of long lasting surveillance systems, e.g., full motion video (FMV) networks and wide area motion imagery (WAMI) sensors, extracting targets' long term pattern of life over a day becomes possible. In this paper, we present a framework for extracting the pattern of life (POL) of targets from WAMI video. We first apply a context-aware multi-target tracker (CAMT) to track multiple targets in the WAMI video and obtain the targets' tracklets, traces, and the locations, from surveillance information extracted from the targets' long-term trajectories. Then, entity networks propagate over time are constructed with targets' tracklets, traces, and the interested locations. Finally, the entity network is analyzed using network retrieving technique to extract the POL of interested targets.

  16. Social Email: A Framework and Application for More Socially-Aware Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thomas; Rowe, Jeff; Wu, S. Felix

    As online social networks (OSN) attempt to mimic real life social networks, we have made progress towards using OSNs to provide us with data to allow for richer and more robust online communications. In this paper, we present a novel approach towards socially-aware email. Currently, email provides too little control to the recipient. Our approach, dubbed SoEmail, provides social context to messages using an OSN's underlying social graph. This not only gives the recipient control over who can message her, but it also provides her with an understanding of where the message originated from, socially. Furthermore, users who do not wish to use the built-in social aspect of SoEmail, can send and receive emails without any changes to their behavior. The modifications we made to the email application to provide this social context are not invasive and can be easily ignored by any existing email client. We built SoEmail on top of an existing framework, known as Davis Social Links, which allows SoEmail to be completely agnostic about the underlying OSN. We created a web-based, standards-based web client for SoEmail using Facebook and Gmail as the underlying systems which has been released for public use and has had a good adoption rate.

  17. Cloud computing for context-aware enhanced m-Health services.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Pileggi, Salvatore F; Ibañez, Gema; Valero, Zoe; Sala, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    m-Health services are increasing its presence in our lives due to the high penetration of new smartphone devices. This new scenario proposes new challenges in terms of information accessibility that require new paradigms which enable the new applications to access the data in a continuous and ubiquitous way, ensuring the privacy required depending on the kind of data accessed. This paper proposes an architecture based on cloud computing paradigms in order to empower new m-Health applications to enrich their results by providing secure access to user data. PMID:25417085

  18. A Context-Aware Paradigm for Information Discovery and Dissemination in Mobile Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The increasing power and ubiquity of mobile wireless devices is enabling real-time information delivery for many diverse applications. A crucial question is how to allocate finite network resources efficiently and fairly despite the uncertainty common in highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks. We propose a set of routing protocols, Self-Balancing…

  19. A Context-Aware Paradigm for Information Discovery and Dissemination in Mobile Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The increasing power and ubiquity of mobile wireless devices is enabling real-time information delivery for many diverse applications. A crucial question is how to allocate finite network resources efficiently and fairly despite the uncertainty common in highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks. We propose a set of routing protocols, Self-Balancing…

  20. A novel software architecture for the provision of context-aware semantic transport information.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user's context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  1. A framework for a context-aware elderly entertainment support system.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Anwar; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad S; Hossain, S K Alamgir; Parra, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people constitute a major portion of world's population. Many of them are physically and mentally vulnerable and need continuous support for their health and well-being. There is a growing trend that these elderly people are placed in an ambient assisted living environment (AAL) with an aim to receive better care and support. In such settings, a lot of attention has been given to continuous health monitoring for maintaining physical health status. However, much less attention has been given toward understanding the entertainment needs of the elderly people, which is an important factor relevant to their mental health and joyful living. This paper thus addresses the entertainment needs of the elderly and proposes a framework of an elderly entertainment support system. The proposed framework enables different categories of residents (e.g., elderly people and caregivers) to access various media services in both implicit and explicit manner in order to enhance the quality of their living experience in different contexts. Our experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed framework. We believe that the proposed approach will establish the need to develop entertainment systems and services for the elderly people and allow us to sensibly address the problems associated with their independent, happy and active living. PMID:24936946

  2. A Framework for a Context-Aware Elderly Entertainment Support System

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Anwar; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad S.; Hossain, SK Alamgir; Parra, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people constitute a major portion of world's population. Many of them are physically and mentally vulnerable and need continuous support for their health and well-being. There is a growing trend that these elderly people are placed in an ambient assisted living environment (AAL) with an aim to receive better care and support. In such settings, a lot of attention has been given to continuous health monitoring for maintaining physical health status. However, much less attention has been given toward understanding the entertainment needs of the elderly people, which is an important factor relevant to their mental health and joyful living. This paper thus addresses the entertainment needs of the elderly and proposes a framework of an elderly entertainment support system. The proposed framework enables different categories of residents (e.g., elderly people and caregivers) to access various media services in both implicit and explicit manner in order to enhance the quality of their living experience in different contexts. Our experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed framework. We believe that the proposed approach will establish the need to develop entertainment systems and services for the elderly people and allow us to sensibly address the problems associated with their independent, happy and active living. PMID:24936946

  3. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  4. Online handwriting recognition in a form-filling task: evaluating the impact of context-awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seni, Giovanni; Rice, Kimberly; Mayoraz, Eddy

    2003-12-01

    Guiding a recognition task using a language model is commonly accepted as having a positive effect on accuracy and is routinely used in automated speech processing. This paper presents a quantitative study of the impact of the use of word models in online handwriting recognition applied to form-filling tasks on handheld devices. Two types of word models are considered: a dictionary, typically from few thousands and up to hundred-thousand words; and a grammar or regular expression generating a language several orders of magnitude bigger than the dictionary. It is reported that the improvement in accuracy obtained by the use of a grammar compares with the gain provided by the use of a dictionary. Finally, the impact of the word models on user acceptance of online handwriting recognition in a specific form-filling application is presented.

  5. Levels of emotional awareness: a cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lane, R D; Schwartz, G E

    1987-02-01

    The authors present a cognitive-developmental theory of emotional awareness that creates a bridge between normal and abnormal emotional states. Their primary thesis is that emotional awareness is a type of cognitive processing which undergoes five levels of structural transformation along a cognitive-developmental sequence derived from an integration of the theories of Piaget and Werner. The five levels of structural transformation are awareness of bodily sensations, the body in action, individual feelings, blends of feelings, and blends of blends of feelings. The authors suggest applications of this model to current unresolved problems in psychiatric theory, research, and practice. PMID:3812780

  6. Data location-aware job scheduling in the grid. Application to the GridWay metascheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Peris, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.

    2010-04-01

    Grid infrastructures constitute nowadays the core of the computing facilities of the biggest LHC experiments. These experiments produce and manage petabytes of data per year and run thousands of computing jobs every day to process that data. It is the duty of metaschedulers to allocate the tasks to the most appropriate resources at the proper time. Our work reviews the policies that have been proposed for the scheduling of grid jobs in the context of very data-intensive applications. We indicate some of the practical problems that such models will face and describe what we consider essential characteristics of an optimum scheduling system: aim to minimise not only job turnaround time but also data replication, flexibility to support different virtual organisation requirements and capability to coordinate the tasks of data placement and job allocation while keeping their execution decoupled. These ideas have guided the development of an enhanced prototype for GridWay, a general purpose metascheduler, part of the Globus Toolkit and member of the EGEE's RESPECT program. Current GridWay's scheduling algorithm is unaware of data location. Our prototype makes it possible for job requests to set data needs not only as absolute requirements but also as functions for resource ranking. As our tests show, this makes it more flexible than currently used resource brokers to implement different data-aware scheduling algorithms.

  7. Implementations of the HL7 Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (“Infobutton”) Standard: Challenges, Strengths, Limitations, and Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Huser, Vojtech; Strasberg, Howard R; Maviglia, Saverio M; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J

    2012-01-01

    To support clinical decision-making,computerized information retrieval tools known as “infobuttons” deliver contextually-relevant knowledge resources intoclinical information systems.The Health Level Seven International(HL7)Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) Standard specifies a standard mechanism to enable infobuttons on a large scale. Objective To examine the experience of organizations in the course of implementing the HL7 Infobutton Standard. Method Cross-sectionalonline survey and in-depth phone interviews. Results A total of 17 organizations participated in the study.Analysis of the in-depth interviews revealed 20 recurrent themes.Implementers underscored the benefits, simplicity, and flexibility of the HL7 Infobutton Standard. Yet, participants voiced the need for easier access to standard specifications and improved guidance to beginners. Implementers predicted that the Infobutton Standard will be widely or at least fairly well adopted in the next five years, but uptake will dependlargely on adoption among electronic health record (EHR) vendors. To accelerate EHR adoption of the Infobutton Standard,implementers recommended HL7-compliant infobutton capabilities to be included in the United States Meaningful Use Certification Criteria EHR systems. Limitations Opinions and predictions should be interpreted with caution, since all the participant organizations have successfully implemented the Standard and overhalf of the organizations were actively engaged in the development of the Standard. Conclusion Overall, implementers reported a very positive experience with the HL7 Infobutton Standard.Despite indications of increasing uptake, measures should be taken to stimulate adoption of the Infobutton Standard among EHR vendors. Widespread adoption of the Infobutton standard has the potential to bring contextually relevant clinical decision support content into the healthcare provider workflow. PMID:22226933

  8. The Learning Management System at the Defence University: Awareness and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati

    2013-01-01

    This brief paper examines the issues of awareness and application of a Learning Management System (LMS) used at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM), Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The paper argues that due to the discouraging responses from academics at the university on using the LMS, proactive measures must be taken immediately in order…

  9. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  10. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption. PMID:24696640

  11. Perception and the awareness of God: the importance of neuronal habituation in the context of the Jewish and Christian faiths.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Daniel A; Claassen, Daniel O

    2008-12-01

    One of the most significant existential dilemmas for the religious person is the discrepancy between the assertion that God is everywhere and eternally present, and the inability to become aware of His presence. In this paper, we discuss how developments in our understanding of the brain's mechanisms for perception may resolve this apparent contradiction. We submit that if God is eternally present and unchangeable, then by the process of neuronal habituation, an individual can be "unaware" of the presence of God. We also discuss the limits of human perception and illustrate the biblical questions concerning the awareness of God. PMID:19093680

  12. Video-Based Eye Tracking to Detect the Attention Shift: A Computer Classroom Context-Aware System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yung-Lung; Lee, Jiann-Shu; Hsieh, Min-Chai

    2014-01-01

    Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom.…

  13. Understanding Total Quality Management in Context: Qualitative Research on Managers' Awareness of TQM Aspects in the Greek Service Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychogios, Alexandros G.; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses managers' awareness and familiarity with Total Quality Management (TQM). Eighteen (18) semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with managers working in a variety of service organizations in Greece. The major argument of the study is that although the acronym TQM and some of its concepts and practices are known by a…

  14. Video-Based Eye Tracking to Detect the Attention Shift: A Computer Classroom Context-Aware System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yung-Lung; Lee, Jiann-Shu; Hsieh, Min-Chai

    2014-01-01

    Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom.…

  15. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  16. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  17. Towards New Learning Partnerships in Bilingual Educational Contexts--Raising "Learner Awareness" and Creating Conditions for "Reciprocity" and "Pedagogic Attention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Coyle, Do

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the need to develop new pedagogic approaches which promote learner independence in contexts where learning takes place through the medium of more than one language. The challenges of responding to a rapidly changing educational landscape to ensure that our learners become pluriliterate global citizens are presented through…

  18. Website Analysis in an EFL Context: Content Comprehension, Perceptions on Web Usability and Awareness of Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Crabbe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Website analysis is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry that focuses on both digital literacy and language competence (Brugger, 2009). Website analysis in an EFL learning context has the potential to facilitate logical thinking and in the process develop functional language proficiency. This study reported on an English language website…

  19. An EMI-aware prioritized wireless access scheme for e-Health applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Niyato, Dusit; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Wireless communications technologies can support efficient healthcare services in medical and patient-care environments. However, using wireless communications in a healthcare environment raises two crucial issues. First, the RF transmission can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) to biomedical devices, which could critically malfunction. Second, the different types of electronic health (e-Health) applications require different quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we introduce an innovative wireless access scheme, called EMI-aware prioritized wireless access, to address these issues. First, the system architecture for the proposed scheme is introduced. Then, an EMI-aware handshaking protocol is proposed for e-Health applications in a hospital environment. This protocol provides safety to the biomedical devices from harmful interference by adapting transmit power of wireless devices based on the EMI constraints. A prioritized wireless access scheme is proposed for channel access by two different types of applications with different priorities. A Markov chain model is presented to study the queuing behavior of the proposed system. Then, this queuing model is used to optimize the performance of the system given the QoS requirements. Finally, the performance of the proposed wireless access scheme is evaluated through extensive simulations. PMID:20403789

  20. Marine and coastal environmental awareness building within the context of UNESCO's activities in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Maarten W M

    2003-01-01

    UNESCO is one of the specialized agencies under the United Nations charged with the advancement and improvement of education, social and natural sciences, culture and communication. This global mandate translates into programmes in the field tailored to the member states' specific requirements that build on the full breadth of expertise available in UNESCO. Environmental awareness building is an integral component of many of UNESCO's programmes. This paper describes how UNESCO addresses the need for awareness building in a variety of settings under different programmes and sectors. A first example is taken from the work of the education sector, which aims at introducing innovative learning methods and curricula that change or cultivate the perspective of people of all ages on sustainable development. The second example is taken from the Man and Biosphere Programme. The Biosphere Reserve concept has had a long history within UNESCO and is increasingly applied to protected areas in the coastal zone. Notable examples are Ranong Biosphere Reserve in Thailand, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve in Vietnam and the Island of Palawan in the Philippines. The concept is currently experiencing a revival as more and more countries realize the importance of striking a balance between human development and strict conservation. Many people know about UNESCO through the so-called World Heritage Sites. These are sites that are recognized by the world community as particular monuments, either natural or cultural, that warrant preservation for the whole of mankind. In the Asia-Pacific region, there are quite a number of coastal and marine sites that have been designated as natural world heritage sites, e.g. Halong Bay in Vietnam, the Komodo marine national park, Indonesia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, East-Rennell Island in the Solomon Islands, and Tubbataha Reef in the Philippines. The need for a cross-sectoral approach is evident under the so-called Coastal Zone and Small Islands endeavour, which aims at assisting Member States towards environmentally sound, socially equitable and culturally appropriate development in coastal regions and in small islands. Four examples of current pilot projects (Surin Island, Thailand, Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, Upolo Island, Samoa and Ulugan Bay, the Philippines) are highlighted. Each setting and each audience requires a different strategy. UNESCO's strength is to learn from all these experiences and make such new insights universally available and to put novel concepts into practice. PMID:12787630

  1. Antibody performance in western blot applications is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Algenäs, Cajsa; Agaton, Charlotta; Fagerberg, Linn; Asplund, Anna; Björling, Lisa; Björling, Erik; Kampf, Caroline; Lundberg, Emma; Nilsson, Peter; Persson, Anja; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Wernérus, Henrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Ottosson Takanen, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

    2014-03-01

    An important concern for the use of antibodies in various applications, such as western blot (WB) or immunohistochemistry (IHC), is specificity. This calls for systematic validations using well-designed conditions. Here, we have analyzed 13?000 antibodies using western blot with lysates from human cell lines, tissues, and plasma. Standardized stratification showed that 45% of the antibodies yielded supportive staining, and the rest either no staining (12%) or protein bands of wrong size (43%). A comparative study of WB and IHC showed that the performance of antibodies is application-specific, although a correlation between no WB staining and weak IHC staining could be seen. To investigate the influence of protein abundance on the apparent specificity of the antibody, new WB analyses were performed for 1369 genes that gave unsupportive WBs in the initial screening using cell lysates with overexpressed full-length proteins. Then, more than 82% of the antibodies yielded a specific band corresponding to the full-length protein. Hence, the vast majority of the antibodies (90%) used in this study specifically recognize the target protein when present at sufficiently high levels. This demonstrates the context- and application-dependence of antibody validation and emphasizes that caution is needed when annotating binding reagents as specific or cross-reactive. WB is one of the most commonly used methods for validation of antibodies. Our data implicate that solely using one platform for antibody validation might give misleading information and therefore at least one additional method should be used to verify the achieved data. PMID:24403002

  2. Semantic-Aware Automatic Parallelization of Modern Applications Using High-Level Abstractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2009-12-21

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. Modern applications using high-level abstractions, such as C++ STL containers and complex user-defined class types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we use a source-to-source compiler infrastructure, ROSE, to explore compiler techniques to recognize high-level abstractions and to exploit their semantics for automatic parallelization. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to study semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Preliminary results have shown that semantics of abstractions can help extend the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications and expose more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  3. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards. PMID:25633142

  4. Language Awareness in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Essen, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Surveys language awareness in Netherlands, outlining history of language awareness in Holland, tracing back to late nineteenth-century reform movement. Second section deals with teaching Dutch as a native language, third gives account of what language awareness means in context of Dutch as a second language, and fourth describes language awareness…

  5. Network DVR: A Programmable Framework for Application-Aware Trace Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Gerber, Alexandre; Lin, Bill; Sen, Subhabrata; Spatscheck, Oliver

    Network traces are essential for a wide range of network applications, including traffic analysis, network measurement, performance monitoring, and security analysis. Existing capture tools do not have sufficient built-in intelligence to understand these application requirements. Consequently, they are forced to collect all packet traces that might be useful at the finest granularity to meet a certain level of accuracy requirement. It is up to the network applications to process the per-flow traffic statistics and extract meaningful information. But for a number of applications, it is much more efficient to record packet sequences for flows that match some application-specific signatures, specified using for example regular expressions. A basic approach is to begin memory-copy (recording) when the first character of a regular expression is matched. However, often times, a matching eventually fails, thus consuming unnecessary memory resources during the interim. In this paper, we present a programmable application-aware triggered trace collection system called Network DVR that performs precisely the function of packet content recording based on user-specified trigger signatures. This in turn significantly reduces the number of memory copies that the system has to consume for valid trace collection, which has been shown previously as a key indicator of system performance [8]. We evaluated our Network DVR implementation on a practical application using 10 real datasets that were gathered from a large enterprise Internet gateway. In comparison to the basic approach in which the memory-copy starts immediately upon the first character match without triggered-recording, Network DVR was able to reduce the amount of memory-copies by a factor of over 500x on average across the 10 datasets and over 800x in the best case.

  6. The Joint Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (J-MAPS) Mission: Application for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, R.; Dorland, B.

    Rapid and accurate threat assessment and characterization are key elements in the quest for space superiority. These often depend on rapid orbit determination, accurate orbit propagation and object characterization. Threat scenarios involving new launches or vehicle maneuvers demand rapid and precise position metrics to determine and propagate new orbital elements. Existing and planned ground and space-based optical surveillance systems are optimized for the detection of Resident Space Objects (RSOs), which unfortunately, compromises their ability to determine position metrics at the highest possible accuracy levels. A Space Situational Awareness (SSA) architecture would potentially benefit from supplementing existing and planned detection assets with a dedicated high metric accuracy orbit determination asset or assets, with the potential for 24/7 taskability and near-real time capability. By optimizing an instrument to perform position measurement rather than detection, significant improvement may be realized in rapid orbit determination vs. current and envisioned systems, enabling rapid and accurate threat assessment and characterization. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is developing the space-based J-MAPS mission to support current and future star catalog and star tracker requirements. By its very nature, USNO's J-MAPS mission, a microsatellite designed to take very high precision measurements of star positions (astrometry), is ideally suited to make high metric accuracy measurements for brighter GEO RSOs. The J-MAPS mission will demonstrate novel and innovative measurement techniques and technologies, including new focal plane technologies such as CMOSHybrid active pixel sensors. The J-MAPS baseline also includes a novel filter-grating wheel, of interest in the area of non-resolved object characterization. We discuss the status of the J-MAPS mission, including the current mission baseline, and discuss Space Situational Awareness applications of the J-MAPS mission, including RSO orbit determination and SOI.

  7. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs and wishes of all stakeholders. For instance, the local geoscientists are most interested in conservation and scientific interests whereas managers aim to develop and promote the tourist (and economic) dimension. The definition and application of the assessment method is the outcome of constant discussion with both local key players; it therefore reflects and moderates the - sometimes antagonistic - interests. All the discussions around geosites assessment can be considered as the prime mover at local scale of the geopark construction process. This example shows that geosites assessment can not be considered only as an academic operation, but also as an essential step to initiate a local dynamic and consensus that help to achieve some of the objectives of a geopark defined by EGN like local involvement, sustainable development, or cooperation with local communities.

  8. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  9. Ceramic-polymer capacitive sensors for tactile/force awareness in harsh environment robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weadon, Timothy L.; Evans, Thomas H.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    2013-12-01

    The need for force feedback and spatial awareness of contact in harsh environment applications, such as space servicing, has been unsatisfied due to the inability of current sensor technology to resist environmental effects. In this work, capacitive sensors based on a thick film 0:3 connectivity ceramic:polymer composite structure were evaluated for potential use in future operations within robotic end effectors, withstanding temperatures ranging from -80?° C to 120?° C and forces up to 350 kPa. A thick film design is utilized to allow for ease of embedding, allowing sensors to be implemented into exciting robotic hardware with minimal intrusion, and protecting sensors from electron bombardment, radiation, and point concentrations from metal-on-metal contact. Taguchi design of experiments allows composition variables including sensor thickness, ceramic composition, ceramic particle size, ceramic volume loading, polymer character, modifier character, and the polymer:modifier ratio to be evaluated simultaneously. Dynamic thermal and mechanical loading techniques were implemented to characterize the composite sensors with in situ electrical acquisition. Individual composition variables were linked to the sensor magnitude, sensitivity, drift, and hysteresis, showing that the sensor response is optimized with a thickness of single microns, 10 vol% loading of nano-particle ceramics, and high molecular weight polymers with a low content of simple architecture modifiers lacking glass or melting temperatures in the working range.

  10. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  11. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  12. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. PMID:25350360

  13. Using Simplified Regulated Breathing with an Adolescent Stutterer: Application of Effective Intervention in a Residential Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Simplified regulated breathing (SRB) has been demonstrated to reduce or eliminate stuttering in children. However, much of the current research has evaluated the intervention with school-aged children within educational contexts. In the current case report, we extended the application of SRB by evaluating its effectiveness in treating stuttering…

  14. Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

    These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

  15. Usability of English Note-Taking Applications in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…

  16. The Applicability of Course Experience Questionnaire for a Malaysian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) in a Malaysian university context. Design/methodology/approach: The CEQ was translated into Malay language using rigorous cross-cultural adaptation procedures. The Malay version CEQ was administered to 190 undergraduate students in one…

  17. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  18. Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

    These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

  19. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  20. Usability of English Note-Taking Applications in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…

  1. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoided during the fertile period. continue Protection Against STDs Fertility awareness does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Couples having sex must always use condoms ...

  2. mrsFAST-Ultra: a compact, SNP-aware mapper for high performance sequencing applications.

    PubMed

    Hach, Faraz; Sarrafi, Iman; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E; Sahinalp, S Cenk

    2014-07-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms generate unprecedented amounts of data that introduce challenges for processing and downstream analysis. While tools that report the 'best' mapping location of each read provide a fast way to process HTS data, they are not suitable for many types of downstream analysis such as structural variation detection, where it is important to report multiple mapping loci for each read. For this purpose we introduce mrsFAST-Ultra, a fast, cache oblivious, SNP-aware aligner that can handle the multi-mapping of HTS reads very efficiently. mrsFAST-Ultra improves mrsFAST, our first cache oblivious read aligner capable of handling multi-mapping reads, through new and compact index structures that reduce not only the overall memory usage but also the number of CPU operations per alignment. In fact the size of the index generated by mrsFAST-Ultra is 10 times smaller than that of mrsFAST. As importantly, mrsFAST-Ultra introduces new features such as being able to (i) obtain the best mapping loci for each read, and (ii) return all reads that have at most n mapping loci (within an error threshold), together with these loci, for any user specified n. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra is SNP-aware, i.e. it can map reads to reference genome while discounting the mismatches that occur at common SNP locations provided by db-SNP; this significantly increases the number of reads that can be mapped to the reference genome. Notice that all of the above features are implemented within the index structure and are not simple post-processing steps and thus are performed highly efficiently. Finally, mrsFAST-Ultra utilizes multiple available cores and processors and can be tuned for various memory settings. Our results show that mrsFAST-Ultra is roughly five times faster than its predecessor mrsFAST. In comparison to newly enhanced popular tools such as Bowtie2, it is more sensitive (it can report 10 times or more mappings per read) and much faster (six times or more) in the multi-mapping mode. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra has an index size of 2GB for the entire human reference genome, which is roughly half of that of Bowtie2. mrsFAST-Ultra is open source and it can be accessed at http://mrsfast.sourceforge.net. PMID:24810850

  3. mrsFAST-Ultra: a compact, SNP-aware mapper for high performance sequencing applications

    PubMed Central

    Hach, Faraz; Sarrafi, Iman; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms generate unprecedented amounts of data that introduce challenges for processing and downstream analysis. While tools that report the ‘best’ mapping location of each read provide a fast way to process HTS data, they are not suitable for many types of downstream analysis such as structural variation detection, where it is important to report multiple mapping loci for each read. For this purpose we introduce mrsFAST-Ultra, a fast, cache oblivious, SNP-aware aligner that can handle the multi-mapping of HTS reads very efficiently. mrsFAST-Ultra improves mrsFAST, our first cache oblivious read aligner capable of handling multi-mapping reads, through new and compact index structures that reduce not only the overall memory usage but also the number of CPU operations per alignment. In fact the size of the index generated by mrsFAST-Ultra is 10 times smaller than that of mrsFAST. As importantly, mrsFAST-Ultra introduces new features such as being able to (i) obtain the best mapping loci for each read, and (ii) return all reads that have at most n mapping loci (within an error threshold), together with these loci, for any user specified n. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra is SNP-aware, i.e. it can map reads to reference genome while discounting the mismatches that occur at common SNP locations provided by db-SNP; this significantly increases the number of reads that can be mapped to the reference genome. Notice that all of the above features are implemented within the index structure and are not simple post-processing steps and thus are performed highly efficiently. Finally, mrsFAST-Ultra utilizes multiple available cores and processors and can be tuned for various memory settings. Our results show that mrsFAST-Ultra is roughly five times faster than its predecessor mrsFAST. In comparison to newly enhanced popular tools such as Bowtie2, it is more sensitive (it can report 10 times or more mappings per read) and much faster (six times or more) in the multi-mapping mode. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra has an index size of 2GB for the entire human reference genome, which is roughly half of that of Bowtie2. mrsFAST-Ultra is open source and it can be accessed at http://mrsfast.sourceforge.net. PMID:24810850

  4. Applying predictive analytics to develop an intelligent risk detection application for healthcare contexts.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Fatemeh Hoda; Cheung, Michael; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is an information rich industry where successful outcomes require the processing of multi-spectral data and sound decision making. The exponential growth of data and big data issues coupled with a rapid increase of service demands in healthcare contexts today, requires a robust framework enabled by IT (information technology) solutions as well as real-time service handling in order to ensure superior decision making and successful healthcare outcomes. Such a context is appropriate for the application of real time intelligent risk detection decision support systems using predictive analytic techniques such as data mining. To illustrate the power and potential of data science technologies in healthcare decision making scenarios, the use of an intelligent risk detection (IRD) model is proffered for the context of Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) in children, an area which requires complex high risk decisions that need to be made expeditiously and accurately in order to ensure successful healthcare outcomes. PMID:23920700

  5. An Embeddable Fusion Framework to Manage Context Information in Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardos, Ana M.; Madrazo, Eva; Casar, José R.

    Conveniently fused and combined with data from external sources, information from sensors embedded in a mobile device may offer a dynamic view of the user's situation, sufficient to build adaptive context-aware services. In order to shorten the development cycle of these applications, an embeddable framework to acquire, fuse and reason on context information is hereby described. 'CASanDRA Mobile' is designed to work autonomously in resource-constrained devices, offering to application developers a transparent management of context information. Based on a service-oriented architecture implemented in mobile OSGi, it offers a scalable infrastructure of bundles which decouple context acquisition and automate context inference from application development. 'CASanDRA Mobile' aims at providing the user with full control on his private context data, by using privacy policies suitable to handle P2P context sharing. To exemplify how to use the framework features, the design procedure for a context-aware wellness application is described.

  6. Developing General Cultural Awareness in a Monocultural English as a Foreign Language Context in a Mexican University: A Wiki-Based Critical Incident Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejo Vences, Paola; Fay, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article explores what the "intercultural turn" might mean in the case of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The discussion is contextualised in what has been termed the "expanding circle" of English and focuses on an English as a foreign language (EFL) class in a Mexican university, a context where…

  7. Developing General Cultural Awareness in a Monocultural English as a Foreign Language Context in a Mexican University: A Wiki-Based Critical Incident Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejo Vences, Paola; Fay, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article explores what the "intercultural turn" might mean in the case of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The discussion is contextualised in what has been termed the "expanding circle" of English and focuses on an English as a foreign language (EFL) class in a Mexican university, a context where…

  8. Exchanging the Context between OGC Geospatial Web clients and GIS applications using Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Joan; Díaz, Paula; Riverola, Anna; Pons, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the discovery and sharing of geospatial information over the web still presents difficulties. News distribution through website content was simplified by the use of Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and Atom syndication formats. This communication exposes an extension of Atom to redistribute references to geospatial information in a Spatial Data Infrastructure distributed environment. A geospatial client can save the status of an application that involves several OGC services of different kind and direct data and share this status with other users that need the same information and use different client vendor products in an interoperable way. The extensibility of the Atom format was essential to define a format that could be used in RSS enabled web browser, Mass Market map viewers and emerging geospatial enable integrated clients that support Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services. Since OWS Context has been designed as an Atom extension, it is possible to see the document in common places where Atom documents are valid. Internet web browsers are able to present the document as a list of items with title, abstract, time, description and downloading features. OWS Context uses GeoRSS so that, the document can be to be interpreted by both Google maps and Bing Maps as items that have the extent represented in a dynamic map. Another way to explode a OWS Context is to develop an XSLT to transform the Atom feed into an HTML5 document that shows the exact status of the client view window that saved the context document. To accomplish so, we use the width and height of the client window, and the extent of the view in world (geographic) coordinates in order to calculate the scale of the map. Then, we can mix elements in world coordinates (such as CF-NetCDF files or GML) with elements in pixel coordinates (such as WMS maps, WMTS tiles and direct SVG content). A smarter map browser application called MiraMon Map Browser is able to write a context document and read it again to recover the context of the previous view or load a context generated by another application. The possibility to store direct links to direct files in OWS Context is particularly interesting for GIS desktop solutions. This communication also presents the development made in the MiraMon desktop GIS solution to include OWS Context. MiraMon software is able to deal either with local files, web services and database connections. As in any other GIS solution, MiraMon team designed its own file (MiraMon Map MMM) for storing and sharing the status of a GIS session. The new OWS Context format is now adopted as an interoperable substitution of the MMM. The extensibility of the format makes it possible to map concepts in the MMM to current OWS Context elements (such as titles, data links, extent, etc) and to generate new elements that are able to include all extra metadata not currently covered by OWS Context. These developments were done in the nine edition of the OpenGIS Web Services Interoperability Experiment (OWS-9) and are demonstrated in this communication.

  9. [Intraoperative awareness].

    PubMed

    Schneider, G

    2003-02-01

    The first cases of general anesthesia were already cases with awareness. Until today, case reports of patients with awareness are published. These published cases are likely to be the top of the iceberg, as most patients with postoperative recall do not inform their anesthesiologist. Incidence of awareness with recall is between 0.1 and 0.2 %. In a large multicenter-study, incidence of recall was 0.1 % without, and 0.18 % with the use of muscle relaxants. The risk is increased with decreased doses of anesthetics, e.g. in patients with hemodynamic instability (trauma cases), patients undergoing cesarean section or cardiac surgery. Intraoperative awareness does not necessarily cause explicit (conscious) memory. Even in the absence of explicit memory, implicit (unconscious) memory can still have consequences for the patient. In the worst case, it can cause post-traumatic stress disorder. There is doubt whether patients may profit from positive suggestions given during intraoperative awareness. Recommendations to administer benzodiazepines to prevent explicit memory must be reconsidered. Complete neuromuscular block should be avoided whenever possible. If a patient is thought to be aware, he should be contacted, his situation should be explained and affirming comments should be given until consciousness is lost again. Postoperative visit should include questions about awareness and recall. The anesthetist should not disbelieve reported recall. Explanation of what had happened and referral to an experienced psychologist must be offered. Thus, the incidence of severe sequelae should decrease. PMID:12557119

  10. Social Learning Theory: its application in the context of nurse education.

    PubMed

    Bahn, D

    2001-02-01

    Cognitive theories are fundamental to enable problem solving and the ability to understand and apply principles in a variety of situations. This article looks at Social Learning Theory, critically analysing its principles, which are based on observational learning and modelling, and considering its value and application in the context of nurse education. It also considers the component processes that will determine the outcome of observed behaviour, other than reinforcement, as identified by Bandura, namely: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. PMID:11170797

  11. Building Social-Aware Software Applications for the Interactive Learning Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuruco, Renato A. C.; Capretz, Luiz F.

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of frameworks and models developed to support different aspects of interactive learning. Some were developed to deal with course design through the application of authoring tools, whereas others such as conversational, advisory, and ontology-based systems were used in virtual classrooms to improve and support collaborative…

  12. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  13. A metadata-aware application for remote scoring and exchange of tissue microarray images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of tissue microarrays (TMA) and advances in digital scanning microscopy has enabled the collection of thousands of tissue images. There is a need for software tools to annotate, query and share this data amongst researchers in different physical locations. Results We have developed an open source web-based application for remote scoring of TMA images, which exploits the value of Microsoft Silverlight Deep Zoom to provide a intuitive interface for zooming and panning around digital images. We use and extend existing XML-based standards to ensure that the data collected can be archived and that our system is interoperable with other standards-compliant systems. Conclusion The application has been used for multi-centre scoring of TMA slides composed of tissues from several Phase III breast cancer trials and ten different studies participating in the International Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The system has enabled researchers to simultaneously score large collections of TMA and export the standardised data to integrate with pathological and clinical outcome data, thereby facilitating biomarker discovery. PMID:23635078

  14. Chance of Vulnerability Reduction in Application-Specific NoC through Distance Aware Mapping Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janidarmian, Majid; Fekr, Atena Roshan; Bokharaei, Vahhab Samadi

    2011-08-01

    Mapping algorithm which means which core should be linked to which router is one of the key issues in the design flow of network-on-chip. To achieve an application-specific NoC design procedure that minimizes the communication cost and improves the fault tolerant property, first a heuristic mapping algorithm that produces a set of different mappings in a reasonable time is presented. This algorithm allows the designers to identify the set of most promising solutions in a large design space, which has low communication costs while yielding optimum communication costs in some cases. Another evaluated parameter, vulnerability index, is then considered as a principle of estimating the fault-tolerance property in all produced mappings. Finally, in order to yield a mapping which considers trade-offs between these two parameters, a linear function is defined and introduced. It is also observed that more flexibility to prioritize solutions within the design space is possible by adjusting a set of if-then rules in fuzzy logic.

  15. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  16. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  17. PSF Rotation with Changing Defocus and Applications to 3D Imaging for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-09-01

    For a clear, well corrected imaging aperture in space, the point-spread function (PSF) in its Gaussian image plane has the conventional, diffraction-limited, tightly focused Airy form. Away from that plane, the PSF broadens rapidly, however, resulting in a loss of sensitivity and transverse resolution that makes such a traditional best-optics approach untenable for rapid 3D image acquisition. One must scan in focus to maintain high sensitivity and resolution as one acquires image data, slice by slice, from a 3D volume with reduced efficiency. In this paper we describe a computational-imaging approach to overcome this limitation, one that uses pupil-phase engineering to fashion a PSF that, although not as tight as the Airy spot, maintains its shape and size while rotating uniformly with changing defocus over many waves of defocus phase at the pupil edge. As one of us has shown recently [1], the subdivision of a circular pupil aperture into M Fresnel zones, with the mth zone having an outer radius proportional to m and impressing a spiral phase profile of form m? on the light wave, where ? is the azimuthal angle coordinate measured from a fixed x axis (the dislocation line), yields a PSF that rotates with defocus while keeping its shape and size. Physically speaking, a nonzero defocus of a point source means a quadratic optical phase in the pupil that, because of the square-root dependence of the zone radius on the zone number, increases on average by the same amount from one zone to the next. This uniformly incrementing phase yields, in effect, a rotation of the dislocation line, and thus a rotated PSF. Since the zone-to-zone phase increment depends linearly on defocus to first order, the PSF rotates uniformly with changing defocus. For an M-zone pupil, a complete rotation of the PSF occurs when the defocus-induced phase at the pupil edge changes by M waves. Our recent simulations of reconstructions from image data for 3D image scenes comprised of point sources at different focal depths have shown remarkable robustness of our rotating-PSF approach to achieve good transverse and longitudinal resolution even for moderate SNR. Additionally, the work seeks to clarify an important theoretical issue about 3D imaging, namely the detailed nature of the interplay between transverse and longitudinal resolutions, including 3D generalizations of the space-bandwidth product (SBP) and its dependence on image noise. An underlying transport equation, which we shall derive and analyze, describes the trade-off between the transverse and longitudinal blur processes in a manner analogous to the diffractive spreading of a light beam that is transversely confined. This work has immediate applications for space-based surveillance, particularly for 3D mapping and tracking of space debris flying in the vicinity of important AF space assets. Working with a well corrected conventional imager, our 3D computational imager can acquire with high sensitivity and speed an extended focal volume in which individual objects of interest can be subsequently probed and imaged with high resolution over smaller 2D field segments. [1] S. Prasad, Rotating Point Spread Function by Pupil Phase Engineering, Opt. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 585-587 (2013)

  18. Active Learning in Context-Driven Stream Mining With an Application to Image Mining.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-11-01

    We propose an image stream mining method in which images arrive with contexts (metadata) and need to be processed in real time by the image mining system (IMS), which needs to make predictions and derive actionable intelligence from these streams. After extracting the features of the image by preprocessing, IMS determines online the classifier to use on the extracted features to make a prediction using the context of the image. A key challenge associated with stream mining is that the prediction accuracy of the classifiers is unknown, since the image source is unknown; thus, these accuracies need to be learned online. Another key challenge of stream mining is that learning can only be done by observing the true label, but this is costly to obtain. To address these challenges, we model the image stream mining problem as an active, online contextual experts problem, where the context of the image is used to guide the classifier selection decision. We develop an active learning algorithm and show that it achieves regret sublinear in the number of images that have been observed so far. To further illustrate and assess the performance of our proposed methods, we apply them to diagnose breast cancer from the images of cellular samples obtained from the fine needle aspirate of breast mass. Our findings show that very high diagnosis accuracy can be achieved by actively obtaining only a small fraction of true labels through surgical biopsies. Other applications include video surveillance and video traffic monitoring. PMID:26087490

  19. Wildfire Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Glenda

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

  20. Awareness is awareness is awareness? Decomposing different aspects of awareness and their role in operant learning of pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Hölzl, Rupert

    2012-09-01

    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was not necessary on different levels of processing as demonstrated by a verbal and a behavioral method. It was demonstrated that explicit cognitive processes about one's own behavior, impaired learning, even though these cognitions were not immediately related to the learning process. The results of this study are of special interest in the context of pain, since implicit operant learning can explain the gradual development of hypersensitivity in chronic pain. PMID:22521471

  1. Handling real-world context awareness, uncertainty and vagueness in real-time human activity tracking and recognition with a fuzzy ontology-based hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and Sensors 2014, 14 18132 high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  2. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  3. Racial Differences in Awareness of the Affordable Care Act and Application Assistance Among Low-Income Adults in Three Southern States.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mosqueira, Adrian; Hua, Lynn M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded Medicaid eligibility to adults with incomes under 138% of the federal poverty level, leading to substantial reductions in uninsured rates among low-income adults. Despite large gains in coverage, studies suggest that Latinos may be less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to apply and enroll in health insurance, and they remain the group with the highest uninsured rate in the United States. We explore two potential factors related to racial/ethnic differences in ACA enrollment-awareness of the law and receipt of application assistance such as navigator services. Using a survey of nearly 3000 low-income U.S. citizens (aged 19-64) in 3 states in late 2014, we find that Latinos had significantly lower levels of awareness of the ACA relative to other groups, even after adjusting for demographic covariates. Higher education was the strongest positive predictor of ACA awareness. In contrast, Latinos were much more likely to receive assistance from navigators or social workers when applying, relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of ACA outreach efforts to increase awareness among low-income and less educated populations, two groups that are overrepresented in the Latino population, to close existing disparities in coverage. PMID:26453675

  4. Reported child awareness of parental depression

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Olga; Jones, Rhys Bevan; Mars, Becky; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To determine rates of parent-reported child awareness of parental depression, examine characteristics of parents, children and families according to child awareness, and explore whether child awareness is associated with child psychopathology. Data were available from 271 families participating in the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression (EPAD) study, a longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Results Seventy-three per cent of participating children were perceived as being aware of their parent’s depression. Older children, and children of parents who experienced more severe depression, were more likely to be aware. Awareness was not associated with child psychopathology. Clinical implications Considering children in the context of parental depression is important. Child awareness may influence their access to early intervention and prevention programmes. Further research is needed to understand the impact of awareness on the child. PMID:25237522

  5. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011) has the potential to provide valuable information about the near-surface soil moisture state for improving land surface modeling output.

  6. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  7. Soil science applications in archaeological contexts: A review of key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkington, Helen

    2010-12-01

    The recent emergence and application of Earth Science techniques, such as elemental analysis, to detect isotopes, biomarkers, trace and ultra trace metals, in combination with long established techniques like magnetic susceptibility and micromorphology, can allow fascinating insights into the analysis of soils at archaeological sites. Soil studies can reveal how humans in prehistory used the landscape and defined space through their activities. However, these new approaches do not wholly address persistent problems associated with making inferences about past human activity from soils. These challenges include: equifinality; distinguishing property-process relationships; identifying anthropogenic soil processes; the interdependency of the soil forming factors; and difficulties with soil dating. This paper reviews more than a decade of pedoarchaeological studies, structured around new approaches to addressing these challenges. The paper outlines a staged framework which helps to create a systematic interpretation of soil processes and properties, and considers the impact of anthropic soil processes and properties in this context. This approach can be used as a guide to ensure that a rigorous and reproducible approach is taken to the study of soils at archaeological sites. In making this framework explicit, the paper finds that establishing property-process relationships in the soil is an essential precursor to reliable pedoarchaeological interpretation. It is argued that in the future, new applications developed in the Earth Sciences that aid our understanding of archaeological soil processes in three dimensions, will be able to contribute the most to addressing persistent challenges in pedoarchaeological interpretation.

  8. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model (LSM) simulations and includes an Ensemble Kalman Filter for conducting land surface DA. SPoRT has added a module to read, quality-control and bias-correct swaths of Level II SMOS soil moisture retrievals prior to assimilation within LIS. The impact of SMOS DA is being tested using the Noah LSM. Experiments are being conducted to examine the impacts of SMOS soil moisture DA on the resulting LISNoah fields and subsequent NWP simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized with LIS-Noah output. LIS-Noah soil moisture will be validated against in situ observations from Texas A&M's North American Soil Moisture Database to reveal the impact and possible improvement in soil moisture trends through DA. WRF model NWP case studies will test the impacts of DA on the simulated near-surface and boundary-layer environments, and precipitation during both quiescent and disturbed weather scenarios. Emphasis will be placed on cases with large analysis increments, especially due to contributions from regional irrigation patterns that are not represented by precipitation input in the baseline LIS-Noah run. This poster presentation will describe the soil moisture DA methodology and highlight LIS-Noah and WRF simulation results with and without assimilation.

  9. The Application of Human and Social Behavioral-Inspired Security Models for Self-aware Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbank, Jack L.; Kasch, William T. M.

    This paper discusses the introduction of anthropology and sociology-inspired approaches to providing security in collaborative self-aware cognitive radio networks. This includes the introduction of not only trust models, but also respect models and ‘intuition’ models. This paper discusses numerous potential benefits from this type of approach, including benefits to algorithm security, compromise recovery, protection from the Byzantine threat, and policy enforcement.

  10. Context-dependent player's movement interpretation: application to adaptive game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Francois; Estraillier, Pascal

    2010-02-01

    Video games are more and more controlled by the real movements of the player. However, the player is constrained by the system devices, imposing a limited vocabulary of actions associated with a set of unnatural movements. To introduce more entertaining video games to players, a component-based architecture is proposed. It has been acknowledged as the starting point for the development of adaptive applications based on the hypothesis of a high level dialogue between the system and the player. The system adaptability relies on interpretation mechanisms of the player behaviors. These behaviors are defined through the representation of the real movements of the player who freely interacts with the 3D elements composing an immersive virtual environment, following a given game scenario. The efficient interpretation of the player movements relies on the introduction in the system of the management of the scene's context. The contextual information not only helps to determine the true meaning of an observed behavior but also makes the system to adapt its processes regarding this interpretation, while managing its hardware and software resources efficiently. A commercial motion capture interface has been enhanced by the elaboration of such a system.

  11. Mean structure analysis from an IRT approach: an application in the context of organizational psychology.

    PubMed

    Revuelta Menéndez, Javier; Ximénez Gómez, Carmen

    2012-11-01

    The application of mean and covariance structure analysis with quantitative data is increasing. However, latent means analysis with qualitative data is not as widespread. This article summarizes the procedures to conduct an analysis of latent means of dichotomous data from an item response theory approach. We illustrate the implementation of these procedures in an empirical example referring to the organizational context, where a multi-group analysis was conducted to compare the latent means of three employee groups in two factors measuring personal preferences and the perceived degree of rewards from the organization. Results show that higher personal motivations are associated with higher perceived importance of the organization, and that these perceptions differ across groups, so that higher-level employees have a lower level of personal and perceived motivation. The article shows how to estimate the factor means and the factor correlation from dichotomous data, and how to assess goodness of fit. Lastly, we provide the M-Plus syntax code in order to facilitate the latent means analyses for applied researchers. PMID:23079366

  12. Large Context Problems and Their Applications to Education: Some Contemporary Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Some 35 years ago, Gerard K. O'Neill used the large context of space travel with his undergraduate physics students. A Canadian physics teacher, Art Stinner, independently arrived at a similar notion in a more limited but, therefore, more generally useful sense, which he referred to as the "large context problem" approach. At a slightly earlier…

  13. Large Context Problems and Their Applications to Education: Some Contemporary Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Some 35 years ago, Gerard K. O'Neill used the large context of space travel with his undergraduate physics students. A Canadian physics teacher, Art Stinner, independently arrived at a similar notion in a more limited but, therefore, more generally useful sense, which he referred to as the "large context problem" approach. At a slightly earlier…

  14. Context-sensitive Plan Execution Language for Adaptive Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Herwig; Reichelt, Toni; Oswald, Norbert; Förster, Stefan

    Faced with the growing complexity of application scenarios for autonomous robots, context-awareness and adaptivity are becoming more and more essential abilities to determine environmental circumstances and to adapt to them accordingly. While semantic technologies are widely used for the modelling of a robot’s context, purposive robot behaviour is typically described using plan or plan execution languages which lack explicit semantics for context representations. Context-sensitive adaptive behaviour emerges from the whole transformation process though, from context-awareness to the subsequent execution of associated plans. This comprehensive view of adaptivity lacks sufficient treatment in the field of robotics. Addressing this issue, we have augmented the expressive plan execution language PLEXIL, allowing complex context expressions as Description Logic queries to form an integral part of constructs that define sophisticated behavioural reactions. To demonstrate the symbiosis of context-awareness and plan execution, the enhanced language PLEXIL-DL is employed in the avionics system for a reconnaissance mission of an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

  15. Assessing Development of Meta-Pragmatic Awareness in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinginger, Celeste; Farrell, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore a methodology for assessing learners' meta-pragmatic awareness of variation in French language use. "Meta-pragmatic awareness" is defined as knowledge of the social meaning of variable second language forms and awareness of the ways in which these forms mark different aspects of social contexts, and is therefore…

  16. A comparison of near surface CO2 monitoring methods and their applicability in the CCS context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Ingo; Schlömer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The detection, characterization and quantification of different gas species in the vicinity of the soil-atmosphere interface is considered as one key element of near surface monitoring related to CO2 storage operations. From a broad range of available techniques (see e.g. Korre et al. 2011 and Rütters et al. 2013), three different methods have initially been selected in order to compare their applicability in the CCS context: - The eddy covariance method which can compute CO2 fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer, - CO2 flux measurements between soil and atmosphere by means of accumulation chambers, - Permanent CO2 concentration measurements in the vadose zone of the soil column. Additionally, basic atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements were also included in this comparison since they might have a potential as monitoring alternative on a low-cost basis. Results and lessons learned from practical field experiments were elaborated to point out advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods as well as their integration into an overall monitoring concept of CO2 storage sites. Field work has been carried out in different locations of Northern Germany, amongst others in the Altmark region, a formerly proposed CO2 injection site for enhanced gas recovery (Schlömer et al. 2014). This study benefits from interim results of the MONACO project (Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using an hierarchic observation concept) which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant 03G0817A). References: Korre, A., Imrie, C.E., May, F., Beaubien, S.E., Vandermeijer, V., Persoglia, S., Golmen, L., Fabriol, H., Dixon, T., 2011. Quantification techniques for potential CO2 leakage from geological storage sites. Energy Proc. 4, pp. 3413-3420. Rütters, H., Möller, I., May, F., Flornes, K., Hladik, V., Arvanitis, A., Gülec, N.,Bakiler, C., Dudu, A., Kucharic, L., Juhojuntti, N., Shogenova, A., Georgiev, G., 2013. State-of-the-art of monitoring methods to evaluate storage site performance. CGS Europe Report D3.3. 109 pp. http://repository.cgseurope.net/eng/cgseurope/knowledge-repository/key-reports/Monitoring.aspx Schlömer, S., Möller, I., Furche, M., 2014. Baseline soil gas measurements as part of a monitoring concept above a projected CO2 injection formation - A case study from Northern Germany. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 20, p. 57-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.10.028.

  17. The OGC Publish/Subscribe specification in the context of sensor-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium Publish/Subscribe Standards Working Group (in short, OGC PubSub SWG) was chartered in 2010 to specify a mechanism to support publish/subscribe requirements across OGC service interfaces and data types (coverage, feature, etc.) The Publish/Subscribe Interface Standard 1.0 - Core (13-131) defines an abstract description of the basic mandatory functionality, along with several optional, extended capabilities. The Core is independent of the underlying binding, for which two extensions are currently considered in the PubSub SWG scope: a SOAP binding and RESTful binding. Two primary parties characterize the publish/subscribe model: a Publisher, which is publishing information, and a Subscriber, which expresses an interest in all or part of the published information. In many cases, the Subscriber and the entity to which data is to be delivered (the Receiver) are one and the same. However, they are distinguished in PubSub to allow for these roles to be segregated. This is useful, for example, in event-based systems, where system entities primarily react to incoming information and may emit new information to other interested entities. The Publish/Subscribe model is distinguished from the typical request/response model, where a client makes a request and the server responds with either the requested information or a failure. This provides relatively immediate feedback, but can be insufficient in cases where the client is waiting for a specific event (such as data arrival, server changes, or data updates). In fact, while waiting for an event, a client must repeatedly request the desired information (polling). This has undesirable side effects: if a client polls frequently this can increase server load and network traffic, and if a client polls infrequently it may not receive a message when it is needed. These issues are accentuated when event occurrences are unpredictable, or when the delay between event occurrence and client notification must be small. Instead, the Publish/Subscribe model is characterized by the ability for a Subscriber to specify an ongoing (persistent) expression of interest in some messages, and by the asynchronous delivery of such messages. Hence, the publish/subscribe model can be useful to reduce the latency between event occurrence and event notification, as it is the Publisher's responsibility to publish a message when the event occurs, rather than relying on clients to anticipate the occurrence. The following cross-service requirements have been identified for PubSub 1.0: • Provide notification capabilities as a module to existing OGC services with no impact on existing service semantics and by reusing service-specific filtering semantics. • Usable as a way to push actual data (not only references to data) from a data access service (i.e. WCS, WFS, SOS) to the client. • Usable as a way to push notification messages (i.e. lightweight, no data but rather references to data) to the client. • Usable as a way to provide notifications of service and dataset updates in order to simplify/optimize harvesting by catalogs. The use-cases identified for PubSub 1.0 include: • Service Filtered Data Push. • Service Filtered Notification. • Notification of Threshold Crossings. • FAA SAA Dissemination Pilot. • Emergency / Safety Critical Application. The above suggests that the OGC Publish/Subscribe specification could be successfully applied to sensor-based monitoring. This work elaborates on this technology and its possible applications in this context.

  18. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  19. Consistency of stochastic context-free grammars and application to stochastic parsing of GMTI tracker data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2012-06-01

    Conventional trackers provide the human operator with estimated target tracks. It is desirable to make higher level inference of the target behaviour/intent (e.g., trajectory inference) in an automated manner. One such approach is to use stochastic context-free grammars and the Earley-Stoelcke parsing algorithm. The problem of inference is reformulated as one of parsing. In this paper, the consistency of stochastic context-free grammars is reviewed. Some examples illustrating the constraints on SCFGs due to consistency are presented, including a toy SCFG that has been used to successfully parse real GMTI radar data.

  20. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  1. The Importance of Context in Development and Application of Ecosystem Services Production Functions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The task of estimating ecosystem service production and delivery deserves special attention. When approached as a function of land cover at any given time, context driven facets of ecosystem service production, delivery, and resulting effects on human well-being can be overlooke...

  2. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  3. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  4. A Tool for Intersecting Context-Free Grammars and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for intersecting context-free grammars. Since this problem is undecidable the tool follows a refinement-based approach and implements a novel refinement which is complete for regularly separable grammars. We show its effectiveness for safety verification of recursive multi-threaded programs.

  5. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  6. Advanced Weather Awareness and Reporting Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M. (Technical Monitor); Ruokangas, Corinne Clinton; Kelly, Wallace E., III

    2005-01-01

    AWARE (Aviation Weather Awareness and Reporting Enhancements) was a NASA Cooperative Research and Development program conducted jointly by Rockwell Scientific, Rockwell Collins, and NASA. The effort culminated in an enhanced weather briefing and reporting tool prototype designed to integrate graphical and text-based aviation weather data to provide clear situational awareness in the context of a specific pilot, flight and equipment profile. The initial implementation of AWARE was as a web-based preflight planning tool, specifically for general aviation pilots, who do not have access to support such as the dispatchers available for commercial airlines. Initial usability tests showed that for VFR (Visual Flight Rules) pilots, AWARE provided faster and more effective weather evaluation. In a subsequent formal usability test for IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) pilots, all users finished the AWARE tests faster than the parallel DUAT tests, and all subjects graded AWARE higher for effectiveness, efficiency, and usability. The decision analysis basis of AWARE differentiates it from other aviation safety programs, providing analysis of context-sensitive data in a personalized graphical format to aid pilots/dispatchers in their complex flight requirements.

  7. Real time emotion aware applications: a case study employing emotion evocative pictures and neuro-physiological sensing enhanced by Graphic Processor Units.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Frantzidis, Christos A; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the feasibility of adopting Graphic Processor Units towards real-time emotion aware computing is investigated for boosting the time consuming computations employed in such applications. The proposed methodology was employed in analysis of encephalographic and electrodermal data gathered when participants passively viewed emotional evocative stimuli. The GPU effectiveness when processing electroencephalographic and electrodermal recordings is demonstrated by comparing the execution time of chaos/complexity analysis through nonlinear dynamics (multi-channel correlation dimension/D2) and signal processing algorithms (computation of skin conductance level/SCL) into various popular programming environments. Apart from the beneficial role of parallel programming, the adoption of special design techniques regarding memory management may further enhance the time minimization which approximates a factor of 30 in comparison with ANSI C language (single-core sequential execution). Therefore, the use of GPU parallel capabilities offers a reliable and robust solution for real-time sensing the user's affective state. PMID:22520825

  8. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA / National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL (Jedlovec 2013; Ralph et al. 2013; Merceret et al. 2013) is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The SPoRT-LIS is currently run over a domain covering the southeastern half of the Continental United States (CONUS), with an additional experimental real-time run over the entire CONUS and surrounding portions of southern Canada and northern Mexico. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) product (Zhang et al. 2011, 2014), which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014. This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations. Section 2 gives background information on the NASA LIS and describes the realtime SPoRT-LIS configurations being compared. Section 3 presents recent work done to develop a training module on situational awareness applications of real-time SPoRT-LIS output. Comparisons between output from the two SPoRT-LIS runs are shown in Section 4, including a documentation of issues encountered in using the MRMS precipitation dataset. A summary and future work in given in Section 5, followed by acknowledgements and references.

  9. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario. PMID:26087372

  10. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management †

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario. PMID:26087372

  11. Refining estimates of catastrophic healthcare expenditure: an application in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Joe, William

    2013-06-01

    Empirics of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, especially in the Indian context, are often based on consumption expenditure data that inadequately informs about the ability to pay. Use of such data can generate a pro-rich bias in the estimation of catastrophic expenditure thereby suggesting greater concentration of such expenditures among richer households. To improve upon the existing approach, this paper suggests a multidimensional approach to comprehend the incidence of catastrophic expenditure. Here, we integrate the information on health expenditure with other social and economic parameters of deprivation. An empirical illustration is provided by using nationally representative survey on morbidity and healthcare in India. The results of the multidimensional approach are consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the ability-to-pay approach and emphasizes on the severity of the problem in rural areas. The suggested methodology is flexible and allows for context-specific prioritization in selection of parameters of vulnerability while estimating the incidence of catastrophic expenditures. PMID:23436186

  12. Battlefield awareness overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, Troy A.

    1997-06-01

    The Information Systems Office (ISO) at DARPA develops, applies, integrates, and transitions information technology and systems to enable domination of the battlespace. To that end, ISO is engaged in three thrusts: comprehensive battlespace awareness; intelligent and timely force management and battle execution; and, realistic and affordable simulation for training, mission rehearsal, and course of action evaluation. In each thrust, ISO concentrates on enduring and future threats and solutions. The development approach involves creating the next generation of infrastructure, technology, and applications to build, sustain, and maintain a tightly-coupled system of systems. ISO information systems drive evolving concepts and doctrine for implementing a new warfare paradigm in which knowledge, not mass and fire power, is key to battlespace dominance across the ever-expanding spectrum of conflict. DARPA views its Battlespace Awareness Program as the catalyst for accelerating the implementation of a continually-evolving system of information technology that will enable the information-based warfare paradigm described above. The roadmap being followed by DARPA is to design, develop and transition a pilot infrastructure of information systems that can be used to enable emerging new operational concepts and guide future system developments and acquisitions. This infrastructure requires integrated system applications and a common information support environment.

  13. Towards perception awareness: Perceptual event detection for Brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Hossein; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Pomponiu, Victor; Ehrenberg, Evan C; Ngai-Man Cheung; Sinha, Pawan

    2015-08-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) technology is becoming increasingly popular in many domains such as entertainment, mental state analysis, and rehabilitation. For robust performance in these domains, detecting perceptual events would be a vital ability, enabling adaptation to and act on the basis of user's perception of the environment. Here we present a framework to automatically mine spatiotemporal characteristics of a given perceptual event. As this "signature" is derived directly from subject's neural behavior, it can serve as a representation of the subject's perception of the targeted scenario, which in turn allows a BCI system to gain a new level of context awareness: perception awareness. As a proof of concept, we show the application of the proposed framework on MEG signal recordings from a face perception study, and the resulting temporal and spatial characteristics of the derived neural signature, as well as it's compatibility with the neuroscientific literature on face perception. PMID:26736550

  14. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  15. Awareness of dying: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J; McCarthy, M

    1997-08-01

    Analysis of a subset of data from a survey of 3696 relatives, friends and others who knew a sample of people dying in 1990 who lived in 20 areas of the United Kingdom (the Regional Study of Care for the Dying) is reported. Using the typology of awareness contexts developed by Glaser and Strauss [(1965) Awareness of Dying, Aldine, Chicago], the prevalence of different awareness contexts is described and compared with an earlier survey done in 1969. Open awareness of dying, where both the dying person and the respondent knew that the person was dying, is the most prevalent awareness context. This is particularly so in cancer and represents a change since 1969 when closed awareness (where the respondent knows, but the dying person does not) was more common. The characteristics of those dying in open and closed awareness contexts are then compared, suggesting that having cancer, not being mentally confused, having a respondent who knew for some time that the person was dying, and being of higher social class are independently predictive of full open awareness, a condition marked both by knowledge of dying, and a value commitment towards openness. Compared with people in closed awareness, people dying in full awareness are more able to plan their dying careers, so that they and their respondents are more satisfied with the degree of choice over the place of death, they are less likely to die alone, and are more likely to die in their own homes. Additionally, these individuals are more likely to have spoken of their wishes for euthanasia, another indicator of their desire to control the manner and timing of death. If dying from cancer, people in full open awareness are more likely to have received hospice care. It is suggested that underlying these patterns, and in contrast with some other cultures where awareness of dying is seen as less desirable, people dying in Anglophone countries are particularly concerned to maintain control over projects of self-identity. Their approach to death is a reflection of this individualism. PMID:9232741

  16. Gene function prediction based on genomic context clustering and discriminative learning: an application to bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Halgamuge, Saman K; Kells, Christopher I; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Existing methods for whole-genome comparisons require prior knowledge of related species and provide little automation in the function prediction process. Bacteriophage genomes are an example that cannot be easily analyzed by these methods. This work addresses these shortcomings and aims to provide an automated prediction system of gene function. Results We have developed a novel system called SynFPS to perform gene function prediction over completed genomes. The prediction system is initialized by clustering a large collection of weakly related genomes into groups based on their resemblance in gene distribution. From each individual group, data are then extracted and used to train a Support Vector Machine that makes gene function predictions. Experiments were conducted with 9 different gene functions over 296 bacteriophage genomes. Cross validation results gave an average prediction accuracy of ~80%, which is comparable to other genomic-context based prediction methods. Functional predictions are also made on 3 uncharacterized genes and 12 genes that cannot be identified by sequence alignment. The software is publicly available at . Conclusion The proposed system employs genomic context to predict gene function and detect gene correspondence in whole-genome comparisons. Although our experimental focus is on bacteriophages, the method may be extended to other microbial genomes as they share a number of similar characteristics with phage genomes such as gene order conservation. PMID:17570149

  17. Initial Results from an Energy-Aware Airborne Dynamic, Data-Driven Application System Performing Sampling in Coherent Boundary-Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, E.; Argrow, B. M.; Houston, A. L.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-01

    The energy-aware airborne dynamic, data-driven application system (EA-DDDAS) performs persistent sampling in complex atmospheric conditions by exploiting wind energy using the dynamic data-driven application system paradigm. The main challenge for future airborne sampling missions is operation with tight integration of physical and computational resources over wireless communication networks, in complex atmospheric conditions. The physical resources considered here include sensor platforms, particularly mobile Doppler radar and unmanned aircraft, the complex conditions in which they operate, and the region of interest. Autonomous operation requires distributed computational effort connected by layered wireless communication. Onboard decision-making and coordination algorithms can be enhanced by atmospheric models that assimilate input from physics-based models and wind fields derived from multiple sources. These models are generally too complex to be run onboard the aircraft, so they need to be executed in ground vehicles in the field, and connected over broadband or other wireless links back to the field. Finally, the wind field environment drives strong interaction between the computational and physical systems, both as a challenge to autonomous path planning algorithms and as a novel energy source that can be exploited to improve system range and endurance. Implementation details of a complete EA-DDDAS will be provided, along with preliminary flight test results targeting coherent boundary-layer structures.

  18. Language Awareness as a Challenge for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunerberg, Reinhard; Geile, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The following contribution is a meta-analysis of the language awareness discipline from a practical application point of view. It is based on a keynote speech at the "10th International Conference of the Association for Language Awareness," and deals with the implications of business requirements for language use in communication processes. The…

  19. Schematic representation of residue-based protein context-dependent data: an application to transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Campagne, F; Weinstein, H

    1999-01-01

    An algorithmic method for drawing residue-based schematic diagrams of proteins on a 2D page is presented and illustrated. The method allows the creation of rendering engines dedicated to a given family of sequences, or fold. The initial implementation provides an engine that can produce a 2D diagram representing secondary structure for any transmembrane protein sequence. We present the details of the strategy for automating the drawing of these diagrams. The most important part of this strategy is the development of an algorithm for laying out residues of a loop that connects to arbitrary points of a 2D plane. As implemented, this algorithm is suitable for real-time modification of the loop layout. This work is of interest for the representation and analysis of data from (1) protein databases, (2) mutagenesis results, or (3) various kinds of protein context-dependent annotations or data. PMID:10736778

  20. Awareness in Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Celia

    1998-01-01

    Extends the notion of language awareness to include intercultural communicative awareness. The interconnectedness of language and cultural processes is illustrated through a discussion of metapragmatic awareness. The second half of the article looks at the potential of misunderstandings in intercultural communication and charts some of the…

  1. Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Riemsdijk, M. Birna; Hindriks, Koen; Jonker, Catholijn

    Organizational notions such as roles, norms (e.g., obligations and permissions), and services are increasingly viewed as natural concepts to manage the complexity of software development. In particular in the context of multi-agent systems, agents are expected to be organization-aware, i.e., to understand and reason about the structure, work processes, and norms of the agent organization in which they operate. In this paper, we analyze which kinds of reasoning an agent should be able to do to function in an organization. We categorize these kinds of reasoning with respect to several dimensions, and distinguish three general approaches on how these might be integrated in existing agent programming languages. Through this, we provide a research agenda on what needs to be addressed when developing techniques for programming organization-aware agents.

  2. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  3. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  4. NEWS: Science awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's award scheme in the public understanding of science and technology for 1999 is currently under way and the first closing date has already passed. The second date for the receipt of applications for the Small Awards scheme is 10 October (open to anyone), with awards ranging from £250 up to the maximum of £10 000 per project. The funding can be used for materials, salaries, travel and subsistence, and there may be a slight preference towards projects involving young people and schools. Subject areas must be those relevant to PPARC: particle physics; space, ionospheric, solar and planetary science; astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Application documentation can be obtained from PUST Office Room 2232, PPARC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ (tel: 01793 442002, e-mail: pr_pus@pparc.ac.uk and website http://www.pparc.ac.uk/role/notes.html). And whilst on this same theme, the deadline is fast approaching for a new Institute of Physics scheme intended to recognize work on increasing awareness of the exciting nature of physics and its relevance and impact on everyday life. The Public Awareness of Physics awards will recognize individuals and groups who have demonstrated excellence, inspiration and innovation in bringing physics to the public and assist in raising the status of this kind of activity. There are no restrictions on eligibility and nominees do not have to be members of the Institute of Physics, physicists or physics trained. Nominations may be made by anyone, with up to five awards to be given annually. Further details, nomination guidelines and forms are available from Katie Perry, Public Affairs Department, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DN (tel: 0171 470 4800, e-mail: katie.perry@iop.org).

  5. Biological Time Series Analysis Using a Context Free Language: Applicability to Pulsatile Hormone Data

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Dennis A.; Adler, Gail K.; Nguyen, David P.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analyzing biological time-series data using a context-free language (CFL) representation that allows the extraction and quantification of important features from the time-series. This representation results in Hierarchically AdaPtive (HAP) analysis, a suite of multiple complementary techniques that enable rapid analysis of data and does not require the user to set parameters. HAP analysis generates hierarchically organized parameter distributions that allow multi-scale components of the time-series to be quantified and includes a data analysis pipeline that applies recursive analyses to generate hierarchically organized results that extend traditional outcome measures such as pharmacokinetics and inter-pulse interval. Pulsicons, a novel text-based time-series representation also derived from the CFL approach, are introduced as an objective qualitative comparison nomenclature. We apply HAP to the analysis of 24 hours of frequently sampled pulsatile cortisol hormone data, which has known analysis challenges, from 14 healthy women. HAP analysis generated results in seconds and produced dozens of figures for each participant. The results quantify the observed qualitative features of cortisol data as a series of pulse clusters, each consisting of one or more embedded pulses, and identify two ultradian phenotypes in this dataset. HAP analysis is designed to be robust to individual differences and to missing data and may be applied to other pulsatile hormones. Future work can extend HAP analysis to other time-series data types, including oscillatory and other periodic physiological signals. PMID:25184442

  6. Importance of context in adoption and progress in application of strategic environmental assessment: Experience of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wirutskulshai, Uma Sajor, Edsel Coowanitwong, Nowarat

    2011-04-15

    Following the example of other developed countries, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) tool is now being introduced in developing countries, with the expectations, among others, that it will influence decision-making process in planning, and also usher in the participatory and collaborative planning towards a more sustainable track in development. This article examines Thailand's own recent introduction of SEA. The authors underscore the particularity of the Thai planning context as well as the broader governance structure and processes in the country as the critical factor influencing the extent, substance and form of adoption of SEA. Top-down tradition of planning and serious limitation of public participation opportunity structures and institutional culture have minimized the tool's positive impact and influence in development planning. Thailand's experience in SEA introduction thus reaffirms the important lesson from a number of other developing countries: that legal framework for SEA is necessary and critical especially in its initial adoption; and, that public participation needs to be supported too and institutionalized for the tool to fulfill its promise of improving environmental governance and optimizing potentials of development projects vis-a-vis various social and environmental concerns.

  7. The estimation of cortical activity for brain-computer interface: applications in a domotic context.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F; Marciani, M; Salinari, S; Astolfi, L; Tocci, A; Aloise, F; De Vico Fallani, F; Bufalari, S; Mattia, D

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system. PMID:18350134

  8. The Estimation of Cortical Activity for Brain-Computer Interface: Applications in a Domotic Context

    PubMed Central

    Babiloni, F.; Cincotti, F.; Marciani, M.; Salinari, S.; Astolfi, L.; Tocci, A.; Aloise, F.; Fallani, F. De Vico; Bufalari, S.; Mattia, D.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system. PMID:18350134

  9. Moodle 2.0 Web Services Layer and Its New Application Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; Aguilar, Diego Alonso Gómez; Del Pozo de Dios, Alberto; Peñalvo, Francisco José García

    Owing to the intrinsic relation among actual education and new technologies, it results essential the fact to found the new ways to satisfy both sides of the modern eLearning platforms, the needs of students and tutors and the enough technologies to support it. Consequently, the possibility to interconnect the LMS with other external applications to enrich and strengthen the comprehension of learning process is one of the principal paths to follow.

  10. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  11. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manhyung; Vinh, La The; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human's body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  12. Kepler Scientific Workflow Design and Execution with Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong; Jamnagarwala, Arwa; Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-09-01

    A context-aware scientific workflow is a typical scientific workflow that is enhanced with context binding and awareness mechanisms. Context facilitates further configuration of the scientific workflow at runtime such that it is tuned to its environment during execution and responds intelligently based on such awareness without customized coding of the workflow. In this paper, we present a context annotation framework, which supports rapid development of context-aware scientific workflows. Context annotation enables a diverse type of actor in Kepler that may bind with different sensed environmental information as part of the actor’s regular data. Context-aware actors simplify the construction of scientific workflows that require intricate knowledge in initializing and configuring a large number of parameters to cover all different execution conditions. This paper presents the motivation, system design, implementation, and usage of context annotation in relation to the Kepler scientific workflow system.

  13. Adult Environmental Education: Awareness and Environmental Action. Adult Learning in the Context of Environment, Health and Population. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet discusses the present state of environmental adult education and its major difficulties and shortcomings and develops recommendations for further development of this field. Section 1 discusses linking environmental and social issues and locating environmental problems within the context of one's daily life and action. Section 2…

  14. Is the NHS best practice tariff for type 1 diabetes applicable in the Irish context?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, N; McGlacken-Byrne, S M; Hawkes, C P; Murphy, N

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service in the UK has identified thirteen key standards of paediatric diabetes care. Funding depends on services meeting these standards. The aim of this study was to determine if these standards are applicable in an Irish setting. All patients attending the diabetes service during 2012 were included. Patient charts, electronic appointments, nursing notes and computerised results were used to ascertain relevant information for comparison with the NHS standards. Patients attended a mean 2.97 (SD 0.7) medical and 2.2 (SD 2.9) nursing appointments per year, with a median additional contacts of 8 nurse phone calls (range 0 - 125). Most standards were met by this service. In comparing our service to the NHS standard, we have identified a number of areas for improving our service provision. Limited resources and staff shortages make a number of these standards unachievable, namely annual dietetic review and three monthly outpatient appointments. PMID:25226714

  15. Application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for controlling subsurface fire area: Indian context

    SciTech Connect

    Mohalik, N.K.; Singh, V.K.; Singh, R.V.K.

    2009-07-15

    In bord and pillar method of mining, the panels are sealed off after depillaring. Depending upon the site specific condition, 40 to 45 % coal are left in depillared panel as stook, loose coal left in goaf, hard coal on floor and roof of the panel. The left out coals in goaf area start oxidation, and this leads to spontaneous heating in side sealed off area. For assessment of fire in underground coal mines, thermo-compositional monitoring plays an important role. This paper presents scientific relevance and selective criteria for use of inert gas for control of subsurface fire. Finally the paper discusses spontaneous heating problem in sealed off area and application of inertisation technology by using CO, to prevent and control sealed off fire at Haripur Colliery, Kenda Area, ECL, India.

  16. An Application of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction and College and University Classroom Environment Inventory in a Multicultural Tertiary Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2002-02-01

    The research reported in this inquiry consisted of the application of two classroom learning environment questionnaires developed in a Western context to a culturally diverse context, namely, the Pacific Islands. The College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) and Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) instruments were administered to intact classes of first- and second-year science students ( n= 257) at a regional university in the Pacific Islands, containing a total of 12 ethnicities. The data reveal that the QTI instrument holds good reliability for all scales, whereas the CUCEI holds reliability for only two scales. This may be due to the simple nature of the questions on the QTI whereas the questions on the CUCEI require more interpretation, the latter exacerbated by the fact that English is a second or third language for most participants. Surprisingly, there were few differences in perceptions of teacher student interaction based on ethnicity, but substantial differences based on gender. As reported in previous classroom environment research at the secondary school level, in this study, females perceived their environment more favourably than males. The data for the QTI reveal that the students perceive their classrooms to be highly teacher dominated, consistent with previous naturalistic studies of secondary schools and exploratory studies at the tertiary level in Fiji. Since almost all the graduates from this institution become science teachers, a cycle is completed.

  17. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  18. Awareness and Monitoring in Outdoor Marine Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This paper examines learning relationships associated with awareness, attitude and participatory action skills in the context of community education programs concerning the marine environment. Purpose: An investigation of the relationship of experiential marine education to environmental knowledge, attitudes and responsible ecological…

  19. Language Awareness Research: Where We Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M-L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the context in which Language Awareness (LA) research is currently situated and where it might be going. The starting point is Eric Hawkins's vision (40 years ago) of LA as a bridge between school subjects and, in wider society, between people of different backgrounds and languages. Although considerable progress has been made…

  20. Teacher Language Awareness in Supervisory Feedback Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen; Baecher, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates pre- and post-observation feedback provided to TESOL teacher candidates who are preparing to work in content-based instruction/content and language integrated learning contexts, extending the conceptualization of teacher language awareness (TLA) to candidate supervision. It examines the extent to which TLA is manifested by…

  1. Language Awareness Research: Where We Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M-L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the context in which Language Awareness (LA) research is currently situated and where it might be going. The starting point is Eric Hawkins's vision (40 years ago) of LA as a bridge between school subjects and, in wider society, between people of different backgrounds and languages. Although considerable progress has been made…

  2. The Problem-Solving Approach to program evaluation: Development and application in a mathematics context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costner, Kelly Mitchell

    This study developed and piloted the Problem-Solving Approach to program evaluation, which involves the direct application of the problem-solving process as a metaphor for program evaluation. A rationale for a mathematics-specific approach is presented, and relevant literature in both program evaluation and mathematics education is reviewed. The Problem-Solving Approach was piloted with a high-school level integrated course in mathematics and science that used graphing calculators and data collection devices with the goal of helping students to gain better understanding of relationships between mathematics and science. Twelve students participated in the course, which was co-taught by a mathematics teacher and a science teacher. Data collection for the evaluation included observations, a pre- and posttest, student questionnaires, student interviews, teacher interviews, principal interviews, and a focus group that involved both students and their teachers. Results of the evaluation of the course are presented as an evaluation report. Students showed improvement in their understandings of mathematics-science relationships, but also showed growth in terms of self-confidence, independence, and various social factors that were not expected outcomes. The teachers experienced a unique form of professional development by learning and relearning concepts in each other's respective fields and by gaining insights into each other's teaching strengths. Both the results of the evaluation and the evaluation process itself are discussed in light of the proposed problem-solving approach. The use of problem solving and of specific problem-solving strategies was found to be prevalent among the students and the teachers, as well as in the activities of the evaluator. Specific problem-solving strategies are highlighted for their potential value in program evaluation situations. The resulting Problem-Solving Approach, revised through the pilot application, employs problem solving as a recursive process at three interconnected levels: the evaluation level (where the evaluator is problem solver), the program level (where teachers or other program administrators are problem solvers), and the mathematical task level (where students are problem solvers).

  3. Detecting submerged objects: the application of side scan sonar to forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Schultz, John J; Healy, Carrie A; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2013-09-10

    Forensic personnel must deal with numerous challenges when searching for submerged objects. While traditional water search methods have generally involved using dive teams, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and water scent dogs for cases involving submerged objects and bodies, law enforcement is increasingly integrating multiple methods that include geophysical technologies. There are numerous advantages for integrating geophysical technologies, such as side scan sonar and ground penetrating radar (GPR), with more traditional search methods. Overall, these methods decrease the time involved searching, in addition to increasing area searched. However, as with other search methods, there are advantages and disadvantages when using each method. For example, in instances with excessive aquatic vegetation or irregular bottom terrain, it may not be possible to discern a submersed body with side scan sonar. As a result, forensic personnel will have the highest rate of success during searches for submerged objects when integrating multiple search methods, including deploying multiple geophysical technologies. The goal of this paper is to discuss the methodology of various search methods that are employed for submerged objects and how these various methods can be integrated as part of a comprehensive protocol for water searches depending upon the type of underwater terrain. In addition, two successful case studies involving the search and recovery of a submerged human body using side scan sonar are presented to illustrate the successful application of integrating a geophysical technology with divers when searching for a submerged object. PMID:23890654

  4. Quantized visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436

  5. Conversational Awareness in Text-Based Computer Mediated Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh Hong; Yang, Yun; Raikundalia, Gitesh K.

    Text-based computer-mediated communication (TxtCMC) supports an instant exchange of messages among geographically distributed people. TxtCMC, such as Instant Messaging and chat tools, has increasingly become widespread and popular at home and at work. Supporting conversational awareness is an important aspect of TxtCMC. Conversational awareness provides a user with information about the presence and activity of others, and therefore helps to establish a context for the user’s own activity. Unfortunately, current interface design of TxtCMC provides inadequate support for conversational awareness, especially in support for awareness of turn-taking, conversational context and multiple concurrent conversations. This research aims to address these three issues by (1) conducting an empirical study to identify the user need for conversational awareness and (2) designing an interface to support this type of awareness. This chapter presents two innovative prototypes, namely Relaxed Instant Messenger (RIM) and Conversational Dock (ConDock). RIM integrates a sequential interface with an adaptive threaded interface to support awareness of turn-taking and conversational context. ConDock adopts a focus + context visualisation technique to support awareness of multiple conversations. The evaluations of the two prototypes show that they meet their design objectives and were found useful in enhancing group communication.

  6. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  7. Application of life cycle thinking in multidisciplinary multistakeholder contexts for cross-sectoral planning and implementation of sustainable development projects.

    PubMed

    Thabrew, Lanka; Ries, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Development planning and implementation is a multifaceted and multiscale task mainly because of the involvement of multiple stakeholders across sectors and disciplines. Even though top-down sectoral planning is commonly practiced, bottom-up cross-sectoral planning involving all relevant stakeholders in a transdisciplinary learning environment has been recognized as a better option, especially if the goal is to drive development projects toward sustainable implementation (Rowe and Fudge 2003; Müller et al. 2005; Global Development Research Center 2008). Even though many planning approaches have this goal, there are limited decision frameworks that are suitable for achieving consensus among stakeholders from multiple disciplines with sectoral objectives and priorities. In most instances, the upstream and downstream effects of development decisions are not thoroughly investigated or communicated with the relevant stakeholders, strongly affecting cross-sectoral integration in the real world (Wiek, Brundiers, et al. 2006). This article presents methodological aspects of developing a stakeholder based life cycle assessment framework (SBLCA) for upstream-downstream decision analysis in a multistakeholder development planning context. The applicability of the framework is demonstrated using simple examples extracted from a pilot case study conducted in Sri Lanka for sustainable posttsunami reconstruction at a village scale. The applicability of SBLCA in specific planning stages, how it promotes transdisciplinary learning and cross-sectoral stakeholder integration in phases of project cycles, and how local stakeholders can practice life cycle thinking in their village development planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:20050032

  8. Nontraditional Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes Road East Area Vocational Technical School, Monroeville, PA.

    This packet contains materials for a three-day nontraditional career awareness unit which have been tested and evaluated by over 10,000 students and numerous counselors and other educators. Its purpose is to make students more aware of the full range of career opportunities open to male and female students. A cover page for each day lists…

  9. Environmental Awareness Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Fred C.

    Environmental Awareness is the theme of this bibliography compiled by the Friends Council on Education to assist in the task of implementing environmental awareness courses and experiences into the crowded curricula and extra-curricular life of schools and colleges. Part One, "Definition of the Problem," is a selected bibliography of printed…

  10. Developing Community Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesseneer, Susan Wyman

    Members of a college community were surveyed to assess their awareness of the international student population at the local college. The questionnaire was administered by interview to each of 25 representatives of selected local civic groups in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The twofold purpose of the survey was to assess community awareness of foreign…

  11. Blogging and Audience Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Shea, Andrea; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogging may foreground audience needs for a written work and help novice authors grow in audience awareness and elicit and use audience feedback. A case study of a second-grade classroom compared students' growing audience awareness and the ways they addressed audience needs. Analysis of student written work, students' comments to…

  12. [Neuromonitoring and awareness].

    PubMed

    Posch, Matthias J; Bosch, Matthias J; Baars, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Awareness is a rare but in some cases severe complication of general anesthesia. In clinical practice vegetative signs such as sweating, lacrimation, tachycardia and hypertension are used to assess the anesthetic depth. Awareness however may also occur without any of these signs. Different systems based on the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been developed to monitor hypnosis. Some studies have shown that the use of EEG based monitor systems can reduce the incidence of awareness in patients of high risk. A similar reduction of the incidence was reached in studies using protocols based on concentrations of volatile anesthetics. Other systems to monitor anesthetic depth have been developed, but their influence on awareness has not yet been investigated sufficiently. Further studies are needed to clarify their impact concerning the incidence of awareness. PMID:23364825

  13. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the original and upgraded SPoRT-LIS, and discuss the path forward for future collaboration opportunities with SPoRT partners in the NWS.

  14. Experience with Using the Sensewear BMS Sensor System in the Context of a Health and Wellbeing Application

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Val; Bults, Richard; de Wijk, Rene; Widya, Ing; Batista, Ricardo; Hermens, Hermie

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a sensor designed for monitoring energy expenditure, activity, and sleep was conducted in the context of a research project which develops a weight management application. The overall goal of this project is to affect sustainable behavioural change with respect to diet and exercise in order to improve health and wellbeing. This paper reports results of a pretrial in which three volunteers wore the sensor for a total of 11 days. The aim was to gain experience with the sensor and determine if it would be suitable for incorporation into the ICT system developed by the project to be trialled later on a larger population. In this paper we focus mainly on activity monitoring and user experience. Data and results including visualizations and reports are presented and discussed. User experience proved positive in most respects. Exercise levels and sleep patterns correspond to user logs relating to exercise sessions and sleep patterns. Issues raised relate to accuracy, one source of possible interference, the desirability of enhancing the system with real-time data transmission, and analysis to enable real-time feedback. It is argued that automatic activity classification is needed to properly analyse and interpret physical activity data captured by accelerometry. PMID:21772840

  15. Interpretation and applicability of microRNA data to the context of Alzheimer's and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Generated by the ribonuclease III Dicer, microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to regulate up to 90% of the genes in humans, suggesting that they may control every cellular processes in all cells and tissues of the human body! Likely to play a central role in health and disease, a dysfunctional miRNA-based regulation of gene expression may represent the main etiologic factor underlying age-related diseases affecting major organs, such as the brain. Here, we discuss some of the limitations associated to the interpretation and applicability of miRNA data, based on our recent study on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using transiently transfected murine neuronal N2a cells in culture, in parallel to a mouse model of AD, we were able to demonstrate a role for two miRNAs (miR-298 and miR-328) in the regulation of ß-amyloid (Aß) precursor protein (APP)-converting enzyme (BACE) messenger RNA (mRNA) translation, thereby providing key insights into the molecular basis underlying BACE deregulation in AD. However, whether miRNA data can be extrapolated and transposed to the human context of age-related diseases, such as AD, not only requires caution, but also warrants several considerations. PMID:20375468

  16. Connecting Self-Awareness and Error-Awareness in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dockree, Paul M; Tarleton, Yvonne M; Carton, Simone; FitzGerald, Mary C C

    2015-08-01

    Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often seen in stark contrast to the observations of significant-others, who are acutely aware of the difficulties experienced by patients. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive knowledge in daily life and emergent awareness of errors during laboratory tasks, since the breakdown of error detection mechanisms may impose limitations on the recovery of metacognitive knowledge after TBI. We also examined the extent to which these measures of awareness can predict dysexecutive behaviors. A sample of TBI patients (n=62) and their significant-others, provided reports of daily functioning post injury. In addition, patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and were instructed to signal their errors during go/no-go tests. Interrelationships between metacognitive and emergent levels of awareness were examined, after controlling for the influence of secondary cognitive variables. Significant-other ratings correlated with errors made by the patients on neuropsychological tests but not with their premorbid function. Patients who under-reported daily life difficulties or over-reported their competency, compared to significant-other reports, were less likely to show awareness of laboratory errors. Emergent awareness was also identified as the sole predictor of performance on the modified six-element test, an ecologically valid test of multitasking. The online breakdown of error awareness after brain injury is related to difficulties with metacognitive awareness as reported in daily life, and is also predictive of dysexecutive behaviors. These findings are discussed in the context of multidimensional and neural models of awareness and error monitoring. PMID:26235053

  17. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePLUS

    ... learn about high-quality child care. Welcome to Child Care Aware® E-Mail Print Share Tweet Military Child ... 2246 Call TTY#: 1-866-278-9428 Free Child Care Search Please enter your zip code. Your local ...

  18. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Services Resources 2015 Membership Rates With over 400 Child Care Aware centers across the United States we ... help you find the right care for your child. To locate a center near you use the ...

  19. Sleep and moral awareness.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-04-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others. PMID:25159702

  20. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  1. An Illustrative Case Study of the Heuristic Practices of a High-Performing Research Department: Toward Building a Model Applicable in the Context of Large Urban Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This case study provides an illustration of the heuristic practices of a high-performing research department, which in turn, will help build much needed models applicable in the context of large urban districts. This case study examines the accountability, planning, evaluation, testing, and research functions of a research department in a large…

  2. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 4 - Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context A Appendix A to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  3. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 4 - Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context A Appendix A to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  4. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 4 - Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context A Appendix A to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  5. Awareness and Use of Folic Acid among Women in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, James M.; Hopkins, Sarah E.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Casey, Patrick H.; Cleves, Mario A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: National and state efforts to increase folic acid awareness and use may not be reaching large segments of the population. Purpose: This study examines folic acid awareness and use among women of childbearing age in a representative, economically at-risk rural sample and identifies factors that influence awareness and use. Methods: A…

  6. Awareness and Use of Folic Acid among Women in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, James M.; Hopkins, Sarah E.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Casey, Patrick H.; Cleves, Mario A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: National and state efforts to increase folic acid awareness and use may not be reaching large segments of the population. Purpose: This study examines folic acid awareness and use among women of childbearing age in a representative, economically at-risk rural sample and identifies factors that influence awareness and use. Methods: A…

  7. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  8. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  9. Psychotherapist and expansion of awareness.

    PubMed

    Chung, C Y

    1990-01-01

    The author emphasizes the therapist's well-integrated and matured personality as the crucial element for being a good psychotherapist; therefore, it is essential for a psychotherapist to make ceaseless efforts regarding his own personality growth with his ongoing therapeutic experiences. Nevertheless, nowadays students are apt to satisfy themselves with or cling to the theories and techniques of psychotherapy, neglecting their own personality growth. The author attributes such a tendency, on the one hand, to the contemporary thought of 'technology first and convenience first', on the other, to the current system of medical education which is extremely faithful to scientism. He warns that concepts or theories sometimes serve as a barrier in one's mind and falsify the reality. He reiterates the importance of the therapist's own maturity and expansion of awareness. In this context, the author recommends Zen meditation or Theravada meditation as one of the advanced courses of training for psychotherapists. He elucidates a way of promoting one's awareness in Zen meditation and what the ultimate state of "no-self" of Zen should be, based on his own experience of Zen practices. PMID:2290902

  10. Image processing technology for enhanced situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Smith, M. I.; Hickman, D.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the integration of a number of advanced image and data processing technologies in support of the development of next-generation Situational Awareness systems for counter-terrorism and crime fighting applications. In particular, the paper discusses the European Union Framework 7 'SAMURAI' project, which is investigating novel approaches to interactive Situational Awareness using cooperative networks of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Specific focus is given to novel Data Fusion aspects of the research which aim to improve system performance through intelligently fusing both image data and non image data sources, resolving human-machine conflicts, and refining the Situational Awareness picture. In addition, the paper highlights some recent advances in supporting image processing technologies. Finally, future trends in image-based Situational Awareness are identified, such as Post-Event Analysis (also known as 'Back-Tracking'), and the associated technical challenges are discussed.

  11. Impact of learning content on World Heritage Site preservation awareness in town of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR: Application of Protection Motivation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poong, Y. S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Takada, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to systematically design learning content to promote world heritage site preservation awareness. Based on 212 samples from a local university in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR, impact of learning content designed according to Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is assessed through a repeated-measure t-test. Findings show that PMT-based learning content influences respondents' on threat appraisal and coping appraisal towards the preservation of world heritage site.

  12. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  13. Improving situation awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usbeck, Kyle; Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Gronosky, Andrew; Sterling, Joshua; Kohler, Ralph; Hanlon, Kelly; Scally, Andrew; Newkirk, Richard; Canestrare, David

    2015-05-01

    To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information. A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video. This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.

  14. Women’s Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Assifi, Anisa R.; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Background Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women’s access to safe, legal abortion services. Objective To provide a synthesis of evidence of women’s awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women’s knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country’s abortion law. Methods A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980–2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women’s awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Results Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women’s correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3% - 68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8% – 98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8% - 64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7% - 94% and 0% - 89.5% respectively. Conclusion This systematic review synthesizes literature on women’s awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary. PMID:27010629

  15. Network-Based Learning and Assessment Applications on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David

    2005-01-01

    Today's Web applications are already "aware" of the network of computers and data on the Internet, in the sense that they perceive, remember, and represent knowledge external to themselves. However, Web applications are generally not able to respond to the meaning and context of the information in their memories. As a result, most applications are…

  16. Career Awareness: Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and Career Education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The introduction contains the format for…

  17. Counselor Ethnic Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Marjorie K.

    The Counselor Ethnic Awareness Project involved the development, implementation, and assessment of a model training program. Its major purpose was to enable a group of professional school counselors to design and execute projects that would increase appreciation by students, faculty, and community of their own and one another's ethnic heritage. In…

  18. Fostering Pragmatic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1999-01-01

    Offers examples and proposals for fostering pragmatic awareness in a second language (L2) through the recognition of the interpersonal function of asset of common expressions in contemporary spoken English. Illustrates the use of these forms in marking assumptions of being similar, polite, accurate, being informative, and emphatic. (Author/VWL)

  19. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  20. International Agri-Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    Technological progress in communication and transportation within the past 30 years has made many areas of the world accessible, as well as interdependent. Failure to understand the concept of interdependency greatly diminishes the potential of all nations and each citizen to appreciate this world community. This agricultural awareness program…

  1. Safety Awareness & Communications Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, Zanani

    2015-01-01

    The projects that I have worked on during my internships were updating the JSC Safety & Health Action Team JSAT Employee Guidebook, conducting a JSC mishap case study, preparing for JSC Today Close Call success stories, and assisting with event planning and awareness.

  2. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  3. Career Awareness: Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school subjects. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. Self-development and understanding is stressed…

  4. Career Awareness: Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The introduction contains the format for…

  5. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  6. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  7. Developing Awareness through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeming, Robert F., Ed.

    This booklet contains the proceedings of a seminar in which poets demonstrated through readings and analysis of their works how poetry, combining appeals to both reason and emotion, can develop and refine individual awareness of the world and nature around us. The primary participants in the program were Bruce Cutler, Dolores Kendrick, and May…

  8. Meditation and Relaxation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napper-Owen, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Children come to schools each day feeling many of the stressors that would normally be attributed to adult experiences. At an early age, children are confronted with situations that may make them anxious or begin to doubt their self-worth. Teachers can help children learn to manage their stress by helping them become more aware of negative…

  9. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  10. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  11. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  12. Integrating cost awareness with ethics in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Garland, M J

    1985-01-01

    The challenge to train medical students in cost awareness regarding medical care led to a program at the Oregon Health Sciences University that integrates concern for costs with medical ethics. Cost awareness is a perspective that balances the physician's ethical obligations toward individual patients with their duties toward society whose pooled resources pay for medical services. The program integrates the subject of cost awareness into major required courses spanning the four-year curriculum. First-year students see costs in the context of an overview of social aspects of medical care. For second-year students, cost awareness is incorporated into training in basic clinical skills. Third- and fourth-year students are shown the bill for one of their patients and analyze their ward experiences from the perspective of resource utilization. Junior and senior students examine the impact of the legal system and professional ethics on health care costs. Elective course work on cost awareness is also available. PMID:3965723

  13. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. PMID:26264787

  14. The Information Needs of Californians--1984. Report #1: Technical Report. Report #2: Context, Summary, Conclusions, Implications, Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervin, Brenda; And Others

    This report details the design and results of a study commissioned by the California State Library to describe the everyday information needs of California citizens in the context of three societal trends that impact the operation of libraries and all other human services that define information delivery as part of their mandate: (1) emergence of…

  15. A Defining Moment in E-Working: The Application of an E-Working Definition to the Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through 144 questionnaires completed online by education sector personnel, this paper examines the relevance of a definition of e-working to the educational context. It identifies that the definition, which draws on and extends existing knowledge and identifies e-working to be a way of being a worker as well as a…

  16. Language Rights versus Speakers' Rights: On the Applicability of Western Language Rights Approaches in Eastern European Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to contexts where two conceptions of linguistic rights--the rights of languages and the rights of speakers--come into conflict. To illustrate such conflict, I will examine justifications of language laws adopted in two post-Soviet countries, Latvia and Ukraine. I will begin with an…

  17. Context aware falls risk assessment: A case study comparison.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Brenda; Taylor, Kenneth; Patterson, Matthew R; Power, Dermot; Komaba, Yusuke; Maeda, Kazuho; Inomata, Akihiro; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes three retrospective case studies to illustrate the potential clinical value of a system capable of capturing objective gait metrics and environment data from older adults with a history of falls while they go about their daily lives. Participants in this study wore an inertial sensor above each ankle and a wearable camera around their neck for seven consecutive days. Selected metrics are presented to illustrate scenarios where the data collected by the system could be of clinical value. Evidence suggests that obtaining objective gait metrics and environment data from older adults may not only allow healthcare professionals to assess gait more accurately, but also to design treatment plans and falls prevention strategies that are more specifically tailored to each individual. PMID:26737531

  18. Dynamic Bayesian networks for context-aware fall risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koshmak, Gregory; Linden, Maria; Loutfi, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor. PMID:24859032

  19. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Koshmak, Gregory; Linden, Maria; Loutfi, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor. PMID:24859032

  20. Coordinated Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Awareness and Awareness Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jeroen; Bodemer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, research on awareness during online collaboration focused on topics such as the effects of spatial information about group members' activities on the collaborative process. When the concept of awareness was introduced to computer-supported collaborative learning, this focus shifted to cognitive group awareness (e.g., information…

  1. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Memorial Page HERE ________________________________________________________________________ Save. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education If you are in a suicide crisis, call ... Public Service Announcements Public Awareness Campaigns Presentations and Training LEADS Education Curriculum Links Suggested Reading List Shop ...

  2. Ambient Intelligence Context-Based Cross-Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    By exchanging information directly between non-adjacent protocol layers, cross-layer (CL) interaction can significantly improve and optimize network performances such as energy efficiency and delay. This is particularly important for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where sensor devices are energy-constrained and deployed for real-time monitoring applications. Existing CL schemes mainly exploit information exchange between physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers, with only a handful involving application layer. For the first time, we proposed a framework for CL optimization based on user context of ambient intelligence (AmI) application and an ontology-based context modeling and reasoning mechanism. We applied the proposed framework to jointly optimize MAC and network (NET) layer protocols for WSNs. Extensive evaluations show that the resulting optimization through context awareness and CL interaction for both MAC and NET layer protocols can yield substantial improvements in terms of throughput, packet delivery, delay, and energy performances. PMID:25317760

  3. Ambient intelligence context-based cross-layer design in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    By exchanging information directly between non-adjacent protocol layers, cross-layer (CL) interaction can significantly improve and optimize network performances such as energy efficiency and delay. This is particularly important for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where sensor devices are energy-constrained and deployed for real-time monitoring applications. Existing CL schemes mainly exploit information exchange between physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers, with only a handful involving application layer. For the first time, we proposed a framework for CL optimization based on user context of ambient intelligence (AmI) application and an ontology-based context modeling and reasoning mechanism. We applied the proposed framework to jointly optimize MAC and network (NET) layer protocols for WSNs. Extensive evaluations show that the resulting optimization through context awareness and CL interaction for both MAC and NET layer protocols can yield substantial improvements in terms of throughput, packet delivery, delay, and energy performances. PMID:25317760

  4. Morphological Awareness in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-01-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to…

  5. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  6. Concepts of context in music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199

  7. Anemia awareness campaign.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    The National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC) and model/actress Daisy Fuentes are launching a national awareness campaign to encourage people with HIV/AIDS to discuss anemia with their doctors. The "Celebrate Life" campaign includes public service announcements, a toll-free hotline, and a web site for further information. Anemia is a common complication of HIV treatment, and is easily diagnosed. Persons with anemia often suffer from symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of appetite and sex drive. The campaign contact information is provided. PMID:11367079

  8. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  9. Image processing for flight crew enhanced situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the image processing work that is being performed for the Enhanced Situational Awareness System (ESAS) application. Specifically, the presented work supports the Enhanced Vision System (EVS) component of ESAS.

  10. Context predictor based sparse sensing technique and smart transmission architecture for IoT enabled remote health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Sai Kiran, M P R; Rajalakshmi, P; Acharyya, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In hyperconnectivity scenario, managing the amount of data acquired from sensors in the Body Area Networks (BANs) is one of the major issues. In this paper we propose an on-chip context predictor based sparse sensing technology with smart transmission architecture which makes use of confidence interval calculation from the features that present in the data, thereby achieving statistical guarantee. The proposed architecture uses intelligent sparse sensing, which eradicates the collection of redundant data, thereby reducing the amount of data generated. For the performance analysis, we considered ECG data acquisition and transmission system. The proposed architecture when applied on the data collected from 10 patients reduces the duty cycle of the sensing unit to 27.99%, by achieving an energy saving of 72% and the mean deviation of sampled data from the original data is 2%. PMID:25570906

  11. Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten: A Field Study in Luxembourgish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Sylvie; Content, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in…

  12. Current Trends in Environmental Education and Public Awareness in Guyana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynoe, Paulette; Filho, Walter Leal

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent trends related to environmental education and public awareness in Guyana in a post-UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) context. Describes the concept of a National Environmental Education Action Plan and how it may assist with future developments in Guyana. Topics include an overview of the Guyana…

  13. Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten: A Field Study in Luxembourgish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Sylvie; Content, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in…

  14. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  15. DARPA Space Domain Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.; Goergen, M.; Sanchez, M.; Sundbeck, S.; Krassner, J.

    2012-09-01

    While Space Domain Awareness (SDA), including all of space surveillance and characterization of all space objects and environments, is critical for national and economic security, SDA capabilities cannot be developed independent of cost. This presentation will describe a new approach to SDA being developed by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) and other agencies. This approach endeavors to integrate the data from a wide range of current and future SDA capabilities for a fraction of the current costs by utilizing a new methodology for obtaining data. This approach will not just provide more SDA data for a reduced cost, but has the potential to also increase the amount of knowledge gained from the data.

  16. Awareness as observational heterarchy.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-01-01

    Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

  17. Influencing choice without awareness.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jay A; Amlani, Alym A; Raz, Amir; Rensink, Ronald A

    2015-12-01

    Forcing occurs when a magician influences the audience's decisions without their awareness. To investigate the mechanisms behind this effect, we examined several stimulus and personality predictors. In Study 1, a magician flipped through a deck of playing cards while participants were asked to choose one. Although the magician could influence the choice almost every time (98%), relatively few (9%) noticed this influence. In Study 2, participants observed rapid series of cards on a computer, with one target card shown longer than the rest. We expected people would tend to choose this card without noticing that it was shown longest. Both stimulus and personality factors predicted the choice of card, depending on whether the influence was noticed. These results show that combining real-world and laboratory research can be a powerful way to study magic and can provide new methods to study the feeling of free will. PMID:25666736

  18. Testing Privacy Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Mike

    In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

  19. Awareness as observational heterarchy

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-01-01

    Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

  20. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  1. Isolated Versus Integrated Case Studies: A Comparison in the Context of Teaching Complex and Domain-Specific IT Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Ned; Aiken, Robert; Sandas, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on IT fluency in connection with non-IT majors points at the increasing need for more ''realistic'' courses teaching the use of complex and domain-specific IT applications. That research also suggests certain desirable course design characteristics, of which one of the most important is the close integration of realistic case…

  2. Dark-Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  3. Design and technical evaluation of an enhanced location-awareness service enabler for spatial disorientation management of elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro A; Hernando, M Elena; Gómez, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    The progressive ageing of population has turned the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into a prevalent disease suffered by elderly. Consequently, the spatial disorientation has become a significant problem for older people and their caregivers. The ambient-assisted living applications are offering location-based services for empowering elderly to go outside and encouraging a greater independence. Therefore, this paper describes the design and technical evaluation of a location-awareness service enabler aimed at supporting and managing probable wandering situations of a person with MCI. Through the presence capabilities of the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) architecture, the service will alert patient's contacts if a hazardous situation is detected depending on his location. Furthermore, information about the older person's security areas has been included in the user profile managed by IMS. In doing so, the service enabler introduced contribute to "context-awareness" paradigm allowing the adaptation and personalization of services depending on user's context and specific conditions or preferences. PMID:25486651

  4. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  5. Exploring the Use of Multidimensional Analysis of Learner Language to Promote Register Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado-Jimenez, Pilar; Perez-Paredes, Pascual; Sanchez, Purificacion

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of multidimensional analysis (MA) of learner language to promote the awareness of linguistic concepts such as register and variation. Our research explores the introduction of learner register awareness by using MA of learner language in the field of university Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). In this context, a group…

  6. Exploring the Use of Multidimensional Analysis of Learner Language to Promote Register Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado-Jimenez, Pilar; Perez-Paredes, Pascual; Sanchez, Purificacion

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of multidimensional analysis (MA) of learner language to promote the awareness of linguistic concepts such as register and variation. Our research explores the introduction of learner register awareness by using MA of learner language in the field of university Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). In this context, a group…

  7. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  8. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  9. A distributed reasoning engine ecosystem for semantic context-management in smart environments.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  10. A Distributed Reasoning Engine Ecosystem for Semantic Context-Management in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  11. Project EVA: Early Vocational Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William W.

    Three elementary schools in districts of the Seattle, Washington area were the target of project EVA (Early Vocational Awareness) which developed career awareness resource materials. The document consists of two major components: sample instructional materials (40 pages) and information about the project (60 pages). The 14 multi-use resource…

  12. Awareness Experiences for School Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Bette

    The awareness experiences offered through the exercises in this teaching guide are designed to help high school students become personally responsible, self-accepting, and more integrated human beings. Awareness exercises are divided into the following categories: identity, communication skills, feelings, learning, responsibility, values, relating…

  13. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  14. More Perspectives on Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Gary, Ed.; Trohanis, Pascal, Ed.

    The booklet examines approaches in public awareness that may be used by Developmental Disabilities (DD) Councils. The eight chapters are explained to be an outgrowth of a national meeting of DD Councils. L. Wiseman, in "Beyond the Sixty-Second Solution," suggests that political action should be thought of as a public awareness resource, and that…

  15. Enhancing young people's awareness.

    PubMed

    Doan Thi Tien

    1995-01-01

    The role of the Vietnam Youth Union (21 million members) is to educate the youth aged 14-28 years about the movement at the grassroots level. Since 1995, it has been entrusted with information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (implemented through the Educational Center for Population, Health, and Development) concerning family planning, the environment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mass media, direct communication, Youth Union leading staff, Youth Union cultural and arts activities, and advertisement have been used. 16 newspapers and magazines, a radio program, and a TV program disseminate information for the group. 1000 motivators' groups, 1370 Youth Clubs, and Youth Villages at the commune level work to enhance awareness and to change biased attitudes and habits. Leading staff speak at conferences and seminars that are attended by target groups. Art troupes perform at special local events; plays are organized and videos are shown. The HIV/AIDS information and prevention campaign is of great importance because research findings indicate that many young people believe that only prostitutes and drug addicts can be infected, and that condoms are bad and only for use with prostitutes. There are about 2300 persons infected with HIV in 14 provinces, mostly in the south and central regions. 131 are reported to have developed AIDS. PMID:12320323

  16. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  17. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  18. Semantic Referencing - Determining Context Weights for Similarity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowicz, Krzysztof; Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    Semantic similarity measurement is a key methodology in various domains ranging from cognitive science to geographic information retrieval on the Web. Meaningful notions of similarity, however, cannot be determined without taking additional contextual information into account. One way to make similarity measures context-aware is by introducing weights for specific characteristics. Existing approaches to automatically determine such weights are rather limited or require application specific adjustments. In the past, the possibility to tweak similarity theories until they fit a specific use case has been one of the major criticisms for their evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel approach to semi-automatically adapt similarity theories to the user's needs and hence make them context-aware. Our methodology is inspired by the process of georeferencing images in which known control points between the image and geographic space are used to compute a suitable transformation. We propose to semi-automatically calibrate weights to compute inter-instance and inter-concept similarities by allowing the user to adjust pre-computed similarity rankings. These known control similarities are then used to reference other similarity values.

  19. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real-world Java programs.

  20. Global Space Situational Awareness Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeden, B.; Cefola, P.; Sankaran, J.

    2010-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is an essential and integral piece of space operations. Although the U.S. military's Space Surveillance Network (SSN) is currently the single best source of SSA in the world, it does not provide the level of SSA currently needed to support space operations. The lack of geographical sensor distribution and coverage outside of the continental U.S., particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, is a significant limitation of the SSN. There exist a large number of individual sensors across the globe and smaller sensor networks which already provide some level of SSA data to various users, and could also provide data to support the U.S. need for SSA. These sensors are being developed for a variety of missions, including space surveillance, missile warning, missile defense and testing, and scientific applications. This paper summarizes the work currently underway as a joint project by the Secure World Foundation and the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM), University of Maryland, to document these global sensors including networks from Europe, Russia, and China. This information will be collated in a publicly-accessible database which will serve as the foundation for future analyses to assess the utility of these sensors as complements to the existing plans by the U.S. military to acquire new sensors to enhance SSA. It is also part of a broader project which includes development of an open source software suite for SSA analysis.

  1. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    McGimpsey, Paul; Morgan, Richard K.

    2013-11-15

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  2. Development of anti-E6 pegylated lipoplexes for mucosal application in the context of cervical preneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lechanteur, Anna; Furst, Tania; Evrard, Brigitte; Delvenne, Philippe; Hubert, Pascale; Piel, Géraldine

    2015-04-10

    Cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the fourth highest mortality causing cancer in women despite the use of prophylactic vaccines. E6 targeting represents an attractive strategy to treat this cancer. Indeed, oncoprotein E6 is produced by keratinocytes infected by HPV and is partially responsible for carcinogenesis. E6 interferes with the apoptosis process in stressed cells by degradation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Our strategy consists in using E6 siRNA complexed with pegylated lipoplexes. The addition of hydrophilic polymer around the nanoparticles is crucial to use them by vaginal application on account of cervicovaginal mucus. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated and in vitro assays were performed to evaluate transfection potential, E6 mRNA extinction and p53 re-expression. Cationic liposomes DOTAP/Cholesterol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5 (N/P 2.5) with or without 50% DSPE-PEG2000 and associated with siE6 have demonstrated good physicochemical characteristics in terms of complexation, size, surface charge and stability. Both lipoplexes have been tested on CaSki cell line (HPV 16+) with 50 nM and 100 nM of siE6. Lipoplexes formulations induce 30-40% of E6 mRNA extinction and induce the re-expression of p53. In conclusion, pegylated anti-E6 lipoplexes have demonstrated their efficiency to cross the cellular membrane and to release siRNA into the cytoplasm confirmed by final p53 protein production. PMID:25701628

  3. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  4. Challenges in the Implementation of a Mobile Application in Clinical Practice: Case Study in the Context of an Application that Manages the Daily Interventions of Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wipfli, Rolf; Teodoro, Douglas; Sarrey, Everlyne; Walesa, Magali; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Working in a clinical environment requires unfettered mobility. This is especially true for nurses who are always on the move providing patients’ care in different locations. Since the introduction of clinical information systems in hospitals, this mobility has often been considered hampered by interactions with computers. The popularity of personal mobile assistants such as smartphones makes it possible to gain easy access to clinical data anywhere. Objective To identify the challenges involved in the deployment of clinical applications on handheld devices and to share our solutions to these problems. Methods A team of experts underwent an iterative development process of a mobile application prototype that aimed to improve the mobility of nurses during their daily clinical activities. Through the process, challenges inherent to mobile platforms have emerged. These issues have been classified, focusing on factors related to ensuring information safety and quality, as well as pleasant and efficient user experiences. Results The team identified five main challenges related to the deployment of clinical mobile applications and presents solutions to overcome each of them: (1) Financial: Equipping every care giver with a new mobile device requires substantial investment that can be lowered if users use their personal device instead, (2) Hardware: The constraints inherent to the clinical environment made us choose the mobile device with the best tradeoff between size and portability, (3) Communication: the connection of the mobile application with any existing clinical information systems (CIS) is insured by a bridge formatting the information appropriately, (4) Security: In order to guarantee the confidentiality and safety of the data, the amount of data stored on the device is minimized, and (5) User interface: The design of our user interface relied on homogeneity, hierarchy, and indexicality principles to prevent an increase in data acquisition errors. Conclusions The introduction of nomadic computing often raises enthusiastic reactions from users, but several challenges due to specific constraints of mobile platforms must be overcome. The ease of development of mobile applications and their rapid spread should not overshadow the real challenges of clinical applications and the potential threats for patient safety and the liability of people and organizations using them. For example, careful attention must be given to the overall architecture of the system and to user interfaces. If these precautions are not taken, it can easily lead to unexpected failures such as an increased number of input errors, loss of data, or decreased efficiency. PMID:25100680

  5. How Deep is Environmental Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an environmental awareness survey are assessed. Local citizens were questioned by personal interview following an Earth Week and Earth Day Fair at Humboldt State College, Arcata, California. (BL)

  6. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  7. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  8. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  9. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  10. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  11. Interactive analysis of situational awareness metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overby, Derek; Wall, Jim; Keyser, John

    2012-01-01

    Digital systems are employed to maintain situational awareness of people in various contexts including emergency response, disaster relief, and military operations. Because these systems are often operated in wireless environments and are used to support real-time decision making, the accuracy of the SA data provided is important to measure and evaluate in the development of new systems. Our work has been conducted in conjunction with analysts in the evaluation and performance comparison of different systems designed to provide a high degree of situational awareness in military operations. To this end, we defined temporal and spatial metrics for measuring the accuracy of the SA data provided by each system. In this paper we discuss the proposed temporal and spatial metrics for SA data and show how we provided these metrics in a linked coordinated multiple view environment that enabled the analysts we worked with to effectively perform several critical analysis tasks. The temporal metric is designed to help determine when network performance has a significant effect on SA data, and therefore identify specific time periods in which individuals were provided inaccurate position data for their peers. Temporal context can be used to determine the local or global nature of any SA data inaccuracy, and the spatial metric can then be used to identify geographic effects on network performance of the wireless system. We discuss the interactive software implementation of our metrics and show how this analysis capability enabled the analysts to evaluate the observed effects of network latency and system performance on SA data during an exercise.

  12. Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT 2003) Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, January 27-31, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Sumi, Ed.; Oie, Yuji, Ed.; Chang, Carl, Ed.; Murai, Jun, Ed.

    This proceedings from the 2003 Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT) contains papers from sessions on: (1) mobile Internet, including a target-driven cache replacement policy, context-awareness for service discovery, and XML transformation; (2) collaboration technology I, including human-network-based filtering, virtual collaboration…

  13. Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT 2003) Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, January 27-31, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Sumi, Ed.; Oie, Yuji, Ed.; Chang, Carl, Ed.; Murai, Jun, Ed.

    This proceedings from the 2003 Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT) contains papers from sessions on: (1) mobile Internet, including a target-driven cache replacement policy, context-awareness for service discovery, and XML transformation; (2) collaboration technology I, including human-network-based filtering, virtual collaboration…

  14. Realizing situation awareness within a cyber environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadda, George; Salerno, John J.; Boulware, Douglas; Hinman, Michael; Gorton, Samuel

    2006-04-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) problems all require an understanding of current activities, an ability to anticipate what may happen next, and techniques to analyze the threat or impact of current activities and predictions. These processes of SA are common regardless of the domain and can be applied to the detection of cyber attacks. This paper will describe the application of a SA framework to implementing Cyber SA, describe some metrics for measuring and evaluating systems implementing Cyber SA, and discuss ongoing work in this area. We conclude with some ideas for future activities.

  15. Objective Situation Awareness Measurement Based on Performance Self-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.

  16. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M.

    2009-12-01

    “Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climate’s influence on you and society.” In order to ensure the nation increases its literacy, the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science document has been developed. In order to promote the implementation of these Climate Literacy Essential Principles the Climate Literacy Network (CLN, http://www.climateliteracynow.org) was formed in January 2008. Made up of a broad spectrum of stakeholders, this group addresses the complex issues involved in making climate literacy real for all citizens. Efforts within the CLN to improve climate literacy and energy awareness include: 1) the development of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway project, recently funded by NSF’s National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and Climate Change Education programs; and 2) the development of a regional model (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network-New England - CLEAN-NE) to coordinate and leverage the wide range of activities focused on climate and energy that are already occurring, with plans that the model will be adapted to other regions around the country. The CLEAN Pathway project will steward a collection of resources that directly address the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science. In addition, it will provide a number of avenues of professional and community development opportunities to facilitate cyberlearning on climate and energy. CLEAN-NE is an initiative to educate high school and college students in the region about climate change and energy and its importance to our planet and society. Through this program, high school students will connect with college mentors, and together they will gain the foundation of climate literacy necessary to change their actions to reflect a more energy-conscious lifestyle. They will then engage their peers and communities in their mission to become climate-literate citizens and lead sustainable lifestyles. In this talk we will describe our efforts through CLN, CLEAN-NE, and the CLEAN Pathway to increase climate literacy and energy awareness in educational contexts as well for individual citizens and communities, providing them with the knowledge and tools to address these issues in a responsible way.

  17. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  18. QoS and Energy Aware Cooperative Routing Protocol for Wildfire Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Maalej, Mohamed; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption. PMID:23843735

  19. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Maalej M; Cherif S; Besbes H

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  20. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption. PMID:23843735

  1. Transport-aware imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutulakos, Kyros N.; O'Toole, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Conventional cameras record all light falling on their sensor regardless of the path that light followed to get there. In this paper we give an overview of a new family of computational cameras that offers many more degrees of freedom. These cameras record just a fraction of the light coming from a controllable source, based on the actual 3D light path followed. Photos and live video captured this way offer an unconventional view of everyday scenes in which the effects of scattering, refraction and other phenomena can be selectively blocked or enhanced, visual structures that are too subtle to notice with the naked eye can become apparent, and object appearance can depend on depth. We give an overview of the basic theory behind these cameras and their DMD-based implementation, and discuss three applications: (1) live indirect-only imaging of complex everyday scenes, (2) reconstructing the 3D shape of scenes whose geometry or material properties make them hard or impossible to scan with conventional methods, and (3) acquiring time-of-flight images that are free of multi-path interference.

  2. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  3. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

  4. Adaptive awareness for personal and small group decision making.

    SciTech Connect

    Perano, Kenneth J.; Tucker, Steve; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Berry, Nina M.; Kyker, Ronald D.

    2003-12-01

    Many situations call for the use of sensors monitoring physiological and environmental data. In order to use the large amounts of sensor data to affect decision making, we are coupling heterogeneous sensors with small, light-weight processors, other powerful computers, wireless communications, and embedded intelligent software. The result is an adaptive awareness and warning tool, which provides both situation awareness and personal awareness to individuals and teams. Central to this tool is a sensor-independent architecture, which combines both software agents and a reusable core software framework that manages the available hardware resources and provides services to the agents. Agents can recognize cues from the data, warn humans about situations, and act as decision-making aids. Within the agents, self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to process physiological data in order to provide personal awareness. We have employed a novel clustering algorithm to train the SOM to discern individual body states and activities. This awareness tool has broad applicability to emergency teams, military squads, military medics, individual exercise and fitness monitoring, health monitoring for sick and elderly persons, and environmental monitoring in public places. This report discusses our hardware decisions, software framework, and a pilot awareness tool, which has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Expanding Career Awareness with CIPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, John

    Career Information Packets is an individually oriented career exploration program developed for high school students. The program goals are to: (1) assist students in becoming aware of their patterns, of values, interests and aptitudes in relation to the world of work; (2) to assist students in making tentative career choices; and (3) assist them…

  6. Environmental Awareness; An Action Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Edgar L.; And Others

    In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…

  7. Choice Awareness: An Unlimited Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    One of the most important contributions of choice awareness strategy is the evolution of a simple classification system involving five kinds of choices: caring, ruling, enjoying, sorrowing, and thinking/working (CREST). The author explains the classification system and how counselors can implement it. (Author/HMV)

  8. Heightening Grammatical Awareness in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a student project which helps ELT (English Language Teaching) students develop their grammatical awareness, as well as linguistic competence and performance at upper-intermediate or advanced levels. Encouraging students to carry out research on English grammar, collecting data, evaluating structures of language in use,…

  9. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  10. Care Bears Environmental Awareness Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Greetings Corp., Cleveland, OH.

    Studies show that the three most frequently cited sources of environmental information are family, school, and the media. This kit provides parents with an opportunity to increase a child's environmental awareness through activities which focus on the environment in a way children ages four to nine can understand. A workbook uses the popular Care…

  11. Teaching Environmental Awareness in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianguo, Mao

    2004-01-01

    This article is all about the integration of environmental education to the middle school mathematics in China. To raise environmental awareness and improve environmental quality, environmental education is a must. Environment-related materials can be found in middle school algebra and geometry textbooks. In order to provide environmental…

  12. Awareness Development for Online Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenotz, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

  13. Teaching Environmental Awareness in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianguo, Mao

    2004-01-01

    This article is all about the integration of environmental education to the middle school mathematics in China. To raise environmental awareness and improve environmental quality, environmental education is a must. Environment-related materials can be found in middle school algebra and geometry textbooks. In order to provide environmental…

  14. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  15. Hispanics' Awareness of Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there…

  16. Kentucky Vocational Program Awareness Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Connie

    This handbook is designed to aid in developing a comprehensive program awareness effort to disseminate information on availability and accessibility of vocational programs at local, regional, and state levels. The first section focuses on developing a regional plan. It provides a suggested format for developing a county or regional plan and…

  17. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  18. Real-Time Tracking of Neighborhood Surroundings and Mood in Urban Drug Misusers: Application of a New Method to Study Behavior in Its Geographical Context

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, David H.; Tyburski, Matthew; Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Lin, Jia-Ling; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maladaptive behaviors may be more fully understood and efficiently prevented by ambulatory tools that assess people’s ongoing experience in the context of their environment. Methods To demonstrate new field-deployable methods for assessing mood and behavior as a function of neighborhood surroundings (Geographical Momentary Assessment; GMA), we collected time-stamped GPS data and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) ratings of mood, stress, and drug craving over 16 weeks at randomly prompted times during the waking hours of opioid-dependent polydrug users receiving methadone maintenance. Locations of EMA entries and participants’ travel tracks were calculated for the 12 hours before each EMA entry were mapped. Associations between subjective ratings and objective environmental ratings were evaluated at the whole neighborhood and 12-hour track levels. Results Participants (N=27) were compliant with GMA data collection; 3,711 randomly prompted EMA entries were matched to specific locations. At the neighborhood level, physical disorder was negatively correlated with negative mood, stress, and heroin and cocaine craving (ps <.0001 to .0335); drug activity was negatively correlated with stress, heroin and cocaine craving (ps .0009 to .0134). Similar relationships were found for the environments around respondents’ tracks in the 12 hours preceding EMA entries. Conclusions The results support the feasibility of GMA. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and participants’ reports were counterintuitive and counter-hypothesized, and challenge some assumptions about how ostensibly stressful environments are associated with lived experience and how such environments ultimately impair health. GMA methodology may have applications for development of individual- or neighborhood-level interventions. PMID:24332365

  19. QOS-aware error recovery in wireless body sensor networks using adaptive network coding.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts. PMID:25551485

  20. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S.; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts. PMID:25551485

  1. The educational and awareness purposes of the Paideia approach for heritage management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, F.; Oosterbeek, L.; Costa, C.

    2012-06-01

    The need to raise awareness among the communities about the challenge of resource use - and, more generally, about the principles of sustainability - is the reason why the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed, in December 2002, the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, 2005-2014 (DESD). For operators and managers of cultural and natural heritage, it represents a profound challenge to their ability to transmit the content of scientific knowledge to the general public in order to empower everyone on the preservation of cultural and natural resources, and to raise awareness about the potential that mankind has at its disposal. In this context, the application of the PAIDEIA APPROACH for the management of cultural heritage is the key to the recovery of socio-economic values intrinsic to these resources. This approach to management is based on the enhancement of cultural (namely archaeological) and natural heritage for social benefit and it involves the tourist trade as a vehicle of knowledge transmission, intercultural dialogue and socio-economic sustainable development.

  2. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness.

    PubMed

    Behrens, V J; Brackbill, R M

    1993-05-01

    A goal of occupational health is to inform workers of hazards on their jobs. This analysis addresses this goal by identifying industries and occupations with low worker awareness of potential exposures. Industries and occupations were ranked by the greatest positive difference between the proportion of workers exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemical and physical hazards. Those with low awareness had the greatest difference, i.e., high exposure and low perception. This analysis was performed by adding exposure data from a national exposure survey to a national health survey with perceived exposure data. The hospital and construction industries and occupations in these industries ranked among the top five for all hazards. For example, for hospital workers the difference between proportion exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemicals was 62% and to radiation was 42%, and for workers in construction the difference was 54% for exposure to noise and 63% for exposure to vibration. PMID:8506847

  3. The Central Neural Foundations of Awareness and Self-Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, D.; Martin, E. M.; Weingarten, W.; Vimal, V.

    In the past, neuroscientists have done very well to concentrate onexplaining the mechanisms for very specific, simple behaviors. For example, our laboratory's work with molecular and neural mechanisms of a simple sex behavior proved for the first time that specific biochemical reactions in specific parts of the brain govern a specific behavior [D. W. Pfaff, Drive: Neurobiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Sexual Motivation (The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999)]. Now, advances in our field coupled with new techniques permit us to attack the problems of explaining global changes of state in the central nervous system. For example, how does a simple sex behavior depend on sexual arousal, and in turn, how does that sexual arousal depend on other forms of CNS arousal? Of surpassing interest is the explanation of the primary causes of brain arousal [D. W. Pfaff, textit{Brain Arousal and Information Theory: Neural and Genetic Mechanisms} (Harvard University Press, Cambridg e, 2006)]. We have hypothesized that the earliest and most elementary event in waking up the brain is the activation of certain primitive nerve cells in the hindbrain reticular formation. Hypothesizing a `generalized arousal' force emanating from these cells puts forth an idea roughly analogous to the hypothesis of a `big bang' in astrophysics, or to our ideas about the magma of the earth in geophysics. Following the activation of this primitive arousal force we are able to be alert and aware. The neuroanatomical pathways serving brain arousal are fairly well known: they are Bilateral, Bidirectional, Universal among vertebrate animals including humans, and they are always involved in Response Potentiation, approach or avoidance responses (BBURP theory). More than 120 genes are involved in the regulation of brain arousal. In theoretical terms, the discussion so far has dealt with `bottoms up' approaches to awareness -- from mechanisms in the hindbrain working through several phylogenetically ancient pathways, to higher levels of awareness. However, we must also consider `top down' approaches. Based on our thinking and our fantasies, arousal of the central nervous system may be modulated up or down to produce more or less awareness. And then, self-awareness results from our memory of our own behavioral activity.

  4. DSA-aware assist features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, Azat; Coskun, Tamer H.

    2015-03-01

    DSA-aware optical or EUV lithography assist features (AFs) extend the capabilities of both traditional SRAFs and printable AFs (PrAFs). For instance, in a graphoepitaxy DSA process, where confinement wells are formed by DUV lithography, the process window of the DUVL process may be further improved by using PrAFs, as long as the confinement wells resulting from these PrAFs are sized and shaped so that they are "sealed" by the etch resistant outcomes of the DSA process. A method to optimize placement of such DSA-aware PrAFs is presented, along with a method utilizing a regular array of etch resistant confinement wells with localized modifications of their size or shape to form etch transferrable features. Both methods are tested and verified in simulations of DUV lithography and DSA.

  5. Emotional awareness, gender, and suspiciousness

    PubMed Central

    Boden, M. Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the causal relation between emotional awareness (EA) and suspiciousness, and whether this relation is moderated by gender. After inducing an unpleasant mood, we manipulated EA by having participants read one of two versions of a story (the high EA condition provided cues to what the participant was feeling and why, whereas the low EA condition did not). Following the manipulation, one sample of participants completed a measure of suspiciousness, and a second, independent sample of participants described their emotional state. Emotional Awareness Condition × Gender effects were obtained for suspiciousness and EA. Men in the low EA condition reported significantly higher levels of suspiciousness and lower levels of EA than men in the high EA condition. Women in both conditions reported equally high levels of EA, which were greater than those of men in both conditions, and the manipulation did not affect their levels of suspiciousness. PMID:20037665

  6. Universe Awareness Among Young Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Milena

    Astronomy, the most accessible of all the sciences, grabs and holds the attention not only of the elders, but also that of the youngsters from all over the world. Sharing the same sky provides the unique opportunity to use it as a tool to inspire children, to encourage them to develop an interest in science and technology, but also to increase awareness of global citizenship and tolerance. We shall present a wide spectrum of educational activities dedicated to young children, especially those from less privileged backgrounds, carried out under the Universe Awareness (UNAWE) project in Poland. We will also introduce the way we follow to support teachers and educators in discovering our wonderful cosmos.

  7. Gang awareness for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall-McGee, P

    1999-01-01

    All healthcare facilities--not just urban ones--need to train their staff and be equipped to handle gangs and gang-related crime and violence, says the author. This article discusses the various aspects of the ongoing training program in gang awareness for Durham Regional Hospital's Security Department--including types of gangs, their mindsets and what motivates them, and how to identify them as well as their graffiti, colors, hand signals, and tattoos. PMID:10557439

  8. Visual analysis of situationally aware building evacuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, Jack; Eaglin, Todd; Subramanian, Kalpathi; Ribarsky, William

    2013-01-01

    Rapid evacuation of large urban structures (campus buildings, arenas, stadiums, etc.) is a complex operation and of prime interest to emergency responders and planners. Although there is a considerable body of work in evacuation algorithms and methods, most of these are impractical to use in real-world scenarios (non real-time, for instance) or have difficulty handling scenarios with dynamically changing conditions. Our goal in this work is towards developing computer visualizations and real-time visual analytic tools for building evacuations, in order to provide situational awareness and decision support to first responders and emergency planners. We have augmented traditional evacuation algorithms in the following important ways, (1) facilitate real-time complex user interaction with first responder teams, as information is received during an emergency, (2) visual reporting tools for spatial occupancy, temporal cues, and procedural recommendations are provided automatically and at adjustable levels, and (3) multi-scale building models, heuristic evacuation models, and unique graph manipulation techniques for producing near real-time situational awareness. We describe our system, methods and their application using campus buildings as an example. We also report the results of evaluating our system in collaboration with our campus police and safety personnel, via a table-top exercise consisting of 3 different scenarios, and their resulting assessment of the system.

  9. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Game-Like Phonological Awareness Software for Kindergarteners: "JerenAli"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Günizi; Terziyan, Treysi

    2016-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to develop a game-like software application for phonological awareness training and to evaluate its role in improving phonological awareness skills at the kindergarten level, with the intention to eventually help reading acquisition in Turkish. The participants of the study came from two kindergarten classrooms in…

  11. Development and Evaluation of Game-Like Phonological Awareness Software for Kindergarteners: "JerenAli"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Günizi; Terziyan, Treysi

    2016-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to develop a game-like software application for phonological awareness training and to evaluate its role in improving phonological awareness skills at the kindergarten level, with the intention to eventually help reading acquisition in Turkish. The participants of the study came from two kindergarten classrooms in…

  12. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-reflection and reflective practice are increasingly considered as essential attributes of competent professionals functioning in complex and ever-changing healthcare systems of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the reflective process and the meaning of 'self-reflection' within the contextual framework of their learning environment in the first-year of their medical/dental education. We endorse that the introduction of such explicit educational tasks at this early stage enhances and promotes students' awareness, understanding, and proficiency of this skill in their continuing life-long health professional learning. Methods Over two years, students registered in first-year pathology at the University of Saskatchewan were introduced to a self-reflection assignment which comprised in the submission of a one-page reflective document to a template of reflective questions provided in the given context of their learning environment. This was a mandatory but ungraded component at the midterm and final examinations. These documents were individually analyzed and thematically categorized to a "5 levels-of-reflection-awareness" scale using a specially-designed rubric based on the accepted major theories of reflection that included students' identification of: 1) personal abilities, 2) personal learning styles 3) relationships between course material and student history 4) emotional responses and 5) future applications. Results 410 self-reflection documents were analyzed. The student self-awareness on personal learning style (72.7% level 3+) and course content (55.2% level 3+) were well-reflected. Reflections at a level 1 awareness included identification of a) specific teaching strategies utilized to enhance learning (58.4%), b) personal strengths/weaknesses (53%), and c) emotional responses, values, and beliefs (71.5%). Students' abilities to connect information to life experiences and to future events with understanding were more evenly distributed across all 5 levels of reflection-awareness. Conclusions Exposure to self-reflection assignments in the early years of undergraduate medical education increases student awareness and promotes the creation of personal meaning of one's reactions, values, and premises in the context of student learning environments. Early introduction with repetition to such cognitive processes as practice tools increases engagement in reflection that may facilitate proficiency in mastering this competency leading to the creation of future reflective health professionals. PMID:21943239

  13. Teacher Awareness: Social Cognition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louis M.; Kleine, Paul F.

    An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) as teacher cognitive complexity increases then teacher awareness increases, (2) as teacher cognitive differentiation increases then teacher awareness increases, (3) as teacher awareness increases then pupil esteem for the teacher increases. Measurements were made in the late spring using 69…

  14. Phonological Awareness in Young Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…

  15. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  16. Space-time disarray and visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; Richards, Whitman; van Doorn, Andrea J

    2012-01-01

    Local space-time scrambling of optical data leads to violent jerks and dislocations. On masking these, visual awareness of the scene becomes cohesive, with dislocations discounted as amodally occluding foreground. Such cohesive space-time of awareness is technically illusory because ground truth is jumbled whereas awareness is coherent. Apparently the visual field is a construction rather than a (veridical) perception. PMID:23145276

  17. Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibi, Sana

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

  18. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  19. Advanced situation awareness with localised environmental community observatories in the Future Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other domains and scenarios concerning smart and safe living in the Future Internet.

  20. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  1. Beyond monitoring: distributed situation awareness in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fioratou, E; Flin, R; Glavin, R; Patey, R

    2010-07-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is one of the essential non-technical skills for effective and safe practice in high-risk industries, such as healthcare; yet, there is limited research of its significance in anaesthetic practice. In this paper, we review this scant research that focuses on SA as patient monitoring alone and advocate for a more comprehensive view of SA in anaesthetic practice and training that extends beyond monitoring, namely, a distributed cognition approach. We identify further factors influencing anaesthetists' SA and provide a case that resulted in an anaesthetic fatality to illustrate the application of an alternative view of SA in anaesthesia. Distributed SA in anaesthetic practice provides the foundation for further research that may in turn influence the teaching and assessment of this important non-technical skill. PMID:20551029

  2. Memory errors from a change of standard: a lack of awareness or of understanding?

    PubMed

    Higgins, E T; Liberman, A

    1994-12-01

    Memory errors occur when the context standard that is used when judging target behaviors is different from the category norm standard that is available later when the behaviors are recalled. Is insufficient awareness the reason for this change-of-standard effect? Two kinds of awareness were maximized in each of two studies: (a) awareness of the relation between the judgment and the context--telling subjects to be sure to use the non-target persons for comparison when judging the target person (salience); and (b) awareness at recall of the earlier judgmental context--asking subjects to recall the non-target persons before recalling the target person (reinstatement). Context reinstatement reduced memory errors. But when context reinstatement and salience were combined, the memory errors reappeared. In Study 2, an attempt at debiasing failed. The change-of-standard effect is explained in terms of a "natural" tendency to use the current categorical meaning of a judgment to reconstruct the referent of its past contextualized meaning. PMID:7828422

  3. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…

  4. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…

  5. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  6. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  7. Teaching Graduate Students to Make Evidence-Based Intervention Decisions: Application of a Seven-Step Process within an Authentic Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2008-01-01

    A seven-step evidence-based practice decision-making process within an authentic learning context, which is used by the supervisors to teach the graduate students, is discussed. The approach is extremely useful for teaching the evidence-based intervention decisions to the students is highlighted.

  8. Universe Awareness For Young Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.

  9. Well Productivity Awareness School (WPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Beadie, G.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that Formation Damage or Well Impairment leads to lower production rates and thereby a loss in revenue. BP Exploration (BPX) quantified this loss across their fields in a 1991 report. This report concluded that the potential net present cost of Formation Damage to BPX, assessed over the remaining life of currently producing fields, to be in the region of $1.5 billion (before taxation). Much of this loss is already being avoided through enhanced and new procedures, however, there is still potential for improvement. Where can these improvements be made? BPX looked at the life cycle of a well; drilling; testing; completion; production; workover; and stimulation. At each stage there is a variety people, from office based to wellsite, involved in the planning and operational decisions. In a majority of the stages some people were only involved in the well`s immediate future, however, their planning and operational decision making could impact the whole life of the well. To make people aware of the potential consequences of their actions BPX devised the Well Productivity Awareness School. Attendance at the school is not only for BPX personnel but also includes the Rig Crews and Contractor/Service Company personnel because everyone needs to be involved. The schools have been run at BPX locations world-wide since late `93. Improved well productivity in these locations has been attributed to raising Operator/Contractor/Service Company participants awareness by showing how their job can impact on well productivity and where they can make a difference.

  10. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the assessment phase of the experiment. The CAVE supplied an activity-based training environment where learners were able to use a virtual survey meter to explore the properties of radiation sources and the effects of time and distance on radiation exposure. Once the training stage had ended, the subjects completed an assessment activity where they were asked to complete four tasks in a simulated radiation environment in the CAVE, which was designed to provide a more authentic assessment than simply testing understanding using a quiz. After the practicum, the subjects completed a post-test. Survey information was also collected to assist the researcher with interpretation of the collected data. Response to the training was measured by completion time, radiation exposure received, successful completion of the four tasks in the practicum, and scores on the post-test. These results were combined to create a radiation awareness score. In addition, observational data was collected as the subjects completed the tasks. The radiation awareness scores of the control group and the group that received supplemental training in the virtual environment were compared. T-tests showed that the effect of the supplemental training was not significant; however, calculation of the effect size showed a small-to-medium effect of the training. The CAVE group received significantly less radiation exposure during the assessment activity, and they completed the activities on an average of one minute faster. These results indicate that the training was effective, primarily for instilling radiation sensitivity. Observational data collected during the assessment supports this conclusion. The training environment provided by the immersive virtual reality recreated a radiation environment where learners could apply knowledge they had been taught by computer-based training. Activity-based training has been shown to be a more effective way to transfer skills because of the similarity between the training environment and the application environment. Virtual reality enables the training environment to look and feel like the application environment. Because of this, radiation awareness training in an immersive virtual environment should be considered by the nuclear industry, which is supported by the results of this experiment.

  11. Dual-Use system architecture for a space situational awareness system in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Y.; Kohtake, N.; Ohkami, Y.

    The use of outer space plays a vital role in both defense and civil fields. Since the separation of space activities between civil and defense applications is extremely inefficient, the Dual-Use concept has been considered fundamental for promoting the effective use of space. To the best of the authors' knowledge, most previous studies on Dual-Use focused on the technological aspects, and very few on a system engineering approach to Dual-Use. This left some important issues untouched such as the operational aspects of a system of systems, which need to be understood in a more generic context. This paper presents the results of a conceptual study, system design and management analysis of Dual-Use system architecture. First, an outline of the Dual-Use concept will be described and a definition of Dual-Use given. The effectiveness of applying the Dual-Use system concept to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) for both defense and civil users as a system of systems will then be discussed and investigated with a stakeholders analysis, context diagram and design structure matrix method. It has demonstrated that there is a need for a Dual-Use SSA Data Center which works as a binder between defense and civil systems as well as a data policy for constructing a Dual-Use SSA system.

  12. Awareness, persuasion, and adoption: Enriching the Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colapinto, Cinzia; Sartori, Elena; Tolotti, Marco

    2014-02-01

    In the context of diffusion of innovations, we propose a probabilistic model based on interacting populations connected through new communication channels. The potential adopters are heterogeneous in the connectivity levels and in their taste for innovation. The proposed framework can model the different stages of the adoption dynamics. In particular, the adoption curve is the result of a micro-founded decision process following the awareness phase. Eventually, we recover stylized facts pointed out by the extant literature in the field, such as delayed adoptions and non-monotonic adoption curves.

  13. Susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion does not tell the whole body-awareness story.

    PubMed

    David, Nicole; Fiori, Francesca; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-03-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an enigmatic illusion that creates a feeling of owning an artificial limb. Enthusiasts of this paradigm assert that it operationalizes bodily self-awareness, but there are reasons to doubt such a clear link. Because little is known about other functional contributions to the RHI, including effects of context-dependent visual processing and cognitive control or the ability to resolve intermodal conflict, we carried out two complementary experiments. In the first, we examined the relationships between the RHI and (1) body awareness, as assessed by the Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ); (2) context-dependent visual processing, as assessed by the rod-and-frame test (RFT); and (3) conflict resolution, as assessed by the Stroop test. We found a significant positive correlation between the RHI-associated proprioceptive drift and context-dependent visual processing on the RFT, but not between the RHI and body awareness on the BPQ. In the second experiment, we examined the RHI in advanced yoga practitioners with an embodied lifestyle and a heightened sense of their own body in space. They succumbed to the illusion just as much as did yoga-naïve control participants, despite significantly greater body awareness on the BPQ. These findings suggest that susceptibility to the RHI and awareness of one's own body are at least partially independent processes. PMID:23888383

  14. Harnessing Context Sensing to Develop a Mobile Intervention for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Gergle, Darren; Karr, Chris J; Giangrande, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background Mobile phone sensors can be used to develop context-aware systems that automatically detect when patients require assistance. Mobile phones can also provide ecological momentary interventions that deliver tailored assistance during problematic situations. However, such approaches have not yet been used to treat major depressive disorder. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, functional reliability, and patient satisfaction with Mobilyze!, a mobile phone- and Internet-based intervention including ecological momentary intervention and context sensing. Methods We developed a mobile phone application and supporting architecture, in which machine learning models (ie, learners) predicted patients’ mood, emotions, cognitive/motivational states, activities, environmental context, and social context based on at least 38 concurrent phone sensor values (eg, global positioning system, ambient light, recent calls). The website included feedback graphs illustrating correlations between patients’ self-reported states, as well as didactics and tools teaching patients behavioral activation concepts. Brief telephone calls and emails with a clinician were used to promote adherence. We enrolled 8 adults with major depressive disorder in a single-arm pilot study to receive Mobilyze! and complete clinical assessments for 8 weeks. Results Promising accuracy rates (60% to 91%) were achieved by learners predicting categorical contextual states (eg, location). For states rated on scales (eg, mood), predictive capability was poor. Participants were satisfied with the phone application and improved significantly on self-reported depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.82, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.43) and interview measures of depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.81, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.55). Participants also became less likely to meet criteria for major depressive disorder diagnosis (bweek = –.65, P = .03, per-protocol remission rate = 85.71%). Comorbid anxiety symptoms also decreased (betaweek = –.71, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 2.58). Conclusions Mobilyze! is a scalable, feasible intervention with preliminary evidence of efficacy. To our knowledge, it is the first ecological momentary intervention for unipolar depression, as well as one of the first attempts to use context sensing to identify mental health-related states. Several lessons learned regarding technical functionality, data mining, and software development process are discussed. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01107041; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01107041 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/60CVjPH0n) PMID:21840837

  15. Context in Models of Human-Machine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    All human-machine systems models represent context. This paper proposes a theory of context through which models may be usefully related and integrated for design. The paper presents examples of context representation in various models, describes an application to developing models for the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS), and advances context as a foundation for integrated design of complex dynamic systems.

  16. Battlefield awareness computers: the engine of battlefield digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jackson; Chamseddine, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    To modernize the army for the 21st century, the U.S. Army Digitization Office (ADO) initiated in 1995 the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade-and-Below (FBCB2) Applique program which became a centerpiece in the U.S. Army's master plan to win future information wars. The Applique team led by TRW fielded a 'tactical Internet' for Brigade and below command to demonstrate the advantages of 'shared situation awareness' and battlefield digitization in advanced war-fighting experiments (AWE) to be conducted in March 1997 at the Army's National Training Center in California. Computing Devices is designated the primary hardware developer for the militarized version of the battlefield awareness computers. The first generation of militarized battlefield awareness computer, designated as the V3 computer, was an integration of off-the-shelf components developed to meet the agressive delivery requirements of the Task Force XXI AWE. The design efficiency and cost effectiveness of the computer hardware were secondary in importance to delivery deadlines imposed by the March 1997 AWE. However, declining defense budgets will impose cost constraints on the Force XXI production hardware that can only be met by rigorous value engineering to further improve design optimization for battlefield awareness without compromising the level of reliability the military has come to expect in modern military hardened vetronics. To answer the Army's needs for a more cost effective computing solution, Computing Devices developed a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer, designated the V3+, which is designed specifically to meet the upcoming demands of Force XXI (FBCB2) and beyond. The primary design objective is to achieve a technologically superior design, value engineered to strike an optimal balance between reliability, life cycle cost, and procurement cost. Recognizing that the diverse digitization demands of Force XXI cannot be adequately met by any one computer hardware solution, Computing Devices is planning to develop a notebook sized military computer designed for space limited vehicle-mounted applications, as well as a high-performance portable workstation equipped with a 19', full color, ultra-high resolution and high brightness active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) targeting the command posts and tactical operations centers (TOC) applications. Together with the wearable computers Computing Devices developed at the Minneapolis facility for dismounted soldiers, Computing Devices will have a complete suite of interoperable battlefield awareness computers spanning the entire spectrum of battle digitization operating environments. Although this paper's primary focus is on a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer or the V3+, this paper also briefly discusses the extension of the V3+ architecture to address the needs of the embedded and command post applications.3080

  17. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  18. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  19. Glocalisation and English Language Education in Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Laxmisha; Deng, Chunrao

    2016-01-01

    With the frequent interaction between China and the world, glocalisation, the combination of globalisation and localisation, is an unavoidable trend. This paper argues that the association of local situation with global awareness is one of the ways to assimilate English for daily use in Chinese context. The fundamental idea is that the use of…

  20. Glocalisation and English Language Education in Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Laxmisha; Deng, Chunrao

    2016-01-01

    With the frequent interaction between China and the world, glocalisation, the combination of globalisation and localisation, is an unavoidable trend. This paper argues that the association of local situation with global awareness is one of the ways to assimilate English for daily use in Chinese context. The fundamental idea is that the use of…

  1. Teacher Wellbeing in Neoliberal Contexts: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, Renae; Glasgow, Patti

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the wellbeing of a workforce is an important consideration in any organisation. Within the context of education, possibilities for supporting teacher wellbeing are mediated by neoliberal policy technologies that are incongruent with key aspects of wellness. Reviewing the literature, it appears there is value…

  2. Dynamics of Western Career Attributes in the Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khapova, Svetlana N.; Korotov, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the dynamic character of career and its key attributes, and the embeddedness of their definitions and meanings in national social, political and economic contexts. Design/methodology/approach: Features of three recent distinct social, political and economic situations in Russia are used…

  3. Performance in a Social Context: Date Rape versus Date Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Cynthia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the performance of texts ("trigger scripting") as a method of modifying sexual attitudes and assertiveness in a dating context in order to prevent date rape or unwanted sexual aggression. Suggests that live performance alone and live performance plus discussion cam modify sexual attitudes and increase awareness of the issues. (MM)

  4. Translating Innovative Doctrines Into Practice: Appreciating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, John K.

    Curriculum guides can have a positive effect only if they acknowledge the intentions of teachers and the context in which the curriculum will be taught. Those who write guidelines should be aware of four central questions, all of which address the communications gap between outsiders and practitioners: (1) What does it mean to say that a written…

  5. Phonological awareness in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was at better than chance levels from second year kindergarten (age 4), but increased strongly and significantly in first grade to 74% accuracy. In contrast, syllable and rime awareness increased gradually and steadily across ages 3-6 years. Patterns suggest different influences of age and literacy instruction for different PA levels. In Study 2, involving 202 preschoolers, variance in Chinese character recognition was best explained by tasks of syllable awareness, tone awareness, and speeded naming. Findings underscore the unique importance of both tone and syllable for early character acquisition in Chinese children. PMID:18171377

  6. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  7. Awareness as an Enactivist Framework for the Mathematical Learning of Teachers, Mentors and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preciado-Babb, Armando Paulino; Metz, Martina; Marcotte, Chenoa

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the learning of both individuals and organizations within the context of a 3-year professional development program for mathematics and science teachers in a middle school. We propose to extend the notion of awareness from individuals to autonomous systems as a means to study the learning of teachers, mentors, the school, and…

  8. Promoting Critical Awareness in the Initial Training of Preschool Teachers in Greece: Resistance and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourti, Evangelia; Androussou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of future preschool teachers' critical awareness through the introduction of two "new" subjects--intercultural education and media education--in the curriculum of an early childhood department in Greece. The current social and political context, the structure of preschool teachers'…

  9. The Development of Environmental Awareness through School Science: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Skoumios, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the problem of raising environmental awareness in the context of school science. By focusing, as it does, on the relationship between the self and the natural environment, the paper discusses the difficulties that exist, such as the students' involvement with the natural world, as their object of study, the empirical…

  10. "I Had No Idea": Developing Dispositional Awareness and Sensitivity through a Cross-Professional Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    This research scrutinized the diffusion of a medical education pedagogy to the context of teacher education. Specifically, it focused on the use of standardized parents as an emerging pedagogy in teacher education. Preservice teachers taking part in a six case, fifteen-week intervention showed advances in multicultural awareness and ethical…

  11. Promoting Critical Awareness in the Initial Training of Preschool Teachers in Greece: Resistance and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourti, Evangelia; Androussou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of future preschool teachers' critical awareness through the introduction of two "new" subjects--intercultural education and media education--in the curriculum of an early childhood department in Greece. The current social and political context, the structure of preschool teachers'…

  12. Exploring the Listening Process to Inform the Development of Strategy Awareness-Raising Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Maria; Guisado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale qualitative study aimed at exploring the listening process in a group of Spanish beginners in a UK higher education context. The specific aim of the study was to inform the development of materials for listening strategy awareness-raising activities. The exploration was focused on identifying (a) strategies…

  13. Pedagogically Aware Academics' Conceptions of Change Agency in the Fields of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavert, Maria; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical transformations in universities are typically explored as "top down" attempts or in the context of training programs targeted towards educating more pedagogically aware individuals. In this study, promoting pedagogical development is explored on a community level as change agency: acting as a broker between the…

  14. Becoming Competent, Confident and Critically Aware: Tracing Academic Numeracy Development in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the mathematical journey of a mature aged nursing student as she struggles to become more academically numerate. Within the paper, academic numeracy is defined around three features: competence, confidence and critical awareness of both the context of mathematics and students' own relationship with mathematics. It then uses…

  15. Exploring an Invisible Medium: Teacher Language Awareness among Preservice K12 Educators of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the construct of Teacher Language Awareness (TLA) in a group of preservice mainstream K-12 teachers who are developing skills to work with English Language Learners (ELLs) in United States (US) public school contexts. Specifically, the study seeks to explore how preservice teachers' participation in directed university…

  16. The Effect of Instruction on Learners' Pragmatic Awareness: A Focus on Refusals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Eva Alcon; Pitarch, Josep Guzman

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of instruction on learners' production and awareness of speech acts is well documented (see Alcon and Martinez-Flor, 2008, for a review of pragmatics in instructional contexts). However, few studies examine the influence that instruction may have on the cognitive processes involved in speech act production (Felix-Brasdefer, 2008). In…

  17. Poverty-Aware Social Work Practice: A Conceptual Framework for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumer-Nevo, Michal; Weiss-Gal, Idit; Monnickendam, Menachem

    2009-01-01

    Despite the profound commitment of social work toward people living in poverty, the social work profession has failed to develop practice based on awareness of poverty. This article shows the ways in which poverty became a marginal issue in social work practice, reviews the literature on teaching poverty in international context, and then…

  18. Presenting the Self: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Interpersonal Awareness and Maintaining Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Ashley Joiner

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an activity whose objective is for students to gain self-awareness related to the ways in which humans (consciously or not) alter their self-presentation depending upon the context, thereby maintaining different "faces." Also, this activity aims to highlight effectiveness related to different modes of nonverbal…

  19. Pedagogically Aware Academics' Conceptions of Change Agency in the Fields of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavert, Maria; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical transformations in universities are typically explored as "top down" attempts or in the context of training programs targeted towards educating more pedagogically aware individuals. In this study, promoting pedagogical development is explored on a community level as change agency: acting as a broker between the…

  20. Effect of Duration of Peer Awareness Education on Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigers, Kelly L.; Myers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    The attitudes of peers towards fellow students with disabilities impacts social participation and the development of relationships within the school context. This systematic review examined the effect of duration of a disability-awareness education program on the attitudes of peers towards students with disabilities. Sources such as the Academic…