Science.gov

Sample records for contexto dos processos

  1. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  2. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  3. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  4. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  5. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dos Rios. 9.175 Section 9.175 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.175 Dos Rios. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...

  7. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  8. DOS Batch Files As Control Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyk, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-programming technique circumvents maximum of 640K imposed on random-access memory (RAM) by DOS (Disk Operating System) software. Involves breaking application program into smaller programs. Each resulting subprogram, when compiled and linked, must be small enough to fit within 640K of RAM. Retrieved from storage on disk as needed. In terms of DOS software, each subprogram ".EXE" file executed in "stand-alone" manner.

  9. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  10. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  11. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  12. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  13. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  14. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  15. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct assess to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to a 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  16. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  17. The Heme-Based Oxygen-Sensor Phosphodiesterase Ec DOS (DosP): Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli Direct Oxygen Sensor (Ec DOS, also known as Ec DosP) is a heme-based O2-sensing phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic-di-GMP to linear di-GMP. Cyclic-di-GMP is an important second messenger in bacteria, highlighting the importance of understanding structure-function relationships of Ec DOS. Ec DOS is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound O2-sensing PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Notably, its activity is markedly enhanced by O2 binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the PAS sensor domain. X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic and catalytic characterization of the wild-type and mutant proteins have provided important structural and functional clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of intramolecular catalytic regulation by O2 binding. This review summarizes the intriguing findings that have obtained for Ec DOS. PMID:25586128

  18. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  19. Xenon spallation systematics in Angra dos Reis. [meteoritic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

  20. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  1. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vos, Marten H; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Liebl, Ursula

    2012-01-10

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding. To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O(2), NO, and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O(2) escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds time scale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O(2) trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O(2). We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intraprotein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  2. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  3. Deceiving entropy-based DoS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, Ä.°lker; Brooks, Richard R.

    2014-06-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. A McAfee report shows that eight out of ten Critical Infrastructure Providers (CIPs) surveyed had a significant Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack in 2010.1 Researchers proposed many approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. In this approach, the detector uses statistical features; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields like source IP addresses or protocol type. It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection can be fooled by spoofing. An attacker can sniff the network to collect header field data of network packets coming from distributed nodes on the Internet and fuses them to calculate the entropy of normal background traffic. Then s/he can spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. In this study, we present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack that deceives entropy based detection approaches. Our preliminary results show that spoofing attacks cause significant detection performance degradation.

  4. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR-DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E; Roberts, David M; Sherman, David R; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

  5. Creating presentation graphics with MS-DOS computer technology.

    PubMed

    Van Hoozer, H; Warner, S; Felton, G

    1989-01-01

    This article describes how The University of Iowa College of Nursing Instructional Design Services uses MS-DOS computer technology to create presentation graphics to support nursing education, research, scholarly productivity, and service. Hardware and software are described and examples are presented to illustrate the use of software to create alphanumeric, schematic, and freeform pictures. The authors stress that the use of computer-aided design and production does not eliminate the use of traditional principles of visual design, but rather necessitates their application. PMID:2752333

  6. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  7. Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Lanier, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The types of cooling histories necessary to produce the porphyritic texture and the observed mineral assemblage in Angra dos Reis (ADOR) achondritic meteorite, which, on the basis of its trace element characteristics was considered to be a cumulate with a recrystallized texture, while a recent model suggested that ADOR is a porphyry. Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted with nucleation conditions varied by melting the starting material at different degrees of superheat. The results show that, at low pressure, a volcanic or hypabyssal history of ADOR is possible. The most likely history involved cooling from a slightly subliquidus temperature with a relatively high and irregular nucleation density resulting in a granular texture with the poikilitic fassaite growing late; accumulation of some crystal is tought to be probable.

  8. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

    1994-01-01

    An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

  10. The Mycobacterium DosR regulon structure and diversity revealed by comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; He, Liming; Deng, Wanyan; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which claims approximately two million people annually, remains a global health concern. The non-replicating or dormancy like state of this pathogen which is impervious to anti-tuberculosis drugs is widely recognized as the culprit for this scenario. The dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon, composed of 48 co-regulated genes, is held as essential for Mtb persistence. The DosR regulon is regulated by a two-component regulatory system consisting of two sensor kinases-DosS (Rv3132c) and DosT (Rv2027c), and a response regulator DosR (Rv3133c). The underlying regulatory mechanism of DosR regulon expression is very complex. Many factors are involved, particularly the oxygen tension. The DosR regulon enables the pathogen to persist during lengthy hypoxia. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the DosR regulon is widely distributed among the mycobacterial genomes, ranging from the pathogenic strains to the environmental strains. In-depth studies on the DosR response should provide insights into its role in TB latency in vivo and shape new measures to combat this exceeding recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:22833514

  11. DosS Is Required for the Complete Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice with Classical Granulomatous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Uma S.; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Kissee, Ryan S.; Golden, Nadia A.; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  12. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  13. America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

  14. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology. PMID:21225153

  15. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. PMID:21232777

  16. The DosR Regulon Modulates Adaptive Immunity and Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Smriti; Foreman, Taylor W.; Didier, Peter J.; Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Hudock, Teresa A.; Kissee, Ryan; Golden, Nadia A.; Gautam, Uma S.; Johnson, Ann-Marie; Alvarez, Xavier; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.; Niu, Tianhua; Blanchard, James L.; Khader, Shabaana A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Hypoxia promotes dormancy by causing physiologic changes to actively replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosR controls the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia. Objectives: To understand DosR's contribution in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, we compared the phenotype of various DosR regulon mutants and a complemented strain to M. tuberculosis in macaques, which faithfully model M. tuberculosis infection. Methods: We measured clinical and microbiologic correlates of infection with M. tuberculosis relative to mutant/complemented strains in the DosR regulon, studied lung pathology and hypoxia, and compared immune responses in lung using transcriptomics and flow cytometry. Measurements and Main Results: Despite being able to replicate initially, mutants in DosR regulon failed to persist or cause disease. On the contrary, M. tuberculosis and a complemented strain were able to establish infection and tuberculosis. The attenuation of pathogenesis in animals infected with the mutants coincided with the appearance of a Th1 response and organization of hypoxic lesions wherein M. tuberculosis expressed dosR. The lungs of animals infected with the mutants (but not the complemented strain) exhibited early transcriptional signatures of T-cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation associated with an increase of T cells expressing homing and proliferation markers. Conclusions: Delayed adaptive responses, a hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection, not only lead to persistence but also interfere with the development of effective antituberculosis vaccines. The DosR regulon therefore modulates both the magnitude and the timing of adaptive immune responses in response to hypoxia in vivo, resulting in persistent infection. Hence, DosR regulates key aspects of the M. tuberculosis life cycle and limits lung pathology. PMID:25730547

  17. Documenting 35 Years of Land Cover Change: Lago Cachet Dos Drainage, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Nimick, D.; McGrath, D.; Cole, C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million m3) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of lake-bed and valley-fill deposits, and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno. Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum thickness and extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 km2 in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits at its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  18. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  19. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  20. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  1. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  2. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  3. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  4. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  5. MIIS to MS-DOS: Microcomputer Options for Online Catalog Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotophorst, Clyde W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes use of personal computer at George Mason University to provide support to the online catalog. Merging of bibliographic information in MS-DOS format into database management system and experimentation with full-text retrieval packages (ZyIndex and SIRE) are discussed. Addresses and price information for hardware and software packages…

  6. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases. PMID:19737390

  7. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  8. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  9. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic…

  10. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  11. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and

  12. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  13. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  14. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  15. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB.... Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of Respondents: 7160 (For...

  16. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange..., DS-7005. Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of...

  17. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  18. ACONF DOS

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul; Symons, Phlip; & Corey, Garth

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. The routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.

  19. ACONF DOS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. Themore » routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.« less

  20. Mitigating DoS Attacks on the Paging Channel by Efficient Encoding in Page Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Maganis, Gabriel; Zang, Hui; Chen, Hao

    Paging is an important mechanism for network bandwidth efficiency and mobile terminal battery life. It has been widely adopted by mobile networks, such as cellular networks, WiMax, and Mobile IP. Due to certain mechanisms for achieving paging efficiency and the convergence of wireless voice and data networks, the paging channel is vulnerable to inexpensive DoS attacks. To mitigate these attacks, we propose to leverage the knowledge of the user population size, the slotted nature of the paging operation, and the quick paging mechanism to reduce the length of terminal identifiers. In the case of a CDMA2000 system, we can reduce each identifier from 34 bits down to 7 bits, effectively doubling the paging channel capacity. Moreover, our scheme incurs no paging latency, missed pages, or false pages. Using a simulator and data collected from a commercial cellular network, we demonstrate that our scheme doubles the cost for DoS attackers.

  1. An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

  2. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  3. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  4. Reagent-based DOS: developing a diastereoselective methodology to access spirocyclic- and fused heterocyclic ring systems.

    PubMed

    Damerla, V Surendra Babu; Tulluri, Chiranjeevi; Gundla, Rambabu; Naviri, Lava; Adepally, Uma; Iyer, Pravin S; Murthy, Y L N; Prabhakar, Nampally; Sen, Subhabrata

    2012-10-01

    Herein, we report a diversity-oriented-synthesis (DOS) approach for the synthesis of biologically relevant molecular scaffolds. Our methodology enables the facile synthesis of fused N-heterocycles, spirooxoindolones, tetrahydroquinolines, and fused N-heterocycles. The two-step sequence starts with a chiral-bicyclic-lactam-directed enolate-addition/substitution step. This step is followed by a ring-closure onto the built-in scaffold electrophile, thereby leading to stereoselective carbocycle- and spirocycle-formation. We used in silico tools to calibrate our compounds with respect to chemical diversity and selected drug-like properties. We evaluated the biological significance of our scaffolds by screening them in two cancer cell-lines. In summary, our DOS methodology affords new, diverse scaffolds, thereby resulting in compounds that may have significance in medicinal chemistry. PMID:22887684

  5. Distal Hydrogen-bonding Interactions in Ligand Sensing and Signaling by Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS.

    PubMed

    Basudhar, Debashree; Madrona, Yarrow; Yukl, Erik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Nishida, Clinton R; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-07-29

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS is critical for the induction of M. tuberculosis dormancy genes in response to nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), or hypoxia. These environmental stimuli, which are sensed by the DosS heme group, result in autophosphorylation of a DosS His residue, followed by phosphotransfer to an Asp residue of the response regulator DosR. To clarify the mechanism of gaseous ligand recognition and signaling, we investigated the hydrogen-bonding interactions of the iron-bound CO and NO ligands by site-directed mutagenesis of Glu-87 and His-89. Autophosphorylation assays and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Glu-87 has an important role in ligand recognition, whereas His-89 is essential for signal transduction to the kinase domain, a process for which Arg-204 is important. Mutation of Glu-87 to Ala or Gly rendered the protein constitutively active as a kinase, but with lower autophosphorylation activity than the wild-type in the Fe(II) and the Fe(II)-CO states, whereas the E87D mutant had little kinase activity except for the Fe(II)-NO complex. The H89R mutant exhibited attenuated autophosphorylation activity, although the H89A and R204A mutants were inactive as kinases, emphasizing the importance of these residues in communication to the kinase core. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the wild-type and H89A mutant indicates the mutation does not alter the heme coordination number, spin state, or porphyrin deformation state, but it suggests that interdomain interactions are disrupted by the mutation. Overall, these results confirm the importance of the distal hydrogen-bonding network in ligand recognition and communication to the kinase domain and reveal the sensitivity of the system to subtle differences in the binding of gaseous ligands. PMID:27235395

  6. A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

  7. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  8. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  9. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    PubMed

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  10. DevS/DosS sensor is bifunctional and its phosphatase activity precludes aerobic DevR/DosR regulon expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kohinoor; Kumari, Priyanka; Sharma, Saurabh; Sehgal, Snigdha; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems, comprising histidine kinases and response regulators, empower bacteria to sense and adapt to diverse environmental stresses. Some histidine kinases are bifunctional; their phosphorylation (kinase) and dephosphorylation (phosphatase) activities toward their cognate response regulators permit the rapid reversal of genetic responses to an environmental stimulus. DevR-DevS/DosR-DosS is one of the best-characterized two-component systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The kinase function of DevS is activated by gaseous stress signals, including hypoxia, resulting in the induction of ~ 48-genes DevR dormancy regulon. Regulon expression is tightly controlled and lack of expression in aerobic Mtb cultures is ascribed to the absence of phosphorylated DevR. Here we show that DevS is a bifunctional sensor and possesses a robust phosphatase activity toward DevR. We used site-specific mutagenesis to generate substitutions in conserved residues in the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain of DevS and determined their role in kinase/phosphatase functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments, including a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, collectively establish that these conserved residues are critical for regulating kinase/phosphatase functions. Our findings establish DevS phosphatase function as an effective control mechanism to block aerobic expression of the DevR dormancy regulon. Asp-396 is essential for both kinase and phosphatase functions, whereas Gln-400 is critical for phosphatase function. The positive and negative functions perform opposing roles in DevS: the kinase function triggers regulon induction under hypoxia, whereas its phosphatase function prevents expression under aerobic conditions. A finely tuned balance in these opposing activities calibrates the dormancy regulon response output. PMID:27327040

  11. Using 4DOS Batch Files To Create an Infrastructure That Makes It Easy for Students To Create and Maintain HTML Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper describes the use of simple 4DOS batch files to automate the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure to assist students in creating and maintaining HTML World Wide Web pages. Background is provided on Web pages, DOS, 4DOS, and batch files. The assumptions made in creating the infrastructure are summarized, and program statements…

  12. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  13. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  14. Use of Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge for Geoconservation of Regiao dos Lagos, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, S.; Vasconcelos, G.; Mansur, K. L.; Anjos, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A series of lagoons can be found along the coastline of Rio de Janeiro, in the so-called Regiao dos Lagos. The lagoons differ in size, physicochemical, sedimentological and biological characteristics. Rare examples of litifying microbialites that produce stromatolites, the oldest fossils on Earth, can be found living in this lagoon system. The occurrence of stromatolites in the region is of great scientific interest because it enables the study of possible analogues of the earliest life on Earth. However, this region has been suffering from intense human activities and degradations. Geoconservation planning requires an assessment of the characteristics of the region and its potential threats. The primary goal of this study is to assess physical environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos. Using a broad integrative assessment combining remote sensing, GIS, field studies and local knowledge of communities, land-cover and land-use classes were identified, as well as the main human activities impacting the environment. The seasonal and weekend tourism and urban sprawl in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro triggers the occupation of new areas and the removal of natural vegetation, especially on lagoon margins. This disorderly occupation by an ever increasing population, with both legal and illegal constructions and the subsequent overload of the local infrastructure, e.g. increase of electrical energy consumption, volume of vehicles, pollution in air, water and soil and problems with water supply and wastewater treatment, are hastening the gradual degradation of the lake ecosystem. The main driving forces to environmental changes over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos were the change of dense vegetation, saline and bare soil classes into built-up areas, adding to the poor waste treatment and inadequate sewage disposal. This analysis provides a basis for a better control of anthropogenic impacts and

  15. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  16. Volcanic and structural controls of mineralization in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, H.; Klein, D.P.; Birmingham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geological features suggests that a central part of the Dos Cabezas Mountains probably has considerable potential for blind deposits, chiefly base metals. The area exposes the root zone of a Paleocene( ) volcanic complex and its underlying granitic stocks, which were emplaced next to a major northwest-trending, much reactivated fault zone. The new data, combined with the knowledge of past mining activity in the area, lead them to propose several exploration targets that may lead to ore bodies in breccia pipes along the base of the volcanic pile and along a possible concealed fault or caldera margin.

  17. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  18. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Hélio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Márcio Amorim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91 (1 − e−0.062t−(−0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil. PMID:24977100

  19. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  20. Dosimetry and Vibration measurements in BIOLAB and EMCS (Dos-ViBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideström, Johan Olof; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Hauslage, Jens; Schuber, Marianne; Fossum, Knut R.; Vanhavere, Filip

    Space irradiation and vibrations in even small dosages can impact biological experiments and have not yet been measured in the biological payloads of the Columbus module at the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). Installing active dosimeters and accelerometers in the Experiment Containers (EC) of Biolab and the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), to sur-vey in-situ the radiation and vibrations in these facilities, should be performed to serve as a reference of the space conditions to future experiments. To monitor the radiation field, the space radiation should be measured with an active dosime-ter inside the Multi-User-Facilities, as close to the actual shielding conditions of the biological experiments as possible. To measure the full spectrum of vibration frequencies, several instru-ments with different measurement ranges and sensitivity should be combined. The radiation and vibrations should be measured simultaneously in Biolab and EMCS to compare their radiation shielding and sensitivities to vibrations from the ISS. The radiation could also be measured with passive dosimeters. On the one hand this would be a back-up to the active dosimeter and on the other hand it would provide additional data since the passive dosimeters can give additional information on the radiation LET spectrum. As a response to ESA's Announcement of Opportunity (ILSRA-2009), a joint experiment in Biolab and EMCS, entitled Dos-ViBE, was proposed by the co-authors. The objectives and experimental flow of Dos-ViBE are outlined in this presentation.

  1. Quality control and assurance for validation of DOS/I measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Kwong, Richard; Quang, Timothy; Hill, Brian; Tromberg, Bruce J.; MacKinnon, Nick; Mantulin, William W.

    2010-02-01

    Ongoing multi-center clinical trials are crucial for Biophotonics to gain acceptance in medical imaging. In these trials, quality control (QC) and assurance (QA) are key to success and provide "data insurance". Quality control and assurance deal with standardization, validation, and compliance of procedures, materials and instrumentation. Specifically, QC/QA involves systematic assessment of testing materials, instrumentation performance, standard operating procedures, data logging, analysis, and reporting. QC and QA are important for FDA accreditation and acceptance by the clinical community. Our Biophotonics research in the Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) program for breast cancer characterization focuses on QA/QC issues primarily related to the broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging (DOS/I) instrumentation, because this is an emerging technology with limited standardized QC/QA in place. In the multi-center trial environment, we implement QA/QC procedures: 1. Standardize and validate calibration standards and procedures. (DOS/I technology requires both frequency domain and spectral calibration procedures using tissue simulating phantoms and reflectance standards, respectively.) 2. Standardize and validate data acquisition, processing and visualization (optimize instrument software-EZDOS; centralize data processing) 3. Monitor, catalog and maintain instrument performance (document performance; modularize maintenance; integrate new technology) 4. Standardize and coordinate trial data entry (from individual sites) into centralized database 5. Monitor, audit and communicate all research procedures (database, teleconferences, training sessions) between participants ensuring "calibration". This manuscript describes our ongoing efforts, successes and challenges implementing these strategies.

  2. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  3. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  4. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 10(17)-10(21)/(cm(3)·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  5. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  6. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  8. The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

  9. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  10. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  11. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    PubMed

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved. PMID:25106827

  12. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  13. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-A(cnp1) at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  14. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2–Cdc20 complex

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-Acnp1 at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  15. Open Cluster Radial Velocity determination from observations at Observatório Pico Dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, M. A. F.; Monteiro, H.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2014-10-01

    In studies of the dynamics of the Galactic disk, such as the determination of the speed of the spiral pattern and the permanence of stars in the spiral arms, it is crucial to know orbits obtained from proper motions, radial velocities and the potential of the Galaxy. Aiming to improve the statistics of our catalog of open clusters, maintained by our research group, we determined the radial velocity of stars belonging to a group of open clusters using spectra with a resolution of 4000, obtained at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (LNA) with the 1.60 m telescope and the Coudé spectrograph. We observed the open cluster's member stars and calculated their radial speeds using standard techniques. The stars were selected from our own database based on relevant information concerning the clusters, obtained by statistical analysis of their proper motions and/or their position in the HR's diagram. In this work, we present the detailed analysis of the data reduction and radial velocity determination using synthetic spectra from different libraries. Finally we present the open cluster's radial (and spacial) velocities.

  16. Hydra: a C-language environment for real-time DOS multitasking at the bedside.

    PubMed

    DeGaetano, A; Coleman, W P; Pizzi, R; Tomasella, E; Castagneto, M; Greco, A V

    1993-10-01

    Patient monitoring at the bedside is an inherently parallel job, best handled by multiple individual tasks running concurrently. Cost and diffusion considerations strongly favor the use of PC's at the bedside, but their most widespread operating system, DOS, is not built for multitasking. Hence, a software platform in C language has been prepared, allowing the intermediate programmer to easily write independent modules which will then run simultaneously without conflicts. Such a platform aims at allowing effortless sharing of data among concurrently running processes, while providing strong insulation between tasks, enough to allow multiple copies of any one task to run simultaneously unknown to each other. A cooperative, memory sharing multitasking paradigm has been chosen, which offers fine granularity of timeslicing and low execution overhead at the price of some loss in generality of design. Speed, data exchange capability and number of stackable windows are greater than with commercial packages like Windows or LabWindows. Dynamical reprioritization of tasks is built in, allowing the computerized monitor to focus its attention and resources on urgent tasks. PMID:8254227

  17. Buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios subdivision, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a plan for water quality monitoring at the Dos Rios subdivision (Units 2, 3, and the Island Unit) that is intended to satisfy the informational needs of residents who live southwest (downgradient) of the former Gunnison processing site. Water quality monitoring activities described in this report are designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of previous uranium milling operations. Requirements presented in this monitoring plan are also included in the water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) for the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The Gunnison WSAP is a site-specific document prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides background, guidance, and justification for future ground water sampling and analysis activities for the UMTRA Project Gunnison processing and disposal sites. The WSAP will be updated annually, as additional water quality data are collected and interpreted, to provide ongoing protection for public health and the environment.

  18. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources. PMID:26270219

  19. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  20. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  1. ECHARPE: a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for the Pico dos Dias Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Tania P.; Castilho, Bruno; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Macanhan, Vanessa B. P.; de Arruda, Marcio V.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Melendez, Jorge; Vaz, Luiz P. R.; Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; do Nascimento, Jose D.; Quast, Germano R.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.

    2012-09-01

    At least during the last ten years, the Brazilian astronomical community has been asking for an echelle spectrograph for the 1.6 m telescope installed at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazópolis, MG, Brazil, OPD/MCTI/LNA). Among the scientific cases are topics related to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, asteroseismology, chemical composition and chromospheric activities of solar type stars and the relations between solar analogues and terrestrial planets. During 2009 the project finally got started. The called ECHARPE spectrograph (Espectrógrafo ECHelle de Alta Resolução para o telescópio Perkin-Elmer) is being projected to offer a spectral resolution of R ~ 50000, in the range 390-900 nm and with a single exposition. It will be a bench spectrograph with two channels: blue and red, fed by two optical fibers (object, sky or calibration) with aperture of 1.5 or 2.0 arcseconds. The instrument will be placed in one of the telescope pillar ramification, in the originals installations of a Coudé spectrograph and in a specially created environment controlled room. In this work we will present the scientific motivations, the conceptual optical design, the expected performance of the spectrograph, and the status of its development. ECHARPE is expected to be delivered to the astronomical community in 2014, fully prepared and optimized for remote operations.

  2. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  3. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Balding, G.O.

    1971-01-01

    The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

  4. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. Methods: A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Results: Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Conclusions: Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. Citation: Blunden S, Rigney G. Lessons learned from sleep education in schools: a review of dos and don'ts. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):671–680. PMID:25766709

  5. Video movie making using remote procedure calls and 4BSD Unix sockets on Unix, UNICOS, and MS-DOS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Johnston, W.E.; Hall, D.E.; Rosenblum, M.

    1990-03-01

    We describe the use of the Sun Remote Procedure Call and Unix socket interprocess communication mechanisms to provide the network transport for a distributed, client-server based, image handling system. Clients run under Unix or UNICOS and servers run under Unix or MS-DOS. The use of remote procedure calls across local or wide-area networks to make video movies is addressed.

  6. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  7. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  8. Ligand dynamics and early signaling events in the heme domain of the sensor protein Dos from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taku; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2008-01-25

    In the heme-based sensor Dos from Escherichia coli, the ferrous heme is coordinated by His-77 and Met-95. The latter residue is replaced upon oxygen binding or oxidation of the heme. Here we investigate the early signaling processes upon dissociation of the distal ligand using ultrafast spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. Geminate CO rebinding to the heme domain DosH appears insensitive to replacement of Met-95, in agreement with the notion that this residue is oriented out of the heme pocket in the presence of external ligands. A uniquely slow 35-ps phase in rebinding of the flexible methionine side chain after dissociation from ferrous DosH is completely abolished in rebinding of the more rigid histidine side chain in the M95H mutant protein, where only the 7-ps phase, common to all 6-coordinate heme proteins, is observed. Temperature-dependence studies indicate that all rebinding of internal and external ligands is essentially barrierless, but that CfigsO escape from the heme pocket is an activated process. Solvent viscosity studies combined with molecular dynamics simulations show that there are two configurations in the ferrous 6-coordinate protein, involving two isomers of the Met-95 side chain, of which the structural changes extend to the solvent-exposed backbone, which is part of the flexible FG loop. One of these configurations has considerable motional freedom in the Met-95-dissociated state. We suggest that this configuration corresponds to an early signaling intermediate state, is responsible for the slow rebinding, and allows small ligands in the protein to efficiently compete for binding with the heme. PMID:18039668

  9. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  10. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  11. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  12. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  13. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  14. NGC 2287: Un cúmulo abierto rico en binarias espectroscópicas de dos espectros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.; García, B.; Grosso, M.

    NGC 2287 contiene 100 estrellas con buena fotometría y 40 con tipos MK. En 1979 Levato et al., usando la técnica de la clasificación espectral, descubrieron que la mayoría de las estrellas en el rango B8-A0 eran binarias espectroscópicas con una inusual proporción de binarias con dos espectros. El presente proyecto tuvo el propósito de confirmar la naturaleza binaria de los miembros del cúmulo. Hemos obtenido espectros con resolución 14000 de 15 estrellas clasificadas como binarias. Los espectros, que abarcan la región λ 3500-λ 6000 Å, permitieron confirmar la naturaleza binaria de varias de las estrellas en la muestra. Hacemos notar el considerable interés astrofísico de este cúmulo abierto.

  15. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered. PMID:27394563

  16. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR is Required for Activity of the PmbtB and PmbtI Promoters under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Lise J.; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive for extended periods of time under conditions of low oxygen, low pH, low iron and low nutrients. The mycobactins (M. tuberculosis siderophores) play a key role in scavenging iron from the environment and are induced in response to low iron in an IdeR-regulated manner. We demonstrate that the promoters of two mycobactin gene (mbt) operons are also expressed during adaptation to low oxygen, and that this expression is dependent on the DosR regulator. Up-regulation of mbt operons induced by low iron was not DosR-dependent. DosR is a member of a two component regulatory system which responds to oxygen availability. Deletion of the DosR regulator led to increased expression of bacterioferritin and increased capacity to grow under iron depletion. These data provide a link between the mycobacterial response to two conditions likely to be encountered in vivo, low iron and low oxygen. PMID:25211224

  18. Dynamics of the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in a Colombian population of household contacts of recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Ortíz, Blanca L; Franken, Kees L M C; García, Luis F; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Immune response to DosR and Rpf antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) seems to be important for latency maintenance. Little is known about the dynamics of the immune response to these antigens in an endemic community. Thus, the IFNγ response and cytokine production in response to PPD, Esat6-Cfp10 (E6-C10), DosR and Rpf antigens in healthy HHC of tuberculosis (TB) patients over a 12 (T12) months period (short-term, stLTBI) was investigated. This response was compared with a group of LTBI, who have remained healthy for 5-7 years (long-term, ltLTBI). According to the IFNγ response, two groups of HHCs were identified in stLTBI in response to E6-C10. At T12, E6-C10(+) HHCs displayed a decrease in the IFNγ levels and a generalized decrease in cytokines production. The E6-C10(-) HHC showed an increase in the IFNγ response and cytokine levels. In stLTBI, the responses to E6-C10, DosR, and Rpf may be interpreted as a protective immune response controlling Mtb infection and may be leading to a state of latent infection. Comparing the response of stLTBI and ltLTBI, we observed significant changes in the proportions of CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells to specific DosR and Rpf, which may indicate a persistent immune response to Mtb antigens in ltLTBI. PMID:26980501

  19. Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

  20. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-01

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity. PMID:23486471

  1. MprA and DosR coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence operon encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c.

    PubMed

    Bretl, Daniel J; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J; Penoske, Renee M; Salzman, Nita H; Zahrt, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection. PMID:22689819

  2. Power-efficiency trade-off due to density of states (DOS) distortion in a molecular thermoelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2013-03-01

    The issue of how a distortion in the electronic DOS affects nanoscale thermoelectric performance is addressed within an ``electrical engineering'' perspective. This view point is based on the direct evaluation of the overall efficiency and power from device current-voltage characteristics and gives a more complete picture of the thermoelectric performance in comparison to the traditional ``figure of merit'' based material science approach. We use representative examples from molecular conduction to study the trade-off between maximum efficiency and the maximum power generated within the set up. The trade-off is maximum for the well known example of a sharply resonant molecular level which represents the ultimate distortion in the electronic density of states. As the distortion is reduced via contact induced broadening, we obtain a smaller trade-off between maximum power and efficiency. We then present the effects of self consistent charging, contact induced asymmetry and the HOMO-LUMO gap on the thermoelectric performance. In all cases we compare our non-equilibrium calculations with zT calculations, and our results depict that zT is not the sole metric for the assessment of nanoscale thermoelectric performance.

  3. Dos Amigos... (Two Friends...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Rosalie M.

    Intended for supplementary reading material for Spanish speaking children in elementary grades, this illustrated Spanish text was developed by students in the Bilingual Teacher Aide Program at Mesa Community College. Both language and content have been controlled to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive material relevant to the…

  4. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  5. Exposure pathways to HCH and DDT in Cidade dos Meninos and its surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar, metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Ogenis M; Franco, Robson

    2006-06-01

    In 1989, the Rio de Janeiro State environmental agency (FEEMA) after a preliminary survey of the site known as Cidade dos Meninos, collected and disposed in a safe area tons of a pesticide that was spread in and around the ruins of an old hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) factory. The aim of this article is three-fold: (i) To investigate the existing HCH and DDT contamination levels in soil, water, air, vegetables and grasses at the Cidade dos Meninos site and the surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar; (ii) To identify the main environmental exposure pathways present in the study area, and (iii) To propose a health hazard classification for this area. The results showed the presence of high levels of total HCH and DDT in the environmental media samples, especially in those collected in the district Cidade dos Meninos. This district is also the one that produces more food (vegetables, milk and meat) for local and outside population. The environmental data correlated to the socio-economic, food diet and local health conditions led to the identification of four complete exposure pathways to HCH and DDT (surface soil, access road, food chain and ambient air). Using the ATSDR (1996) and Magalhães (2000) criteria the site was classified in two public health hazard categories: Category II - hazard for public health, and category III - indeterminate hazard for public health. PMID:16611565

  6. Influência da presença de endossimbionte em Brevipalpus phoenicis na aquisição e transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leprose dos citros destaca-se como uma fitovirose de grande impacto econômico e ambiental à citricultura, elevando o custo de produção para o controle do vetor B. phoenicis. É conhecido que a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em ácaros Brevipalpus spp. causa a feminilização dos ácaro...

  7. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  8. Ultrafast ligand rebinding in the heme domain of the oxygen sensors FixL and Dos: general regulatory implications for heme-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Ursula; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Negrerie, Michel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2002-10-01

    Heme-based oxygen sensors are part of ligand-specific two-component regulatory systems, which have both a relatively low oxygen affinity and a low oxygen-binding rate. To get insight into the dynamical aspects underlying these features and the ligand specificity of the signal transduction from the heme sensor domain, we used femtosecond spectroscopy to study ligand dynamics in the heme domains of the oxygen sensors FixL from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FixLH) and Dos from Escherichia coli (DosH). The heme coordination with different ligands and the corresponding ground-state heme spectra of FixLH are similar to myoglobin (Mb). After photodissociation, the excited-state properties and ligand-rebinding kinetics are qualitatively similar for FixLH and Mb for CO and NO as ligands. In contrast to Mb, the transient spectra of FixLH after photodissociation of ligands are distorted compared with the ground-state difference spectra, indicating differences in the heme environment with respect to the unliganded state. This distortion is particularly marked for O(2). Strikingly, heme-O(2) recombination occurs with efficiency unprecedented for heme proteins, in approximately 5 ps for approximately 90% of the dissociated O(2). For DosH-O(2), which shows 60% sequence similarity to FixLH, but where signal detection and transmission presumably are quite different, a similarly fast recombination was found with an even higher yield. Altogether these results indicate that in these sensors the heme pocket acts as a ligand-specific trap. The general implications for the functioning of heme-based ligand sensors are discussed in the light of recent studies on heme-based NO and CO sensors. PMID:12271121

  9. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  10. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  11. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  12. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  13. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23736976

  14. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be ‘pre-adapted’ to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under ‘non-inducing’ conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be 'pre-adapted' to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under 'non-inducing' conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to the

  17. The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

    2007-06-01

    This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

  18. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  19. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  20. The influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income community of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A P M F; Alencar, M F L; Cohen, S C; Souza-Júnior, P R B; Cecchetto, F; Mathias, L S; Santos, C P; Almeida, J C A; de Moraes Neto, A H A

    2012-05-01

    In a recent study by our group on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed that about 50% of the inhabitants were parasitized and had some knowledge of intestinal parasitic infections but did not apply this knowledge in daily practice. We were thus motivated to implement strategies in health education to promote preventive measures in the locality. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the region in an effort to strengthen public policies for controlling these diseases in Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on action-research and a theoretical framework of health promotion. Our results demonstrate that the study population exhibited an enhanced awareness of the importance of disease from intestinal parasitic infections. Attitudes and practices related to prevention were significantly improved after the shared health education. In conclusion, this study allowed the shared construction of knowledge that reflected the true needs of the residents. PMID:22313520

  1. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  2. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  3. Evaluation of the chromium contamination at Ribeirão dos Bagres, Franca (SP), Brazil, by the ²¹⁰Pb method.

    PubMed

    Matamet, F R M; Bonotto, D M

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a chronological study focusing the use of ²¹⁰Pb in four sediment cores collected at Ribeirão dos Bagres in the region of Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. When evaluating the sedimentation rate by using the ²¹⁰Pb method, it was possible to monitor historical changes occurring in the concentrations of chromium present in the sediments. In order to do so, several specific parameters were determined in sediments, as chromium concentration, major oxides, organic matter, grain size, and chemical and physical-chemical parameters of waters. The sediments possessed a Cr concentration range of 0.83-26.25mg/kg that is below the world's average of shales. The sedimentation rates obtained from the ²¹⁰Pb analysis were between 0.07 and 0.77 g cm⁻²year⁻¹, while the linear sedimentation rate was from 0.6 to 3.2 cm/year. The adoption of the CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) ²¹⁰Pb model allowed characterize older sediments, aged 177 years, and younger sediments, aged 4 years. The organic matter in the sediments was more abundant in the first few centimeters of practically all profiles, and the analysis of oxides showed that silica is the major constituent of the sediments, in which there is predominance of sand and silt. In addition, the analysis of the physical and chemical parameters of waters indicated that they are suitable for navigation and natural harmony landscape. PMID:24184739

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization. PMID:20407910

  5. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  6. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  7. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  8. Discovery of the base of the Pinal Schist and the Bear Canyon sequence below it in the eastern Metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains, Cochise County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.C. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains is underlain by Pinal Schist (PS). Recent detailed mapping along the western edge of this terrane shows that a flat planar regional unconformity (UC) bounds this Pinal body at its western stratigraphic base. Below the UC lies 8 km[sup 2] of greenschist facies metapelites and metafelsites here given the provisional name of the Bear Canyon sequence (BCS). The PS above the UC is over 10 stratigraphic km, grading from 1 km conglomerate at the base (clasts are metafelsites and metasediments with very minor quartz and granite) up into 3 km of sandstones and then pelite, all with greenschist facies overprint. Relict bedding with abundant crossbedding is common; the sequence is upright. Foliation parallels bedding. Lineation is absent. The UC itself is well exposed in two places, on both sides of Happy Camp Canyon (HCC). On the west of HCC, the surface is exposed at the mouth of Bear Canyon (NW1/4 Sec. 31, T13S R28E) striking south and then southwest about 4 km, ending in the N center of Sec. 12, T14S R27E. The unconformity and the Pinal above it lie NS 30E in the north and smoothly swing to NE 50 SE in the south. Below the UC are 6 km[sup 2] of metasandstone and metafelsites of the BCS. The metasandstone is quartz-sericite schist with strong lineation ([minus]50 S70E) in its northern km of exposure. Bedding and foliation are NS 60 E in N, and NE 70 SE in S. This schist body is intruded on the E by a dike of quartz-phyric metafelsite to 1 km wide which underlies the UC along its entire length. The felsite shows strong relict flow layering and no foliation. Flow layering is NS 90 in the N, and strikes and dips variably in the S. A 1/4 km[sup 2] metafelsite plug intrudes the schist on the W, with flow layering NE 90. The two exposures of the UC are separated by a Precambrian normal fault striking N45E and dipping moderately SE under HCC alluvial fill; it has about a km of dip slip.

  9. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  10. Geochronological data from TTG-type rock associations of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex and implications for crustal evolution of southernmost Brazil in Paleoproterozoic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Tiago Rafael; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll; Florisbal, Luana Moreira; Chemale, Farid, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    U-Pb isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICPMS (Laser Ablation - Multi Collector - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) in zircon crystals from metatonalites, tonalites and granodiorite gneiss from the Arroio dos Ratos Complex (ARC) early magmatism in southernmost Brazil are presented. The ARC is located in the eastern portion of the Sul-rio-grandense Shield, occurring as septa and roof pendants on granitoids emplaced along the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt (SBSB). The SBSB corresponds to a translithospheric structure composed of several anastomosed shear zones of dominantly transcurrent kinematics whose syntectonic magmatism, of Neoproterozoic age, is characteristic of post-collisional environments. The studied rocks comprise TTG-type associations with coeval mafic magmatism, deformed and metamorphosed within a ductile shear zone. Zircon crystals obtained from six samples are interpreted as igneous given that the crystals are subhedral to euhedral, bipyramidal, with concentric zonation, have ratios Th/U between 0.13 and 0.81 and have restricted evidence of overgrowth. The oldest Association 1 (A1) has structures compatible with recrystallization under conditions of high temperature and an igneous age of 2148 ± 33 Ma, obtained in a metatonalite. The rocks of Association 2 (A2) have similar compositions, although with a more significant coeval mafic fraction. They are intrusive into A1 and also show high-temperature recrystallization features. However, they are less deformed and partly preserve their primary, igneous fabric. The igneous ages obtained from two A2 tonalites are 2150 ± 28 Ma and 2136 ± 27 Ma. Association 3 (A3) is represented by tonalitic to granodioritic gneisses whose structure, composition and metamorphic features are similar to those of A1 rocks, except for the absence of coeval mafic magmas in the former. Local features resulting from partial melting are present in A3 rocks. Three samples from A3 were dated. A tonalitic gneiss gives igneous age

  11. Identification of familial clustering for cancer through the family health strategy program in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Daniela Koeller Rodrigues; Attianezi, Margareth; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Barth, Anneliese; Sequeira, Cecília; Krause, Nathália; Oliveira, Vivian; Lucidi, Alexandre; Serao, Cassio; Llerena, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Identification of families with history of cancer in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the Brazilian Unified Primary Health Care System was explored based in the Community Health Agents (CHA) program. This study was divided into two phases: a descriptive one with a cross-sectional epidemiological data of families with history of cancer based on CHA-collected data from home visits in four primary health care units. The second phase consisted in identifying familial clustering of three or more individuals with cancer through construction of a three-generation pedigree and revisited by an itinerant group of medical geneticists. Genetic counseling was carried out with the intent of selecting potential families at risk for hereditary familial cancers. In the first phase of the study, 1,581 families were interviewed by the CHA at their homes. A positive history for cancer was present in 42.3 % of families, comprising 22.3 % with only one case per family, 11.2 % with two cases, and 8.6 % with three or more cases in the family. The informant reported that 15 % of the cases were from the father lineage, 12 % from the mother lineage, and 12.1 % within siblings. In the remaining 60.9 % families, cancer was present in both sides of the family. The types of cancer reported were uterus 8.7 % (n = 137), stomach 7.7 % (n = 122), breast 6.9 % (n = 109), throat 6.8 % (n = 99), prostate 5.4 % (n = 85), lung 5.6 % (n = 88), bowel 3.7 % (n = 59), and unspecified sites in 6.8 % (n = 108) of families. No statistical differences were noted between the data collected on each primary care unit. In the second phase of the study, 136 families (2.9 %) from the total of families interviewed in phase 1 were selected due to the presence of three or more individuals with cancer in the family. Among those, only 73 families attended genetic counseling. Comparison between the data obtained by the CHA and the medical

  12. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  13. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S; Peterson, Matthew W; Gazdik, Michaela; C Gomes, Antonio L; Galagan, James E; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ~200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  14. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S.; Peterson, Matthew W.; Gazdik, Michaela; C. Gomes, Antonio L.; Galagan, James E.; McDonough, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ∼200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  15. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  16. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  17. A terD Domain-Encoding Gene (SCO2368) Is Involved in Calcium Homeostasis and Participates in Calcium Regulation of a DosR-Like Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, François; Lerat, Sylvain; Bucca, Giselda; Sanssouci, Édith; Smith, Colin P.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptomyces coelicolor is not resistant to tellurite, it possesses several TerD domain-encoding (tdd) genes of unknown function. To elucidate the function of tdd8, the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor strain M145 and of a tdd8 deletion mutant derivative (the Δtdd8 strain) were compared. Several orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes involved in dormancy survival were upregulated in the deletion mutant at the visual onset of prodiginine production. These genes are organized in a putative redox stress response cluster comprising two large loci. A binding motif similar to the dormancy survival regulator (DosR) binding site of M. tuberculosis has been identified in the upstream sequences of most genes in these loci. A predicted role for these genes in the redox stress response is supported by the low NAD+/NADH ratio in the Δtdd8 strain. This S. coelicolor gene cluster was shown to be induced by hypoxia and NO stress. While the tdd8 deletion mutant (the Δtdd8 strain) was unable to maintain calcium homeostasis in a calcium-depleted medium, the addition of Ca2+ in Δtdd8 culture medium reduced the expression of several genes of the redox stress response cluster. The results shown in this work are consistent with Tdd8 playing a significant role in calcium homeostasis and redox stress adaptation. PMID:25535276

  18. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling. PMID:24959753

  19. DevR (DosR) mimetic peptides impair transcriptional regulation and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under hypoxia by inhibiting the autokinase activity of DevS sensor kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-component systems have emerged as compelling targets for antibacterial drug design for a number of reasons including the distinct histidine phosphorylation property of their constituent sensor kinases. The DevR-DevS/DosT two component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is essential for survival under hypoxia, a stress associated with dormancy development in vivo. In the present study a combinatorial peptide phage display library was screened for DevS histidine kinase interacting peptides with the aim of isolating inhibitors of DevR-DevS signaling. Results DevS binding peptides were identified from a phage display library after three rounds of panning using DevS as bait. The peptides showed sequence similarity with conserved residues in the N-terminal domain of DevR and suggested that they may represent interacting surfaces between DevS and DevR. Two DevR mimetic peptides were found to specifically inhibit DevR-dependent transcriptional activity and restrict the hypoxic survival of M. tb. The mechanism of peptide action is majorly attributed to an inhibition of DevS autokinase activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that DevR mimetic peptides impede DevS activation and that intercepting DevS activation at an early step in the signaling cascade impairs M. tb survival in a hypoxia persistence model. PMID:25048654

  20. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  1. DOS/Russian - US program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pifer, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the organization and describes the objectives for the science and technology agreements between the U.S.A. and Russia. The Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission objectives and the Civilian Research and the Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union (CRDF) are discussed.

  2. Memória fonológica em crianças bilíngues bimodais e crianças com implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memória fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsáveis pelo Projeto ‘Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimoda’). Além disso, foram incluídos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianças surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. Na análise dos resultados, em relação ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criança surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito à Libras e comparado com o das crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito à Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear com acesso restrito à Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Português apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Português. Os resultados sugerem que as crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear em processo de aquisição da línguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito à Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  3. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  4. Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2004-02-01

    Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

  5. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium EM POPULAÇÕES DE ÁCAROS Brevipalpus phoenicis DE DIFERENTES REGIÕES BRASILEIRAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Em B. phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), ácaro vetor de importantes fitovírus, a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium relaciona-se ao processo de feminilização dos machos, acarretando em elevada proporção de fêmeas em populações naturais. Até o momento, não é conhecido se este e...

  6. SIMULAÇÃO E PROJECTO DE PROCESSOS QUÍMICOS CONSIDERANDO ASPECTOS ECONÓMICOS E AMBIENTAIS (PORTUGESE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article the hydrodealkylation (HDA) process is studied and two process alternatives are compared: removing and recycling biphenyl. Since the unwanted biphenyl is formed by a reversible reaction the alternative of recycling biphenyl with toluene to let it build up to an eq...

  7. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  8. Una vision holistica de la educacion superior en contextos posmodernos (The Integrative Conception of Postmodern Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Zoreda-Lozano, Juan Jose

    This paper argues that current "postmodern" conditions demand a rethinking of higher education, especially in countries like Mexico. This would involve the rapprochement of science, technology, and the humanities, based on the belief that the chasm separating them, apart from being artificial, is no longer socially viable. Through a critical…

  9. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  10. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    para o ensino do tema nessa série. Os resultados da avaliação diagnóstica serviram como referência para a organização do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequência didática às características dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. É esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado também por outros pesquisadores em investigações relacionadas ao tema.

  11. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter describes field…

  12. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  13. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  14. Dos and Don'ts of Writing Presidential Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, an employment agreement between a university president and a governing board was often nothing more than a handshake. Today, formal contracts are requirements for presidents, with boards and presidents typically relying on lawyers to extensively document terms of employment, salary and benefits, and, perhaps most…

  15. Web-Based Mathematics: Some "Dos" and "Don'ts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loong, Esther Yook-Kin

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes an "out of field" teacher's use of the Internet to teach a range of mathematical topics in a modified Year 8 mathematics class. It highlights the importance of three factors for implementing a discernible web-based teaching strategy: appropriate choice of web objects, effective "virtual" pedagogy, and technical support…

  16. Writing at Work; Dos, Don'ts, and How Tos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Ernst

    Intended for the adult who needs writing skills for career purposes, this three-part book presents principles rather than mechanical rules for achieving effective communication through writing. The first section of the book offers specific guidelines on communicative attitude, content, perspective, theme, organization, and revision. The middle…

  17. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    ... your former spouse. • Don’t question your children’s loyalty. • Help make the transition from one home to ... Don’t spoil your children to buy their loyalty and love • Don’t let your children blackmail ...

  18. Dos and Don'ts for a Fabulous Pedicure

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done frequently to not only keep feet looking good, but also to ensure proper foot health. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind the next time you get a pedicure at home or in the salon: Don’t shave your ...

  19. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  20. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  1. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  2. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  3. L'influenza dell'ambiente linguistico nel processo di acquisizione di un lessico bilingue (Influence of the Linguistic Environment on the Process of Acquiring a Bilingual Vocabulary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavosi, Ricciarda; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Addresses two questions: (1) When do children who are bilingual from birth become aware that they speak two languages? and (2) What are the factors that lead to this awareness? The subjects in the study described here were Italian/German bilingual children living in the Italian region of Alto Adige. (CFM)

  4. Cultura, communicacion e interaccion: hacia el contexto total del lenguaje y el hombre hispanicos (Culture, Communication and Interaction: Toward the Total Context of Hispanic Man and his Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1975-01-01

    This fourth and final of a series of papers on communication in the Spanish-speaking world deals with body language and other nonverbal communication. The use of nonverbal sounds, the visual and olfactory senses, and behavior patterns are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  5. Cultura, Comunicacion e interaccion: Hacia el contexto total del lenguage y el hombre hispanicos (Culture, Communication and Interaction: Towards a Total Context of the Spanish Language and Speaker)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1974-01-01

    Described the methodological problems in setting up a kinesic inventory. Concludes that it is highly unrealistic to study language by itself without analyzing the formal and semantic make-up of the triple basic structure of language-paralanguage-kinesics. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  6. "Canteiro Escola"--Uma Resposta da Industria da Construcao no Contexto Produtivo Atual (The "Building Site" School--A Construction Industry Answer in the Actual Productive Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Rosa Elisa; Letelier, Maria Eugenia

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of the discourse of construction industry personnel involved in workplace basic education in Brazil. Reports on the perspective of the workers/students and on the experiences and the vision of those who implement the educational programs. Identifies the limits of the schooling process and the difficulties inherent in the present…

  7. Cultura, comunicacion e interaccion: hacia el contexto total del lenguage y el hombre hispanicos (Culture, Communication and Interaction: Towards a Global Context of the Spanish Language and Speaker)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1975-01-01

    The new science of Proxemic Behavior (introduced by Edward T. Hall) should be included in the basic triple structure of human communicative behavior: language-paralanguage-kinesthesia. The applications of such a science are many e.g., analysis and study of the narrative character in novels. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  8. Foreign Language Learning: Strategies in the Context of STEM Education (Estrategias de Aprendizaje de Lenguas Extranjeras en el Contexto de la Educación STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at providing an insightful evaluation of the EFL strategies used by first-year STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) students, and their perceptions of their own use of strategies. The 147 participants were undergraduate level, first-year engineering students at a state university in Turkey. Their ages ranged…

  9. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  10. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  11. Fotometria de grupos compactos de galáxias no infravermelho próximo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasileiro, F.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos medidas nas bandas J, H e K de cerca de 90 galáxias em 34 grupos compactos. Através da combinação dos novos dados, com dados obtidos na literatura para a banda B, investigamos como as luminosidades, cores, tamanhos e massas das galáxias em grupos compactos foram afetadas por processos dinâmicos, e como essas diferem de galáxias em ambientes menos densos. Uma comparação dos novos valores obtidos com aqueles listados no catálogo 2MASS, mostram que para 50 galáxias estudadas em comum, as diferenças nas magnitudes J, H e K estão dentro dos erros fotométricos. Através da construção dos diagramas de cor (J-H x H-K e B-H x J-K), percebemos que as galáxias em grupos compactos ocupam posições no diagrama diferentes das posições de galáxias em campo ou em aglomerados, sendo mais parecidas com as posições ocupadas por galáxias HII, ou com excesso de poeira, acreditamos que tal deslocamento é derivado do aumento da taxa de formação estelar.

  12. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  13. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  14. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  15. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  16. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  17. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  18. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  19. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  20. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  1. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  2. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  4. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  5. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  6. Análise dos Resultados da VII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Preta Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta; de Medeiros, José Renan; Dantas, Márcia Pragano; Roque da Silva, Adriana; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Dottori, Horácio Alberto; Maia, Márcio Antonio Geimba; Da Rocha Poppe, Paulo César; Rodrigues da Costa, Antônio Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In this work we show the results of the VII Brazilian Astronomy Olympiad (VII OBA), that occurred on 15/05/2004, in all previous registered elementary and high schools, public and/or private, urban and/or rural. Took part in this Olympiad 123.001 students (60,7 % more than VI OBA), distributed over 2.721 schools (increasing of 73% if compared with the VI OBA), belonging to all Brazilian states. The public schools are 75,5% and the private are 24,5%. The team of 4 students selected in the VI OBA (2003) represented the Brazil in the IX International Astronomy Olympiad (IX IAO), that occurred on October of 2004, in Ukraine and won a silver medal and two bronze medals.

  7. Conditions of Collaboration: A Dean's List of Dos and Don'ts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glotzbach, Philip A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents relational and structural conditions necessary to successful collaboration between college faculty and administrators. Relational conditions include "refuse to play zero-sum games" and "the most important power in a college is the power to persuade." Structural conditions include "clarify the roles of players" and "prefer a matrix…

  8. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  9. A social media primer for professionals: digital dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Alber, Julia; Gold, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Social media sites have become powerful and important tools for health education, promotion, and communication activities as they have dramatically grown in popularity. Social media sites also offer many features that can be used for professional development and advancement. When used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer great potential for professional development by building and cultivating professional networks, as well as sharing information to increase one's recognition and improve one's reputation. They also provide a medium for increasing one's knowledge and awareness of timely news and trends by following important organizations, opinion leaders, and influential professionals. When used unwisely and imprudently, there is the potential to delay, damage, or even destroy one's professional and personal life. In this commentary, we offer recommendations for using Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter for professional development and caution against online behaviors that may have negative professional consequences. In summary, we believe that the strengths and benefits of social media for professional advancement and development far outweigh the risks and encourage health promotion professionals to properly engage these powerful tools. PMID:24396119

  10. The "Dos and Don'ts" of Writing a Journal Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Tauno; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra; Cervai, Sara; Borelli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During work as reviewers and editors of journals authors are often faced the same types of problems in many articles. The purpose of this piece is to give some guidelines on typical problems that lead to rejection, and how to avoid these. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses journal article design and offers some methodology…

  11. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  12. Vibration DOS of 57Fe and Zn doped rutile Sn(Sb) oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Rykov, Alexandre; Németh, Zoltán; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Sn oxides co-doped with Zn, Sb and 57Fe were prepared by sol-gel method, and especially the doping effect of non-magnetic Zn ions was studied. The bulk saturation magnetization is in accordance with the intensity of the magnetic component in Mössbauer spectra. The nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of these compounds were measured in SPring 8. The vibration density of states (VDOS) of 57Fe doped Sn(Sb) oxides showed that the softening peaks around 15-20 meV appeared by doping less than 10% Zn ions. The clusters of non-magnetic ZnFe2O4 may be most probably formed under the limit of XRD detections. The results suggest that the strengthening of ferromagnetism, which appears in the dilute Zn doping, may occur due to the spin arrangement of dilute Fe3 + through magnetic defects rather than the formation of magnetic iron oxides.

  13. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  14. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  15. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  16. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered aspirations…

  17. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  18. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  19. How to write an EEG report: dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter W; Benbadis, Selim R

    2013-01-01

    The EEG report is structured to include demographics of the patient studied and reason for the EEG; specifics of the EEG techniques used; a description of the patterns, frequencies, voltages, and progression of the EEG pattern that were recorded; and finally a clinical impression of the EEG significance. The interpretation should be concise, clear and to the point, avoid jargon and EEG specifics, and should be understandable by any health care practitioner. PMID:23267044

  20. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... packages to keep track of important labels and expiration dates. Do store all medicines up and away, out ... prevent them from becoming less effective before their expiration dates. Don’ts Don’t give OTC cough and ...

  1. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  2. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  3. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  4. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  5. Silenced Fighters: Identity, Language and Thought of the Nasa People in Bilingual Contexts of Colombia (Voces silenciadas: identidad, lengua y pensamiento de la comunidad nasa en contextos bilingües colombianos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid; Gómez Lobatón, July Carolina

    2010-01-01

    This article is the result of a theoretical investigation and a reflection guided by a revision of literature and a set of interviews conducted of two members of the Nasa community: Adonias and Sindy Perdomo, father and daughter who belong to a Nasa sub-community located in Tierradentro, Cauca, southwestern Colombia. The article addresses three…

  6. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  7. Conjuncion y contexto: Contenido semantico y valor estructural de "con que, conque" en el lenguaje de Calderon (Conjunction and Context: Semantic Context and Structural Value in "con que, conque" in Calderon's Literary Style)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flasche, Hans

    1973-01-01

    Special issue as a tribute to Dr. Arnold Reichenberger, a well-known Hispanist, who has served as chairman of the Department of Romance Languages at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. (DS)

  8. Teachers' Beliefs about Assessment in an EFL Context in Colombia (Creencias de los profesores acerca de la evaluación en un contexto de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ana Patricia; Palacio, Marcela; Escobar, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning exert an influence on the way they teach and assess learning, and on what students learn. Therefore, it is central that overt attention is devoted to the perceptions teachers have and how they influence teaching and learning. In this article we describe a study on…

  9. Obstaculos al aprendizaje--obstaculos a la ensenanza en contextos (Barriers to Learning--Barriers to Teaching in Multicultural Contexts). Papers on Teacher Training and Multicultural/Intercultural Education 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Raul

    This study focused on identifying learning difficulties with a view to incorporating both understanding of those difficulties and methods for minimizing or neutralizing them in multicultural classroom settings. Discussion gives guidelines for teachers to use in analyzing student concepts and approaches to learning, particularly in the…

  10. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  11. First approach to studies of sulphur electron DOS in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues studied by XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Czapla, Joanna; Podgórczyk, Magdalena; Kisiel, Andrzej; Konior, Jerzy; Balerna, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    Urological cancers comprise approximately one-third of all cancers diagnosed in men worldwide and out of these, prostate cancer is the most common one ( WHO World Cancer Report, 2008). Several risk factors such as age, hormone levels, environmental conditions and family history are suspected to play a role in the onset of this disease of otherwise obscure aetiology. It is therefore the medical need that drives multidisciplinary research in this field, carried out by means of various experimental and theoretical techniques. Out of many relevant factors, it is believed that sulphur can take an important part in cancer transformations. We have investigated the prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references, by the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy near the sulphur edge energy region. Particularly, the comparison of the experimental results collected during XANES measurements and theoretical calculations of electron density of states with use of the FEFF8 code and LAPW (linearised augmented plane-wave) method has been performed and in this work the first results of our studies are presented.

  12. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  13. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Dos Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Two-Month-Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the second month of life. The pamphlet outlines typical infant behavior at 2 months of age, the need for regular visits to a physician, health insurance,…

  14. Spatial distribution of metals in sediments of the Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freret-Meurer, N V; Andreata, J V; Meurer, B C; Manzano, F V; Baptista, M G S; Teixeira, D E; Longo, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial distributions of several metals in sediments from five sites in Ribeira Bay, Brazil. Ribeira Bay is a very important area to the local community, due to its artisan fishery, and it also has a biological relevance for many marine species that use mangroves as nursery and feeding sites. According to the results, the area was not considered a metal polluted area. Despite not having a significant source of metals inside the Bay nowadays, Ilha Grande Bay harbors a shipyard, an oil terminal, and a commercial port, as well as two thermonuclear power plants (Angra I e II), all of which indirectly influence the study area. PMID:20188384

  15. The Dos and Don'ts of how to Build a Planet, Using the Moon as an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The bulk chemical compositions of planets may yield important clues concerning planetary origins. Failing that, bulk compositions are still important, in that they constrain calculation of planetary mineralogies and also constrain the petrogenesis of basaltic magmas. In the case of the Earth, there is little or no debate about the composition of the Earth's upper mantle. This is because our sample collections contain peridotitic xenoliths of that mantle. The most fertile of these are believed to have been little modified from their primary compositions. Using these samples and chondritic meteorites as a starting point, small perturbations on the compositions of existing samples allow useful reconstruction of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Elsewhere, I have argued that the next simplest case is the Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). Reconstructions based on Sc partitioning indicate that the EPB can be well approximated by a mixture of 20% eucrite and 80% equilibrium olivine. This leads to a parent body that is similar to CO (or devolatilized CM) chondrites. Partial melting experiments on CM chondrites confirm this model, because the residual solids in these experiments are dominated by olivine with minor pigonite [3]. The most difficult bodies to reconstruct are those that have undergone the most differentiation. Both the Moon and Mars may have passed through a magma ocean stage. In any event, lunar and martian basalts, unlike eucrites, were not derived from undifferentiated source regions. Reconstructions are primarily based on compositional trends within the basalts themselves with some critical assumptions: (i) Refractory lithophile elements (Ca, Al, REE, actinides) are presumed to be in chondritic relative abundances; and (ii) some major element ratio is believed to exist in a chondritic ratio (e.g., Mg/Si, Mg/Al). The most commonly used parameter is Mg/Si.

  16. The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

  17. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  18. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a video. This…

  19. Hybrid Identity in Academic Writing: "Are There Two of Me?" (Identidad híbrida: "¿hay dos yo?")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Lengeling, Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Heredia Ocampo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of identity in an academic learning environment in Central Mexico, and shows how identity may be linked to non-language factors such as emotions or family. These issues are associated with elements of hybrid identity. To analyze this we draw on language choice as a tool used for the construction of identity and…

  20. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System, Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database Shock Physics Index (SPHINX). PC/DOS version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.; Parker, T.J.; Mulholland, K.

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a database management system specially designed to retrieve bibliographic references. Two databases are available, (i) the Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database which contains over 5600 references to the literature related to stress waves in solids and their applications, and (ii) the Shock Physics Index (SPHINX) which includes over 6200 further references to stress waves in solids, material properties at intermediate and low rates, ballistic and hypervelocity impact, and explosive or shock fabrication methods. There is some overlap in the information in the two data bases.

  1. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  2. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans André Luis Souza dos Santos

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, André Luis Souza

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated mycoses of almost all inner organs, especially in immunocompromised patients. In this context, both the host immune status and the ability of C. albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance; in this last case, culminating in the establishment of successful infection known as candidiasis. C. albicans possesses a potent armamentarium consisting of several virulence molecules that help the fungal cells to escape of the host immune responses. There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases, designated as Saps, are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C. albicans cells, since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions. For these reasons, Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets. Corroborating this hypothesis, the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the aspartyl protease inhibitor-type (HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps. The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease, reducing opportunistic infections, especially candidiasis. The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status, but also as a result of direct inhibition of C. albicans Saps. In this article, we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity, growth behavior, morphological architecture, cellular differentiation, fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials, modulation of virulence factors, experimental candidiasis infection, and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents. PMID:21537366

  3. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  4. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  5. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência. PMID:27384968

  6. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  7. Determinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade através de simulações de Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os principais resultados do estudo da população de galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial dos grupos compactos HCG44 e HCG68. A inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade a da função de luminosidade desses grupos foi estimado através de simulações de Monte Carlo. O método consistiu em simular galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial em imagens reais seguindo uma distribuição de magnitudes dada uma função de Schechter. Foram testados vários modelos com diferentes valores para os parâmetros M* e a da função de Schechter, e para cada um dos modelos foi repetido o mesmo processo de recuperação, seleção e análise usados com as galáxias anãs dos grupos. Os resultados de cada modelo foram então comparados com o observado nos grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a distribuição de magnitudes (para magnitudes absolutas até MR»-12) observadas nos grupos são compatíveis com uma função de luminosidade de Schechter dada por um M* = -16 e um a entre -1.0 e -1.4, e portanto de acordo com a tendência observada de uma inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade de grupos mais plana (~1.2, Trentham & Tully 2002, MNRAS, 335, 712) que esperado pelo modelo hierárquico de formação de estruturas CDM (Cold Dark Matter - Matéria Escura Fria).

  8. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  9. Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

  10. Excitação e fotoabsorção de moléculas interestelares no ultra violeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo dos processos de excitação, fotoabsorção e ionização molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a análise dos processos químicos, como a formação e destruição de moléculas, até mesmo daquelas que dão origem à vida. Acredita-se que as moléculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O estão presentes nas nuvens onde são formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetários. Estas moléculas são congeladas na superfície de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa região, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interação da radição Ultra Violeta (UV), passam à fase gasosa e são bombardeados por íons e elétrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsorção do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Elétrons, medidos no menor ângulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de força de oscilador (f) e de seção de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 Å. Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes métodos de conversão. Neste trabalho também geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seção de choque elástica em função do ângulo de espalhamento e a distribuição de força do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em função da energia de excitação para diversos ângulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsorção com o espectro da atmosfera de Júpiter, obtido pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble, logo após o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presença do CS2 e da amônia.

  11. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  12. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  13. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  14. Neodymium, strontium and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 and Angra dos Reis meteorites and the chronology of the angrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Neodymium, stontium, and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 angrite established its absolute age and the formation interval between its crystallization and condensation of Allende CAIs from the solar nebula. Pyroxene and phosphate were found to contain approximately 8% of its Sm and Nd inventory. A conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron yielded an age of 4.53 +/- 0.04 Ga (2 sigma and Epsilon(sub Nd sup 143)) = 0.45 +/- 1.1. An Sm-146-Nd-142 isochron gives initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = 0.0076 +/- 0.0009 and Epsilon (sub Nd sup 142) = -2.5 +/- 0.4. The Rb-Sr analyses give initial Sr-87/Sr-86 Iota(sub Sr sup 87) = 0.698972 +/- 8 and 0.698970 +/- 18 for LEW and ADOR, respectively, relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.71025 for NBS987. The difference, Delta Iota(sub Sr Sup 87), between Iota (sub sr sup 87) for the angrites and literature values for Allende CAIs, corresponds to approximately Ma of growth in a solar nebula with a CI chondrite value of Rb-87/Sr-86 = 0.91, or approximately 5 Ma in a nebula with solar photospheric Rb-87/Sr-86 = 1.51. Excess Cr-53 from extinct Mn-53(t(sub 1/2) = 3.7 Ma)in LEW86010 corresponds to initial Mn-53/Mn-55 = 4.4 +/- 1.0 x 10(exp -5) for the inclusions as previously reported by the Paris group (Birck and Allegre, 1988). The Sm-146/Sm-144 value found for LEW86010 corresponds to solar system initial (Sm-146/Sm-144) = 0.0080 +/- 0.0009 for crystallization 8 Ma after Allende, the difference between Pb-Pb ages of angrites and Allende, or 0.0086 +/- 0.0009 for crystallation 18 Ma after Allende, using the Mn-Cr formation interval. The isotopic data are discussed in the context of a model in which an undifferentiated 'chondritic' parent body formed from the solar nebula approximately Ma after Allende CAIs and subsequently underwent differentiation accompanied by loss of volatiles. Parent bodies with Rb/Sr similar to that of CI, CM, or CO chondrites could satisfy the Cr and Sr isotopic systematics. If the angrite parent body had Rb/Sr similar to that of CV meteorites, it would have to form slightly later, approximately 2.6 Ma after the CAIs, to satisfy the Sr and CR isotopic systematics.

  15. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  16. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  17. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  18. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  19. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  20. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  1. El Proyecto Cunningham: Dos Idiomas; Muchos Paises, 1995-96 (The Cunningham Project: Two Languages, Many Countries, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents an evaluation of a two-way bilingual program in English and Spanish at the Cunningham Elementary School (Texas). The program was designed to extend and expand educational reform by shifting the instructional program at the school over the 5-year time span from a transitional bilingual program to a two-way bilingual, or dual…

  2. Sanchez and Metz Elementary Schools: Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII First-Year Evaluation Report, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    The first-year evaluation of a two-way Spanish/English bilingual education program at two Austin (Texas) elementary schools is presented. The developmental program has as its objectives the development of students' oral proficiency in Spanish and English, development of grade-level appropriate literacy in both languages, increase in academic…

  3. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo Dual Language Project Title VII Third-Year Evaluation Report, 1997-98. Publication Number 97.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Paul; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    An evaluation was conducted of the third year of a 5-year comprehensive bilingual education grant funded by Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994. The grant funds a program of developmental bilingual education at two elementary schools in the Austin Independent School District (Texas). More than 25% of the students at each…

  4. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  5. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  6. Plug in to the Utah Library Network, Reach Out to the World. Utah Library Network and Internet Training Handbook [for DOS]. Information Forum Publication #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinwand, Louis; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Utah in their use of the Internet. Many of the examples used were created specifically to explain the use of products that the Utah Library Network provides for public libraries in Utah. The introduction provides background history and general information about the Internet and general…

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  12. How Do You Say "Twos" in Spanish, if "Two" Is "Dos"? Language as Means and Object in a Bilingual Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Naomi Mulvihill uses vignettes from her bilingual kindergarten classroom to explore the dynamic processes by which young children make sense of language, focusing on instances in which she asks her students to compare texts presented in English and Spanish. Using Piaget's concept of disequilibrium as a guiding framework,…

  13. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  14. Determinación fotométrica de parámetros fundamentales de dos cúmulos abiertos del cuarto cuadrante Galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcionni, N.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Palma, T.; Piatti, A. E.

    We present preliminary results obtained from a photometric analysis in the Washington system C and T_{1} passbands of two poorly known open clusters (OCs) located in the fourth Galactic quadrant: BH 84 and BH 211. Based on the best fits of theoretical isochrones to the (T_1,C-T_1) colour- magnitude diagrams, we derive the fundamental cluster parameters. The present results are part of a major project which aims to characterize almost a hundred OCs observed and analyzed in a homogeneous way. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  16. Cometa Hyakutake (C/1996 B2): análise do gás e características físicas das partículas de poeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    A completa caracterização e compreensão do núcleo de um cometa novo é de fundamental importância para a elucidação dos processos físicos e químicos atuantes na época da formação do Sistema Solar. O Cometa Hyakutake, conjuntamente com o Cometa Hale-Bopp representam os objetos mais brilhantes que visitaram o Sistema Solar Interno nos últimos 20 anos. Neste Trabalho, nós aplicamos o Método Semi-Empírico das Magnitudes Visuais (MSEMV) à aproximadamente 4000 dados observacionais que correlacionam a magnitude visual absoluta com a distância heliocêntrica para o Cometa Hyakutake nas fases pré- e pós-periélicas. Como produto da aplicação desse método, conseguimos caracterizar dimensionalmente seu núcleo e área ativa efetiva. As taxas de produção dos radicais CN, C2 e C3, obtidos a partir de dados disponíveis na literatura, revelam que, além de muito brilhante, o Hyakutake é um cometa "normal" no sentido de Cochran (1986). Desse modo, deduzimos as taxas de perdas de água (em moléculas/s) a partir da análise de sua magnitude visual aparente, e as convertemos em taxas de perdas de gás (em g/s), despreendido pelo nucleo cometário. Com o auxílio do modelo fotométrico clássico da poeira, realizamos uma análise sistemática e uniforme dessa componente cometária, a partir dos fluxos observacionais no contínuo, para os comprimentos de onda 365,0 e 484,5 nm, assumindo que esses fluxos são o resultado da radiação solar espalhada por grãos de partículas micrométricos presentes na coma. Com isso, pudemos obter as taxas de produção (em g/s), cores (relativas à cor neutra solar), e as dimensões efetivas médias das partículas de poeira, bem como as razões poeira-gás.

  17. Ensino de astronomia no 1o. e 2o. ciclos do nível fundamental e na educação de jovens e adultos: exemplos e discussões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, A. S. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Tem-se constatado uma preocupante carência no ensino de astronomia nos diversos níveis de escolaridade. Neste trabalho discutimos várias práticas didático-pedagógicas que vimos desenvolvendo para crianças, jovens e adultos em processo de alfabetização, visando contribuir para reparar aquela carência. Propomos uma metodologia que incorpora as recentes exigências das políticas públicas educacionais, estimula o desenvolvimento de textos e materiais instrucionais, é compatível com a realidade desse público e é adaptável às respectivas faixas etárias. A observação do céu sempre esteve presente na vida de nossos antepassados, dando suporte à compreensão do ser humano como integrante da natureza. Visamos com este trabalho suprir a deficiência encontrada para se tratar a relação do ser humano com o céu, no ambiente escolar. Os resultados são animadores e envolvem práticas e textos que desenvolvemos e atividades realizadas pelos alunos. No primeiro grupo destacamos o desenvolvimento de várias práticas: "viagem aos planetas" (construímos o "foguete", os planetas em escala, contamos história e redigimos texto de orientação para os professores); "gnômon humano" (os próprios corpos dos alunos são usados para registrar o movimento aparente do Sol); "crateras da Lua" (concretização de "meteoritos" e "solo lunar" de gesso e exploração da relação entre energia cinética do bólido e tamanho da cratera formada); etc. No segundo grupo, produções de desenhos e redações e discussões dos alunos após a realização de cada prática, revelam que estas têm se mostrado muito eficientes, tanto para estimular a imaginação e a fantasia dos envolvidos, como para trabalhar-se habilidades, competências e conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, segundo uma perspectiva interdisciplinar contextualizada. (PPGECNM/UFRN; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  18. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  19. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  20. TEMAS PARA UNA BIOETICA LATINOAMERICANA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el fundamento filosófico de la bioética como disciplina, método y movimiento desde su contexto histórico y en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la vivencia latinoamericana. PMID:20209030

  1. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el fundamento filosófico de la bioética como disciplina, método y movimiento desde su contexto histórico y en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la vivencia latinoamericana. PMID:20209030

  2. Learning Astronomy by Playing in a Park. (Spanish Title: Aprender AstronoMía Jugando en Una Plaza.) Aprender Astronomia Brincando em Uma Praça

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Néstor

    2012-12-01

    trabalho alguns jogos de praça, considerados como módulos didáticos para imaginar processos astronômicos, a partir da concepção de que a aprendizagem em Astronomia deve-se desenvolver fortalecendo a relação do próprio corpo com o espaço tridimensional e com o tempo, tal como se vive ao observar o céu, construindo um "diálogo" entre o mundo real e as aprendizagens a construir. Os jogos apresentados (carrosséis e tobogãs) foram desenhados para trabalhar sobre a translação da Terra em torno do Sol, as fases da Lua e a gravidade, e sobre o que um observador percebe dos mesmos. Dá-se a descrição de cada jogo, discutem-se seus fundamentos físicos e astronômicos, e desenvolve-se uma crítica didática dos mesmos. Finalmente, comenta-se o papel que deveriam ter os docentes no apoio aos aprendizes no processo de interação com os jogos apresentados.

  3. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia. PMID:26077339

  4. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado. PMID:27556723

  5. PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2010-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Fariña López, E; Estévez-Guerra, G J; Núñez González, E; Calvo Francés, F; Penelo, E

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento. Adaptar y validar en español el cuestionario Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire, que mide la importancia que dan los profesionales al uso de restricciones físicas en personas mayores.Método. Estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo y transversal. Tras un proceso de traducción-retrotraducción, se obtuvo una versión en español del cuestionario original. La validación se llevó a cabo entre una muestra de 830 profesionales seleccionados en veinte centros de tres comunidades autónomas españolas. Se analizó la viabilidad, la fiabilidad mediante la consistencia interna y la estabilidad temporal (test-retest), así como la validez de contenido (panel de expertos e índice de validez) y de constructo (análisis factorial).Resultados. De los 17 ítems del cuestionario, 15 pudieron traducirse de manera literal; en dos hubo que realizar modificaciones menores. Un estudio piloto confirmó la adecuada viabilidad del cuestionario. El alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,92 y la fiabilidad test-retest (CCI) de 0,908 (IC del 95%: 0,880-0,933). El índice de validez de contenido fue de 0,89. El análisis factorial exploratorio identificó dos dimensiones que explicaban el 63% de la varianza, presentando una fiabilidad de 0,90 y 0,93 respectivamente. Este fue sometido a un análisis confirmatorio, mostrando los indicadores un adecuado ajuste.Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido un instrumento en español con unas buenas características psicométricas y adaptado al contexto cultural de este país. Una herramienta útil para evaluar en qué situaciones se considera más necesario el uso de las restricciones físicas, lo que podría ayudar a diseñar actividades de formación encaminadas a racionalizar su aplicación.Palabras clave. Cuestionarios. Percepción. Restricción física. Anciano. Estudios de validación. PMID:27125606

  7. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  8. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  9. Linking the Modern and Recent Record of Cabo Frio Upwelling with Local Climate and Biogeochemical Processes in Hypersaline Coastal Lagoons, Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Nascimento, G. S.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Belem, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Eglinton, T. I.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    A unique marine and lagoonal system along the coast east of Rio de Janeiro is being investigated to understand the impact of climatic variability on the South Atlantic carbon cycle and biomineralisation processes involved in carbonate precipitation in the hypersaline coastal lagoons. The region is dominated by a semi-arid microclimate attributed to the local coastal upwelling phenomenon near Cabo Frio. The intensity of the upwelling affects the hydrology of the annual water and biogeochemical cycles in the lagoons, as well as biogeochemical signals of environmental change recorded in both onshore and offshore sediments. Preliminary results of δ18O and δD values of water samples collected monthly in Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho from 2011 to 2014 show lower values for waters corresponding to the wet season, reflecting increased input of meteoric water. The higher values for waters collected during the dry season reflect the greater amount of evaporation with increased seasonal aridity. Radiocarbon dating of Holocene marine and lagoonal cores indicates that Mg-carbonate precipitation in the lagoons is associated with high evaporation. Modern field observations for the last 3 years suggest that the amount of carbonate precipitation is correlated with evaporitic conditions associated with the upwelling phenomenon. A calibration study of hydrogen isotopic fractionation in the modern lagoons is underway to define a relationship between δDlipid of suspended particles and δDwater of associated water. This isotopic relationship will be applied to material obtained in cores from the lagoons. Offshore cores will be studied using well-tested paleotemperature proxies to evaluate the intensity of the upwelling during the Holocene. In summary, linking the coastal upwelling with the lagoonal hydrology has the potential to furnish important insights about the relationship between the local climate and paleoceanographic circulation associated with the regional carbon cycle.

  10. 101 Tips, Traps, and To-Dos for Creating Teams: A Guidebook for School Leaders. Guiding Groups To Become Teams, Facilitating Them To Become High-Performance Teams, and Empowering Them To Become Technology-Based Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed; Bailey, Gwen L.; Lumley, Dan

    Using teams is an effective way to meet the challenges of breaking down teacher isolation, halting curriculum fragmentation, and creating a learning organization. This guide is designed to help school leaders train groups to become teams, guide them to become high-performance teams, and empower them to become technology-based teams. It contains…

  11. Geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of the Gameleira Cu-Au deposit, Serra dos Carajás, Brazil: 1.8-1.7 Ga hydrothermal alteration and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Lindenmayer, Zara G.; Laux, Jorge H.; Armstrong, Richard; de Araújo, Janice Caldas

    2003-01-01

    The Gameleira deposit is one of several important Cu-Au deposits associated with the late Archean (ca. 2.7 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Itacaiúnas supergroup in the Carajás mineral province, southeastern Pará. It comprises mainly biotite- and sulphide-rich veins and quartz-grunerite-biotite-gold hydrothermal veins that cut andesitic rocks. It is interpreted as representative of the Fe oxide Cu-Au class of deposit. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate an age of 2719±80 Ma (MSWD=3.0) and ɛNd( T) of -1.4 for the host meta-andesites. Metavolcanic rocks and cogenetic gabbros give an age of 2757±81 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -0.8. This is considered the best estimate for the crystallization age of the Gameleira volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Negative ɛNd( T) and Archean TDM model ages (mostly between 2.8 and 3.1 Ga) suggest some contamination with older crustal material. The andesitic/gabbroic rocks are cut by two generations of granite dykes. The older has striking petrographic and geochemical similarities to the ca. 1.87 Ga alkali-rich Pojuca granite, which is exposed a few kilometers to the northwest of the deposit. The younger is a leucogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 1583+9/-7 Ma. Neodymium isotopic analyses of the two generations of granites indicate a strong crustal affinity and possible derivation from reworking of the Archean crust. The quartz-grunerite-gold hydrothermal vein yields a Sm-Nd isochron (MSWD=.83) age of 1839±15 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -9.2. Pervasive potassic alteration, represented by the widespread formation of biotite in the country rocks, is dated by Ar-Ar at 1734±8 Ma, and a similar age of 1700±31 Ma (1 σ) is indicated by the Sm-Nd isochron for the biotite-sulphide veins. Similar to that for the quartz-grunerite vein, the ɛNd( T) value for the sulphide-rich veins is strongly negative (-8.2), thereby suggesting that the original fluids percolated through, leached, or were derived from igneous rocks with an Archaean Nd isotopic signature. The geochronological data suggest that the Gameleira Cu-Au mineralization is related to a Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.83 Ga) episode of hydrothermal activity and is not Archaean. The younger ages of ca. 1.70-1.73 might be interpreted as products of the lower blocking temperatures of biotite in relation to the Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd isotopic systems. Combined with previous geochemistry and stable isotope data, the Nd isotopic data suggest that the mineralizing fluids were derived from, or strongly interacted with, a Paleoproterozoic crustal granite, possibly similar in age and composition to the Pojuca granite.

  12. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

  13. Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  14. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals. PMID:26270208

  15. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  16. Analysis of Service-learning activities adopted in health courses of Federal University of Bahia.

    PubMed

    Baldoino, Aline Silva; Veras, Renata Meira

    2016-06-01

    is study aimed to raise and discuss the data about the integration of health courses teaching and service activities o ered at the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), pre- senting scenarios practices and major di culties existing in the relationship between the university and the services of health. is was a qualitative study of descriptive explo- ratory character, using a questionnaire as a research tool applied to the coordinators of selected health courses. e selection was by reading the political pedagogical project, the following courses were selected: nursing, physical therapy, speech therapy, medicine, nu- trition, dentistry and public health. e results indicated eight types of teaching-service integration activities, 57 scenarios of practice and the main di culties. It was concluded that these courses are sticking to changes in academic training in health, in view of the large number of basic health units in the teaching service process. us, it emphasizes that the UFBA includes activities in health care that enable the integration-education in the higher education process, although there are some di culties in this relationship indicated by the coordinators. Esse estudo teve como objetivo levantar e discutir os dados acerca das atividades de integração ensino-serviço de cursos de saúde oferecidos na Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), apresentando os cenários de práticas e as principais di culdades existentes na relação entre a uni- versidadeeosserviçosdesaúde.Tratou-sedeumapesquisaqualitativa,decaráterdescritivoexploratório,utilizando-seumquestionáriocomo instrumento de investigação aplicado aos coordenadores dos cursos de saúde selecionados. A seleção foi mediante a leitura do projeto político pedagógico, sendo selecionados os seguintes cursos: enfermagem, sioterapia, fonoaudiologia, medicina, nutrição, odontologia e saúde coletiva. Os resultados indicaram 8 tipos de atividades de integração ensino-serviço, 57 cenários de pr

  17. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  18. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    según el positivismo francés, y el segundo de acuerdo al positivismo alemán. También señalaremos la distinta actitud de ambos observatorios frente a la educación. En esta última dimensión veremos cómo las ideas positivistas tuvieron gran importancia en la formación de maestros impartida en las Escuelas Normales. Estableceremos también la relevante influencia del contexto socio-histórico en el desarrollo de la astronomía, y, a su vez, apreciaremos que esta última fue un actor social fundamental en la Historia Argentina. Domingo F. Sarmiento acreditava que a astronomia de Copérnico fosse uma das disciplinas científicas fundamentais para a formação de um cidadão "moderno". Neste trabalho estudaremos astronomia a partir de duas perspectivas: a científica e a educacional Nosso estudo será desenvolvido para a Argentina no século XIX, a partir da iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia, em 1821, que estabeleceu um observatório astronômico em Buenos Aires, até as primeiras atividades dos observatórios de Córdoba e La Plata. Em ambas as perspectivas, científica e educativa, vamos analisar a influência das ideias positivistas. Discutiremos como existiram diferenças epistemológicas entre eles, o Observatório de Córdoba orientado de acordo com o positivismo francês, e La Plata, de acordo com o positivismo alemão. Ambos os observatórios tinha uma atitude diferente em relação à educação. As ideias positivistas foram muito importantes para treinar professores do ensino primário na Argentina. Nós iremos enfatizar a importante influência do contexto sócio-histórico na astronomia, já que esta ciência foi um importante ator social na história da Argentina.

  19. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-06-10

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor

  20. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  1. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País. PMID:27355468

  2. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  3. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  4. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  5. Perception of hypertensive patients about their non-adherence to the use of medication.

    PubMed

    Marin, Nadia Sanches; Santos, Mariana Fonseca Dos; Moro, André Dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    This qualitative study aims to analyze the perception of patients with hypertension on their non-adherence to medication. 13 participants were interviewed, classified as non-adherent.The analysis was performed using the technique of thematic content analysis. Data points to contradictions in the approach of what is being adherent or not, the difficulty of adhering to the use of medication due to lifestyle habits, that forgetting is understood as a justification for non-compliance, and reinforces factors that hinder such practice, such as the use of many drugs, the presence of signs and symptoms and changes in daily routine. With complex conditions that involve non-adherence to treatment and the current context of the predominance of chronic diseases, it is essential to invest in innovative strategies of care for such people. Estudo qualitativo que se propõe a analisar a percepção do portador de hipertensão arterial sobre a sua não adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso. Foram entrevistados treze participantes classificados como não aderente. A analise foi realizada pela técnica de analise de conteúdo modalidade temática. Os dados apontam para contradições na abordagem sobre o que é ser ou não aderente, a dificuldade de aderir ao uso dos medicamentos devido ao hábito de vida, que o esquecimento é compreendido como uma justificativa para a não adesão, além de reforçarem fatores que dificultam tal prática, como o uso de muitos medicamentos, presença de sinais e sintomas e mudanças na rotina diária. As complexas condições que envolvem a não adesão ao tratamento e ao o atual contexto de predomínio de doenças crônicas, é primordial que se invista em estratégias inovadoras de cuidado a tais pessoas. PMID:27384277

  6. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    desenvolvidos, o auxílio de novas tecnologias, foram apresentados conceitos astronômicos aos alunos do 4º e 5º anos do ensino fundamental de uma escola municipal de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). Após as apresentações novas coletas de dados foram realizadas com o intuito de verificar o nível de aprendizado alcançado e foi possível perceber que o método utilizado foi uma importante ferramenta de auxílio para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem. O projeto alcançou resultados satisfatórios.

  7. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho é parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em nível de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e comunicação, utilizando dispositivos compactos, móveis e pessoais. Este estudo também faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da agência estadual FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresentação aborda o resultado das concepções prévias de estudantes em relação a conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, ligados à percepção e observação direta do céu. Três turmas de estudantes de 1ª série e uma turma de 3ª série do ensino integrado médio técnico da Educação Básica, Técnica e Tecnológica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avaliação prévia através de questionário estruturado. Este questionário foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percepção dos estudantes em relação aos recursos gráficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, comuns em livros didáticos. Após a análise dos resultados desta avaliação, organizou-se uma estratégia de intervenção didática em sala de aula sobre o conteúdo de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de mediação baseados nas tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Os temas selecionados para esta estratégia didática foram relacionados aos assuntos básicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior nível de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avaliação posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avaliação prévia. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por mediação das tecnologias da informação e comunicação indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na prática escolar, tais

  8. Análise de Estruturas Morfológicas da Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1997-08-01

    permitiram determinar o instante de suas origens, ou seja, o instante em que supostamente a de sconexão teve lugar no núcleo. Assim, foram identificados 19 D.E.'s distintos. Aparentemente o plasma desconectado de um dado D.E. afasta-se com velocidade constante do núcleo cometário. Tal velocidade, contudo, varia enormemente de um D.E. para outro. Nove D.E.'s pré-periélicos apresentaram velocidade média Vc, corrigida dos efeitos de projeção, igual a (260 +- 87) km/s e dez pós-periélicos (130 +- 37) km/s. Esta assimetria de Vc em relação ao periélio pode ser devida ao modo assimétrico com que a componente radial da velocidade orbital do cometa se combina com a velocidade do vento solar no sistema de referência cometocêntrico. Os D.E.'s foram correlacionados com variações simultâneas de brilho, formação de jatos e outros fenômenos associados. Sua ocorrência é discutida no contexto dos modelos de reconexão magnética e de compressão dinâmica por vento solar exacerbado. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Rahe, J., The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (printed by: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO), University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992. - Celnik, W.E., Koczet, P., Schlosser, W., Schulz, R., Svejda, P. and Weissbauer, K., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 72, 89, 1988. - Delva, M., Schwingenschuh, K., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Gringauz, K.I., Planet. Space Sci. 39, Number 5, 697, 1991. - Hyder, C.L., Brandt, J.C. and Roosen, R.G., Icarus 23, 601, 1974. - Jockers, K., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 62, 791, 1985. - Matsuura, O.T. and Voelzke, M.R., Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrof. 21, 609, 1990. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., Astrophys. J. 234, 723, 1979. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., Icarus 42, 257, 1980. - Tomita, K., Saito, T. and Minami, S., Astron. Astrophys. 187, 215, 1987. - Voelzke, M.R., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 108, Number 729, 1063, 1996.

  9. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  10. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  11. STRATEGIES IN SEARCHING HOMOGENEITY IN A FACULTY OF A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Cecatti, José G; Fernandes, Karayna G; Souza, Renato T; Silveira, Carla; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    students´ teams. O docente tem importância fundamental no programa de pós-graduação, pois é quem planeja e executa grande parte das tarefas, sendo também o responsável por difundir conhecimentos aos alunos. O professor deve utilizar recursos didáticos que o qualifiquem continuamente, criando condições favoráveis para que o aluno se desenvolva e aprenda da melhor maneira e com mais facilidade. A homogeneidade no grupo de pós-graduação consiste da presença de subgrupos de pesquisa correspondentes às Áreas de Concentração, onde cada subgrupo trabalhe com algumas linhas de pesquisas diversificadas. É desejável que o corpo docente tenha significativa produção científica, de qualidade e distribuída homogeneamente entre os docentes. Estes devem sistematicamente buscar recursos em agências de fomento para pesquisa, tanto para o custeio dos estudos, quanto para a valorização dos pesquisadores envolvidos em todas as atividades. Os programas de pós-graduação precisam investir na formação de seus docentes, os quais devem aprimorar seus conhecimentos em epidemiologia de estudos clínicos, ética em pesquisa e em didática. Duas das características do sistema de pós-graduação no Brasil são a nucleação e a solidariedade, embasadas na capacidade e/ou interesse dos mais estruturados se solidarizarem com os programas iniciantes, cooperando com as suas atividades. A Capes valoriza a inserção social no contexto das atividades dos programas de pós-graduação, prevendo nos critérios de avaliação o reconhecimento de atividades com impacto tecnológico, cultural, educacional e social. Existe um modelo ideal de pós-graduação? Partimos do pressuposto de que não há uma fórmula matemática ou modelo ideal de pós-graduação e sim que cada instituição deve se adequar e buscar aperfeiçoar seu corpo docente e discente. PMID:27437981

  12. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  13. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  14. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  15. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  16. LETTERS TO THE EDITORS: Lightning ball: experiments on creation and hypotheses(comment on "Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls" by G S Paiva, J V Ferreira, C C Bastos, M V P dos Santos, A C Pavão)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Gennadii D.

    2010-05-01

    The problems addressed in this paper include estimating: the energy density of luminous silicon balls, the density range of a natural lightning ball, and whether and how the object created and described in the commented paper (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 218 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 (2) 209 (2010)]) corresponds to the natural phenomenon.

  17. Protein-protein interactions between histidine kinases and response regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha-Na; Jung, Kwang-Eun; Ko, In-Jeong; Baik, Hyung Suk; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2012-04-01

    Using yeast two-hybrid assay, we investigated protein-protein interactions between all orthologous histidine kinase (HK)/response regulator (RR) pairs of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and identified potential protein-protein interactions between a noncognate HK/RR pair, DosT/NarL. The protein interaction between DosT and NarL was verified by phosphotransfer reaction from DosT to NarL. Furthermore, we found that the DosT and DosS HKs, which share considerable sequence similarities to each other and form a two-component system with the DosR RR, have different cross-interaction capabilities with NarL: DosT interacted with NarL, while DosS did not. The dimerization domains of DosT and DosS were shown to be sufficient to confer specificity for DosR, and the different cross-interaction abilities of DosS and DosT with NarL were demonstrated to be attributable to variations in the amino acid sequences of the α2-helices of their dimerization domains. PMID:22538656

  18. 37 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - “Best Edition” of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Library of Congress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Packaging: 1. Archival-quality rather than less-permanent paper. 2. Hard cover rather than soft cover. 3... a backup copy of the disk(s)). 3. Format: a. PC-DOS or MS-DOS (or other IBM compatible formats, such... copy of the disk(s)). 4. Format a. PC-DOS or MS-DOS (or other IBM compatible formats, such as...

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: (1) "The Weather Machine Courseware Kit" for grades 7-12; (2) "Exploring Measurement, Time, and Money--Level I," for primary level mathematics; and (3) "Professor DOS with SmartGuide for DOS" providing an extensive tutorial covering DOS 2.1 to 4.0. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each package. (YP)

  20. Whenever You Use a Computer You Are Using a Program Called an Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Rick

    1984-01-01

    Examines design, features, and shortcomings of eight disk-based operating systems designed for general use that are popular or most likely to affect the future of microcomputing. Included are the CP/M family, MS-DOS, Apple DOS/ProDOS, Unix, Pick, the p-System, TRSDOS, and Macintosh/Lisa. (MBR)

  1. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos

  2. Soil In The Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This well written book explains to the reader how soil is one of the major essential components for sustaining terrestrial life on earth. The complex and dynamic interactions that occur in soil are explained in easily understandable terms. Dr. Hillel describes soil as “the earth’s dynamic processo...

  3. Memories of Life Experiences in a Teacher Training Institution during the Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, António Gomes; Mota, Luís

    2013-01-01

    We evoke here events that took place in an ordinary school, the Teacher Training College in Coimbra (Portugal), during the on-going revolutionary process ("processo revolucionário em curso"; PREC), in an attempt to understand people's actions within the collective becoming of a certain time and place, and to grasp how memory works…

  4. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com

  5. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com

  6. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2002 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of Spanish-language articles includes the following: "La Importancia del Contexto en la Alfabetizacion" (Judith Kalman); "Profesorodo y Formadores: La Formacion para la Transformation de los Distritos y las Comunidades" (Concepcion Dominquez Garrido and Antonio Medina Rivilla); "Valoracion de los Resultados del Proyecto: 'Mujeres…

  7. Roles and Scaffolding in Teletandem Interactions: A Study of the Relations between the Sociocultural and the Language Learning Dimensions in a French-Chinese Teletandem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present students' interactions in a teletandem--that is, tandem through desktop videoconference [Telles, J., ed. 2009. "Teletandem. Um contexto virtual, autônomo, colaborativo para aprendizagem das linguas estrangeiras no século XXI". Campinas, SP: Pontes Editores]--telecollaborative project between third-year…

  8. Constructing and Validating the Foreign Language Attitudes and Goals Survey (FLAGS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Eva; Granena, Gisela; Tragant, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the process that was followed in the construction and validation of the foreign language attitudes and goals survey (FLAGS), a new questionnaire based on qualitative data from Tragant and Munoz [Tragant, Munoz, C., 2000. "La motivacion y su relacion con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de una lengua…

  9. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  10. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  11. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  12. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    atraer a las hembras con el proposito de aparearse. Las hembras visitan el lek y eligen entre los machos para copular. La informacion acerca de los principales factores involucrados en la eleccion de la hembra y de la influencia del comportamiento de los machos en los leks en esta eleccion es escasa para A. fraterculus . Esta informacion es importante en el contexto de programas de control que incluyen la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril. En el presente estudio se evaluo el comportamiento sexual de machos de A. fraterculus dentro de los leks, y la asociacion de su comportamiento y de rasgos morfometricos con el exito copulatorio. El lugar preferido de agrupamiento de los machos fue evaluado en jaulas de campo con arboles en su interior y dividiendo el arbol en sectores de acuerdo a un sistema de tres dimensiones. Los machos fueron individualmente pesados, marcados y observados cada quince minutos. Luego de finalizado el ensayo se midieron los rasgos morfometricos. El mayor exito correspondio a machos agrupados en una region del arbol caracterizada por tener la mayor intensidad de luz en las dos primeras horas de la manana. Los resultados mostraron que la actividad de llamado con feromonas esta asociada con el exito copulatorio. Las copulas fueron mas frecuentes para machos que llamaron dentro del lek, indicando que la actividad de llamado con feromonas y la presencia dentro del lek son factores importantes en la obtencion de la copula. Los analisis morfometricos revelaron una asociacion positiva entre el exito copulatorio y el largo del ojo, y que algunas caracteristicas de la cara estan asociadas ademas con la duracion de la copula y la latencia. (author)

  13. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  14. The case for policy-relevant conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Rose, David C

    2015-01-01

    narrativas deben ser políticamente relevantes. Para asegurar que la evidencia sea persuasiva junto con otros factores en un proceso complejo de fabricación de políticas, los científicos de la conservación pueden seguir dos pasos: rediseñar el marco de trabajo a partir de contextos políticos salientes y participar con mayor productividad en el trabajo fronterizo, que se define como los métodos con los cuales los científicos “construyen, negocian y defienden la frontera entre la ciencia y la política” (Owens et al. 2006:640). Estos pasos incrementarán la oportunidad de políticas de conservación informadas con evidencias. PMID:25545991

  15. Distributed Denial-of-Service Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    DRAELOS, TIMOTHY J.; TORGERSON, MARK D.; BERG, MICHAEL J.; CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; DUGGAN, DAVID P.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.; YOUNG, WILLIAM F.; YOUNG, MARY LOUISE

    2003-06-01

    Distributed denial of service (DoS) attacks on cyber-resources are complex problems that are difficult to completely define, characterize, and mitigate. We recognize the process-nature of DoS attacks and view them from multiple perspectives. Identification of opportunities for mitigation and further research may result from this attempt to characterize the DoS problem space. We examine DoS attacks from the point of view of (1) a high-level that establishes common terminology and a framework for discussing the DoS process, (2) layers of the communication stack, from attack origination to the victim of the attack, (3) specific network and computer elements, and (4) attack manifestations. We also examine DoS issues associated with wireless communications. Using this collection of views, one begins to see the DoS problem in a holistic way that may lead to improved understanding, new mitigation strategies, and fruitful research.

  16. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  17. Far tails of the density of states in amorphous organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S. V.

    2015-10-28

    Far tails of the density of state (DOS) are calculated for the simple models of organic amorphous material, the model of dipolar glass and model of quadrupolar glass. It was found that in both models far tails are non-Gaussian. In the dipolar glass model, the DOS is symmetric around zero energy, while for the model of quadrupolar glass, the DOS is generally asymmetric and its asymmetry is directly related to the particular geometry of quadrupoles. Far tails of the DOS are relevant for the quasi-equilibrium transport of the charge carriers at low temperature. Asymmetry of DOS in quadrupolar glasses means a principal inequivalence of the random energy landscape for the transport of electrons and holes. Possible effect of the non-Gaussian shape of the far tails of the DOS on the temperature dependence of carrier drift mobility is discussed.

  18. Singularity of density of states induced by random bond disorder in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    We re-investigate the effect of random bond disorder on the density of states (DOS) in graphene. Our large-scale calculation supports that there exists a critical disorder value gbc dividing the DOS into two distinct structures. In the regime gb < gbc (gb is randomness of bond disorder), the DOS away from the Dirac point behaves like a power-law with positive exponent (α > 0): ρ (E) ∼ρ1 | E|α (E is Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point, ρ1 is a constant). In the regime gb > gbc, it is observed that DOS develops a peak structure at the Dirac point E = 0. Through the finite-size scaling analysis, we elucidate that the DOS at the Dirac point diverges in the thermodynamics limit. Furthermore, it is found that the divergent behavior of DOS is sensitive to any on-site disorder which violates the chiral symmetry in graphene.

  19. 28 CFR 1100.27 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manner appropriate to their status as crime victims, afforded proper medical care and other assistance... enforcement personnel, immigration officials and DOS officials, insofar as their duties involve...

  20. A Guide to Selecting Large Print/Enhanced Image Computer Access Hardware/Software for Persons with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, J. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Large print/enhanced image computer access products for low-vision individuals are reviewed. The products ("DP-11/Plus,""Large Print DOS,""Lyon Large Print,""PC Lens,""Vista/Vista 2," and "ZoomText") work interactively with most application programs and DOS in IBM environments. Features evaluated include: documentation, set-up, hardware/software…

  1. 48 CFR 652.219-71 - Section 8(a) Direct Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration (SBA) and the Department of State (DOS). SBA retains responsibility for 8(a) certification, 8(a... under the 8(a) program. The cognizant SBA district office is: (b) The DOS contracting officer is... shall give advance notice to the SBA before it issues a final notice terminating performance, either...

  2. 48 CFR 652.219-71 - Section 8(a) Direct Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (SBA) and the Department of State (DOS). SBA retains responsibility for 8(a) certification, 8(a... under the 8(a) program. The cognizant SBA district office is: (b) The DOS contracting officer is... shall give advance notice to the SBA before it issues a final notice terminating performance, either...

  3. 76 FR 76476 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Notice 7658; Cyprus Docket No. DOS-2011-0135; Peru Docket No. DOS-2011-0136] Notice of Meeting of the... with Peru Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Peru Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on...

  4. Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksey, Ray W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…

  5. Choosing the Right Database Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward L.; Kopenec, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Provides a comparison of four database management programs commonly used in schools: AppleWorks, the DOS 3.3 and ProDOS versions of PFS, and MECC's Data Handler. Topics discussed include information storage, spelling checkers, editing functions, search strategies, graphs, printout formats, library applications, and HyperCard. (LRW)

  6. 77 FR 14581 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7767; Guatemala Docket No. DOS-2012-0011; Mali Docket No. DOS-2012-0012] Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee There will be a meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee April 24-27, 2012, at the Department...

  7. 75 FR 33883 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline Project; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) until Friday, July 2, 2010. On April 20, 2010, the DOS provided Federal Register notice (75 FR 20653) of the availability of the DEIS and notice of nineteen public comment..., June 16, 2010 (75 FR 22890). As noted, the DOS is now extending the public comment period for a...

  8. Clearing a Path: The 16-Bit Operating System Jungle Offers Confusion, Not Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the design and limited uses of the Pascal, MS-DOS, CP/M, and PC-DOS operating systems as standard operating systems for 16-bit microprocessors, especially with the more sophisticated microcomputers currently being developed. Advantages and disadvantages of Unix--a multitasking, multiuser operating system--as a standard operating system…

  9. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... apply for a new card as provided for in the DOS regulations found at 22 CFR 41.32 and 22 CFR 41.103. ... Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance with the applicable DOS regulations at 22 CFR 41.32 and/or... border crossing card (or similar stamp in a passport). (i) A Canadian citizen or other person...

  10. RESPSYST: An Interactive Microcomputer Program for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    RESPSYST is a computer program (written in BASICA and using MS-DOS/PC-DOS microcomputers) incorporating more than 20 of the factors that determine gas transport by the cardio-respiratory system. The five-part program discusses most of these factors, provides several question/answer sections, and relies heavily on graphics to demonstrate…

  11. Measuring Student Learning in Social Justice Courses: The Diversity and Oppression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay; Battle, DuWayne

    2015-01-01

    The Diversity and Oppression Scale (DOS) is a standardized instrument measuring self-reported student learning about diversity and oppression based on requirements of the Council on Social Work Education. DOS was tested with social work students in 2 major North American universities. Factor structure was examined using exploratory factor analysis…

  12. The Challenges for Physicians of Demonstrating Continuing Competence in the Changing World of Medical Regulation: Osteopathic Pediatrician Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenau, Erik E.; Gimpel, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The current system of continuing medical education, maintenance of certification, and renewal of medical licenses can be quite burdensome and inefficient for all practicing physicians: medical doctors (M.D.s) and doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.s). D.O.s have opportunities for residency training and specialty certification which are not…

  13. 77 FR 36329 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Scoping Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... responsible for international relations of the United States, is to shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous... American people and people around the world. DOS has a number of domestic and international... Columbia. In response, pursuant to the International Chancery Act of 1968, Congress authorized DOS...

  14. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. PMID:23525177

  15. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    'argilite est caractérisée par de faibles teneurs en eau ( 3-5%) et de très petits rayons d'accès de pores. Les coefficients de diffusion à l'eau tritiée (1×10-12 à 2×10-11 m2/s) et les conductivités hydrauliques déduites de différents types d'essais au laboratoire (10-13 à 10-14 m/s) sont caractéristiques d'une roche très imperméable. Des tests hydrauliques in situ (y compris une mesure de charge à long terme) ont fourni des valeurs approchées des charges et un ordre de grandeur des perméabilités à l'échelle de 1-10 m (10-11 à 10-13 m/s). En dépit des incertitudes sur ces données (facteur d'échelle, présence de fissures, et artéfacts possibles dus aux couplages hydro-chimique et mécanique) on suppose que les transferts sont essentiellement gouvernés par des processus diffusifs. La reconnaissance de transferts naturels possible à une plus grande échelle de temps et d'espace a été étudiée à partir des traceurs isotopiques naturels des fluides interstitiels. Une modélisation, basée sur un profil en deutérium le long de la colonne argileuse et postulant un processus diffusif a permis de proposer une estimation de temps de transfert possible, mais le manque de connaissances précises au stade actuel de l'étude concernant l'évolution géologique passée du site et le rôle possible de la fracturation ne permet pas de réduire les incertitudes constatées sur ces estimations. Resumen. Dentro del contexto de un programa de investigación y desarrollo para la eliminación de residuos, el Instituto Francés de Protección Nuclear y Seguridad seleccionó un emplazamiento experimental en el túnel de Tournemire (Aveyron, Francia) para llevar a cabo estudios sobre el flujo potencial de fluídos a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales, en una formación arcillosa de 250 m de espesor. La argilita tiene un contenido natural bajo de agua ( 3-5%) y una porosidad accesible muy pequeña. Los coeficientes de difusión de agua con tritio (entre 10-12 y

  16. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  17. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  18. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  19. Role of cumulus cells during vitrification and fertilization of mature bovine oocytes: Effects on survival, fertilization, and blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Escribano, N; Smits, K; Piepers, S; Van den Abbeel, E; Woelders, H; Van Soom, A

    2016-07-15

    This study was designed to determine the role of cumulus cells during vitrification of bovine oocytes. Mature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with many layers of cumulus cells, corona radiata oocytes (CRs), with a few layers of cumulus cells, and denuded oocytes (DOs) without cumulus cells were vitrified in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 0.5-M sucrose. Oocytes that survived the vitrification process were fertilized. Denuded oocytes were fertilized with or without supplementation of intact COCs (DOsCOCs). First, survival and embryo development rates were studied. Higher survival rates were obtained for DOs and DOsCOCs (94% and 95%, respectively) compared with COCs (82.7%, P < 0.05). Corona radiata oocytes showed similar survival rates when compared with DOs. The cleavage and blastocyst rates of vitrified DOs were compromised because cumulus cells were not present during the fertilization (34% and 2.7%, respectively). However, the situation could be reverted when DOs were supplemented with intact COCs (DOsCOCs; 62.7% and 12.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Vitrified CRs showed similar cleavage and blastocyst rate (49.3% and 7.7%, respectively) compared with COCs (54.8% and 4.9%, respectively). In the second experiment, the penetration rate was analyzed. Removing cumulus cells before fertilization reduced the fertilization of vitrified DOs compared with COCs (24.3% vs. 52.8%, P < 0.05). The supplementation of DOs with intact COCs (DOsCOCs) improved the fertilization rate though (49.6%, P < 0.05). No differences in the fertilization rate were found between CRs and COCs. In the third experiment, parthenogenetic activation was examined. Interestingly, the CRs group showed higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (76.8% and 29.6%, respectively) than the COCs (39.1% and 7.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oocytes from vitrified CRs had the same odds to become a blastocyst as fresh oocytes (1.1 vs. 1.5, respectively). In conclusion, our data

  20. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  1. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    'argilite est caractérisée par de faibles teneurs en eau ( 3-5%) et de très petits rayons d'accès de pores. Les coefficients de diffusion à l'eau tritiée (1×10-12 à 2×10-11 m2/s) et les conductivités hydrauliques déduites de différents types d'essais au laboratoire (10-13 à 10-14 m/s) sont caractéristiques d'une roche très imperméable. Des tests hydrauliques in situ (y compris une mesure de charge à long terme) ont fourni des valeurs approchées des charges et un ordre de grandeur des perméabilités à l'échelle de 1-10 m (10-11 à 10-13 m/s). En dépit des incertitudes sur ces données (facteur d'échelle, présence de fissures, et artéfacts possibles dus aux couplages hydro-chimique et mécanique) on suppose que les transferts sont essentiellement gouvernés par des processus diffusifs. La reconnaissance de transferts naturels possible à une plus grande échelle de temps et d'espace a été étudiée à partir des traceurs isotopiques naturels des fluides interstitiels. Une modélisation, basée sur un profil en deutérium le long de la colonne argileuse et postulant un processus diffusif a permis de proposer une estimation de temps de transfert possible, mais le manque de connaissances précises au stade actuel de l'étude concernant l'évolution géologique passée du site et le rôle possible de la fracturation ne permet pas de réduire les incertitudes constatées sur ces estimations. Resumen. Dentro del contexto de un programa de investigación y desarrollo para la eliminación de residuos, el Instituto Francés de Protección Nuclear y Seguridad seleccionó un emplazamiento experimental en el túnel de Tournemire (Aveyron, Francia) para llevar a cabo estudios sobre el flujo potencial de fluídos a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales, en una formación arcillosa de 250 m de espesor. La argilita tiene un contenido natural bajo de agua ( 3-5%) y una porosidad accesible muy pequeña. Los coeficientes de difusión de agua con tritio (entre 10-12 y

  2. Electronic structure and vibrational entropies of fcc Au-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Jorge A.; Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Xiao, Yuming; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonon density of states (DOS) curves were measured on alloys of face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au-Fe using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The NRIXS and INS results were combined to obtain the total phonon DOS and the partial phonon DOS curves of Au and Fe atoms. The 57Fe partial phonon DOS of the dilute alloy Au0.97 57Fe0.03 shows a localized mode centered 4.3% above the cutoff energy of the phonons in pure Au. The Mannheim model for impurity modes accurately reproduced this partial phonon DOS using the fcc Au phonon DOS with a ratio of host-host to impurity-host force constants of 1.55. First-principles calculations validated the assumption of first-nearest-neighbor forces in the Mannheim model and gave a similar ratio of force constants. The high energy local mode broadens with increasing Fe composition, but this has a small effect on the composition dependence of the vibrational entropy. The main effect on the vibrational entropy of alloying comes from a stiffening of the Au partial phonon DOS with Fe concentration. This stiffening is attributed to two main effects: 1) an increase in electron density in the free-electron-like states, and 2) stronger sd-hybridization. These two effects are comparable in magnitude.

  3. Embryonic Stem Cells License a High Level of Dormant Origins to Protect the Genome against Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin Quan; Han, Jinah; Cheng, Ee-Chun; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Shima, Naoko; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Lin, Haifan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maintaining genomic integrity during DNA replication is essential for stem cells. DNA replication origins are licensed by the MCM2–7 complexes, with most of them remaining dormant. Dormant origins (DOs) rescue replication fork stalling in S phase and ensure genome integrity. However, it is not known whether DOs exist and play important roles in any stem cell type. Here, we show that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) contain more DOs than tissue stem/progenitor cells such as neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Partial depletion of DOs does not affect ESC self-renewal but impairs their differentiation, including toward the neural lineage. However, reduction of DOs in NSPCs impairs their self-renewal due to accumulation of DNA damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, mice with reduced DOs show abnormal neurogenesis and semi-embryonic lethality. Our results reveal that ESCs are equipped with more DOs to better protect against replicative stress than tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells. PMID:26190528

  4. Probing Phase Coherence Via Density of States for Strongly Correlated Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the calculation of the coherent spectral functions and density of states (DOS) for excitonic systems in the frame of the three-dimensional extended Falicov-Kimball model. Using gage-invariant U(1) transformation to the usual fermions, we represent the electron operator as a fermion attached to the U(1) phase-flux tube. The emergent bosonic gage field, related to the phase variables, is crucial for the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons. Employing the path-integral formalism, we manipulate the bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom to obtain the effective actions related to fermionic and bosonic sectors. Considering the normal and anomalous excitonic Green functions, we calculate the spectral functions, which have the forms of convolutions in the reciprocal space between bosonic and fermionic counterparts. For the fermionic incoherent part of the DOS, we have found the strong evidence of the hybridization gap in DOS spectra. Furthermore, considering Bogoliubov coherence mechanism, we calculate the coherent DOS spectra. For the coherent normal fermionic DOS, there is no hybridization gap found in the system due to strong coherence effects and phase stiffness. The similar behavior is observed also for the condensate part of the anomalous excitonic DOS spectra. We show that for small values of the Coulomb interaction the fermionic DOS exhibits a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-like double-peak structure. In the BEC region of the BCS-BEC crossover, the double-peak structure disappears totally for both: coherent and incoherent DOS spectra. We discuss also the temperature dependence of DOS functions.

  5. Vibrational Properties of Nanograins and Interfaces in Nanocrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stankov, S.; Sergueev, I.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rueffer, R.; Yue, Y. Z.; Hu, L.; Miglierini, M.; Sepiol, B.; Svec, P.

    2008-06-13

    The vibrational dynamics of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 90}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 3} was studied at various phases of crystallization. The density of phonon states (DOS) of the nanograins was separated from that of the interfaces for a wide range of grain sizes and interface thicknesses. The DOS of the nanograins does not vary with their size and down to 2 nm grains still closely resembles that of the bulk. The anomalous enhancement of the phonon states at low and high energies originates from the DOS of the interfaces and scales linearly to their atomic fraction.

  6. An effective Denial of Service Attack Detection Method in Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Liangyu; Fu, Yingfang; Xiao, Peng

    In order to detect the DoS attack (Denial-of-Service attack) when wireless mesh networks adopt AODV routing protocol of Ad Hoc networks. Such technologies as an end-to-end authentication, utilization rate of cache memory, two pre-assumed threshold value and distributed voting are used in this paper to detect DoS attacker, which is on the basic of hierarchical topology structure in wireless mesh networks. Through performance analysis in theory and simulations experiment, the scheme would improve the flexibility and accuracy of DoS attack detection, and would obviously improve its security in wireless mesh networks.

  7. Electric field modulation of thermopower for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Hirotaka; Nagao, Yuki; Koumoto, Kunihito; Takasaki, Yuka; Umemura, Tomonari; Kato, Takeharu; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the electronic density of states (DOS) around the conduction band bottom for state of the art transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors (TAOSs), InGaZnO4 and In2MgO4, we fabricated TAOS-based transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs) and measured their gate voltage dependence of thermopower (S). TAOS-based TTFTs exhibit an unusual S behavior. The |S|-value abruptly increases but then gradually decreases as Vg increases, clearly suggesting the antiparabolic shaped DOS is hybridized with the original parabolic shaped DOS around the conduction band bottom.

  8. Disorder-induced gap in the normal density of states of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Sandra; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Müller, Jens; Lang, Michael; Huth, Michael; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The local density of states (DOS) of the organic superconductor κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy on in situ cleaved surfaces, reveals a logarithmic suppression near the Fermi edge persisting above the critical temperature {{T}\\text{c}} . The experimentally observed suppression of the DOS is in excellent agreement with a soft Hubbard gap as predicted by the Anderson-Hubbard model for systems with disorder. The electronic disorder also explains the diminished coherence peaks of the quasi-particle DOS below {{T}\\text{c}} .

  9. Disorder-induced gap in the normal density of states of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Sandra; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Müller, Jens; Lang, Michael; Huth, Michael; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The local density of states (DOS) of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy on in situ cleaved surfaces, reveals a logarithmic suppression near the Fermi edge persisting above the critical temperature T(c). The experimentally observed suppression of the DOS is in excellent agreement with a soft Hubbard gap as predicted by the Anderson-Hubbard model for systems with disorder. The electronic disorder also explains the diminished coherence peaks of the quasi-particle DOS below T(c). PMID:26076168

  10. [Milk and dairy products: evidence and recommendations in health and disease].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    El presente suplemento tiene como propósito mostrar el contexto y una guía clínica sobre el consumo y papel de la leche de vaca en la alimentación. El contenido considera el papel de la leche y productos lácteos en diferentes estados fisiológicos, etapas de vida y patologías. Se basa en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y está dirigido a profesionales de la salud de diferentes especialidades. PMID:27603880

  11. Two-current model of the composition dependence of resistivity in amorphous (Fe{sub 100-x}Co{sub x}){sub 89-y}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 4}Cu{sub y} alloys using a rigid-band assumption

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; Kernion, S. J.; McHenry, M. E.

    2012-11-15

    Composition dependence of resistivity is studied in amorphous (Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x}){sub 89−y}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 4}Cu{sub y} (0 ≤ x ≤ 50, y = 0, 1) alloys. The two-current model proposed by Mott for crystalline materials is extended to a disordered amorphous system where s-d scattering is dominant in electron conduction. A rigid-band assumption is made due to the small atomic number difference between Fe and Co. Band structures with a constant density of states (DOS), parabolic distributed DOS, and Gaussian distributed DOS were investigated to fit experimental data. The Gaussian distributed DOS was found to simulate the resistivity maximum and magnetic moment maximum in the Fe-rich region. The basic concepts presented here can potentially provide insight into the optimization of FeCo-based HITPERM alloys for applications at increased frequencies.

  12. Two-current model of the composition dependence of resistivity in amorphous (Fe100-xCox)(89-y)Zr7B4Cuy alloys using a rigid-band assumption

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S; Ohodnicki, PR; Kernion, SJ; McHenry, ME

    2012-11-15

    Composition dependence of resistivity is studied in amorphous (Fe100-xCox)(89-y)Zr7B4Cuy (0 <= x <= 50, y = 0, 1) alloys. The two-current model proposed by Mott for crystalline materials is extended to a disordered amorphous system where s-d scattering is dominant in electron conduction. A rigid-band assumption is made due to the small atomic number difference between Fe and Co. Band structures with a constant density of states (DOS), parabolic distributed DOS, and Gaussian distributed DOS were investigated to fit experimental data. The Gaussian distributed DOS was found to simulate the resistivity maximum and magnetic moment maximum in the Fe-rich region. The basic concepts presented here can potentially provide insight into the optimization of FeCo-based HITPERM alloys for applications at increased frequencies. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4765673

  13. Sore Throat? Know When To Call the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be. According to Phillip L. Accardo, DO, an osteopathic physician from Lee’s Summit, Mo., the key to treating ... does not support this functionality. About Osteopathic Medicine Osteopathic physicians, or DOs, are fully licensed to prescribe medicine ...

  14. An Expert System for Identification of Minerals in Thin Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoe, James Louis; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a computer database which includes optical properties of 142 minerals. Uses fuzzy logic to identify minerals from incomplete and imprecise information. Written in Turbo PASCAL for MS-DOS with 128K. (MVL)

  15. 8. General oblique view: east side of south end, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General oblique view: east side of south end, from the Dos Hermanos Highway Bridge - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. ``Binless Wang-Landau sampling'' - a multicanonical Monte Carlo algorithm without histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Eisenbach, Markus

    Inspired by the very successful Wang-Landau (WL) sampling, we innovated a multicanonical Monte Carlo algorithm to obtain the density of states (DOS) for physical systems with continuous state variables. Unlike the original WL scheme where the DOS is obtained as a numerical array of finite resolution, our algorithm assumes an analytical form for the DOS using a well chosen basis set, with coefficients determined iteratively similar to the WL approach. To avoid undesirable artificial errors caused by the discretization of state variables, we get rid of the use of a histogram for keeping track of the number of visits to energy levels, but store the visited states directly for the fitting of coefficients. This new algorithm has the advantage of producing an analytical expression for the DOS, while the original WL sampling can be readily recovered. This research was supported by the Office of Science of the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Faria Lima, 2170- Putim-12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55...

  18. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  19. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  20. 48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or other IT operations; (2) Acquisition, transmission or analysis of data owned by DOS with..., recording, and analysis of all data being communicated, transmitted, processed or stored in this system...

  1. Microcomputer Decisions for the 1990s [and] Apple's Macintosh: A Viable Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the factors that should be considered when purchasing or upgrading a microcomputer focuses on the MS-DOS and OS/2 operating systems. Macintosh purchasing decisions are discussed in a sidebar. A glossary is provided. (CLB)

  2. Taking It with You: Portable PCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of DOS computing focuses on portable personal computers. Reviews based on "PC Magazine" for each year since 1985 for portables, laptops, notebooks, and subnotebooks that include prices are provided; and vendor reliability is considered. (LRW)

  3. 78 FR 42991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...), 78 FR 33876 (June 5, 2013). II. Description DTC filed the proposed rule change to modify its Rules... processing for delivery. In contrast, lower value DOs and POs do not require the receiver's acceptance...

  4. Tunneling Evidence of Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in La(0.7)Ca(0.3)MnO(3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Direct experimental evidence of half-metallic density of states (DOS) is observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy on ferromagnetic La(0.7)Ca(0.3)MnO(3) which exhibits colossal magnetoresistance (SMR).

  5. No role for phonon entropy in the fcc{yields}fcc volume collapse transition in Ce{sub 0.9}Th{sub 0.1} at ambient pressure.

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, M. E.; McQueeney, R. J.; Fultz, B.; Swan-Wood, T.; Delaire, O.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Cooley, J. C.; Hults, W. L.; Lashley, J. C.; Osborn, R.; Smith, J. L.; Materials Science Division; LANL; California Inst. of Tech.

    2003-01-01

    Phonon densities of states (DOS) were obtained from inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Ce{sub 0.9}Th{sub 0.1} at temperatures from 10 to 300 K. The {alpha} phase showed a significant softening of its phonon DOS when heated from 10 to 140 K. Despite the 17% volume collapse, the phonon DOS showed little change between the {gamma} phase at 150 K and the {alpha} phase at 140 K. This is supported by analysis of the magnetic spectra showing that most of the transition entropy can be accounted for with the crystal field and changes in the ground-state spin fluctuations. We argue that the anomalous behavior of the phonon DOS originates with the volume dependence of the ground-state spin fluctuations.

  6. Density of photon states in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cells in the presence of losses and gain.

    PubMed

    Mavrogordatos, Th K; Morris, S M; Castles, F; Hands, P J W; Ford, A D; Coles, H J; Wilkinson, T D

    2012-07-01

    We calculate the density of photon states (DOS) of the normal modes in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells in the presence of various loss mechanisms. Losses and gain are incorporated into the transmission characteristics through the introduction of a small imaginary part in the dielectric constant perpendicular and along the director, for which we assume no frequency dispersion. Theoretical results are presented on the DOS in the region of the photonic band gap for a range of values of the loss coefficient and different values of the optical anisotropy. The obtained values of the DOS at the photonic band gap edges predict a reversal of the dominant modes in the structure. Our results are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained excitation thresholds in chiral nematic LC lasers. The behavior of the DOS is also discussed for amplifying LC cells providing additional insight to the lasing mechanism of these structures. PMID:23005435

  7. Microscopist`s aide: A computer program written to analyze TEM micrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.E.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    A computer program has been rewritten in DOS Basic allowing current state-of-the-art computer equipment to be used for quantitative measurement of microstructural features such as voids, dislocations, and precipitates.

  8. Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Hao; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Ping; Tian, Li-Jiao; Han, Jun-Cheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Although oxygen has been reported to regulate biofilm formation by several Shewanella species, the exact regulatory mechanism mostly remains unclear. Here, we identify a direct oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase (DosD) and reveal its regulatory role in biofilm formation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 under aerobic conditions. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the activity of DosD culminates to synthesis of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) in the presence of oxygen. DosD regulates the transcription of bpfA operon which encodes seven proteins including a large repetitive adhesin BpfA and its cognate type I secretion system (TISS). Regulation of DosD in aerobic biofilms is heavily dependent on an adhesin BpfA and the TISS. This study offers an insight into the molecular mechanism of oxygen-stimulated biofilm formation by S. putrefaciens CN32. PMID:23736081

  9. From Cosmology to Consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, William

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss my transition from Quantum Gravity and Cosmology to the world of consulting and describe the differences and similarities between academia and industry. I will give some dos and don'ts for industry interviews and jobs searches.

  10. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  11. Quantification of joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy and tracer kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioussoufovitch, Seva; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, which can cause progressive joint damage and disability. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging have the potential to become potent monitoring tools for RA. We devised a method that combined time-resolved DOS and tracer kinetics modeling to rapidly and reliably quantify blood flow in the joint. Preliminary results obtained from two animals show that the technique can detect joint inflammation as early as 5 days after onset.

  12. Coculturing denuded oocytes during the in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes exerts a synergistic effect on embryo development.

    PubMed

    Dey, S R; Deb, G K; Ha, A N; Lee, J I; Bang, J I; Lee, K L; Kong, I K

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of coculturing cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening, the pattern of fertilization and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) gene expression in the oocyte. Furthermore, the rate of embryonic development and the quality of blastocysts were examined for both COCs and DOs. Three IVM conditions were studied: 1) the coculture of 12 COCs and 60 DOs, 2) COC control with 12 COCs, and 3) DO control with 60 DOs. The IVM was performed in a 120-μl droplet of TCM199-based IVM medium. Following IVM, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were conducted separately for the COCs and DOs (DO coculture) from the IVM coculture group. Coculturing COCs and DOs increased the percentage of oocytes reaching the blastocyst stage and the total number of cells per blastocyst in both the COC coculture (44.4 ± 8.6 vs 26.7 ± 9.7%, P < 0.01, and 137.9 ± 24.9 vs 121.7 ± 21.1, P < 0.05) and the DO coculture (20.5 ± 5.0 vs 11.1 ± 2.5%, P < 0.01, and 121.9 ± 27.5 vs 112.3 ± 33.2, P < 0.05) compared to their respective control groups. The synergistic effects of coculturing were detected as increased nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, the prevention of ZP hardening, increased monospermic fertilization and increased expression of GPX1 in the oocytes in response to endogenous oocyte-secreted factors. In conclusion, coculturing COCs and DOs may be an effective culture system for both intact COCs and immature DOs. PMID:22153275

  13. Density of quantum states in quasi-1D layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakulia, D.; Tavkhelidze, A.; Gogoberidze, V.; Mebonia, M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, new quantum effects have been studied in thin nanograting layers. Nanograting on the surface imposes additional boundary conditions on the electron wave function and reduces the density of states (DOS). When the nanograting dimensions are close to the de Broglie wavelength, the DOS reduction is considerable and leads to changes in the layer properties. DOS calculations are challenging to perform and are related to the quantum billiard problem. Performing such calculations requires finding the solutions for the time-independent Schrödinger equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Here, we use a numerical method, namely the Method of Auxiliary Sources, which offers significant computational cost reduction relative to other numerical methods. We found the first five eigenfunctions for the nanograting layer and compared them with the corresponding eigenfunctions for a plain layer by calculating the correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the numerical data were used to analyze the DOS reduction. The nanograting is shown to reduce the probability of occupation of a particular quantum state, reducing the integrated DOS by as much as 4.1-fold. This reduction in the DOS leads to considerable changes in the electronic properties.

  14. Energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for electronic structure mapping in organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nádaždy, V. Gmucová, K.; Schauer, F.

    2014-10-06

    We introduce an energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to map the electronic density of states (DOS) in organic semiconductor materials. The method consists in measurement of the charge transfer resistance of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface at a frequency where the redox reactions determine the real component of the impedance. The charge transfer resistance value provides direct information about the electronic DOS at the energy given by the electrochemical potential of the electrolyte, which can be adjusted using an external voltage. A simple theory for experimental data evaluation is proposed, along with an explanation of the corresponding experimental conditions. The method allows mapping over unprecedentedly wide energy and DOS ranges. Also, important DOS parameters can be determined directly from the raw experimental data without the lengthy analysis required in other techniques. The potential of the proposed method is illustrated by tracing weak bond defect states induced by ultraviolet treatment above the highest occupied molecular orbital in a prototypical σ-conjugated polymer, poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene]. The results agree well with those of our previous DOS reconstruction by post-transient space-charge-limited-current spectroscopy, which was, however, limited to a narrow energy range. In addition, good agreement of the DOS values measured on two common π-conjugated organic polymer semiconductors, polyphenylene vinylene and poly(3-hexylthiophene), with the rather rare previously published data demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Noninvasive In Vivo Monitoring of Cyanide Toxicity and Treatment Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jangwoen; Keuter, Kelly A.; Kim, Jae; Tran, Andrew; Uppal, Amit; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari Brenner; Cancio, Leopoldo C.; Batchinsky, Andriy; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Brenner, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no reliable noninvasive methods exist for monitoring the severity of in vivo cyanide (CN) toxicity, treatment, and resulting physiological changes. We developed a broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) system to measure bulk tissue absorption and scattering. DOS was ased to optically monitor CN toxicity and treatment with sodium nitrite (NaNO2). To perform experiments, the DOS probe was placed on the hind leg of rabbits. A sodium CN solution was infused intravenously. DOS and concurrent physiologic measurements were obtained. After completion of CN infusion, NaNO2 was infused to induce methemoglobinemia (MetHb). During infusion of CN, blood gas measurements showed an increase in venous partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), and following reversal, venous pO2 values decreased. DOS measurements demonstrated corresponding changes in hemoglobin oxygenation states and redox states of cytochrome-c oxidase (CcO) during CN infusion and NaNO2 treatment. Therefore, DOS enables detection and monitoring of CN toxicity and treatment with NaNO2. PMID:19585775

  16. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  17. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. PMID:25724751

  18. The Effects of cAMP-elevating Agents and Alpha Lipoic Acid on In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Ali; Zavareh, Saeed; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of extensive efforts to improve in vitro oocyte maturation, the obtained results are not very efficient. This study was conducted to assess impacts of cAMP elevating agents and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization. Methods Mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were categorized into cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs; n=896) and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs; n=1077) groups. GV oocytes were matured in vitro with or without ALA; (I) without the meiotic inhibitors; (II) supplemented with cilostamide; (III) supplemented with forskolin and (IV) supplemented with Forskolin plus cilostamide. The obtained metaphase II (MII) oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization. Independent-samples t-testand ANOVA were used for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The COCs maturation, fertilization and two cell embryo rates were higher than those of DOs in the control group, while no significant difference was observed between relevant COCs and DOs when they were cultured with cilostamide meiotic inhibitors in two step manner. Combined treatment of cilostamide and forskolin significantly elevated the developmental rates in both COCs and DOs as compared to other groups. The developmental rates of COCs and DOs in the presence of ALA were similar to their respective groups without ALA. Conclusion cAMP elevating agents were more effective on DOs than COCs with regard to rates of maturation and fertilization. However, ALA did not affect the developmental rates of both COCs and DOs in in vitro maturation in one or two step manner. PMID:24551571

  19. Effects of cumulus cells on rabbit oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Cao, C; Zhang, M; Fang, F; Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Ding, J; Zhang, X

    2008-08-01

    Cumulus cells (CCs) are of great importance in oocyte development and maturation in many species, but detailed influence of CCs has not been extensively examined, especially on rabbit. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of CCs and the elongation of in vitro maturation (IVM) time on rabbit oocyte nuclear and ooplasmic maturation and survival. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and naked oocytes (NOs) were recovered directly from rabbits super-ovulated with eCG. Corona-enclosed oocytes (COs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) were obtained from COCs after removing a part or whole of CCs. The oocytes were cultured in the following seven groups. (i) Cumulus cell enclosed oocytes (CEOs) were cultured alone (CEOs); (ii) COs were cultured alone (COs); (iii) DOs were cultured alone (DOs); (iv) NOs were cultured alone; (v) DOs were co-cultured with COCs [DOs(COCs)]; (vi) DOs were co-cultured with CCs [DOs(CCs)]; (vii) NOs were co-cultured with CCs [NOs(CCs)]. After the oocytes were cultured for 24 and 30 h, the nuclear maturation was evaluated by first polar body (PB1) extrusion while the ooplasmic maturation was evaluated by the cleavage rate after parthenogenetic activation. The results showed that the nuclear maturation rate of CEOs, COs, DOs(COCs) and DOs(CCs) after 24 h incubation were significantly different from each other (p < or = 0.05), the rate of DOs(CCs) was similar to that of DOs (p > or = 0.05). The cleavage rates in the first two groups were significantly higher than those of the others (p < 0.05). For oocytes cultured for 30 h, the nuclear maturation rates were significantly different for each culture model (p < 0.05). The cleavage rates in first two groups were significantly higher than those of others (p < 0.05). Both the nuclear and cleavage rates significantly increased when the culture time of DOs(COCs) was prolonged from 24 to 30 h. DOs(CCs) nuclear maturation was significantly improved when the culture time was prolonged from 24 to 30 h

  20. Phonon density of states of Sn in textured SnO under high pressure: Comparison of nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering spectra to a shell model.

    SciTech Connect

    Giefers, H.; Koval, S.; Wortmann, G.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E.E.; Hu, M.Y.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Paderborn; Univ. of Nevada at Las Vegas; Univ. Nacional de Rosario

    2006-09-29

    The local phonon density of states (DOS) at the Sn site in tin monoxide (SnO) is studied at pressures up to 8 GPa with 119Sn nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) of synchrotron radiation at 23.88 keV. The preferred orientation (texture) of the SnO crystallites in the investigated samples is used to measure NRIXS spectra preferentially parallel and almost perpendicular to the c axis of tetragonal SnO. A subtraction method is applied to these NRIXS spectra to produce projected local Sn DOS spectra as seen parallel and perpendicular to the c axis of SnO. These experimentally obtained local Sn DOS spectra, both in the polycrystalline case as well as projected parallel and perpendicular to the c axis, are compared with corresponding theoretical phonon DOS spectra, derived from dispersion relations calculated with a recently developed shell model. Comparison between the experimental projected Sn DOS spectra and the corresponding theoretical DOS spectra enables us to follow the pressure-induced shifts of several acoustic and optic phonon modes. While the principal spectral features of the experimental and theoretical phonon DOS agree well at energies above 10 meV, the pressure behavior of the low-energy part of the DOS is not well reproduced by the theoretical calculations. In fact, they exhibit, in contrast to the experimental data, a dramatic softening of two low-energy modes, their energies approaching zero around 2.5 GPa, clearly indicating the limitations of the applied shell model. These difficulties are obviously connected with the complex Sn-O and Sn-Sn bindings within and between the Sn-O-Sn layers in the litharge structure of SnO. We derived from the experimental and theoretical DOS spectra a variety of elastic and thermodynamic parameters of the Sn sublattice, such as the Lamb-M{umlt o}ssbauer factor, the mean force constant, and Debye temperatures, as well as the vibrational contributions to the Helmholtz free energy, specific heat, entropy, and

  1. Molecular evidence for abiotic sulfurization of dissolved organic matter in marine shallow hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Pohlabeln, Anika M.; Lang, Susan Q.; Noowong, Ann; Pichler, Thomas; Wörmer, Lars; Bühring, Solveig I.

    2016-10-01

    Shallow submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments with strong redox gradients at the interface of hot, reduced fluids and cold, oxygenated seawater. Hydrothermal fluids are often depleted in sulfate when compared to surrounding seawater and can contain high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). It is well known that sulfur in its various oxidation states plays an important role in processing and transformation of organic matter. However, the formation and the reactivity of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) in the water column at hydrothermal systems are so far not well understood. We investigated DOS dynamics and its relation to the physicochemical environment by studying the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in three contrasting shallow hydrothermal systems off Milos (Eastern Mediterranean), Dominica (Caribbean Sea) and Iceland (North Atlantic). We used ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the DOM on a molecular level. The molecular information was complemented with general geochemical data, quantitative dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DOS analyses as well as isotopic measurements (δ2H, δ18O and F14C). In contrast to the predominantly meteoric fluids from Dominica and Iceland, hydrothermal fluids from Milos were mainly fed by recirculating seawater. The hydrothermal fluids from Milos were enriched in H2S and DOS, as indicated by high DOS/DOC ratios and by the fact that >90% of all assigned DOM formulas that were exclusively present in the fluids contained sulfur. In all three systems, DOS from hydrothermal fluids had on average lower O/C ratios (0.26-0.34) than surrounding surface seawater DOS (0.45-0.52), suggesting shallow hydrothermal systems as a source of reduced DOS, which will likely get oxidized upon contact with oxygenated seawater. Evaluation of hypothetical sulfurization reactions suggests DOM reduction and sulfurization during seawater

  2. Investigation into the Gaussian density of states widths of organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Wong, W. S.; Talik, A. N.; Woon, K. L.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-08-01

    The determination of the Gaussian density of states (DOS) width and its influence on charge injection/extraction across an interface are of critical importance for the accurate physical understanding of the optoelectronic properties of organic electronics. A new technique is developed here, whereby the DOS width is extracted by numerical fitting of experimental band-bending observed across an interface. This is done by exploiting the fact that the band-bending can be influenced by the disordered nature of energetic sites that are involved in charge transfer across an interface. This technique is applied on a single component and blended mixture of materials. This approach is successfully tested on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)-9,9‧-spirobifluorene (SPPO13) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) in a number of interfaces. The DOS width of PEDOT:PSS, PVK, SPPO13 and P3HT were calculated to be 105 meV, 144 meV, 178 meV and 80 meV respectively. The impact of DOS width on the interface between two materials is investigated. The Fermi level pinning model used to describe the hole barrier between an inorganic electrode and an organic semiconductor fails when applied to the interface between two organic semiconductors. Their energetic barriers are very highly dependent on the DOS of the materials.

  3. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Joung-min Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko; ACT-C, JST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012

    2013-10-15

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V{sub G} above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge.

  4. Oocyte-secreted factors in oocyte maturation media enhance subsequent development of bovine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmin; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Successful in vitro maturation (IVM) and oocyte quality both affect the subsequent development of cloned embryos derived from somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Developmental competence is usually lower in oocytes matured in vitro compared with those that matured in vivo, possibly due to insufficient levels of oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) and disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication. This study investigated the effects of OSFs secreted by denuded oocytes (DOs) during IVM on the subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles of slaughtered-cow ovaries collected from an abattoir were divided into four groups: COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for SCNT, as well as COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Based on the developmental competence and embryo quality of bovine embryos generated from these four groups, we found that co-culturing the COCs with DOs enhanced the in vitro development of IVF and cloned bovine embryos, and potentially generated more high-quality cloned blastocysts that possessed locus-specific histone modifications at levels similar to in vitro-fertilized embryos. These results strongly suggest that co-culturing COCs with DOs enhances subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryo. PMID:24420374

  5. Intraoperative optical assessment of photodynamic therapy response of superficial oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Rigual, Nestor; Arshad, Hassan; Tracy, Erin C.; Cooper, Michelle T.; Shafirstein, Gal; Wilding, Gregory; Merzianu, Mihai; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W.; Sunar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements could assess clinical response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, the correlation between parameters measured with DOS and the crosslinking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular marker for PDT-induced photoreaction, was investigated. Thirteen patients with early stage HNSCC received the photosensitizer 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and DOS measurements were performed before and after PDT in the operating room (OR). In addition, biopsies were acquired after PDT to assess the STAT3 crosslinking. Parameters measured with DOS, including blood volume fraction, blood oxygen saturation (StO2), HPPH concentration (cHPPH), HPPH fluorescence, and blood flow index (BFI), were compared to the pathologic response and the STAT3 crosslinking. The best individual predictor of pathological response was a change in cHPPH (sensitivity=60%, specificity=100%), while discrimination analysis using a two-parameter classifier (change in cHPPH and change in StO2) classified pathological response with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. BFI showed the best correlation with the crosslinking of STAT3. These results indicate that DOS-derived parameters can assess the clinical response in the OR, allowing for earlier reintervention if needed.

  6. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan’s formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  7. Toxicogenomic Screening of Replacements for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Using the Immortalized TM4 Sertoli Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Thomas C; Erythropel, Hanno C; Robaire, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate plasticizers such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being phased out of many consumer products because of their endocrine disrupting properties and their ubiquitous presence in the environment. The concerns raised from the use of phthalates have prompted consumers, government, and industry to find alternative plasticizers that are safe, biodegradable, and have the versatility for multiple commercial applications. We examined the toxicogenomic profile of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP), the commercial plasticizer diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), and three recently proposed plasticizers: 1,4-butanediol dibenzoate (BDB), dioctyl succinate (DOS), and dioctyl maleate (DOM), using the immortalized TM4 Sertoli cell line. Results of gene expression studies revealed that DOS and BDB clustered with control samples while MEHP, DINCH and DOM were distributed far away from the control-DOS-BDB cluster, as determined by principle component analysis. While no significant changes in gene expression were found after treatment with BDB and DOS, treatment with MEHP, DINCH and DOM resulted in many differentially expressed genes. MEHP upregulated genes downstream of PPAR and targeted pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis without modulating the expression of PPAR's themselves. DOM upregulated genes involved in glutathione stress response, DNA repair, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Treatment with DINCH resulted in altered expression of a large number of genes involved in major signal transduction pathways including ERK/MAPK and Rho signalling. These data suggest DOS and BDB may be safer alternatives to DEHP/MEHP than DOM or the commercial alternative DINCH. PMID:26445464

  8. Influence of co-culture with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on fertilization and developmental competence of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, Ruth; Somfai, Tamás; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Co-culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) was reported to improve the developmental competence of oocytes via oocyte-secreted factors in cattle. The aim of the present study was to investigate if addition of DOs during IVM can improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) results for oocytes in a defined in vitro production system in pigs. The maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium supplemented with gonadotropins, dbcAMP and β-mercaptoethanol. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured without DOs or with DOs in different ratios (9 COC, 9 COC+16 DO and 9 COC+36 DO). Consequently; oocytes were subjected to IVF as intact COCs or after denudation to examine if DO addition during IVM would affect cumulus or oocyte properties. After fertilization, penetration and normal fertilization rates of zygotes were not different between all tested groups irrespective of denudation before IVF. When zygotes were cultured for 6 days, no difference could be observed between all treatment groups in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and cell number per blastocyst. In conclusion, irrespective of the ratio, co-culture with DOs during IVM did not improve fertilization parameters and embryo development of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system. PMID:26249727

  9. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Mata-Pinzón, Zaahel; Valladares, Ariel A; Valladares, Renela M; Valladares, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan's formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  10. Extraction of the defect density of states in microcrystalline silicon from experimental results and simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibermacine, T.; Merazga, A.; Ledra, M.; Ouhabab, N.

    2015-09-01

    The constant photocurrent method in the ac-mode (ac-CPM) is used to determine the defect density of states (DOS) in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) prepared by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD). The absorption coefficient spectrum (ac-α(hv)), is measured under ac-CPM conditions at 60 Hz. The measured ac-α(hv) is converted by the CPM spectroscopy into a DOS distribution covering a portion in the lower energy range of occupied states. We have found that the density of valence band-tail states falls exponentially towards the gap with a typical band-tail width of 63 meV. Independently, computer simulations of the ac-CPM are developed using a DOS model that is consistent with the measured ac-α(hv) in the present work and a previously measured transient photocurrent (TPC) for the same material. The DOS distribution model suggested by the measurements in the lower and in the upper part of the energy-gap, as well as by the numerical modelling in the middle part of the energy-gap, coincide reasonably well with the real DOS distribution in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon because the computed ac-α(hv) is found to agree satisfactorily with the measured ac-α(hv).

  11. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-07-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193

  12. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-07-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques.

  13. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50–300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193

  14. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  15. Subgap states in p-channel tin monoxide thin-film transistors from temperature-dependent field-effect characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Lee, Daeun; Han, Young-Joon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2015-08-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the subgap density of states (DOS) in p-type tin monoxide (SnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) for the first time by using temperature-dependent field-effect measurements. As the temperature increases, the turn-on voltage moves in the positive direction, and the off-current and subthreshold slope continuously increase. We found that the conductivity of the SnO TFT obeys the Meyer-Neldel (MN) rule with a characteristic MN parameter of 28.6 eV-1 in the subthreshold region, from which we successfully extracted the subgap DOS by combing the field-effect method and the MN relation. The extracted subgap DOS from fabricated p-type SnO TFTs are exponentially distributed in energy, and exhibit around two orders of magnitude higher values compared to those of the n-type amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs.

  16. Tunneling study of cavity grade Nb : possible magnetic scattering at the surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Prolier, T.; Zasadzinski, J. F.; Cooley, L.; Antoine, C.; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Norem, J.; Gray, K. E.; Materials Science Division; Illinois Inst. Tech.; FNAL; Centre d'etude de Saclay

    2008-01-01

    Tunneling spectroscopy was performed on Nb pieces prepared by the same processes used to etch and clean superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Air exposed, electropolished Nb exhibited a surface superconducting gap {Delta} = 1.55 meV, which is characteristic of a clean, bulk Nb. However, the tunneling density of states (DOS) was significantly broadened. The Nb pieces, which were treated with the same mild baking used to improve the Q slope in SRF cavities, reveal a sharper DOS. Good fits to the DOS were obtained by using the Shiba theory, suggesting that magnetic scattering of quasiparticles is the origin of the gapless surface superconductivity and a heretofore unrecognized contributor to the Q-slope problem of Nb SRF cavities.

  17. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Chen W.; Smith, Hillary L.; Lan, Tian; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Munoz, Jorge A.; Keith, J. Brian; Mauger, L.; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2015-04-13

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO2) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 ωK. We reported temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) and Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grüneisen parameters. These mode Grüneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhat moremore » anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.« less

  18. Effect of substitutional defects on Kambersky damping in L1{sub 0} magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, T.; Victora, R. H.

    2015-02-16

    Kambersky damping, representing the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction, is calculated for L1{sub 0} FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd alloys versus chemical degree of order. When more substitutional defects exist in the alloys, damping is predicted to increase due to the increase of the spin-flip channels allowed by the broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that this corresponds to an enhanced density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level, owing to the rounding of the DOS with loss of long-range order. Both the damping and the DOS of the Co-based alloy are found to be less affected by the disorder. Pd-based alloys are predicted to have lower damping than Pt-based alloys, making them more suitable for high density spintronic applications.

  19. Significance of decay mechanism into continuum in dynamical Wannier-Stark ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Yuya; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-04

    We examine the resonance structure of photodressed electron states of laser-driven Wannier-Stark ladder, namely, dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder, in terms of the excess density of states (DOS) closely related to a lifetime of the state of concern. It is revealed that the resonance structure in the strong laser-field region shows clear dependence on the ratio, η, of a Bloch-frequency to a laser frequency. As the laser strength increases, for η = 1, the excess DOS becomes involved with a lot of newly-growing resonance peaks. This result would be understood from the viewpoint of a Fano-like decay-mechanism caused by a multichannel continuum effect, in marked contrast to the cases of larger η’s; for η = 3, the excess DOS just is found to show a pronounced red-shift of a single dominant peak caused by a single-channel continuum effect.

  20. Performance Comparison of InAs, InSb, and GaSb n-Channel Nanowire Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors in the Ballistic Transport Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoida, Kenta; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Kamakura, Yoshinari; Mori, Nobuya; Ogawa, Matsuto

    2013-03-01

    Ballistic performances of InAs, InSb, and GaSb nanowire field-effect transistors (NWFETs) were theoretically investigated. We found that InAs and InSb NWFETs exhibit similar device performances due to 1D band structure effects. Furthermore, although these In-based NWFETs suffer from the density-of-states (DOS) bottleneck, a lower power switching is expected. On the other hand, GaSb NWs have multiple energy subbands at conduction band minima, as a result of the projection of L-valleys which thus improves the DOS. In particular, a <110>-oriented GaSb NW has an improved DOS and a high electron velocity simultaneously, and thus, it could be a strong competitor to In-based NWFETs.

  1. Effect of substitutional defects on Kambersky damping in L10 magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Victora, R. H.

    2015-02-01

    Kambersky damping, representing the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction, is calculated for L10 FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd alloys versus chemical degree of order. When more substitutional defects exist in the alloys, damping is predicted to increase due to the increase of the spin-flip channels allowed by the broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that this corresponds to an enhanced density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level, owing to the rounding of the DOS with loss of long-range order. Both the damping and the DOS of the Co-based alloy are found to be less affected by the disorder. Pd-based alloys are predicted to have lower damping than Pt-based alloys, making them more suitable for high density spintronic applications.

  2. The Effect of Low Temperature Sensitization on Corrosion Resistance of Ultrafine-Grained Type 321 Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jinlong; Luo, Hongyun

    2014-01-01

    The ultrafine grain 321 stainless steel was produced by cold rolling. The microstructure, after 87% cold rolling and annealing at 380 and 450 °C, has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The degree of sensitization (DOS) was investigated by means of double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The results showed that the DOS was higher in samples annealed at 380 °C than that in samples annealed at 450 °C. The strain-induced martensite promoted sensitization at 380 °C and the reversion-transformed austenite-restrained sensitization or promoted healing of chromium-depleted zone at 450 °C. Although the activation and reactivation current densities in samples sensitized at 450 °C were higher than those in samples sensitized at 380 °C, higher corrosion resistance of the former was attributed to lower DOS, which was proven further by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiment.

  3. NDE evaluation of the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of a 2205 duplex stainless steel using thermoelectric power and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, N.; Carreón, H.; Ruiz, A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a nondestructive technique to assess rapidly and with confidence the degree of sensitization (DOS) in duplex stainless steel (DSS). In this investigation, we present the use of thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements as nondestructive method for the determination of DOS in isothermally aged 2205 DSS at 700°C for different aging times. The DOS of the aged samples was first established by performing the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test. The microstructural evolution was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that TEP coefficient is sensitive to gradual microstructural changes produced by thermal aging and can be used to monitor IGC sensitization of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

  4. Insights into redox sensing metalloproteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chim, Nicholas; Johnson, Parker M; Goulding, Celia W

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms for evading assault by the human host. This review focuses on M. tuberculosis regulatory metalloproteins that are sensitive to exogenous stresses attributed to changes in the levels of gaseous molecules (i.e., molecular oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide) to elicit an intracellular response. In particular, we highlight recent developments on the subfamily of Whi proteins, redox sensing WhiB-like proteins that contain iron-sulfur clusters, sigma factors and their cognate anti-sigma factors of which some are zinc-regulated, and the dormancy survival regulon DosS/DosT-DosR heme sensory system. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that these systems contribute to a highly complex and interrelated regulatory network that controls M. tuberculosis biology. This review concludes with a discussion of strategies that M. tuberculosis has developed to maintain redox homeostasis, including mechanisms to regulate endogenous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide levels. PMID:24314844

  5. Resonance frequency shifts due to quantized electronic states in atomically thin NEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changyao; Deshpande, Vikram; Koshino, Mikito; Lee, Sunwoo; Gondarenko, Alexander; MacDonald, Allan; Kim, Philip; Hone, James

    The classic picture of the force exerted on a parallel plate capacitor assumes infinite density of states (DOS), which implies identical electrochemical and electrostatic potential. However, such assumption can breakdown in low-dimensional devices where the DOS is finite or quantized. Here we consider the mechanical resonance shift of a nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) resonator with small DOS, actuated and detected capacitively at fixed electrochemical potential. We found three leading correction terms to the classical picture: the first term leads to the modulation of static force due to the variation in chemical potential, and the second and third terms are related to the static and dynamic changes in spring constants, caused by quantum capacitance. The theory agrees well with recent experimental findings from graphene resonator in quantum Hall regimes, where the chemical potential and quantum capacitance are tuned by magnetic field, while the gate voltage is kept constant.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses host-derived carbon monoxide during macrophage infection

    PubMed Central

    Shiloh, Michael U.; Manzanillo, Paolo; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) expresses a set of genes known as the dormancy regulon in vivo. These genes are expressed in vitro in response to nitric oxide (NO) or hypoxia, conditions used to model MTB persistance in latent infection. Although NO, a macrophage product that inhibits respiration, and hypoxia are likely triggers in vivo, additional cues could activate the dormancy regulon during infection. Here, we show that MTB infection stimulates expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by macrophages and that the gaseous product of this enzyme, carbon monoxide (CO), activates expression of the dormancy regulon. Deletion of macrophage HO-1 reduced expression of the dormancy regulon. Furthermore, we show that the MTB DosS/DosT/DosR two-component sensory relay system is required for the response to CO. Together, these findings demonstrate that MTB senses CO during macrophage infection. CO may represent a general cue used by pathogens to sense and adapt to the host environment. PMID:18474359

  7. A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K

    2013-09-18

    We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K. PMID:23962901

  8. Quantification of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi-Nan; Dong, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Duan-Lu; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry is conventionally described in a polarized manner that the system is either completely symmetric or completely asymmetric. Using group theoretical approach to overcome this dichotomous problem, we introduce the degree of symmetry (DoS) as a non-negative continuous number ranging from zero to unity. DoS is defined through an average of the fidelity deviations of Hamiltonian or quantum state over its transformation group G, and thus is computable by making use of the completeness relations of the irreducible representations of G. The monotonicity of DoS can effectively probe the extended group for accidental degeneracy while its multi-valued natures characterize some (spontaneous) symmetry breaking. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11421063, 11534002, 11475254 and the National 973 Program under Grant Nos. 2014CB921403, 2012CB922104, and 2014CB921202

  9. Photonic-band-gap effects in two-dimensional polycrystalline and amorphous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin-Kyu; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Schreck, Carl; Guy, Mikhael I.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui

    2010-11-15

    We study numerically the density of optical states (DOS) in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range positional order and observe a transition from polycrystalline to amorphous photonic systems. In polycrystals, photonic band gaps (PBGs) are formed within individual domains, which leads to a depletion of the DOS similar to that in periodic structures. In amorphous photonic media, the domain sizes are too small to form PBGs, thus the depletion of the DOS is weakened significantly. The critical domain size that separates the polycrystalline and amorphous regimes is determined by the attenuation length of Bragg scattering, which depends not only on the degree of positional order but also the refractive-index contrast of the photonic material. Even with relatively low-refractive-index contrast, we find that modest short-range positional order in photonic structures enhances light confinement via collective scattering and interference.

  10. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  11. Primary role of the barely occupied states in the charge density wave formation of NbSe2.

    PubMed

    Shen, D W; Zhang, Y; Yang, L X; Wei, J; Ou, H W; Dong, J K; Xie, B P; He, C; Zhao, J F; Zhou, B; Arita, M; Shimada, K; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Shi, J; Feng, D L

    2008-11-28

    NbSe2 is a prototypical charge-density-wave (CDW) material, whose mechanism remains mysterious so far. With angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we recovered the long-lost nesting condition over a large broken-honeycomb region in the Brillouin zone, which consists of six saddle band point regions with high density of states (DOS), and large regions away from Fermi surfaces with negligible DOS at the Fermi energy. We show that the major contributions to the CDW formation come from these barely occupied states rather than the saddle band points. Our findings not only resolve a long-standing puzzle, but also overthrow the conventional wisdom that CDW is dominated by regions with high DOS. PMID:19113497

  12. Phonon density of states of α - and δ -plutonium by inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, M. E.; Said, A. H.; Fluss, M. J.; Wall, M.; Lashley, J. C.; Alatas, A.; Moore, K. T.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the phonon density of states (DOS) were performed on polycrystalline samples of pure α-Pu and δ-Pu0.98Ga0.02 at room temperature. The heat capacity of α-Pu is well reproduced by contributions calculated from the measured phonon DOS plus conventional thermal-expansion and electronic contributions, showing that α-Pu is a “well-behaved” metal in this regard. A comparison of the phonon DOS of the two phases at room temperature showed that the vibrational entropy difference between them is only a quarter of the total entropy difference expected from known thermodynamic measurements. The missing entropy is too large to be accounted for by conventional electronic entropy and evidence from the literature rules out a contribution from spin fluctuations. Possible alternative sources for the missing entropy are discussed.

  13. Study of the electronic and magnetic properties of EuAlO{sub 3} using FP-LAPW method

    SciTech Connect

    Sandeep, Shankar, A.; Rai, D. P.; Thapa, R. K.; Ghimire, M. P.

    2015-05-15

    The electronic and magnetic properties of EuAlO{sub 3} is calculated by first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Density of states (DOS), magnetic moments and band structures of the systems are presented. For the exchange and correlation energy, local spin density approximation (LSDA+U) with the inclusion of Hubbard potential U is used. Our calculation showed an indirect band gap of the order of 4 eV for EuAlO{sub 3} in the spin down channel of the DOS and band structures supporting HMF nature of the system. The effective magnetic moment of 6.00 µ{sub B} also supported the above conclusion with an integral value. The DOS of Eu were found responsible for the HMF nature of the system.

  14. Electronic states of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincak, R.; Smotlacha, J.; Osipov, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The energy spectrum and electronic density of states (DOS) of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects are investigated within the tight-binding method. In case of the Stone-Wales zz(57) edge the low-energy spectrum is markedly changed in comparison to the pristine zz edge. We found that the electronic DOS at the Fermi level is different from zero at any width of graphene nanoribbons. In contrast, for ribbons with heptagons only at one side and pentagons at another one the energy gap at the Fermi level is open and the DOS is equal to zero. The reason is the influence of uncompensated topological charges on the localized edge states, which are topological in nature. This behavior is similar to that found for the structured external electric potentials along the edges.

  15. Effects of deformation (strain) and heat treatment on grain boundary sensitization and precipitation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. ); Advani, A.; Shankar, S.; Atteridge, D.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    Sensitization, particularly the degree of sensitization (DOS) in type 316 stainless steel pipe is critically dependent upon the solution anneal of the mill-annealed or commercial material, and is particularly sensitive to los-temperature aging when the starting material is solution annealed between about 1,000{degrees}C and 1,100{degrees}C. It is observed that when the DOS is above about 10 C/cm{sup 2} (quantitative electrochemical photentiokinetic reactivation units in Coulombs/cm{sup 2}), noticeable carbide precipitation occurs in the grain boundaries and increases with increasing DOS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of precipitation occurring in type 316 stainless steel pipe grain boundaries has shown them to exhibit many microstructural features that seem to be coincident with grain boundary microstructures, particularly ledges.

  16. Etched distributed Bragg reflectors as three-dimensional photonic crystals: photonic bands and density of states.

    PubMed

    Pavarini, E; Andreani, L C

    2002-09-01

    The photonic band dispersion and density of states (DOS) are calculated for the three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure corresponding to a distributed Bragg reflector patterned with a 2D triangular lattice of circular holes. Results for the Si/SiO(2) and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As systems determine the optimal parameters for which a gap in the 2D plane occurs and overlaps the 1D gap of the multilayer. The DOS is considerably reduced in correspondence with the overlap of 2D and 1D gaps. Also, the local density of states (i.e., the DOS weighted with the squared electric field at a given point) has strong variations depending on the position. Both results imply substantial changes of spontaneous emission rates and patterns for a local emitter embedded in the structure and make this system attractive for the fabrication of a 3D photonic crystal with controlled radiative properties. PMID:12366275

  17. The phonon density of states of (alpha) and (delta)-Plutonium by inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, M E; Said, A; Fluss, M J; Wall, M; Lashley, J C; Alatas, A; Moore, K T

    2008-10-08

    Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the phonon density of states (DOS) were performed on polycrystalline samples of pure {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu{sub 0.98}Ga{sub 0.02} at room temperature. The heat capacity of {alpha}-Pu is well reproduced by contributions calculated from the measured phonon DOS plus conventional thermal expansion and electronic contributions, showing that {alpha}-Pu is a 'well-behaved' metal in this regard. A comparison of the phonon DOS of the two phases at room temperature surprised us in that the vibrational entropy difference between them is only a quarter of the total entropy difference expected from known thermodynamic measurements. The missing entropy is too large to be accounted for by conventional electronic entropy and evidence from the literature rules out a contribution from spin fluctuations. Possible alternative sources for the missing entropy are discussed.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of sodium nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Luis A.; Reyes-Nava, Juan A.; Garzon, Ignacio L.

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances on mass selection of sodium nanoclusters and their characterization by photoemission electron spectroscopy [1] have given useful data for a variety of clusters sizes. These data may lead to assignments of the relevant structures by comparing the measured photoelectron spectra (PES) with the electronic density of states (DOS) obtained from DFT calculations. In this work, the lowest energy structures modeled by the many-body Gupta potential, are obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations for Nan (n= 178, 204, 271, 298-300, 309). DFT calculations were then performed for neutral, positively- and negatively-charged Nan clusters. A comparison between the DOS of clusters of the same size but different charge will be presented, as well as between the available experimental PES and the theoretical obtained DOS.[1] H. Haberland, T. Hippler, J. Donges, O. Kostko, M. Schmidt, B. von Issendorff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035701 (2005).

  19. Tunneling density of states as a function of thickness in superconductor/ strong ferromagnet bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond, S.

    2010-04-29

    We have made an experimental study of the tunneling density of states (DOS) in strong ferromagnetic thin films (CoFe) in proximity with a thick superconducting film (Nb) as a function of d{sub F}, the ferromagnetic thickness. Remarkably, we find that as d{sub F} increases, the superconducting DOS exhibits a scaling behavior in which the deviations from the normal-state conductance have a universal shape that decreases exponentially in amplitude with characteristic length d* {approx} 0.4 nm. We do not see oscillations in the DOS as a function of d{sub F}, as expected from predictions based on the Usadel equations, although an oscillation in T{sub c}(d{sub F}) has been seen in the same materials.

  20. Characteristics of impurity-induced pseudogap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Yoshinori; Uto, Tatsuro; Matuda, Azusa

    2016-05-01

    We have performed STM/STS measurements on a single crystal of Bi2.1Sr1.9Ca (Cu1-xCox) 2O8+δ (Co-Bi2212), to reveal impurity effects on the pseudogap in cuprate high-Tc superconductors. We report a drastic change in the temperature dependence of a pseudogap and in the density of states (DOS) modulation with a 4a period, in a certain doping range. In the Co 4% substituted samples, the pseudogap gradually closed like a gap of a BCS superconductor for slightly overdoped and overdoped regime, while their low temperature values were enhanced due to impurity. In addition, a disappearance of a 4a periodic modulation and a development of new modulation were observed in the DOS spatial distribution. These results indicate an intimate relation between the DOS modulation and the pseudogap, and qualitative difference in the impurity enhanced pseudogap and conventional one.

  1. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  2. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chen W.; Smith, Hillary L.; Lan, Tian; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Munoz, Jorge A.; Keith, J. Brian; Mauger, L.; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2015-04-13

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO2) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 ωK. We reported temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) and Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grüneisen parameters. These mode Grüneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhat more anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.

  3. Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Hegmann, Elda; Gaspar, Kim; Kumar, Praveen; Chao, Heman

    2015-06-17

    A novel immunoconjugate (L-DOS47) was developed and characterized as a therapeutic agent for tumors expressing CEACAM6. The single domain antibody AFAIKL2, which targets CEACAM6, was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pT7-7 system. High purity urease (HPU) was extracted and purified from Jack bean meal. AFAIKL2 was activated using N-succinimidyl [4-iodoacetyl] aminobenzoate (SIAB) as the cross-linker and then conjugated to urease. The activation and conjugation reactions were controlled by altering pH. Under these conditions, the material ratio achieved conjugation ratios of 8-11 antibodies per urease molecule, the residual free urease content was practically negligible (<2%), and high purity (>95%) L-DOS47 conjugate was produced using only ultradiafiltration to remove unreacted antibody and hydrolyzed cross-linker. L-DOS47 was characterized by a panel of analytical techniques including SEC, IEC, Western blot, ELISA, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping. As the antibody-urease conjugate ratio increased, a higher binding signal was observed. The specificity and cytotoxicity of L-DOS47 was confirmed by screening in four cell lines (BxPC-3, A549, MCF7, and CEACAM6-transfected H23). BxPC-3, a CEACAM6-expressing cell line was found to be most susceptible to L-DOS47. L-DOS47 is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in human phase I clinical studies for nonsmall cell lung cancer. PMID:25938892

  4. Effect of In Vitro Maturation Technique and Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Oocyte Maturation Rate: Focus on Oxidative Status of Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zavareh, Saeed; Karimi, Isaac; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Rahnama, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic potential of in vitro maturation (IVM) in infertility is growing with great promise. Although significant progress is obtained in recent years, existing IVM protocols are far from favorable results. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether two step IVM manner change reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total anti- oxidant capacity (TAC) levels. The second aim was to find the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on oocyte maturation rate and on ROS/TAC levels during IVM. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes divided into cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs) and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) groups. GVs were matured in vitro in the presence or absence of ALA only for 18 hours (control) or with pre-culture of forskolin plus cilostamide for an additional 18 hours. Matured oocytes obtained following 18 and 36 hours based on experimental design. In parallel, the ROS and TAC levels were measured at different time (0, 18 and 36 hours) by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) probe and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Results Maturation rate of COCs was significantly higher than DOs in control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between COCs and DOs when were pre-cultured with forskolin plus cilostamide. ROS and TAC levels was increased and decreased respectively in DOs after 18 hours while in COCs did not change at 18 hours and showed a significant increase and decrease respectively at 36 hours (P<0.05). ROS and TAC levels in the presence of ALA were significantly decreased and increased respectively after 36 hours (P<0.05) whereas, maturation rates of COCs and DOs were similar to their corresponding control groups. Conclusion ALA decreased ROS and increased TAC but could not affect maturation rate of both COCs and DOs in one or two step IVM manner. PMID:26985332

  5. Validation and Visualization of Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopic Imaging of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sameer A.; Prakash, Neal; Guiou, Michael; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion-based functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging are becoming increasingly important in both neuroscience research and intraoperative brain mapping. Recent studies have applied a spectroscopic approach to OIS imaging data, which we will call “two-dimensional optical spectroscopy” (2DOS), generating images of functional changes in hemoglobin oxygenation and blood volume. This improvement comes at the cost of several assumptions. Whereas the “gold standard” technique of fiber spectroscopy decomposes reflected light over a spectral axis, 2DOS retains both spatial dimensions by acquiring images at several wavelengths, sacrificing spectral resolution for the extra spatial dimension. Furthermore, 2DOS data are acquired interleaved within or between trials, but combined during the spectroscopic analysis as if acquired simultaneously. Thus far, the few studies employing this approach have assumed both that the reduced spectral resolution is tolerable, and that sufficient trial averaging can compensate for the temporally staggered data acquisition. To test these assumptions, we compared 2DOS results to those produced by traditional fiber spectroscopy by observing the hemodynamic response to hindpaw electrical stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex in anesthetized rats. Comparisons revealed low fitting residuals and a high level of correlation between the two, but noteworthy differences in response magnitudes. Inspection of individual timecourses revealed a lower signal-to-noise ratio for 2DOS data. For visualization and interpretation of the 2DOS images, we present a parameterized visualization strategy, in which oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin are assigned to individual color channels. The resulting composite image conveniently displays the evolution of hemodynamic responses through parenchymal and vascular compartments in space and time. PMID:19013531

  6. Development and in vitro evaluation of novel floating chitosan microcapsules for oral use: comparison with non-floating chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    El-Gibaly, Ibrahim

    2002-12-01

    Floating (F) microcapsules containing melatonin (MT) were prepared by the ionic interaction of chitosan and a negatively charged surfactant, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOS). The DOS/chitosan complex formation was confirmed employing infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solubility and X-ray diffraction analysis. The characteristics of the F microcapsules generated compared with the conventional non-floating (NF) microspheres manufactured from chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were also investigated. The effect of various factors (crosslinking time, DOS and chitosan concentrations, as well as drug/polymer ratio) on microcapsule properties were evaluated. The use of DOS solution in coagulation of chitosan produced well-formed microcapsules with round hollow core and 31.2-59.74% incorporation efficiencies. Chitosan concentration and drug/polymer ratio had a remarkable effect on drug entrapment in DOS/chitosan microcapsules. The dissolution profiles of most of microcapsules showed near zero order kinetics in simulated gastric fluid (S.G.F: pH 1.2). Moreover, release of the drug from these microcapsules was greatly retarded with release lasting for several hours (t(50%) (S.G.F.): 1.75-6.7 h, depending on processing factors), compared with NF microspheres where drug release was almost instant. Most of the hollow microcapsules developed tended to float over simulated biofluids for more than 12 h. Swelling studies conducted on various drug-free formulations, clearly indicated that DOS/chitosan microcapsules showed less swelling and no dissolution in S.G.F. for more than 3 days, whereas, TPP/chitosan microspheres were markedly swollen and lost their integrity in S.G.F. within 5 h. Therefore, data obtained suggest that the F hollow microcapsules produced would be an interesting gastroretentive controlled-release delivery system for drugs. PMID:12433430

  7. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  8. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  9. Collisions of O+ with He at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, B. C.; Zhao, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    We have investigated the following charge transfer processO^+( ^4S^0, ^2D^0, ^2P^0)+He->O( ^3P)+He^+-δE using the full quantum [1] and semi-classical molecular [2]orbital close-coupling (MOCC) approximations. The quantum MOCC equations are solved numerically in the adiabatic representation [3]. Using MRD-CI package [4] the ab initio configuration interaction calculation is carried out for potential energies. Details of our findings will be reported in the conference. [1] B. H. Bransden and M. R. C. McDowell, ``Charge Exchange and the Theory of Ion-Atom Collisions'', Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992. [2] M. Kimura and N. F. Lane, At. Mol. Opt. Phys 26, 79 (1990). [3] J. P. Braga and J. C. Belchoir, J. Comput. Chem 17, 1559 (1996). [4] R. J. Buenker, ``Current Aspects of Quantum Chemistry 1981, Vol 21, edited by R. Carbo (Elsevier, Amsterdam), p 17.

  10. High-Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectral Analysis in the CK Region of Titanium Carbide (TiC) using the DV-X alpha Molecular Orbital Method

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Kenta; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2008-10-31

    We used the DV-X alpha method to analyze the high-resolution soft X-ray emission and absorption spectra in the CK region of titanium carbide (TiC). The spectral profiles of the X-ray emission and absorption can be ssuscfucelly reproduced by the occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS ), respectively, in the C2p orbitals of the center carbon atoms in a Ti62C63 cluster model, suggesting that the center carbon atom in a large cluster model expanded to the cubic-structured 53 (= 125) atoms provides sufficient DOS for the X-ray spectral analysis of rock-salt structured metal carbides.

  11. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Masutomi, Ryuichi Okamoto, Tohru

    2015-06-22

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T.

  12. A photoelectron spectroscopy study of the electronic structure evolution in CuInSe2-related compounds at changing copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, T. V.; Grebennikov, V. I.; Zhao, H.; Derks, C.; Taubitz, C.; Neumann, M.; Persson, C.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Bodnar, I. V.; Martin, R. W.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2012-09-01

    Evolution of the valence-band structure at gradually increasing copper content has been analysed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in In2Se3, CuIn5Se8, CuIn3Se5, and CuInSe2 single crystals. A comparison of these spectra with calculated total and angular-momentum resolved density-of-states (DOS) revealed the main trends of this evolution. The formation of the theoretically predicted gap between the bonding and non-bonding states has been observed in both experimental XPS spectra and theoretical DOS.

  13. Probing the Electronic Density of States of Germanium Nanoparticles: A Method for Determining Atomic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A; Bostedt, C; van Buuren, T; Willey, T; Terminello, L; Galli, G; Pizzagalli, L

    2004-03-31

    We present first principles electronic structure calculations and photoemission measurements of the change in the valence band DOS of germanium as its dimensions are reduced from the bulk to the nanoscale. By comparing the calculated broadening of the s and s--p band peaks and the energy of surface dangling bonds to the measured DOS we identify the most likely structure of these nanoparticles. We propose that, in contrast to recent interpretations, small 2-3 nm germanium nanoparticles prepared by gas phase aggregation have a distorted diamond structure core and a thermally disordered surface.

  14. Factorial validity of the death obsession scale in African University students.

    PubMed

    Mashegoane, Solomon; Makhubela, Malose S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the factor structure of the Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Data used consisted of DOS reports of 328 Black African students. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that two- and three-factor models obtained among female and male African students, respectively, provided the best fit to the data. The two factors in female African students were Death Rumination and Apprehension, and the three factors of their male counterparts were Death Ruminations, Apprehension, and Comprehensibility of Death. Factor intercorrelations did not resolve the dimensionality issue of the measure, leading to the conclusion that the factors must be investigated further. PMID:26073522

  15. In-Vivo Gene Signatures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma Shankar; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), development of new therapeutics and vaccines against it has proven difficult. This is at least in part due to the use of less than optimal models of in-vivo Mtb infection, which has precluded a study of the physiology of the pathogen in niches where it actually persists. C3HeB/FeJ (Kramnik) mice develop human-like lesions when experimentally infected with Mtb and thus make available, a faithful and highly tractable system to study the physiology of the pathogen in-vivo. We compared the transcriptomics of Mtb and various mutants in the DosR (DevR) regulon derived from Kramnik mouse granulomas to those cultured in-vitro. We recently showed that mutant ΔdosS is attenuated in C3HeB/FeJ mice. Aerosol exposure of mice with the mutant mycobacteria resulted in a substantially different and a relatively weaker transcriptional response (< = 20 genes were induced) for the functional category 'Information Pathways' in Mtb:ΔdosR; 'Lipid Metabolism' in Mtb:ΔdosT; 'Virulence, Detoxification, Adaptation' in both Mtb:ΔdosR and Mtb:ΔdosT; and 'PE/PPE' family in all mutant strains compare to wild-type Mtb H37Rv, suggesting that the inability to induce DosR functions to different levels can modulate the interaction of the pathogen with the host. The Mtb genes expressed during growth in C3HeB/FeJ mice appear to reflect adaptation to differential nutrient utilization for survival in mouse lungs. The genes such as glnB, Rv0744c, Rv3281, sdhD/B, mce4A, dctA etc. downregulated in mutant ΔdosS indicate their requirement for bacterial growth and flow of carbon/energy source from host cells. We conclude that genes expressed in Mtb during in-vivo chronic phase of infection in Kramnik mice mainly contribute to growth, cell wall processes, lipid metabolism, and virulence. PMID:26270051

  16. In-Vivo Gene Signatures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Uma Shankar; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), development of new therapeutics and vaccines against it has proven difficult. This is at least in part due to the use of less than optimal models of in-vivo Mtb infection, which has precluded a study of the physiology of the pathogen in niches where it actually persists. C3HeB/FeJ (Kramnik) mice develop human-like lesions when experimentally infected with Mtb and thus make available, a faithful and highly tractable system to study the physiology of the pathogen in-vivo. We compared the transcriptomics of Mtb and various mutants in the DosR (DevR) regulon derived from Kramnik mouse granulomas to those cultured in-vitro. We recently showed that mutant ΔdosS is attenuated in C3HeB/FeJ mice. Aerosol exposure of mice with the mutant mycobacteria resulted in a substantially different and a relatively weaker transcriptional response (< = 20 genes were induced) for the functional category ‘Information Pathways’ in Mtb:ΔdosR; ‘Lipid Metabolism’ in Mtb:ΔdosT; ‘Virulence, Detoxification, Adaptation’ in both Mtb:ΔdosR and Mtb:ΔdosT; and ‘PE/PPE’ family in all mutant strains compare to wild-type Mtb H37Rv, suggesting that the inability to induce DosR functions to different levels can modulate the interaction of the pathogen with the host. The Mtb genes expressed during growth in C3HeB/FeJ mice appear to reflect adaptation to differential nutrient utilization for survival in mouse lungs. The genes such as glnB, Rv0744c, Rv3281, sdhD/B, mce4A, dctA etc. downregulated in mutant ΔdosS indicate their requirement for bacterial growth and flow of carbon/energy source from host cells. We conclude that genes expressed in Mtb during in-vivo chronic phase of infection in Kramnik mice mainly contribute to growth, cell wall processes, lipid metabolism, and virulence. PMID:26270051

  17. Condensation of fermion zero modes in the vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2016-08-01

    The energy levels of the fermions bound to the vortex are considered for vortices in the superfluid/superconducting systems which contain the symmetry protected plane of zeroes in the gap function in bulk. The Caroli-de Gennes-Matricon branches with different n approach zero energy level at p z → 0. The density of states of the bound fermions diverges at zero energy giving rise to the √ Ω dependence of DoS in the polar phase of superfluid 3He rotating with the angular velocity Ω and to the √ B dependence of DoS for superconductors in the (d xz + id yz )-wave pairing state.

  18. Observation of rebirth of metallic paths during resistance switching of metal nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Horiba, K. Nagamura, N.; Toyoda, S.; Oshima, M.; Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 ; Fujiwara, K.; Takagi, H.; Kumigashira, H.; Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology , Japan Science and Technology Agency , Saitama 332-0012

    2013-11-04

    To clarify the mechanism of resistance-switching phenomena, we have investigated the change in the electronic structure of a Ni nanowire device during resistance-switching operations using scanning photoelectron microscopy techniques. We directly observed the disappearance of density of state (DOS) at the Fermi level (E{sub F}) in a high-resistance state and recovery of a finite DOS at E{sub F} in a low-resistance state. These results are direct evidence that the Ni nanowire is fully oxidized after switching to the high-resistance state and that Ni-metal conductive paths in the oxidized nanowire are recovered in the low-resistance state.

  19. Interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics with rRNA.

    PubMed

    Trylska, Joanna; Kulik, Marta

    2016-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors applied to treat infections caused mainly by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Due to their adverse side effects they are last resort antibiotics typically used to combat pathogens resistant to other drugs. Aminoglycosides target ribosomes. We describe the interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics containing a 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) ring with 16S rRNA. We review the computational studies, with a focus on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on RNA models mimicking the 2-DOS aminoglycoside binding site in the small ribosomal subunit. We also briefly discuss thermodynamics of interactions of these aminoglycosides with their 16S RNA target. PMID:27528743

  20. Molecular Library Synthesis Using Complex Substrates: Expanding the Framework of Triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Ignatenko, Vasily A.; Han, Yong; Tochtrop, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    The remodelling of a natural product core framework by means of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) is a valuable approach to access diverse/biologically relevant chemical space and to overcome the limitations of combinatorial-type compounds. Here we provide proof of principle and a thorough conformational analysis for a general strategy whereby the inherent complexity of a starting material is used to define the regio- and stereochemical outcomes of reactions in chemical library construction. This is in contrast to the traditional DOS logic employing reaction development and catalysis to drive library diversity PMID:23245400

  1. Variation of the electronic densities of states as a function of impurity concentration in amorphous bismuth alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata-Pinzon, Zaahel; Valladares, Ariel Alberto; Valladares, Alexander; Valladares, Renela Maria

    2014-03-01

    The properties of materials are strongly related to their atomic topology, especially when we compare properties related to the ordered and disordered phases. Using Density Functional Theory methods on 64-atom supercells we obtain the structure and calculate the electronic density of states (eDOS) as a function of the concentration of lead, thallium or antimony in an amorphous bismuth supercell. This is done to investigate how the eDOS affects the superconducting transition temperature (Tc), taking into account the measurements made by Shier and Ginsberg[2] on contaminated amorphous bismuth thin films. Supported by CONACYT and DGAPA (UNAM).

  2. A photoelectron spectroscopy study of the electronic structure evolution in CuInSe{sub 2}-related compounds at changing copper content

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, T. V.; Grebennikov, V. I.; Zhao, H.; Derks, C.; Taubitz, C.; Neumann, M.; Persson, C.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Bodnar, I. V.; Martin, R. W.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2012-09-10

    Evolution of the valence-band structure at gradually increasing copper content has been analysed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, CuIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8}, CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, and CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals. A comparison of these spectra with calculated total and angular-momentum resolved density-of-states (DOS) revealed the main trends of this evolution. The formation of the theoretically predicted gap between the bonding and non-bonding states has been observed in both experimental XPS spectra and theoretical DOS.

  3. 27 CFR 9.187 - Covelo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Covelo viticultural area surrounds the town of Covelo in northern Mendocino County, California. The area... Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California Quadrangle,—Mendocino...,—Mendocino Co., 7.5 Minute Series, edition of 1967, photoinspected 1973; (3) Covelo East,...

  4. 27 CFR 9.187 - Covelo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Covelo viticultural area surrounds the town of Covelo in northern Mendocino County, California. The area... Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California Quadrangle,—Mendocino...,—Mendocino Co., 7.5 Minute Series, edition of 1967, photoinspected 1973; (3) Covelo East,...

  5. 27 CFR 9.187 - Covelo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Covelo viticultural area surrounds the town of Covelo in northern Mendocino County, California. The area... Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California Quadrangle,—Mendocino...,—Mendocino Co., 7.5 Minute Series, edition of 1967, photoinspected 1973; (3) Covelo East,...

  6. 27 CFR 9.187 - Covelo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Covelo viticultural area surrounds the town of Covelo in northern Mendocino County, California. The area... Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California Quadrangle,—Mendocino...,—Mendocino Co., 7.5 Minute Series, edition of 1967, photoinspected 1973; (3) Covelo East,...

  7. Elk monitoring in Mount Rainier and Olympic national parks: 2008-2011 synthesis report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Happe, Patricia J.; Reid, Mason E.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Tirhe, Michelle; McCorquodale, Scott; Beirne, Katherine; Boetsch, John; Baccus, William; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    We continue to develop and improve the DO-S model for application to OLYM summer surveys. In the next synthesis report, we will update findings with additional data following the 2015 field season, based on 8 years of survey results; it will be a more complete analysis of elk population trends.

  8. Confronting Crisis. A Comparative Study of Household Responses to Poverty and Vulnerability in Four Poor Urban Communities. Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Caroline O. N.

    This volume presents the main findings of a comparative study of four poor urban communities in countries experiencing economic difficulties during the late 1980s: Chawama (Zambia), Cisne Dos (Ecuador), Commonwealth (the Philippines), and Angyalfold (Hungary). The study extended a longitudinal community panel study begun in Ecuador by using a…

  9. Fármacos adyuvantes anti-angiogénesi no benefician en cáncer de riñón

    Cancer.gov

    Resultados de un estudio clínico reciente muestran que la terapia adyuvante con dos fármacos anti-angiogénesis no mejora la supervivencia sin avance en pacientes con cáncer renal y puede causar efectos secundarios graves.

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  11. BASINS/HSPF WATERSHED MODEL TRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basins is an interactive Windows based interface to several DOS based water quality computer simulations, of which HSPF is one. The training course helped train 30 water quality modelers from the USEPA, States and Tribes in the use of Basins and HSPF. The training was three da...

  12. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  13. 48 CFR 601.602-1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 601.602-1... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 601.602-1 Authority. (a) DOS contracts are awarded pursuant to the foreign affairs management...

  14. 48 CFR 601.602-1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 601.602-1... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 601.602-1 Authority. (a) DOS contracts are awarded pursuant to the foreign affairs management...

  15. TREATMENT WETLAND HABITAT AND WILDLIFE USE ASSESSMENT AND NORTH AMERICAN TREATMENT WETLAND DATABASE V 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA sponsored a project to collect and catalog information from wastewater treatment wetlands into a computer database. EPA has also written a user friendly, stand-alone, menu-driven computer program to allow anyone with DOS 3.3 or higher to access the information in the da...

  16. Tools of the Courseware Trade: A Comparison of ToolBook 1.0 and HyperCard 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brader, Lorinda L.

    1990-01-01

    Compares two authoring tools that were developed to enable users without programing experience to create and modify software. HyperCard, designed for Macintosh microcomputers, and ToolBook, for microcomputers that run on MS-DOS, are compared in the areas of programing languages, graphics and printing capabilities, user interface, system…

  17. SAGE 2.0 - SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDES - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

  18. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  19. Using Stories Effectively with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; Kennedy, Anne; Stonehouse, Anne

    2009-01-01

    In this excerpt from the book "From Lullabies to Literature: Stories in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers," the authors offer dos and don'ts for sharing story experiences with very young children. They include tips such as keeping groups intimate, showing pleasure and enthusiasm, being expressive, and using props. The authors suggest story…

  20. Stability and nonlinear optical properties of Cu nanoparticles prepared by femtosecond laser ablation of Cu target in alcohol and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guanghua; Ren, Shoutian; Qu, Shiliang; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Renxi; Han, Min

    2014-11-01

    By using PVP of different concentrations as the protective agent, Cu nanoparticles (NPs) of different mean sizes are fabricated through laser ablation of Cu target in alcohol, water, and their mixtures. As-grown Cu NPs show good stability in alcohol. The nonlinear absorptions of Cu NPs with different mean sizes are investigated. With the increase of laser intensity, the nonlinear absorption of small NPs changes from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and two-photon absorption (TPA), whereas SA dominates the nonlinear absorption of the large NPs. The modulations of occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS) in conduction band are proposed to be the key factors for the size-dependence of the nonlinear absorption. For the large Cu NPs, there are sufficiently occupied DOS in the ground state and unoccupied DOS in the first excited state to sustain the increase of SA, whereas for the small Cu NPs, the corresponding DOS is insufficient, so the SA is surpassed by the RSA and TPA at high laser excitation intensity.

  1. From Resume to Teaching Job: What You Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher job market has become very competitive, but the good news is that there are jobs in schools. Candidates who do their homework and work at getting a job with the same dedication they put into earning their teaching licensure will be employable. In this article, the author discusses the the dos and don'ts of the job search--including…

  2. Studies in Language Learning and Spanish Linguistics. Festschrift in Honor of Tracy D. Terrell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemipour, Peggy, Ed.; Maldonado, Ricardo, Ed.; van Naerssen, Margaret, Ed.

    Essays on Spanish linguistics and related topics are dedicated to linguist Tracy D. Terrell. An introductory section gives a brief biography and a list of his publications. Essays include: "The Natural Approach to Language Teaching: An Update" (Tracy D. Terrell); "Two Mad, Mad, Mad Worlds: Notes on Natural Approach and the Writing of 'Dos mundos'"…

  3. Extraction of the materials parameters that determine the mobility in disordered organic semiconductors from the current-voltage characteristics: Accuracy and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, R. J.; Badinski, A.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Coehoorn, R.

    2013-03-01

    The development and application of predictive models for organic electronic devices with a complex layer structure, such as white organic light-emitting diodes, require the availability of an accurate and fast method for extracting the materials parameters, which determine the mobility in each of the layers from a set of experimental data. The absence of such a generally used method may be regarded as one of the reasons why so far relatively little consensus has been obtained concerning the most appropriate transport model, the shape of the density of states (DOS), and the underlying microscopic parameters, such as the width of the DOS and the density of hopping sites. In this paper, we present a time-efficient Gauss-Newton method for extracting these parameters from current-voltage curves for single-carrier devices, obtained for various layer thicknesses and temperatures. The method takes the experimental uncertainties into account and provides the correlated uncertainty margins of the parameters studied. We focus on materials with a Gaussian DOS with random and spatially correlated disorder. Making use of artificially generated as well as experimental data sets, we demonstrate the accuracy and limitations, and show that it is possible to deduce the type of disorder from the analysis. The presence of an exponential trap DOS, as is often observed for the case of electron transport, is found to significantly reduce the accuracy of the transport parameters obtained.

  4. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  5. Quick Overview Scout 2008 Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scout 2008 version 1.0 statistical software package has been updated from past DOS and Windows versions to provide classical and robust univariate and multivariate graphical and statistical methods that are not typically available in commercial or freeware statistical softwar...

  6. Free text databases in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. S.; Shea, S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans. PMID:1666967

  7. Network Applications for the Office Environment. Curriculum Improvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galveston Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in network applications for the automated environment. The modules cover disk operating system (DOS), NetWare, telecommunications, and printer applications. Both instructor and student materials have been included where appropriate. Also included is an outline of a workshop covering general…

  8. Incorporating Audio Support into English Composition CAI for Adult Learners. Phase II Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO.

    A research and development project focused on designing a basic English writing skills curriculum for adult basic education students and implementing that curriculum in a computer-assisted, audio-supported format. Materials were designed for MS-DOS computers and consumer grade audiotape players. The project involved developing 18 computer lessons…

  9. 77 FR 1495 - Criteria for Determining Priorities Among Correctional Facility Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... extrapolated from the degree-of-shortage (DOS) groups determined in the primary care, mental health, and dental... primary care, mental health and dental correctional facility HPSAs. The Secretary will utilize a... score between 20-25 (20-26 12 points. in the case of dental or mental health HPSAs). Geographic...

  10. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  11. The Significance of the Understanding of Balance and Coordination in Self-Cognitive "Bio-Electro-Biblio/Info" Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    1991-01-01

    Examines the information communication process and proposes a fuzzy commonality model for improving communication systems. Topics discussed include components of an electronic information programing and processing system and the flow of the formation and transfer of information, including DOS (disk operating system) commands, computer programing…

  12. Distance Education at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Erin

    This presentation describes the distance education program at Memorial University (Newfoundland), which operates the Telemedicine Centre, including an audiographic, teleconference network that uses a combination of hardware and software to turn an MS DOS computer into an interactive long distance blackboard. Topics covered by the presentation…

  13. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R J D; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F; Spring, David R

    2015-04-21

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity. PMID:25778821

  14. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data and details of the computational analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00371g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R.; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity. PMID:25778821

  15. A 3D visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Fred S.; de Roquemaurel, Benoit; Cerussi, Albert; Hajjioui, Nassim; Li, Ang; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sauer, Frank

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a novel 3D visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices. In this paper, the system is applied to measurements of breast/cancerous tissue optical properties using a handheld diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) instrument. The combined guidance system/DOS instrument becomes particularly useful for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients and for longitudinal studies where measurement reproducibility is critical. The system uses relatively inexpensive hardware components and comprises a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) magnetic tracking device including a DC field generator, three sensors, and a PCI card running on a PC workstation. A custom-built virtual environment combined with a well-defined workflow provide the means for image-guided measurements, improved longitudinal studies of breast optical properties, 3D reconstruction of optical properties within the anatomical map, and serial data registration. The DOS instrument characterizes tissue function such as water, lipid and total hemoglobin concentration. The patient lies on her back at a 45-degrees angle. Each spectral measurement requires consistent contact with the skin, and lasts about 5-10 seconds. Therefore a limited number of positions may be studied. In a reference measurement session, the physician acquires surface points on the breast. A Delaunay-based triangulation algorithm is used to build the virtual breast surface from the acquired points. 3D locations of all DOS measurements are recorded. All subsequently acquired surfaces are automatically registered to the reference surface, thus allowing measurement reproducibility through image guidance using the reference measurements.

  16. Chapter 14. New tools to assess nitrogen management for conservation of our biosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several tools that can be used to assess the effects of management on nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. The Nitrogen Loss and Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP) is an improved and renamed version of the DOS program that was called the Nitrate Leaching and Economic Analysis Pack...

  17. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  18. 78 FR 33876 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Change in Connection With the Modifications to Receiver Authorized Delivery and Reclaim Processing Value... they do not recognize prior to processing for delivery. In contrast, lower value DOs and POs do not... will be processed through DTC subject to risk management controls.\\6\\ Concurrently, the value...

  19. Isotope-shift exponent, pressure coefficient of [ital T][sub [ital c

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, S.; Das, A.N. )

    1994-05-01

    Exact expression for the isotope-shift exponent and the pressure coefficient of the transition temperature are derived from the BCS gap equation for a density of states (DOS) with a van Hove singularity (VHS). The variations of these quantities with the shift of the Fermi level from the VHS and with [ital T][sub [ital c

  20. Microcomputers in Education: A Self-Paced Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Doris; Carey, Regan

    Designed to serve as a self-paced computer course for education students with no experience using microcomputers, this manual contains instructions for operating an Apple IIe microcomputer, its introductory software, and Bank Street Writer, using the DOS 3.3 System Master. The lessons, which contain illustrations and sample screens, include…